virus latency

Summary

Summary: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Stimulation of HIV-1-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes facilitates elimination of latent viral reservoir after virus reactivation
    Liang Shan
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Immunity 36:491-501. 2012
  2. pmc HIV reservoir size and persistence are driven by T cell survival and homeostatic proliferation
    Nicolas Chomont
    Laboratoire d Immunologie, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Université de Montréal Saint Luc, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Nat Med 15:893-900. 2009
  3. ncbi The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection
    Douglas D Richman
    San Diego VA Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Science 323:1304-7. 2009
  4. ncbi HDAC inhibitors in HIV
    Fiona Wightman
    Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 90:47-54. 2012
  5. pmc Administration of vorinostat disrupts HIV-1 latency in patients on antiretroviral therapy
    N M Archin
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Nature 487:482-5. 2012
  6. ncbi Long-term follow-up studies confirm the stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205 USA
    Nat Med 9:727-8. 2003
  7. pmc Disulfiram reactivates latent HIV-1 in a Bcl-2-transduced primary CD4+ T cell model without inducing global T cell activation
    Sifei Xing
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 85:6060-4. 2011
  8. pmc BET bromodomain inhibition as a novel strategy for reactivation of HIV-1
    Camellia Banerjee
    Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 92:1147-54. 2012
  9. pmc Homeostatic proliferation fails to efficiently reactivate HIV-1 latently infected central memory CD4+ T cells
    Alberto Bosque
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002288. 2011
  10. pmc The BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 activates HIV latency through antagonizing Brd4 inhibition of Tat-transactivation
    Zichong Li
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:277-87. 2013

Detail Information

Publications294 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Stimulation of HIV-1-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes facilitates elimination of latent viral reservoir after virus reactivation
    Liang Shan
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Immunity 36:491-501. 2012
    ..These results demonstrate that stimulating HIV-1-specific CTLs prior to reactivating latent HIV-1 may be essential for successful eradication efforts and should be considered in future clinical trials...
  2. pmc HIV reservoir size and persistence are driven by T cell survival and homeostatic proliferation
    Nicolas Chomont
    Laboratoire d Immunologie, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Université de Montréal Saint Luc, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Nat Med 15:893-900. 2009
    ....
  3. ncbi The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection
    Douglas D Richman
    San Diego VA Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Science 323:1304-7. 2009
    ..This review discusses our current understanding of suppressive antiretroviral therapy, the latent viral reservoir, and the needs for and challenges of attacking this reservoir to achieve a cure...
  4. ncbi HDAC inhibitors in HIV
    Fiona Wightman
    Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 90:47-54. 2012
    ..In this review, we will review the rationale as well as in vitro and clinical trial data that support the role of histone deacetylase inhibitors as one approach to cure HIV...
  5. pmc Administration of vorinostat disrupts HIV-1 latency in patients on antiretroviral therapy
    N M Archin
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Nature 487:482-5. 2012
    ....
  6. ncbi Long-term follow-up studies confirm the stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205 USA
    Nat Med 9:727-8. 2003
    ..Here we show that even in treated patients who have had no detectable viremia for as long as 7 years, the reservoir decays so slowly (t(1/2) = 44 months) that eradication is unlikely...
  7. pmc Disulfiram reactivates latent HIV-1 in a Bcl-2-transduced primary CD4+ T cell model without inducing global T cell activation
    Sifei Xing
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 85:6060-4. 2011
    ..The extent to which disulfiram reactivates latent HIV-1 in patient cells is unclear, but the drug alone or in combination may be useful in future eradication strategies...
  8. pmc BET bromodomain inhibition as a novel strategy for reactivation of HIV-1
    Camellia Banerjee
    Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 92:1147-54. 2012
    ..Thus, JQ1 may be useful in studies of potentially novel mechanisms for transcriptional control as well as in translational efforts to identify therapeutic molecules to achieve viral eradication...
  9. pmc Homeostatic proliferation fails to efficiently reactivate HIV-1 latently infected central memory CD4+ T cells
    Alberto Bosque
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002288. 2011
    ..On the other hand, antigenic stimulation efficiently reactivated latent HIV-1 in cultured central memory cells and led to depletion of the latently infected cells via virus-induced cell death...
  10. pmc The BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 activates HIV latency through antagonizing Brd4 inhibition of Tat-transactivation
    Zichong Li
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:277-87. 2013
    ....
  11. pmc Presence of an inducible HIV-1 latent reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy
    T W Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:13193-7. 1997
    ..In addition, the presence of unintegrated HIV-1 DNA in infected resting CD4+ T cells from patients receiving HAART, even those with undetectable plasma viremia, suggests persistent active virus replication in vivo...
  12. pmc Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid reactivates HIV from latently infected cells
    Xavier Contreras
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:6782-9. 2009
    ..Thus SAHA, which is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, might be considered to accelerate the decay of the latent reservoir in HAART-treated infected humans...
  13. pmc Redefining the viral reservoirs that prevent HIV-1 eradication
    Evelyn Eisele
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Immunity 37:377-88. 2012
    ..Further research is urgently required on potential reservoirs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the central nervous system...
  14. pmc A flexible model of HIV-1 latency permitting evaluation of many primary CD4 T-cell reservoirs
    Kara G Lassen
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e30176. 2012
    ..These findings reveal potentially important biological differences within the latently infected pool of memory CD4 T cells and describe a flexible primary CD4 T-cell system to evaluate novel antagonists of HIV latency...
