virus replication

Summary

Summary: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.

Top Publications

  1. pmc A diverse range of gene products are effectors of the type I interferon antiviral response
    John W Schoggins
    Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 472:481-5. 2011
  2. ncbi Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu
    Stuart J D Neil
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 451:425-30. 2008
  3. ncbi Identification of host proteins required for HIV infection through a functional genomic screen
    Abraham L Brass
    Department of Genetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 319:921-6. 2008
  4. pmc SAMHD1 is the dendritic- and myeloid-cell-specific HIV-1 restriction factor counteracted by Vpx
    Nadine Laguette
    Institut de Genetique Humaine, Laboratoire de Virologie Moleculaire, CNRS UPR1142, Montpellier 34000, France
    Nature 474:654-7. 2011
  5. ncbi Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein
    Ann M Sheehy
    Department of Microbiology, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 418:646-50. 2002
  6. pmc Global analysis of host-pathogen interactions that regulate early-stage HIV-1 replication
    Renate König
    Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 135:49-60. 2008
  7. pmc SAMHD1 restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by depleting the intracellular pool of deoxynucleoside triphosphates
    Hichem Lahouassa
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris, France
    Nat Immunol 13:223-8. 2012
  8. ncbi The cytoplasmic body component TRIM5alpha restricts HIV-1 infection in Old World monkeys
    Matthew Stremlau
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 427:848-53. 2004
  9. ncbi HIV-1 restriction factor SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase
    David C Goldstone
    Division of Molecular Structure, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Nature 480:379-82. 2011
  10. ncbi Genome-scale RNAi screen for host factors required for HIV replication
    Honglin Zhou
    Department of Virus and Cell Biology, Merck and Co, Inc, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:495-504. 2008

Detail Information

Publications292 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc A diverse range of gene products are effectors of the type I interferon antiviral response
    John W Schoggins
    Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 472:481-5. 2011
    ..Several ISGs, including ADAR, FAM46C, LY6E and MCOLN2, enhanced the replication of certain viruses, highlighting another layer of complexity in the highly pleiotropic type I interferon system...
  2. ncbi Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu
    Stuart J D Neil
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 451:425-30. 2008
    ..Vpu co-localized with CD317 and inhibited these effects. Inhibition of Vpu function and consequent mobilization of tetherin's antiviral activity is a potential therapeutic strategy in HIV/AIDS...
  3. ncbi Identification of host proteins required for HIV infection through a functional genomic screen
    Abraham L Brass
    Department of Genetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 319:921-6. 2008
    ..This effort illustrates the power with which RNA interference and forward genetics can be used to expose the dependencies of human pathogens such as HIV, and in so doing identify potential targets for therapy...
  4. pmc SAMHD1 is the dendritic- and myeloid-cell-specific HIV-1 restriction factor counteracted by Vpx
    Nadine Laguette
    Institut de Genetique Humaine, Laboratoire de Virologie Moleculaire, CNRS UPR1142, Montpellier 34000, France
    Nature 474:654-7. 2011
    ..Our results demonstrate that SAMHD1 is an antiretroviral protein expressed in cells of the myeloid lineage that inhibits an early step of the viral life cycle...
  5. ncbi Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein
    Ann M Sheehy
    Department of Microbiology, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 418:646-50. 2002
    ..Because the Vif:CEM15 regulatory circuit is critical for HIV-1 replication, perturbing the circuit may be a promising target for future HIV/AIDS therapies...
  6. pmc Global analysis of host-pathogen interactions that regulate early-stage HIV-1 replication
    Renate König
    Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 135:49-60. 2008
    ..Taken together, the multiscale approach described here has uncovered multiprotein virus-host interactions that likely act in concert to facilitate the early steps of HIV-1 infection...
  7. pmc SAMHD1 restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by depleting the intracellular pool of deoxynucleoside triphosphates
    Hichem Lahouassa
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris, France
    Nat Immunol 13:223-8. 2012
    ..Nucleotide-pool depletion could be a general mechanism for protecting cells from infectious agents that replicate through a DNA intermediate...
  8. ncbi The cytoplasmic body component TRIM5alpha restricts HIV-1 infection in Old World monkeys
    Matthew Stremlau
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 427:848-53. 2004
    Host cell barriers to the early phase of immunodeficiency virus replication explain the current distribution of these viruses among human and non-human primate species...
  9. ncbi HIV-1 restriction factor SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase
    David C Goldstone
    Division of Molecular Structure, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Nature 480:379-82. 2011
    ..been identified as a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) restriction factor that blocks early-stage virus replication in dendritic and other myeloid cells and is the target of the lentiviral protein Vpx, which can relieve HIV-..
  10. ncbi Genome-scale RNAi screen for host factors required for HIV replication
    Honglin Zhou
    Department of Virus and Cell Biology, Merck and Co, Inc, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:495-504. 2008
    ..This study highlights both the power and shortcomings of large scale loss-of-function screens in discovering host-pathogen interactions...
  11. pmc HIV-1 capsid-cyclophilin interactions determine nuclear import pathway, integration targeting and replication efficiency
    Torsten Schaller
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002439. 2011
    ..Our findings link HIV-1 engagement of cyclophilins with both integration targeting and replication efficiency and provide insight into the conservation of viral cyclophilin recruitment...
  12. pmc The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein
    Nanette Van Damme
    The San Diego Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:245-52. 2008
    ....
  13. pmc HIV reservoir size and persistence are driven by T cell survival and homeostatic proliferation
    Nicolas Chomont
    Laboratoire d Immunologie, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Université de Montréal Saint Luc, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Nat Med 15:893-900. 2009
    ....
  14. ncbi Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3
    Rashu B Seth
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Cell 122:669-82. 2005
    ..The transmembrane domain targets MAVS to the mitochondria, implicating a new role of mitochondria in innate immunity...
  15. pmc Interferon-inducible antiviral effectors
    Anthony J Sadler
    Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:559-68. 2008
    ..Ongoing research continues to expose additional activities for these effector proteins and has revealed unanticipated functions of the antiviral response...
  16. pmc Genetic identity, biological phenotype, and evolutionary pathways of transmitted/founder viruses in acute and early HIV-1 infection
    Jesus F Salazar-Gonzalez
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1273-89. 2009
    ..These findings reveal viral properties associated with mucosal HIV-1 transmission and a limited set of rapidly evolving adaptive mutations driven primarily, but not exclusively, by early cytotoxic T cell responses...
  17. pmc Human host factors required for influenza virus replication
    Renate König
    Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research
    Nature 463:813-7. 2010
    ..RNA interference screening, to identify 295 cellular cofactors required for early-stage influenza virus replication. Within this group, those involved in kinase-regulated signalling, ubiquitination and phosphatase activity ..
  18. ncbi The lipid droplet is an important organelle for hepatitis C virus production
    Yusuke Miyanari
    Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Nat Cell Biol 9:1089-97. 2007
    ..This study reveals a novel function of LDs in the assembly of infectious HCV and provides a new perspective on how viruses usurp cellular functions...
  19. pmc An overlapping protein-coding region in influenza A virus segment 3 modulates the host response
    B W Jagger
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Science 337:199-204. 2012
    ..Thus, we have identified a previously unknown IAV protein that modulates the host response to infection, a finding with important implications for understanding IAV pathogenesis...
  20. pmc Profound early control of highly pathogenic SIV by an effector memory T-cell vaccine
    Scott G Hansen
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Nature 473:523-7. 2011
    ..Thus, persistent vectors such as CMV and their associated T(EM) responses might significantly contribute to an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine...
  21. pmc Host cell factors in HIV replication: meta-analysis of genome-wide studies
    Frederic D Bushman
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000437. 2009
    ....
  22. ncbi Hepatitis B virus infection--natural history and clinical consequences
    Don Ganem
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:1118-29. 2004
  23. ncbi Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies human host factors crucial for influenza virus replication
    Alexander Karlas
    Molecular Biology Department, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Nature 463:818-22. 2010
    ..In contrast, targeting host cell determinants temporarily dispensable for the host but crucial for virus replication could prevent viral escape...
  24. ncbi The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection
    Douglas D Richman
    San Diego VA Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Science 323:1304-7. 2009
    ..This review discusses our current understanding of suppressive antiretroviral therapy, the latent viral reservoir, and the needs for and challenges of attacking this reservoir to achieve a cure...
  25. ncbi Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1
    H Deng
    Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Center, 10016, USA
    Nature 381:661-6. 1996
    ..The principal cofactor for entry mediated by the envelope glycoproteins of primary macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1 is CC-CKR-5, a receptor for the beta-chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta...
  26. ncbi Replication of hepatitis C virus
    Darius Moradpour
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:453-63. 2007
    ..These efforts have already translated into the identification of novel antiviral targets and the development of new therapeutic strategies, some of which are currently undergoing clinical evaluation...
  27. ncbi Cell-to-cell spread of HIV permits ongoing replication despite antiretroviral therapy
    Alex Sigal
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nature 477:95-8. 2011
    ....
  28. pmc Highly permissive cell lines for subgenomic and genomic hepatitis C virus RNA replication
    Keril J Blight
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 76:13001-14. 2002
    ....
  29. ncbi Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia
    Ali M Zaki
    Dr Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
    N Engl J Med 367:1814-20. 2012
    ..The clinical picture was remarkably similar to that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 and reminds us that animal coronaviruses can cause severe disease in humans...
  30. ncbi Autophagy-dependent viral recognition by plasmacytoid dendritic cells
    Heung Kyu Lee
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Science 315:1398-401. 2007
    ..These results support a key role for autophagy in mediating ssRNA virus detection and interferon-alpha secretion by pDCs and suggest that cytosolic replication intermediates of viruses serve as pathogen signatures recognized by TLR7...
  31. pmc Tetherin inhibits HIV-1 release by directly tethering virions to cells
    David Perez-Caballero
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell 139:499-511. 2009
    ....
  32. pmc 2'-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members
    Stephane Daffis
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nature 468:452-6. 2010
    ..Differential methylation of cytoplasmic RNA probably serves as an example for pattern recognition and restriction of propagation of foreign viral RNA in host cells...
  33. pmc RNA interference screen for human genes associated with West Nile virus infection
    Manoj N Krishnan
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticutt 06520 8031, USA
    Nature 455:242-5. 2008
    ..This study provides a comprehensive molecular portrait of WNV-human cell interactions that forms a model for understanding single plus-stranded RNA virus infection, and reveals potential antiviral targets...
  34. pmc Three-dimensional architecture and biogenesis of membrane structures associated with hepatitis C virus replication
    Ines Romero-Brey
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1003056. 2012
    ....
  35. pmc West Nile virus encodes a microRNA-like small RNA in the 3' untranslated region which up-regulates GATA4 mRNA and facilitates virus replication in mosquito cells
    Mazhar Hussain
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:2210-23. 2012
    ..of the flavivirus genome, in particular the terminal 3' stem-loop (3'SL) fulfils multiple functions in virus replication and virus-host interactions...
  36. pmc Cellular microRNA and P bodies modulate host-HIV-1 interactions
    Robin Nathans
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Mol Cell 34:696-709. 2009
    ..Thus we provide an example of a single host miRNA regulating HIV-1 production and infectivity. These studies highlight the significance of miRNAs and P bodies in modulating host cell interactions with HIV-1 and possibly other viruses...
  37. pmc MicroRNAs and human retroviruses
    Laurent Houzet
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1809:686-93. 2011
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MicroRNAs in viral gene regulation...
  38. pmc In vitro and in vivo characterization of new swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses
    Yasushi Itoh
    Department of Pathology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Ohtsu, Shiga 520 2192, Japan
    Nature 460:1021-5. 2009
    ..Finally, we show that CA04 is sensitive to approved and experimental antiviral drugs, suggesting that these compounds could function as a first line of defence against the recently declared S-OIV pandemic...