  15. pmc HIV latency
    Robert F Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 1:a007096. 2011
    ..Several approaches are under exploration for reactivating latent virus with the hope that this will allow elimination of the latent reservoir...
  16. pmc MicroRNAs expressed by herpes simplex virus 1 during latent infection regulate viral mRNAs
    Jennifer Lin Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 454:780-3. 2008
    ..Thus, HSV-1 expresses at least two primary miRNA precursors in latently infected neurons that may facilitate the establishment and maintenance of viral latency by post-transcriptionally regulating viral gene expression...
  17. pmc Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence in the monocyte-macrophage lineage
    Valentin Le Douce
    INSERM Unit 575, Pathophysiology of Central Nervous System, Institute of Virology, rue Koeberlé, Strasbourg, France
    Retrovirology 7:32. 2010
    ..Understanding the intimate mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence is a prerequisite to devise new and original therapies aiming to achieve viral eradication...
  18. pmc Synergistic activation of HIV-1 expression by deacetylase inhibitors and prostratin: implications for treatment of latent infection
    Sophie Reuse
    Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine Moléculaires IBMM, Universite Libre de Bruxelles ULB, Gosselies, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 4:e6093. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that combinations of different kinds of proviral activators may have important implications for reducing the size of latent HIV-1 reservoirs in HAART-treated patients...
  19. pmc Small-molecule screening using a human primary cell model of HIV latency identifies compounds that reverse latency without cellular activation
    Hung Chih Yang
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3473-86. 2009
    ..Our study expands the number of classes of latency-reversing therapeutics and demonstrates the utility of this in vitro model for finding strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection...
  20. ncbi HIV persistence and the prospect of long-term drug-free remissions for HIV-infected individuals
    Didier Trono
    School of Life Sciences and Frontiers in Genetics Program, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Science 329:174-80. 2010
    ....
  21. pmc Repressive LTR nucleosome positioning by the BAF complex is required for HIV latency
    Haleh Rafati
    Department of Biochemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001206. 2011
    ..Our data point to the ATP-dependent BRG1 component of BAF as a putative therapeutic target to deplete the latent reservoir in patients...
  22. pmc Control of HIV latency by epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms
    Uri Mbonye
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Curr HIV Res 9:554-67. 2011
    ....
  23. pmc Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors on HIV production in latently infected, resting CD4(+) T cells from infected individuals receiving effective antiretroviral therapy
    Jana Blazkova
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 206:765-9. 2012
    ..Here we demonstrate that HDACis do not induce HIV production in the latent viral reservoir of aviremic individuals. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies may be necessary to eliminate HIV in the latent viral reservoir...
  24. pmc Viral latency and its regulation: lessons from the gamma-herpesviruses
    Samuel H Speck
    Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 8:100-15. 2010
    ..Here, we review the molecular basis of latency, with special attention to the gamma-herpesviruses, in which the understanding of this process is most advanced...
  25. pmc Early establishment of a pool of latently infected, resting CD4(+) T cells during primary HIV-1 infection
    T W Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:8869-73. 1998
    ....
  26. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on
    Lawrence S Young
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Nat Rev Cancer 4:757-68. 2004
    ..Despite such ubiquity, the link between EBV and 'endemic' Burkitt's lymphoma proved consistent and became the first of an unexpectedly wide range of associations discovered between this virus and tumours...
  27. pmc HIV rebounds from latently infected cells, rather than from continuing low-level replication
    Beda Joos
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16725-30. 2008
    ..Furthermore, a prolonged delay in restoration of pretreatment viral diversity after treatment interruption demonstrates a surprisingly sustained evolutionary bottleneck induced by punctuated antiretroviral therapy...
  28. pmc Establishment of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells depends on chemokine-induced changes in the actin cytoskeleton
    Paul U Cameron
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16934-9. 2010
    ..We propose a unique pathway for establishment of latency by direct HIV-1 infection of resting CD4(+) T cells during normal chemokine-directed recirculation of CD4(+) T cells between blood and tissue...
  29. pmc HIV latency: experimental systems and molecular models
    Shweta Hakre
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94941, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 36:706-16. 2012
    ..Finally, we discuss the clinical potential of these drugs to flush out latently infected cells from HIV-infected patients and to eradicate the virus...
  30. ncbi Chromatin control of herpes simplex virus lytic and latent infection
    David M Knipe
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:211-21. 2008
    ....
  31. pmc Expression and reactivation of HIV in a chemokine induced model of HIV latency in primary resting CD4+ T cells
    Suha Saleh
    Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Retrovirology 8:80. 2011
    ..The main aim of this study was to fully define the post-integration blocks to virus replication in this model of CCL19-induced HIV latency...
  32. ncbi KSHV infection and the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma
    Don Ganem
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Annu Rev Pathol 1:273-96. 2006
    ..The studies also highlight mechanistic differences between oncogenesis caused by KSHV and that caused by its distant relative Epstein-Barr virus...
  33. pmc HIV reservoirs and latency models
    Matthew J Pace
    Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA
    Virology 411:344-54. 2011
    ....
  34. pmc Inhibitors of histone deacetylases: correlation between isoform specificity and reactivation of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) from latently infected cells
    Kelly Huber
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:22211-8. 2011
    ..1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) by histone deactylases (HDACs) can promote transcriptional repression and virus latency. As such, HDAC inhibitors (HDACI) could be used to deplete reservoirs of persistent, quiescent HIV-1 proviral ..
  35. pmc Experimental human cytomegalovirus latency in CD14+ monocytes
    Danna Hargett
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 1014, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20039-44. 2010
    ..We propose that in vivo microenvironments influence not only the efficiency of reactivation but also the infectivity of the virions produced from latently infected monocytes...
  36. pmc Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells
    Xuezhong Cai
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5570-5. 2005
    ..We hypothesize that these viral miRNAs play a critical role in the establishment and/or maintenance of KSHV latent infection in vivo and, hence, in KSHV-induced oncogenesis...
  37. pmc Nuclear retention of multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells
    Kara G Lassen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Pathog 2:e68. 2006
    ..Whether through effects on RNA export or another mechanism, the ability of PTB to reverse latency without inducing cellular activation is a result with therapeutic implications...
  38. pmc Epigenetic regulation of HIV-1 latency by cytosine methylation
    Steven E Kauder
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000495. 2009
    ..Clearance of HIV-1 from infected persons may be enhanced by inclusion of DNA methylation inhibitors, such as aza-CdR, and NF-kappaB activators into current antiviral therapies...
  39. pmc Molecular control of HIV-1 postintegration latency: implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies
    Laurence Colin
    Institut de Biologie et de Médecine Moléculaires IBMM, Universite Libre de Bruxelles ULB, Gosselies, Belgium
    Retrovirology 6:111. 2009
    ..While a solution will not be achieved by tomorrow, the battle against HIV-1 latent reservoirs is well- underway...
  40. ncbi Identification of virus-encoded microRNAs
    Sebastien Pfeffer
    Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 186, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 304:734-6. 2004
    ..Given that miRNAs function in RNA silencing pathways either by targeting messenger RNAs for degradation or by repressing translation, we identified viral regulators of host and/or viral gene expression...
  41. pmc Concurrent expression of latent and a limited number of lytic genes with immune modulation and antiapoptotic function by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during infection of primary endothelial and fibroblast cells and subsequent decline of l
    Harinivas H Krishnan
    Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
    J Virol 78:3601-20. 2004
    ..These are unique observations among in vitro herpesvirus infections and may have important implications in KSHV biology and pathogenesis...
  42. pmc Resting CD4+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals carry integrated HIV-1 genomes within actively transcribed host genes
    Yefei Han
    Department of Medicine, Ross 1049, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 78:6122-33. 2004
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that HIV-1 genomes reside within actively transcribed host genes in resting CD4+ T cells in vivo...
  43. pmc Influence of host gene transcription level and orientation on HIV-1 latency in a primary-cell model
    Liang Shan
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Virol 85:5384-93. 2011
    ..Our findings suggest that disrupting the negative control of HIV-1 transcription by upstream host promoters could facilitate the reactivation of latent HIV-1 in some resting CD4(+) T cells...
  44. pmc Epigenetic regulation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency by virus-encoded microRNAs that target Rta and the cellular Rbl2-DNMT pathway
    Fang Lu
    The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Virol 84:2697-706. 2010
    ....
  45. pmc Viral sanctuaries during highly active antiretroviral therapy in a nonhuman primate model for AIDS
    Thomas W North
    Center for Comparative Medicine, Department of Veterinary Molecular Biosciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Virol 84:2913-22. 2010
    ..This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the tissue and organ distribution of a primate AIDS virus during HAART. These data demonstrate widespread persistence of residual virus in tissues during HAART...
  46. ncbi Virally induced changes in cellular microRNAs maintain latency of human cytomegalovirus in CD34⁺ progenitors
    Emma Poole
    University of Cambridge, Department of Medicine, Box 157, Level 5 Laboratories Block, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:1539-49. 2011
    ....
  47. pmc Induction of HIV-1 latency and reactivation in primary memory CD4+ T cells
    Alberto Bosque
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 15 North Medical Drive East 2100, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Blood 113:58-65. 2009
    ..We also found that the cis-acting elements which are critical toward HIV-1 reactivation are the Sp1 and kappaB/NFAT transcription factor binding sites...
  48. pmc Epigenetic analysis of KSHV latent and lytic genomes
    Zsolt Toth
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001013. 2010
    ..Thus, the regulation of the spatial and temporal association of the PcG proteins with the KSHV genome may be crucial for propagating the KSHV lifecycle...
  49. pmc The epigenetic landscape of latent Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genomes
    Thomas Gunther
    Heinrich Pette Institute for Experimental Virology and Immunology, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000935. 2010
    ..Our findings suggest that the modification patterns identified here induce a poised state of repression during viral latency, which can be rapidly reversed once the lytic cycle is induced...
  50. ncbi Valproic acid in association with highly active antiretroviral therapy for reducing systemic HIV-1 reservoirs: results from a multicentre randomized clinical study
    J P Routy
    Division of Hematology, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada
    HIV Med 13:291-6. 2012
    ..In a randomized multicentre, cross-over study, we assessed whether adding VPA to stable HAART could potentially reduce the size of the latent viral reservoir in CD4 T cells of chronically infected patients...
  51. pmc CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency
    Jana Blazkova
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, UMR891, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille and Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000554. 2009
    ..Tight but incomplete control of HIV-1 latency by CpG methylation might have important implications for strategies aimed at eradicating HIV-1 infection...