  39. ncbi Homozygous defect in HIV-1 coreceptor accounts for resistance of some multiply-exposed individuals to HIV-1 infection
    R Liu
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University New York, New York 10016, USA
    Cell 86:367-77. 1996
    ..These findings indicate the importance of CKR-5 in HIV-1 transmission and suggest that targeting the HIV-1-CKR-5 interaction may provide a means of preventing or slowing disease progression...
  40. ncbi Composition and three-dimensional architecture of the dengue virus replication and assembly sites
    Sonja Welsch
    Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, Heidelberg D 69120, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 5:365-75. 2009
    ..This architecture of DENV replication and assembly sites could explain the coordination of distinct steps of the flavivirus replication cycle...
  41. pmc Vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells control AIDS virus replication
    Philip A Mudd
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
    Nature 491:129-33. 2012
    ..Our findings indicate that narrowly targeted vaccine-induced virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses can control replication of the AIDS virus...
  42. ncbi Pathogenesis and transmission of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus in ferrets
    Vincent J Munster
    National Influenza Center and Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Science 325:481-3. 2009
    ..A(H1N1) influenza virus was found to be more pathogenic than a seasonal A(H1N1) virus, with more extensive virus replication occurring in the respiratory tract...
  43. pmc Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome gene and HIV-1 restriction factor SAMHD1 is a dGTP-regulated deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase
    Rebecca D Powell
    Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:43596-600. 2011
    ..We show that SAMHD1 contains a dGTP-regulated deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase. We propose that Vpx targets SAMHD1 for degradation in a viral strategy to control cellular deoxynucleotide levels for efficient replication...
  44. pmc Presence of an inducible HIV-1 latent reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy
    T W Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:13193-7. 1997
    ..In addition, the presence of unintegrated HIV-1 DNA in infected resting CD4+ T cells from patients receiving HAART, even those with undetectable plasma viremia, suggests persistent active virus replication in vivo.
  45. ncbi HIV-1 replication and immune dynamics are affected by raltegravir intensification of HAART-suppressed subjects
    Maria J Buzon
    Nat Med 16:460-5. 2010
    ..The ability of raltegravir intensification to perturb the reservoir that supports active replication has implications for therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving viral eradication...
  46. ncbi HIV persistence and the prospect of long-term drug-free remissions for HIV-infected individuals
    Didier Trono
    School of Life Sciences and Frontiers in Genetics Program, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Science 329:174-80. 2010
    ....
  47. ncbi Isolation of a common receptor for Coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5
    J M Bergelson
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 275:1320-3. 1997
    ..Identification of CAR as a receptor for these two unrelated and structurally distinct viral pathogens is important for understanding viral pathogenesis and has implications for therapeutic gene delivery with adenovirus vectors...
  48. pmc Superior control of HIV-1 replication by CD8+ T cells is reflected by their avidity, polyfunctionality, and clonal turnover
    Jorge R Almeida
    Cellular Immunology Laboratory, U543, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Avenir Group, 75013 Paris, France
    J Exp Med 204:2473-85. 2007
    ..Such attributes are interlinked and constitute the basis for effective control of HIV-1 replication. These data on the features of effective CD8+ T cells in HIV infection may aid in the development of successful T cell vaccines...
  49. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
    ..HCVcc replication was inhibited by interferon-alpha and by several HCV-specific antiviral compounds, suggesting that this in vitro system will aid in the search for improved antivirals...
  50. pmc HIV controllers exhibit potent CD8 T cell capacity to suppress HIV infection ex vivo and peculiar cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation phenotype
    Asier Saez-Cirion
    Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales, Institut Pasteur, 75725 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6776-81. 2007
    ..This constitutive antiviral capacity of CD8(+) T cells could account for the control of viral replication in HIC...
  51. pmc Interferon modulation of cellular microRNAs as an antiviral mechanism
    Irene M Pedersen
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nature 449:919-22. 2007
    ..Therefore, our findings strongly support the notion that mammalian organisms too, through the interferon system, use cellular miRNAs to combat viral infections...
  52. ncbi Localization of dengue virus in naturally infected human tissues, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization
    Kala Jessie
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    J Infect Dis 189:1411-8. 2004
    ..Positive-strand viral RNA was detected in the same IHC-positive cells found in the spleen and blood-clot samples. The strong, positive ISH signal in these cells indicated a high copy number of viral RNA, suggesting replication...
  53. ncbi Aberrant innate immune response in lethal infection of macaques with the 1918 influenza virus
    Darwyn Kobasa
    Respiratory Viruses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada
    Nature 445:319-23. 2007
    ..The ability of influenza viruses to modulate host immune responses, such as that demonstrated for the avian H5N1 influenza viruses, may be a feature shared by the virulent influenza viruses...
  54. pmc HIV-1 adaptation to NK-cell-mediated immune pressure
    Galit Alter
    Ragon Institute at MGH, MIT and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 476:96-100. 2011
    ..NK cells might therefore have a previously underappreciated role in contributing to viral evolution...
  55. pmc Production of virus-derived ping-pong-dependent piRNA-like small RNAs in the mosquito soma
    Elaine M Morazzani
    Department of Entomology, Fralin Life Science Institute, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002470. 2012
    ..Overall, our results suggest that a non-canonical piRNA pathway is present in the soma of vector mosquitoes and may be acting redundantly to the siRNA pathway to target alphavirus replication...
  56. ncbi A quantitative assay for HIV DNA integration in vivo
    S L Butler
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Med 7:631-4. 2001
    ..The integration assay employs a novel quantitative form of Alu-PCR that should be generally applicable to studies of integrating viruses and gene transfer vectors...
  57. pmc Drosophila RNAi screen identifies host genes important for influenza virus replication
    Linhui Hao
    Institute for Molecular Virology, USA
    Nature 454:890-3. 2008
    ..Identifying the host molecules that participate in each step of virus replication could provide valuable new targets for antiviral therapy, but this goal may take several decades to achieve ..
  58. pmc A complicated message: Identification of a novel PB1-related protein translated from influenza A virus segment 2 mRNA
    Helen M Wise
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:8021-31. 2009
    ..Thus, the influenza A virus proteome includes a 12th primary translation product that (similarly to PB1-F2) is nonessential for virus viability but whose loss, in particular genetic backgrounds, is detrimental to virus replication.
  59. pmc Interferon-induced cell membrane proteins, IFITM3 and tetherin, inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus infection via distinct mechanisms
    Jessica M Weidner
    Drexel Institute for Biotechnology and Virology Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, PA 18902, USA
    J Virol 84:12646-57. 2010
    ..Collectively, our work sheds light on the mechanisms by which tetherin and IFITM3 restrict infection with rhabdoviruses and possibly other pathogenic viruses...
  60. pmc A whole genome screen for HIV restriction factors
    Li Liu
    Centre for Immunology and Infectious Disease, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, UK
    Retrovirology 8:94. 2011
    ..For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human restriction factors, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein-B-mRNA-editing-enzyme), p21 and tetherin are well characterised...
  61. pmc Viral reorganization of the secretory pathway generates distinct organelles for RNA replication
    Nai Yun Hsu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Cell 141:799-811. 2010
    ..These findings reveal how RNA viruses can selectively exploit specific elements of the host to form specialized organelles where cellular phosphoinositide lipids are key to regulating viral RNA replication...
  62. pmc Hepatitis B virus biology
    C Seeger
    Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64:51-68. 2000
    ..The state of knowledge in this very active field is therefore reviewed with an emphasis on past accomplishments as well as goals for the future...
  63. ncbi HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5
    T Dragic
    The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 381:667-73. 1996
    ..CC-CKR-5 is a second receptor for NSI primary viruses...
  64. ncbi Hepatitis B virus infection
    Yun Fan Liaw
    Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
    Lancet 373:582-92. 2009
    ..of hepatitis B virology, immunology, and the natural course of chronic infection, has identified hepatitis B virus replication as the key driver of immune-mediated liver injury and disease progression...
  65. pmc Establishment of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells depends on chemokine-induced changes in the actin cytoskeleton
    Paul U Cameron
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16934-9. 2010
    ..We propose a unique pathway for establishment of latency by direct HIV-1 infection of resting CD4(+) T cells during normal chemokine-directed recirculation of CD4(+) T cells between blood and tissue...
  66. pmc Dengue virus type 2 infections of Aedes aegypti are modulated by the mosquito's RNA interference pathway
    Irma Sanchez-Vargas
    Department of Microbiology, Arthropod Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000299. 2009
    ..in degradation of viral mRNA with sequence homology to the dsRNA trigger and thereby inhibition of virus replication. We show that although dengue virus type 2 (DENV2) infection of Ae...
  67. pmc A functional genomic screen identifies cellular cofactors of hepatitis C virus replication
    Andrew W Tai
    Gastrointestinal Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 5:298-307. 2009
    ..The host cofactors for HCV replication identified in this study should serve as a useful resource in delineating new targets for anti-HCV therapies...
  68. ncbi RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5'-phosphates
    Andreas Pichlmair
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Science 314:997-1001. 2006
    ....
  69. ncbi HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors
    Stephen A Migueles
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:1061-8. 2002
    ..In addition, the relative absence of these functions in progressors may represent a mechanism by which HIV avoids immunological control...
  70. pmc Identification of five interferon-induced cellular proteins that inhibit west nile virus and dengue virus infections
    Dong Jiang
    Drexel Institute for Biotechnology and Virology Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18902, USA
    J Virol 84:8332-41. 2010
    ..Our results thus imply that the antiviral activity of IFN-alpha is collectively mediated by a panel of ISGs that disrupt multiple steps of the DENV and WNV life cycles...
  71. pmc Induction and evasion of type I interferon responses by influenza viruses
    Adolfo Garcia-Sastre
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Virus Res 162:12-8. 2011
    ....
  72. pmc The SARS-coronavirus-host interactome: identification of cyclophilins as target for pan-coronavirus inhibitors
    Susanne Pfefferle
    Bernhard Nocht Institute, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002331. 2011
    ..Non-immunosuppressive derivatives of CspA might serve as broad-range CoV inhibitors applicable against emerging CoVs as well as ubiquitous pathogens of humans and livestock...
  73. ncbi 5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I
    Veit Hornung
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Science 314:994-7. 2006
    ....
  74. pmc Formation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core of optimal stability is crucial for viral replication
    Brett M Forshey
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Virol 76:5667-77. 2002
    ..Although genetic studies have implicated CA in both early and late stages of the virus replication cycle, the mechanism of core disassembly following penetration of target cells remains undefined...
  75. pmc Generation of transmitted/founder HIV-1 infectious molecular clones and characterization of their replication capacity in CD4 T lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages
    Christina Ochsenbauer
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    J Virol 86:2715-28. 2012
    ....
  76. ncbi HIV controllers: a homogeneous group of HIV-1-infected patients with spontaneous control of viral replication
    Olivier Lambotte
    Inserm E 0109, Faculte de Medecine Paris Sud, Universite Paris XI, Service de Sante Publique, Bicetre, France
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1053-6. 2005
    ..These 15 patients, whom we have referred to as "HIV controllers," are characterized by a low HIV DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and by a strong HIV-specific immune response...
  77. pmc HIV integration targeting: a pathway involving Transportin-3 and the nuclear pore protein RanBP2
    Karen E Ocwieja
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001313. 2011
    ..Thus, our data support a model in which Gag-dependent engagement of the proper transport and nuclear pore machinery mediate trafficking of HIV complexes to sites of integration...
  78. ncbi RIG-I detects viral genomic RNA during negative-strand RNA virus infection
    Jan Rehwinkel
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A3PX, UK
    Cell 140:397-408. 2010
    ..Natural RIG-I stimulatory RNAs have variously been proposed to correspond to virus genomes, virus replication intermediates, viral transcripts, or self-RNA cleaved by RNase L...
  79. pmc Definition of the viral targets of protective HIV-1-specific T cell responses
    Beatriz Mothe
    IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute HIVACAT, Badalona, Spain
    J Transl Med 9:208. 2011
    ..However, current HIV vaccine designs are largely based on viral sequence alignments only, not incorporating experimental data on T cell function and specificity...