  52. pmc Molecular characterization of preintegration latency in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    Theodore C Pierson
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 76:8518-31. 2002
    ..Our results demonstrate that the preintegration state is labile and decays rapidly (half-life = 1 day) following the entry of HIV-1 into a resting T cell, with significant decay occurring during the slow process of reverse transcription...
  53. pmc Noncytotoxic lytic granule-mediated CD8+ T cell inhibition of HSV-1 reactivation from neuronal latency
    Jared E Knickelbein
    Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Science 322:268-71. 2008
    ..Here, we describe a nonlethal mechanism of viral inactivation in which the lytic granule component, granzyme B, degrades the HSV-1 immediate early protein, ICP4, which is essential for further viral gene expression...
  54. ncbi Prostratin: activation of latent HIV-1 expression suggests a potential inductive adjuvant therapy for HAART
    J Kulkosky
    Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Blood 98:3006-15. 2001
    ..This novel observation suggests the agent may be an excellent candidate to augment HAART by inducing expression of latent HIV-1 with the ultimate goal of eliminating persistent viral reservoirs in certain individuals infected with HIV-1...
  55. pmc The molecular biology of HIV latency: breaking and restoring the Tat-dependent transcriptional circuit
    Jonathan Karn
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6:4-11. 2011
    ..This review will focus on recent insights into the HIV transcriptional control mechanisms that provide the biochemical basis for understanding latency...
  56. pmc Orientation-dependent regulation of integrated HIV-1 expression by host gene transcriptional readthrough
    Yefei Han
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:134-46. 2008
    ..Due to the nature of HIV-1 integration sites in vivo, this orientation-dependent regulation can influence the vast majority of infected cells and adds complexity to the maintenance of latency...
  57. pmc Human cytomegalovirus gene expression during infection of primary hematopoietic progenitor cells: a model for latency
    Felicia D Goodrum
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 80544, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:16255-60. 2002
    ..Some of these expressed viral genes may function in latency and are targets for further analysis. Altered gene expression in hematopoietic progenitors may be indicative of the nature and outcome of HCMV infection...
  58. ncbi Understanding HIV-1 latency provides clues for the eradication of long-term reservoirs
    Mayte Coiras
    AIDS Immunopathology Unit, National Centre of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:798-812. 2009
    ....
  59. ncbi CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 increase permissiveness of resting memory CD4+ T cells to HIV-1 infection: a novel model of HIV-1 latency
    Suha Saleh
    Departments of Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    Blood 110:4161-4. 2007
    ..CCR7 ligands facilitate efficient entry of HIV-1 into resting CD4(+) T cells. These studies demonstrate a unique action of the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and provide a novel model with which to study HIV-1 latency in vitro...
  60. pmc Establishment of HIV latency in primary CD4+ cells is due to epigenetic transcriptional silencing and P-TEFb restriction
    Mudit Tyagi
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 4960, USA
    J Virol 84:6425-37. 2010
    ..Thus, a combination of restrictive chromatin structures at the HIV long terminal repeat and limiting P-TEFb levels contribute to transcriptional silencing leading to latency in primary CD4(+) T cells...
  61. pmc Suppression of HIV-1 replication by microRNA effectors
    Christine Chable-Bessia
    Institut de Génétique Humaine CNRS UPR1142, Laboratoire de Virologie Moleculaire, Montpellier, France
    Retrovirology 6:26. 2009
    ..Interestingly, knockdown of RCK/p54 or DGCR8 resulted in virus reactivation in PBMCs isolated from HIV infected patients treated with suppressive HAART...
  62. pmc Transcriptional interference antagonizes proviral gene expression to promote HIV latency
    Tina Lenasi
    Department of Medicine, Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:123-33. 2008
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest that TI contributes significantly to HIV latency and should be considered when attempting to purge the latent reservoir...
  63. pmc EBV microRNAs in primary lymphomas and targeting of CXCL-11 by ebv-mir-BHRF1-3
    Tianli Xia
    The Viral Oncology Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Cancer Res 68:1436-42. 2008
    ..Targeted suppression of CXCL-11/I-TAC by a viral-encoded miRNA may serve as an immunomodulatory mechanism in these tumors...
  64. pmc Epigenetic silencing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription by formation of restrictive chromatin structures at the viral long terminal repeat drives the progressive entry of HIV into latency
    Richard Pearson
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 4960, USA
    J Virol 82:12291-303. 2008
    ..This decreases Tat production below the levels that are required to sustain HIV gene expression...
  65. pmc Latent HIV-1 infection occurs in multiple subsets of hematopoietic progenitor cells and is reversed by NF-κB activation
    Lucy A McNamara
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    J Virol 86:9337-50. 2012
    ....
  66. ncbi Relationship between pre-existing viral reservoirs and the re-emergence of plasma viremia after discontinuation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy
    T W Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 6:757-61. 2000
    ....
  67. pmc Snapshots: chromatin control of viral infection
    David M Knipe
    Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Virology 435:141-56. 2013
    ....
  68. pmc HCMV protein LUNA is required for viral reactivation from latently infected primary CD14⁺ cells
    Lisa R Keyes
    Department of Microbiology and Graduate Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e52827. 2012
    ....
  69. pmc NF-κB/Rel: agonist and antagonist roles in HIV-1 latency
    Jonathan K L Chan
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6:12-8. 2011
    ..To discuss recent advances in our understanding of the diverse roles of NF-κB/Rel family members in HIV-1 latency...
  70. pmc Human cytomegalovirus latency alters the cellular secretome, inducing cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T-cell migration and suppression of effector function
    Gavin M Mason
    Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:14538-43. 2012
    ....
  71. pmc HIV-1 viruses detected during episodic blips following interleukin-7 administration are similar to the viruses present before and after interleukin-7 therapy
    Hiromi Imamichi
    Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA
    AIDS 25:159-64. 2011
    ..However, a proportion of patients treated with recombinant human IL-7 experience transient increases in plasma HIV-RNA ('blips'), possibly reflecting 'purging' of a quiescent reservoir that provides a barrier to viral eradication...
  72. pmc Epigenetic regulation of latent HSV-1 gene expression
    David C Bloom
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 0266, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1799:246-56. 2010
    ..We will also present a current model of how the latent genome is carefully controlled at the epigenetic level and how stress-induced changes to it may trigger reactivation...
  73. pmc Directly infected resting CD4+T cells can produce HIV Gag without spreading infection in a model of HIV latency
    Matthew J Pace
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002818. 2012
    ..These results have implications for therapies targeting the latent reservoir and suggest that some latent cells could be cleared by a robust immune response...
  74. pmc JC virus latency in the brain and extraneural organs of patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    Chen S Tan
    Division of Infectious Disease, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Virol 84:9200-9. 2010
    ..These results provide evidence of JCV latency in the brain prior to severe immunosuppression and suggest new paradigms in JCV latency, compartmentalization, and reactivation...
  75. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can establish latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells in the absence of activating stimuli
    William J Swiggard
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA
    J Virol 79:14179-88. 2005
    ..e., are latently infected. Our results show that latent HIV-1 infection occurs in unstimulated resting CD4(+) T cells and suggest a new route for HIV-1 reservoir formation...
  76. ncbi Mechanisms of HIV latency: an emerging picture of complexity
    David M Margolis
    Departments of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, and Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3302 Michael Hooker Research Center, CB 7435, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599 7435, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 7:37-43. 2010
    ..Interrupting processes that maintain latency may allow therapeutic attack of this primary form of persistent HIV infection, but a better understanding of relevant mechanisms in vivo is needed...
  77. pmc Suppression of immediate-early viral gene expression by herpesvirus-coded microRNAs: implications for latency
    Eain Murphy
    Simons Center for Systems Biology, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5453-8. 2008
    ..We propose that herpesviruses use microRNA-mediated suppression of immediate-early genes as part of their strategy to enter and maintain latency...
  78. ncbi Viral reservoirs, residual viremia, and the potential of highly active antiretroviral therapy to eradicate HIV infection
    Lin Shen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 122:22-8. 2008
    ..Progress toward eradication of the infection will require novel approaches to target the stable reservoirs that persist even when viral replication is completely halted...
  79. pmc The polycomb group protein Bmi1 binds to the herpes simplex virus 1 latent genome and maintains repressive histone marks during latency
    Dacia L Kwiatkowski
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, 32610 0266, USA
    J Virol 83:8173-81. 2009
    ..To our knowledge, these are the first data demonstrating that a virus can repress its gene transcription to enter latency by exploiting the mechanism of Polycomb-mediated repression...
  80. pmc In-depth analysis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNA expression provides insights into the mammalian microRNA-processing machinery
    Jennifer L Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 84:695-703. 2010
    ..These data provide new insights into the pattern of miRNA processing in mammalian cells and indicate that this process is highly conserved during animal evolution...
  81. pmc Inefficient establishment of KSHV latency suggests an additional role for continued lytic replication in Kaposi sarcoma pathogenesis
    Adam Grundhoff
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0414, USA
    J Clin Invest 113:124-36. 2004
    ..They also suggest an additional role for lytic replication in sustaining KS tumorigenesis: namely, the recruitment of new cells to latency to replace those that have segregated the viral episome...
  82. pmc KSHV and the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma: listening to human biology and medicine
    Don Ganem
    Department of Medicine and Microbiology, University of California, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 91413, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:939-49. 2010
    ....
  83. ncbi Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV): molecular biology and oncogenesis
    Kwun Wah Wen
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Cancer Lett 289:140-50. 2010
    ..In this review, we discuss the three KSHV-associated malignancies, KSHV genome, latent and lytic aspects of the viral lifecycle, putative viral oncogenes, as well as therapeutic regimens used for the treatment of KS, PEL, and MCD...
  84. pmc Bryostatin modulates latent HIV-1 infection via PKC and AMPK signaling but inhibits acute infection in a receptor independent manner
    Rajeev Mehla
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11160. 2010
    ..The dual role of bryostatin on HIV life cycle may be a beneficial adjunct to the treatment of HIV especially by purging latent virus from different cellular reservoirs such as brain and lymphoid organs...
  85. pmc Coordination of KSHV latent and lytic gene control by CTCF-cohesin mediated chromosome conformation
    Hyojeung Kang
    The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002140. 2011
    ..Our findings indicate that KSHV genomes are organized into chromatin loops mediated by CTCF and cohesin interactions, and that these inter-chromosomal linkages coordinate latent and lytic gene control...
  86. pmc Recruitment of the transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 to viral immediate-early promoters during initiation of reactivation from latency of herpes simplex virus type 1
    Zackary Whitlow
    Molecular Genetics Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 83:9591-5. 2009
    ..The data support the model whereby HCF-1 plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of HSV-1 from latency...