  80. pmc Subversion of cellular autophagosomal machinery by RNA viruses
    William T Jackson
    Department of Microbiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e156. 2005
    ..Instead, we argue that these double-membraned structures provide membranous supports for viral RNA replication complexes, possibly enabling the nonlytic release of cytoplasmic contents, including progeny virions, from infected cells...
  81. pmc Pyrosequencing of small non-coding RNAs in HIV-1 infected cells: evidence for the processing of a viral-cellular double-stranded RNA hybrid
    Man Lung Yeung
    Molecular Virology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:6575-86. 2009
    ..It was found to associate with the Ago2 protein, suggesting its possible function in the cellular RNAi machinery for targeting HIV-1...
  82. pmc Protection against fatal Sindbis virus encephalitis by beclin, a novel Bcl-2-interacting protein
    X H Liang
    Departments of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Virol 72:8586-96. 1998
    bcl-2, the prototypic cellular antiapoptotic gene, decreases Sindbis virus replication and Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains, resulting in protection against lethal encephalitis...
  83. pmc Autophagy pathway intersects with HIV-1 biosynthesis and regulates viral yields in macrophages
    George B Kyei
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    J Cell Biol 186:255-68. 2009
    ..The role of Nef in the latter process enhances yields of infectious HIV and may be of significance for progression to clinical AIDS...
  84. pmc Biological and structural characterization of a host-adapting amino acid in influenza virus
    Shinya Yamada
    Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001034. 2010
    ..These differences may affect the protein's interaction with viral and/or cellular factors, and hence its ability to support virus replication in mammals.
  85. ncbi Species-specific exclusion of APOBEC3G from HIV-1 virions by Vif
    Roberto Mariani
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 114:21-31. 2003
    ..Together these findings suggest that therapeutic intervention that either induced APOBEC3G or blocked its interaction with Vif could be clinically beneficial...
  86. pmc Recruitment and activation of a lipid kinase by hepatitis C virus NS5A is essential for integrity of the membranous replication compartment
    Simon Reiss
    The Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 9:32-45. 2011
    ..Our analysis suggests that the direct activation of a lipid kinase by HCV NS5A contributes critically to the integrity of the membranous viral replication complex...
  87. ncbi Molecular biology of flaviviruses
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Adv Virus Res 59:23-61. 2003
  88. ncbi CLEC5A is critical for dengue-virus-induced lethal disease
    Szu Ting Chen
    Department and Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
    Nature 453:672-6. 2008
    ....
  89. pmc Recruitment of chromatin-modifying enzymes by CTIP2 promotes HIV-1 transcriptional silencing
    Céline Marban
    INSERM unité 575 Pathophysiology of Nervous System, Centre de Neurochimie, Strasbourg, France
    EMBO J 26:412-23. 2007
    ..Altogether, our findings uncover new therapeutic opportunities for purging latent HIV-1 viruses from their cellular reservoirs...
  90. pmc Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins induces distinct membrane alterations including a candidate viral replication complex
    Denise Egger
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, University of Basel, CH 4003 Basel, Switzerland
    J Virol 76:5974-84. 2002
    ..Virchows Arch. B., 33:233-243, 1980). In view of this finding and the observation that all HCV proteins accumulate on the membranous web, we propose that the membranous web forms the viral replication complex in HCV-infected cells...
  91. pmc Regulating intracellular antiviral defense and permissiveness to hepatitis C virus RNA replication through a cellular RNA helicase, RIG-I
    Rhea Sumpter
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390 9048, USA
    J Virol 79:2689-99. 2005
    ..RIG-I is thus a pathogen receptor that regulates cellular permissiveness to HCV replication and, as an interferon-responsive gene, may play a key role in interferon-based therapies for the treatment of HCV infection...
  92. pmc Generation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) from cDNA: BRSV NS2 is not essential for virus replication in tissue culture, and the human RSV leader region acts as a functional BRSV genome promoter
    U J Buchholz
    Department of Clinical Virology, Federal Research Center for Virus Diseases of Animals, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Virol 73:251-9. 1999
    ..BRSV replicated autonomously and could be passaged, demonstrating that NS2 is not essential for virus replication in cell culture...
  93. pmc Cellular microRNA expression correlates with susceptibility of monocytes/macrophages to HIV-1 infection
    Xu Wang
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Joseph Stokes Jr Research Institute at The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Blood 113:671-4. 2009
    ..These findings provide compelling and direct evidence at the molecular level to support the notion that intracellular anti-HIV-1 miRNA-mediated innate immunity may have a key role in protecting monocytes/macrophages from HIV-1 infection...
  94. pmc Susceptibility of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) to retroviral restriction factors
    Harriet C T Groom
    Division of Virology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5166-71. 2010
    ....
  95. pmc Cell-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 overcomes tetherin/BST-2-mediated restriction in T cells
    Clare Jolly
    MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Windeyer Building, London, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:12185-99. 2010
    ..If so, inhibition of tetherin activity by Vpu may balance requirements for efficient cell-free virion production and cell-to-cell transfer of HIV-1 in the face of antiviral immune responses...
  96. pmc Expression and reactivation of HIV in a chemokine induced model of HIV latency in primary resting CD4+ T cells
    Suha Saleh
    Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Retrovirology 8:80. 2011
    ..The main aim of this study was to fully define the post-integration blocks to virus replication in this model of CCL19-induced HIV latency.
  97. pmc Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence in the monocyte-macrophage lineage
    Valentin Le Douce
    INSERM Unit 575, Pathophysiology of Central Nervous System, Institute of Virology, rue Koeberlé, Strasbourg, France
    Retrovirology 7:32. 2010
    ..Understanding the intimate mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence is a prerequisite to devise new and original therapies aiming to achieve viral eradication...
  98. pmc T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for Merkel cell polyomavirus
    Masahiro Shuda
    Molecular Virology Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, 5117 Centre Avenue, Suite 1 8, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16272-7. 2008
    ..that MCV-positive MCC tumor cells undergo selection for LT mutations to prevent autoactivation of integrated virus replication that would be detrimental to cell survival...