  87. pmc HSV-1 gene expression from reactivated ganglia is disordered and concurrent with suppression of latency-associated transcript and miRNAs
    Te Du
    Marjorie B Kovler Viral Oncology Laboratories, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:18820-4. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that the patterns of accumulation of LATs and miRNAs reflect many different stages in the infection of neurons...
  88. pmc Latency profiles of full length HIV-1 molecular clone variants with a subtype specific promoter
    Renee M van der Sluis
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Retrovirology 8:73. 2011
    ..Latency differences may influence establishment and size of viral reservoirs as well as the possibility to clear the virus by therapeutic intervention...
  89. ncbi HIV reservoirs and strategies for eradication
    Miranda Z Smith
    Department of Medicine, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 9:5-15. 2012
    ..Finally, we review the scientific rationale of and clinical experience with pharmacotherapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating latently infected cells...
  90. pmc Nature and duration of growth factor signaling through receptor tyrosine kinases regulates HSV-1 latency in neurons
    Vladimir Camarena
    Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 8:320-30. 2010
    ..Thus, the nature of RTK signaling is a critical host parameter that regulates the HSV-1 latent-lytic switch...
  91. pmc Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) induced COX-2: a key factor in latency, inflammation, angiogenesis, cell survival and invasion
    Neelam Sharma-Walia
    H M Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000777. 2010
    ....
  92. pmc Efficient infection by a recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome: application for genetic analysis
    Fu Chun Zhou
    Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78229, USA
    J Virol 76:6185-96. 2002
    ..The feasibility of the system was illustrated through the generation of a KSHV mutant with the vIRF gene deleted. This cellular model is useful for the investigation of KSHV infection and pathogenesis...
  93. pmc Epstein-Barr virus-induced miR-155 attenuates NF-kappaB signaling and stabilizes latent virus persistence
    Fang Lu
    The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Virol 82:10436-43. 2008
    ..This suggests that miR-155 contributes to EBV immortalization by modulation of NF-kappaB signaling and the suppression of host innate immunity to latent viral infection...
  94. pmc Quantitative studies of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNAs provide novel insights into their regulation
    Richard Amoroso
    School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 85:996-1010. 2011
    ..In summary, our data show that changes in BHRF1 and BART transcription are not necessarily reflected in altered miRNA levels, suggesting that miRNA maturation is a key step in regulating steady-state levels of EBV miRNAs...
  95. pmc The intersection of Epstein-Barr virus with the germinal center
    Jill E Roughan
    Department of Pathology, Jaharis Building, Tufts University School of Medicine, 150 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Virol 83:3968-76. 2009
    ..Furthermore, it identifies latently infected GC B cells as a potential pathogenic nexus for the development of the EBV-positive, GC-associated lymphomas Hodgkin's disease and Burkitt's lymphoma...
  96. pmc Histone deacetylase inhibitors and HIV latency
    David M Margolis
    Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6:25-9. 2011
    ....
  97. pmc A limited group of class I histone deacetylases acts to repress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression
    Kara S Keedy
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3302 Michael Hooker Research Ctr, CB 7435, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    J Virol 83:4749-56. 2009
    ..Together, these results suggest that HDAC inhibitors specific for a limited number of class I HDACs may offer a targeted approach to the disruption of persistent HIV-1 infection...
  98. pmc HIV integration site distributions in resting and activated CD4+ T cells infected in culture
    Troy Brady
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    AIDS 23:1461-71. 2009
    ..The goal of this study was to investigate whether the location of HIV integration differs in resting versus activated T cells, a feature that could contribute to the formation of latent viral reservoirs via effects on integration targeting...
  99. ncbi Decay of the HIV reservoir in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy for extended periods: implications for eradication of virus
    Tae Wook Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Biostatistics Research Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:1762-4. 2007
    ..6 months. It is projected that it will take up to 7.7 years of continuous therapy to completely eliminate latently infected resting CD4+ T cells in infected individuals who initiate antiviral therapy early in HIV infection...
  100. pmc Toll-like receptor signaling controls reactivation of KSHV from latency
    Sean M Gregory
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:11725-30. 2009
    ..Our findings have broad implications for physiological triggers of latent viral infections, such as herpesviral reactivation and persistence in the host...
  101. pmc Hierarchical and redundant lymphocyte subset control precludes cytomegalovirus replication during latent infection
    B Polic
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Croatia
    J Exp Med 188:1047-54. 1998
    ..The data indicate that only the sustained cellular immune control prevents CMV replication and restricts the viral genome to a systemic state of latency...

Research Grants62

  1. LANA and Cellular Gene Expression
    ROLF F RENNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..More specifically, we study how LANA supports the replication of the viral genome and how it helps to recruit the above mentioned factors. ..
  2. Epigenetic Regulation of Epstein-Barr Virus Latency Programs
    Paul M Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed studies should further our understanding of EBV latent cycle gene regulation and host-virus interactions. ..
  3. Modulation of histone deacetylase activity by a gammaherpesviral kinase
    Bryan C Mounce; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Several orf36 functions are conserved in other gammaherpesviral kinases;thus, the results of our studies are expected to translate to human pathogens. ..
  4. Chromatin and Herpes Simplex Virus Latency
    David M Knipe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  5. Conference Support for International Congress on Oncogenic Herpesviruses
    Paul M Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  6. HSV latency and reactivation and the novel neuronal regulation of VP16 in vivo.