  99. pmc HLA-B57/B*5801 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 elite controllers select for rare gag variants associated with reduced viral replication capacity and strong cytotoxic T-lymphocyte [corrected] recognition
    Toshiyuki Miura
    Ragon Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th St, Room 5212, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    J Virol 83:2743-55. 2009
    ..These data suggest a dual mechanism for durable control of HIV replication, consisting of viral fitness loss resulting from CTL escape mutations together with strong CD8 T-cell immune responses to the arising variant epitopes...
  100. ncbi VSV strains with defects in their ability to shutdown innate immunity are potent systemic anti-cancer agents
    David F Stojdl
    Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre Research Laboratories, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H 8L6
    Cancer Cell 4:263-75. 2003
    ..While highly attenuated for growth in normal mice, both AV1 and AV2 effected complete and durable cures in the majority of treated animals when delivered systemically...
  101. ncbi Hepatitis C virus and host cell lipids: an intimate connection
    Gualtiero Alvisi
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
    RNA Biol 8:258-69. 2011
    ..Thus, HCV exploits lipid metabolism in many ways and may therefore serve as a model system to gain insights into membrane biogenesis, lipid droplet formation and lipid trafficking...

Research Grants73

  1. Cis-acting RNA elements in hepatitis C virus replication
    Guangxiang Luo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. The Neuroimmunology of Viral Infection
    DANIEL J CARR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..including pattern recognition receptors results in the expression of potent anti-viral pathways that block virus replication at the transcriptional and translational levels...
  3. A quantitative proteomics approach to understand viral immune evasion strategies
    Michele E Hardy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of IFN and IFN-regulated genes, if successful, result in establishment of an antiviral state that restricts virus replication and spread, while simultaneously initiating recruitment of the adaptive immune responses...
  4. Anti-Bacterial Innate Responses Enhance Paramyxovirus Replication
    Griffith D Parks; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..lead to strictly anti-microbial responses, but rather, can actually create cell environments that enhance virus replication. The central hypotheses to be tested here are that bacterially-derived TLR agonists enhance RNA virus ..
  5. Hepatitis B virus replication and DDB1
    Betty L Slagle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our laboratory studies HBx, a small protein required for virus replication in vivo that is also involved in carcinogenesis We and others have shown that the interaction of HBx with ..
  6. Control of alphavirous replacation in the nervous system
    Diane E Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in persistence of viral RNA in the central nervous system (CNS) and the need for long-term suppression of virus replication. Detailed study of virus clearance from the CNS of immunologically normal 4-6 week-old C57BL/6 mice over 6 ..
  7. Hepatocarcinogenesis Secondary to Hepatitis C
    Srikanta Dash; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Jak-Stat signaling escape interferon action at the level of IRES translation leading to chronic persistent virus replication. We propose that encapsulation of siRNA-74 into nanoparticles by the use of biodegradable polymers will ..
  8. Novel Therapeutics for Neurotropic Alphaviruses
    David J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, we hypothesize that combination therapy that directly targets virus replication and enhances neuroprotective responses will provide synergistic benefit in viral encephalitis...
  9. Virus interference with Toll like Receptor Response on Dendritic Cells
    Elina I Zuniga; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..beta signaling on DCs, on DC dysfunction during LCMV infection and its impact on primary and secondary virus replication. Uncovering the mechanisms underlying virus diversion of innate immunity may reveal previously unrecognized ..
  10. Herpesvirus protein kinases: Substrate recognition and pathway targeting.
    S Diane Hayward; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The dependence on these protein kinases for efficient virus replication and spread, their conservation across the herpesvirus family and their enzymatic nature make these proteins ..
  11. Coronavirus RNA Replication
    DAVID ALVIN BRIAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We hypothesize one or more of the stem-loops in the (+) strand are needed at three steps in virus replication. First, we postulate one or more are needed, perhaps through cyclization, to inhibit translation and ..
  12. Single RNA sensitive probes for studying viral replication and budding
    Philip J Santangelo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..affinity and probe core composition, to create a probe and methodology which will allow us to study RNA virus replication and budding of viral particles in time and space within a living cell with single molecule sensitivity...
  13. Novel vaccine to CMV based on a disc virus
    Alistair McGregor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The mutant viruses will be capable of infecting non-complementing cells in an abortive single cycle of virus replication but incapable of producing infectious virus...
  14. Murine coronavirus neurovirulence: role of type I interferon response
    Susan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..investigate the extent and effectiveness of the host's type I interferon (IFN) response in restricting virus replication and spread in the CNS, and in addition, the mechanisms used by viruses to antagonize the IFN response...
  15. Antiviral potential of helicase inhibitors
    David N Frick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Screening," we propose here to develop assays to identify and analyze inhibitors of helicases needed for RNA virus replication. All viruses require helicases to separate duplex DNA or RNA, yet helicases remain undeveloped antiviral ..
  16. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors As Broad Spectrum Anti-Flaviviral Therapeutics
    Glenn Randall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..move a likely broad-spectrum antiviral that targets a well-characterized virus-host interaction in dengue virus replication inhibitor into IND filing for clinical trials...
  17. Determinants of Coronavirus Fidelity in Replication and Pathogenesis
    Mark R Denison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, nsp14-ExoN is likely the first known RNA virus proofreading exonuclease, and is critically involved in virus replication, fitness, and pathogenesis. However, how it regulates fidelity is unknown...
  18. TH1 AND TH2 RESPONSES IN VIRAL IMMUNITY
    Thomas M Moran; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We were unable to detect any inflammatory response in the animals until almost 48 hours after infection when virus replication was reaching its apex...
  19. Immune Regulation of Virus Clearance and Tissue Injury at Sites of Infection
    Thomas J Braciale; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..How does NK cell mediated control of early virus replication at the site of infection in a secondary lymphoid organ i.e...
  20. Multilevel Targeted Therapeutics Using Surface Functionalized Nanoparticles encap
    JILL STEINBACH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2 (a DNA binding protein affecting virus replication) and nectin-1 (a host cell receptor protein integral to initial viral binding and subsequent spread)...
  21. Mechanisms of Virus Replication and Gene Expression
    ANNE ELIZABETH SIMON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..seases to imnrovfi the nualitv nf nennle's lives...