    Nancy M Sawtell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The outcomes of this work will identify transcription factors or protein modifying enzymes that could be targets for future development of therapeutic interventions for HSV reactivation. ..
  7. K-Rta as a Novel SUMO and Epigenetic Regulator
    Yoshihiro Izumiya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. A New Insight into HIV-1 Latency Through a Novel in Vitro System
    Fabio Romerio; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The new knowledge we expect to draw from these studies could lead to the design of new therapies aimed at the pool of latently infected cells, and to virus eradication. ..
  9. The molecular pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus infection
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal melds the skills and strategies of investigators with expertise in clinical neurology, virology, molecular and cell biology and clinical investigation. ..
  10. Integrated HIV DNA in CNS and Deep Body Compartments
    Benjamin B Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A second aim will produce similar data in other deep tissue compartments of the human body. These data will assist the field in targeting cells that harbor latent virus so that they can be eradicated. ..
  11. JC Virus Primary Infection, Latency, and Reactivation
    CHEN SABRINA TAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose to study JC virus reactivation and transformation in bone marrow of HIV positive and HIV negative patients. These studies may contribute to finding a cure for this deadly disease. ..
  12. Novel SIV Model of HAND
    Joseph L Mankowski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  13. Epigenetic determinants of Epstein-Barr virus and cellular DNA in oral diseases
    SHANNON CELESTE KENNEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed studies should greatly enhance our understanding of how EBV normally replicates in differentiated epithelial cells yet achieves long term viral latency in undifferentiated epithelial tumor cells. ..
  14. Regulation of HTLV-1 and cellular gene transcription by the viral protein HBZ
    ISABELLE MICHELE LEMASSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test whether abnormal expression of specific genes underlies certain biological aspects of HTLV-1 infection that may relate to development or clinical presentations of ATL. ..
  15. Mechanisms of Epstein-Barr Virus Persistence
    Jeffery T Sample; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, in Aim 3 we will characterize and explore the contribution to EBV latency of a family of novel RNA transcripts that span the EBNA promoter Cp. ..
  16. Genome Persistence of KSHV
    Erle S Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  17. Cytokine regulation of JC virus latency and reactivation
    Martyn K White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This application is a competitive renewal of our R01 entitled "Cytokine Regulation of JC Virus Latency and Reactivation", in which we have pursued this hypothesis...
  18. In Vivo Model of Epstein-Barr Virus Latency
    RICHARD M LONGNECKER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  19. MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS LATENCY
    Jay A Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that HCMV miRNA repression of viral replication is related to NFkB activation through the IL-1 and TNF-[unreadable] pathways. ..
  20. Can persistent gamma-herpesviruses be purged from the host?
    Marcia A Blackman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The data generated will advance the field by enhancing our understanding of gamma-herpesvirus latency to facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for the human gamma-herpesviruses. ..
  21. Parvovirus-Cell Interactions
    David J Pintel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies in this last area should also shed light on basic differences between the autonomous and helper-requiring groups of parvoviruses, and also help improve recombinant AAV vector production. ..
  22. KSHV RTA: more than viral replication
    Jae U Jung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal is highly innovative, utilizing well-established comprehensive genome-wide ChIP array, BAC genetics, and in vivo experimental conditions. ..
  23. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ICP27
    Stephen A Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is also possible that these studies will lead to novel strategies for therapeutic modalities to prevent or treat herpesvirus infections. ..
  24. Role of Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue in HIV Persistence
    Joseph K Wong; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS LATENCY
    David A Thorley-Lawson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have taken a multi-faceted approach to understanding the underlying mechanisms regulating NPC tumor growth, invasion and metastasis with the long term goal of developing new candidate therapies that target these processes. ..
  26. KSHV Epigenetic Regulation
    Jae U Jung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, this study will show that histone-modifying enzymes involved in the regulation viral gene expression ultimately serves as pharmaceutical targets to control KSHV-associated oral complications. ..
  27. Control of Latent/Persistent HIV Infection in Primary CD4 T Cells
    Celsa A Spina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Knowledge derived from these studies will add significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling HIV latency --- which is a critical step in the path to developing new treatment strategies. ..
  28. Purchase of a Biacore T200 Surface Plasmon Resonance Label-free Detection System
    Paul M Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..assay development and execution of small molecule screens against 10 different targets, including gamma Herpes Virus latency, Human Papillomavirus oncoproteins, p53, and human telomerase...
  29. Developing Transmissible Antivirals by Exploiting Gene-Expression Circuitry
    Leor Weinberger; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Clearly, new and more effective antiviral strategies are needed and this proposal presents a multi-pronged approach to identify and develop an innovative new antiviral approach. ..
  30. THE ROLE OF APOPTOTIC MOLECULES IN HERPETIC STROMAL
    Patrick M Stuart; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This is important because the more inflammation that occurs the worse will be damage to the cornea. In addition, we will test a potential therapy that is designed to further control and possibly prevent inflammation. ..
  31. Mechanisms of HSK amelioration
    Patrick M Stuart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, these studies could possibly suggest more effective immunotherapies designed to ameliorate human HSK disease. ..
  32. Cell Model for KSHV Infection and Genetic Manipulation
    Shou Jiang Gao; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This project will investigate the mechanism underlining the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, and identify potential targets for the prevention and treatment of this disease. ..
  33. HVEM-BTLA system in inflammation
    Carl F Ware; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This investigation will provide new insight into the mechanisms of the HVEM cosignaling system in regulating viral pathogenesis. ..