  22. Intracellular immunization strategy in inhibit HCV related liver cancer
    Srikanta Dash; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with recombinant antibodies that block the NS3 helicase is an effective strategy for inhibiting hepatitis C virus replication and expression...
  23. Mosquito Saliva in Dengue Virus Pathogenesis
    REBECCA R RICO-HESSE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data point to a major enhancement of dengue virus replication and pathogenesis in these mice, due to mosquito saliva components;the mice develop the typical "saddleback", ..
  24. Efficacy of the antiviral state versus Sindbis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis
    William B Klimstra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this, we will use over-expression and interfering-RNA knockdown techniques to identify the point in the virus replication cycle at which each effector acts followed by mutagenesis to identify the responsible functional domains in ..
  25. A novel assay for inhibitors of influenza A virus polymerase complex assembly
    Feng Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..develop a novel assay that may lead to the identification of antiviral compounds, which inhibit Influenza A virus replication by disrupting the PB1-PA subunit interaction that is critical to govern the assembly process of influenza A ..
  26. Bioavailable proteasome inhibitors as broad-spectrum antivirals
    ALEXANDER NICLAS FREIBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have already published that Bortezomib inhibits Nipah virus replication with an IC50 100-fold less than the peak plasma concentrations found in patients...
  27. Yeast Based Assays for Chemical Screens Against SARS-CoV Targets
    DANIEL A contact ENGEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..model is robust because molecular clones exist, target genes have been identified that are essential for virus replication, structural information exists for both targets, and robust cell culture and murine models of severe end ..
  28. Enterovirus Vectors with Respiratory Tropism for Cancer Immunotherapy
    Matthias Gromeier; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We established a rodent model for the common cold in hICAM-1 transgenic mice, which exhibit modest virus replication in the respiratory tract and mild airway inflammation upon CAV21 infection, similar to humans...
  29. Oral Vaccination for AIDS Prevention in Rhesus Macaques
    Anna Aldovini; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..As substantial virus replication occurs in the gastrointestinal tract in addition to the lymphoid organs, the ability of vaccines to induce ..
  30. Role of TLR4 in Coronavirus Infection
    Steven M Varga; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..MHV-1 infection of type I IFN receptor-deficient mice on the C57BL/6 background results in uncontrolled virus replication in multiple tissues demonstrating the important role for innate immunity and type I IFN in mediating the ..
  31. Control of cap-independent translation by a viral 3'UTR
    WYATT ALLEN MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is this essential step in virus replication that is the focus of this proposal...
  32. Targeting induction of calcium buffer proteins for treatment of viral encephaliti
    John D Morrey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..so therapeutic modalities should focus on preventing the death of neurons, as well as to limit virus replication with compounds that can effectively penetrate the blood brain barrier...
  33. POLYMERASE PROTEINS IN CORONAVIRUS REPLICATION
    Mark R Denison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of RNA viruses therefore represent important targets for development of broadly applicable inhibitors of virus replication. Rational design of protease inhibitors has targeted conserved structure/function elements such as active-..
  34. Protective Human Monoclonal Antibodies to HIV-1
    SUSAN B ZOLLA-PAZNER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..able to produce both neutralizing Abs that target additional epitopes and "non-neutralizing" Abs that block virus replication through pathways other than that mediated by pH-independent virus/cell fusion...
  35. Persistent hepatitis C virus replication and T cell immunity in pregnancy
    Christopher M Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For instance, it would provide insight into strategies to cure infection during a unique window of low virus replication in the mothers...
  36. Mechanism of RNA synthesis and 5'-capping by dengue virus NS5 polymerase
    Kyung H Choi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since replicase complexes are absolutely required for virus replication, knowledge of their structures and mechanisms should identify potential targets for therapeutics and suggest ..
  37. Novel Inhibitors of Viral Replication
    Michael G Roth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..restored gene expression in the presence of NS1 and also significantly inhibited both influenza virus replication and viral-mediated cell death...
  38. HIV-1 Inhibition using Tat Peptide Derivatives
    Fatah Kashanchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to continue our work on Tat peptide derivatives (mimetics) inhibitors that could potentially inhibit virus replication both in cell culture and our humanized animal models...
  39. Identification of Immune modulators associated with JC virus replication
    Jennifer Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  40. Development of a Novel Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine
    Shinji Makino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the intraperitoneal inoculation of MP-12 into young mice resulted in efficient virus replication in the CNS...
  41. Role of oxido-reductive stress in regulating HIV-TB coinfection
    Roy L Sutliff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..processes such as redox balance, membrane potential, and central metabolism resulting in immune dysfunction, virus replication and progression to AIDS...
  42. 3C Protease Polyubiquitylation as a Picornavirus Replication Success Determinant
    THOMAS GLEN LAWSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and hepatitis A virus (HAV) produce a protein called the 3C protease, which is absolutely required for virus replication in infected cells...
  43. Enteric Virus Calcium Channel Inhibitors
    Joseph M Hyser; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These experiments also will determine whether inhibition of the rotavirus NSP4 viroporin effectively blocks virus replication, demonstrating that NSP4 is a good antiviral drug target...
  44. CHARACTERIZATION OF HCMV UL84
    Gregory S Pari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..suggests that UL84 interacts with viral and/or cellular mRNA and this interaction plays an essential role in virus replication. Using an UL84-RNA pull down assay we have identified the viral mRNA encoding IRS1 as one transcript ..
  45. Multiscale analysis of influenza host-pathogen interactions: Fluomics
    Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Influenza virus pathogenesis has two driving forces, virus replication and host responses...
  46. The Role of Lipid Rafts in Vpu Function
    EDWARD BRICE STEPHENS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The Vpu protein of HIV-1 has two important functions in the virus replication cycle. One of this functions is to down-modulate the receptor for the virus, CD4...
  47. Stage-Specific Inhibitors of Orthopoxviruses
    John H Connor; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a simple cell- viability assay that will be the basis of our large-scale screen for compounds that block virus replication without killing cells...
  48. NeuroAIDS Therapy in the EcoHIV Mouse Model
    DAVID VOLSKY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..whether virus resident in the brain is sensitive to HAART agents, and to what extent inhibition of ongoing virus replication depletes viral reservoirs in brain cells, macrophages, and bone marrow and ameliorates brain disease...
  49. The DNA Damage Response as a therapeutic target in BK virus nephropathy
    THOMAS DAVID FRIEDRICH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Current therapies to limit virus replication rely on immunosuppression reduction, which risks acute rejection of the graft...
  50. Mechanism of Hepatitis E Virus Replication and Pathogenesis
    Xiang Jin Meng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By completing this project, we expect to identify the viral determinant(s) for HEV host range and pathogenicity and delineate the role of ISG15 in anti-HEV response. ..
  51. The roles of acidic autophagosomes in production of infectious poliovirus
    William T Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..understanding of how a medically important family of viruses subverts a basic cellular pathway to promote virus replication. This work will provide novel insights into the late stages of the viral life cycle, especially maturation ..
  52. IDO Regulation in the SIV Model of HIV CNS Disease
    M Christine Zink; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The net effect is more virus replication, greater CNS inflammation and upregulation of IFN3, which in turn further upregulates IDO, setting up a ..
  53. REPLICATION OF INFLUENZA VIRUS
    Robert M Krug; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..several host proteins with particular influenza A and B viral proteins and on how these interactions impact virus replication. Several of these interactions reveal new targets for antiviral development...
  54. Human Rabies Virus Vaccine Development
    James P McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We hypothesize that a matrix (M) gene-deleted RV, which renders the virus replication-deficient, will make excellent an RV PEP...
  55. Vaccinia Virus Genetics and Morphogenesis
    Richard C Condit; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Second, it advances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus replication and virus cell interactions, which has implications in general for treatment of virus induced disease...
  56. Defining the cis and trans acting factors required for assembly of infectious Blu
    Polly Roy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Completion of these goals will pave the way for the rational design of inhibitors to block virus replication and provide lead compounds for related viruses of pathogenic significance to man and animals.
  57. Role of TRIM79 in innate immunity to tick-borne encephalitis virus
    ROGER TRAVIS TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..resistant (TBEV) or susceptible (WNV) to TRIM79- mediated restriction and measure effect of mutation on virus replication and interferon sensitivity...
  58. Nipsnap1: A Novel Negative Regulator of Hepatitis C Virus Replication
    BRIANA M WEISER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Through immunoprecipitation coupled mass spectrometry, we hope to generate a body of data to devise a model by which hepatitis C viral proteins utilize different host factors to manipulate membranes for replication and assembly. ..
  59. Directed Evolution of a Murine Model of Hepatitis C Virus Replication
    PRISCILLA LI NING YANG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, a mouse model of HCV replication will provide a valuable tool in evaluating the efficacy of potential antiviral therapeutics. ..
  60. Inflammatory Response in Influenza Virus Infection
    Thomas M Moran; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, evidence suggests that early events are crucial to control virus replication and initiate the adaptive response...
  61. Backbone Modified Peptide-nucleic Acids as Antiviral Agents Against Hepatitis C
    MIHAELA R MIHAILESCU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mechanisms of these interactions are not all clear, genetic data indicates that they play vital roles in the virus replication and translation...
  62. Interactions of Ebola virus glycoproteins with host cells
    Paul Bates; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Definition of the host factors that are required for Ebola entry is essential for comprehending Ebola virus replication and pathogenesis. Endosomal cathepsins are the only currently known cellular factor required for Ebola entry...
  63. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    Charles E Samuel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These human cell clones will be examined for the mechanisms by which PKR affects virus replication, with emphasis on vaccinia virus (wild-type and E3L mutant), and measles virus (wild- type, V and C mutants) ..
  64. Functional role of a host metabolic enzyme in viral replication
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the significance of host proteins in viral pathogenesis, our current knowledge on host factors co- opted for virus replication is surprisingly incomplete...
  65. Nonstructural roles of capsid proteins in virus replication
    TERYL FREY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..complexes and thus the proposed research should yield insight into this poorly defined part of the virus replication cycle...
  66. CONTROL OF CELL FUNCTION VIA SELECTIVE MRNA TRANSLATION
    Lee Gehrke; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..have essential enzymatic and structural roles in many biological processes, including protein biosynthesis, virus replication, and virus assembly...
  67. Role of an essential RNA chaperone in virus replication
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In order to advance understanding of the mechanism of virus replication, the investigator has developed an efficient in vitro RNA replication assay based on purified tombusvirus ..
  68. DEMYELINATING DISEASE: VIRAL AND IMMUNE FUNCTION
    Stephen Stohlman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Project 2 continues an examination of the role of distinct CD8+ T cell effectors mechanisms in controlling virus replication in oligodendroglia and astrocytes, the mechanisms used by oligodendroglia to resist perforin mediated ..
  69. IMMUNE CONTROL OF CAE LENTIVIRUS
    Donald Knowles; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Preliminary results through 24 weeks postchallenge indicate that virus replication is restricted by type 1 immunity induced by plasmid DNA but not by type 2 responses induced by vaccinia...
  70. HEPATITIS B VIRUS - CHRONIC HEPATITIS - LIVER CANCER
    DAVID SHAFRITZ; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Our overall goal is to study regulation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene expression and events in virus replication in human, animal model and cell culture systems and to investigate mechanisms whereby persistent infection with hepatitis ..
  71. CLINICAL GENE THERAPY PROGRAM FOR THE TREATMENT OF AIDS
    Rafael Amado; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The ability of these drug combinations to greatly suppress virus replication has raised the question as to whether complete eradication of HIV can be achieved in infected patients...
  72. CrPV IRES function and animal virus replication in yeast
    SUNNIE THOMPSON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Previous attempts to study animal virus replication in yeast have been thwarted by the fact that the picornaviruses initiate translation by a cap-independent ..
  73. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of Pneumonia
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2007
    HIV establishes infection in lung during acute infection. However, virus replication appears to be controlled after acute infection, and HIV interstitial pneumonia does not develop until the late stages of infection prior to the ..