  34. Control of Human Cytomegalovirus
    Jeffery L Meier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. GENETIC AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE KSHV LANA GENE
    Kenneth M Kaye; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This work investigates the mechanisms by which KSHV is able to persist and survive in the tumor cells. A better understanding of this viral persistence may allow development of strategies which prevent or treat KSHV tumors. ..
  36. Virus-Host Cell Interactions in AIDS-Associated PML
    Walter Atwood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..First, the anatomical site of virus latency is not known but kidney, tonsil, bone marrow, and brain have all been postulated to be involved...
  37. Regulatuion of HIV-1 Gene Expression in Latency by YY1, RuvB2, and ZAP
    STEPHEN PAINE GOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This activation will permit the detection of virus-infected cells y the immune system and facilitate the clearance of infected cells by therapies that target viral proteins expressed in and on the surface of memory T cells. ..
  38. CNS &Peripheral Viral Reservoirs/SIV Model of HIV HAART
    Janice E Clements; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also test eradication strategies designed to eliminate these reservoirs. ..
  39. Antagonistic Viral Determinants Regulating the Outcome of Infection
    Felicia D Goodrum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. Regulation of Herpes Simplex Type 1 Infection in Corneal Neurons
    Todd P Margolis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The outcome of these studies should generate new insights into the mechanisms regulating HSV infection of neurons;the first step in developing new therapy strategies. ..
  41. Mechanisms of Human Cytomegalovirus Latency in Primary Human Hematopoietic Cells
    Felicia D Goodrum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. Workshops On Viral Oncogenesis and Pathogenesis
    HUNG Y FAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Meetings in subsequent years will address topics such as Viruses and Intracellular Trafficking, Viral Oncogenes, Viral Latency and Persistence, and Post-transcriptional Regulation of Viral Expression. ..
  43. Mechanisms of Human Cytomegalovirus Latency
    Eain A Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This work will lay the foundation for identifyig novel therapeutic targets for a virus that is a significant global pathogen. ..
  44. Functions of Epstein-Barr Virus LMP2A in Latency
    Michelle Swanson Mungerson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Findings from these studies will not only help us to understand the biology of EBV, but also to identify mechanisms by which EBV promotes tumor development. ..
  45. CD* T cell responses to gamma-herpesviral infection
    Michael L Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results from these studies will have important implications in the design of vaccines that elicit the host CDS T cell response to prevent viral reactivations from latency. ..
  46. Role and mechanism of action of Gamma herpesvirus microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  47. Analysis of Epstein Barr virus type III latency on cellular miRNA gene expression
    Erik K Flemington; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  48. The role of gammaherpesvirus protein kinase in lytic and latent infection
    Vera L Tarakanova; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Further understanding of the regulation of gammaherpesvirus infection by viral factors will eventually lead to the development of new treatment approaches for gammaherpesvirus-associated malignancies. ..
  49. Characterizing HIV latent reservoir in vivo
    Shomyseh Sanjabi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, we will use TALEN technology in iPSCs to swap out protective HLAs to identify other pathways that contribute to formation of latency and elite control of HIV. ..
  50. MECHANISM OF LATENCY OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
    Nigel Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The long-term objective of this project is to understand the mechanism of herpes simplex virus latency and reactivation at the molecular level...
  51. DARE: Delaney AIDS Research Enterprise to find a cure.
    RAFICK PIERRE SEKALY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  52. HIV Infection of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells
    Kathleen L Collins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If our hypothesis is proven correct, this work will refocus efforts to identify therapeutic targets for eradication of cellular reservoirs to long-lived hematopoietic progenitor cells. ..
  53. LATENCY AND LEUKOMOGENICITY OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS
    Gary Cockerell; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ....
  54. Conference on HIV and the Nervous System
    Janice E Clements; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hence women and minorities have been included at all levels of planning and organization of this conference. ..
  55. An Ex Vivo Model of HIV-1 Latency and Reactivation using Primary Memory Cells
    Vicente Planelles; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ultimately, HIV-1 eradication will require a profound understanding of the biological processes that control entry and exit from latency. ..
  56. NEF GENE OF HIV-1
    Warner Greene; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The insights derived from these experimental studies should lead to a fuller understanding of the mechanism HIV nef gene function and hopefully to new approaches to inhibiting HIV replication and/or preventing disease progression. ..
  57. Retargeting HSV-1 Vectors to Motor Neurons
    Joseph Glorioso; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..to be a versatile gene vector for transduction of sensory nerves in vivo, the natural site for wild-type virus latency. While high multiplicity infection of spinal cord will result in virus transduction of motor neurons (MNs), ..
  58. RECURRENT OCULAR HERPES
    MARY GREEN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Although much has been learned regarding herpes virus latency, the fundamental issue of the state of the viral genome and its relationship to the host has not been resolved...
  59. The contribution of Tcell tolerance to latent HIV infection
    Joseph K Wong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  60. Non-coding RNAs involved in HIV-1 Latency
    Kevin V Morris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results from this project will result in a paradigm shift with regards to controlled expression of HIV-1 that could prove valuable to society with regards to new anti-HIV therapeutics and vaccine design. 1 ..
  61. VIRAL AND T CELL DYNAMICS IN HIV 1 INFECTED CHILDREN
    Steven Wolinsky; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. Viral Lysis of Kaposi's Sarcoma Tumor Cells
    Ren Sun; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....