penis

Summary

Summary: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Erectile dysfunction in smokers: a penile dynamic and vascular study
    Samir Elhanbly
    Department of Andrology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
    J Androl 25:991-5. 2004
  2. pmc RhoA/Rho-kinase suppresses endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the penis: a mechanism for diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction
    Trinity J Bivalacqua
    Department of Urology, Tulane Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9121-6. 2004
  3. pmc Treatment of erectile dysfunction in the obese type 2 diabetic ZDF rat with adipose tissue-derived stem cells
    Maurice M Garcia
    Department of Urology, University of California School of Medicine Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, San Francisco, CA 94143 0738, USA
    J Sex Med 7:89-98. 2010
  4. ncbi Penile weight and cell subtype specific changes in a post-radical prostatectomy model of erectile dysfunction
    Herbert M User
    Department of Urology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Urol 169:1175-9. 2003
  5. pmc SIVmac251 is inefficiently transmitted to rhesus macaques by penile inoculation with a single SIVenv variant found in ramp-up phase plasma
    Zhong Min Ma
    Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 27:1259-69. 2011
  6. pmc Susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of human foreskin and cervical tissue grown in explant culture
    Bruce K Patterson
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA
    Am J Pathol 161:867-73. 2002
  7. ncbi Management of Peyronie's disease--a review
    H S Tunuguntla
    North Florida Urology Research Institute, Gainesville 32605, USA
    World J Urol 19:244-50. 2001
  8. ncbi Human papillomavirus DNA detection in male sexual partners of women with genital human papillomavirus infection
    Sergio M Nicolau
    Department of Gynecology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Urology 65:251-5. 2005
  9. ncbi Penile lesions and human papillomavirus in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
    Maaike C G Bleeker
    Department of Pathology, Section Molecular Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Am Acad Dermatol 47:351-7. 2002
  10. ncbi Physiological regulation of penile arteries and veins
    D Prieto
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Int J Impot Res 20:17-29. 2008

Detail Information

Publications316 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Erectile dysfunction in smokers: a penile dynamic and vascular study
    Samir Elhanbly
    Department of Andrology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
    J Androl 25:991-5. 2004
    ....
  2. pmc RhoA/Rho-kinase suppresses endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the penis: a mechanism for diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction
    Trinity J Bivalacqua
    Department of Urology, Tulane Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9121-6. 2004
    ..to diabetes-related erectile dysfunction and down-regulation of eNOS in the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat penis. Colocalization of Rho-kinase and eNOS protein was present in the endothelium of the corpus cavernosum...
  3. pmc Treatment of erectile dysfunction in the obese type 2 diabetic ZDF rat with adipose tissue-derived stem cells
    Maurice M Garcia
    Department of Urology, University of California School of Medicine Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, San Francisco, CA 94143 0738, USA
    J Sex Med 7:89-98. 2010
    ..Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major complication of type 2 diabetes, and many diabetic men with ED are refractory to common ED therapies...
  4. ncbi Penile weight and cell subtype specific changes in a post-radical prostatectomy model of erectile dysfunction
    Herbert M User
    Department of Urology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Urol 169:1175-9. 2003
    ..We investigated changes in DNA, protein and apoptotic cells of the rat penis after denervation. Gross morphometry was measured to elucidate the impact of chemical changes.
  5. pmc SIVmac251 is inefficiently transmitted to rhesus macaques by penile inoculation with a single SIVenv variant found in ramp-up phase plasma
    Zhong Min Ma
    Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 27:1259-69. 2011
    ..Furthermore, this SIV challenge exposure route will be useful in testing vaccines and other prophylactic approaches...
  6. pmc Susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of human foreskin and cervical tissue grown in explant culture
    Bruce K Patterson
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA
    Am J Pathol 161:867-73. 2002
    ..Adult foreskin mucosa had greater susceptibility to infection with HIV(bal) than cervical mucosa or the external surface of foreskin tissue. Circumcision likely reduces risk of HIV-1 acquisition in men by decreasing HIV-1 target cells...
  7. ncbi Management of Peyronie's disease--a review
    H S Tunuguntla
    North Florida Urology Research Institute, Gainesville 32605, USA
    World J Urol 19:244-50. 2001
    ..Most patients with early stage Peyronie's disease can continue to function sexually with the curvature in the penis. Others with a severe penile deformity will have difficulty in sexual intercourse...
  8. ncbi Human papillomavirus DNA detection in male sexual partners of women with genital human papillomavirus infection
    Sergio M Nicolau
    Department of Gynecology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Urology 65:251-5. 2005
    ....
  9. ncbi Penile lesions and human papillomavirus in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
    Maaike C G Bleeker
    Department of Pathology, Section Molecular Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Am Acad Dermatol 47:351-7. 2002
    ..Limited information is available about the prevalence of HPV and penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)...
  10. ncbi Physiological regulation of penile arteries and veins
    D Prieto
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Int J Impot Res 20:17-29. 2008
    ..In addition, only few studies have investigated the changes in structure and function of penile arteries in cardiovascular risk situations leading to ED...
  11. pmc Physiology of penile erection and pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction
    Robert C Dean
    Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94143 0738, USA
    Urol Clin North Am 32:379-95, v. 2005
    ..The understanding of the nitric oxide pathway has aided not only in the molecular understanding of the tumescence but also greatly in the therapy of erectile dysfunction...
  12. pmc Inactivation of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser-1177) by O-GlcNAc in diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction
    Biljana Musicki
    Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11870-5. 2005
    ..with erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, but the exact molecular basis for the eNOS defect in the diabetic penis remains unclear...
  13. pmc Transmission of human papillomavirus in heterosexual couples
    Brenda Y Hernandez
    University of Hawaii, Manoa, HI 96813, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:888-94. 2008
    ..The overall rate of HPV transmission from the penis to the cervix was 4.9/100 person-months, which was substantially lower than that from the cervix to the penis (17...
  14. ncbi Intracavernous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells restores erectile function of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats
    Xuefeng Qiu
    Department of Urology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
    J Sex Med 8:427-36. 2011
    ..Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus. The efficacy of common ED therapies is low for diabetes-associated ED...
  15. ncbi Long-term continuous sildenafil treatment ameliorates corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD) induced by cavernosal nerve resection in rats
    I Kovanecz
    LA Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Urology Research Laboratory, Torrance, CA 90502 2064, USA
    Int J Impot Res 20:202-12. 2008
    ....
  16. ncbi A mouse model of hypercholesterolemia-induced erectile dysfunction
    Donghua Xie
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, 508 Fulton Street, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Sex Med 4:898-907. 2007
    ..Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men...
  17. ncbi Spatial segregation within the sacral parasympathetic nucleus of neurons innervating the bladder or the penis of the rat as revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction
    B Banrezes
    Analyse et Modélisation en Imagerie Biologique, I N R A Jeune Equipe 1060 77, 78352 Jouy en Josas, France
    Neuroscience 115:97-109. 2002
    ..rats and (2) to search, in this nucleus, for a possible segregation of sub-populations of neurons innervating the penis or the bladder, respectively...
  18. ncbi Sildenafil preserves intracorporeal smooth muscle after radical retropubic prostatectomy
    Eric J Schwartz
    Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Sciences Center, Farmington, USA
    J Urol 171:771-4. 2004
    ..We assessed the effect of sildenafil on SM content after RRP...
  19. ncbi The development of the fetal penis--an in utero sonographic evaluation
    Y Zalel
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center Tel Hashomer, Israel
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 17:129-31. 2001
    ..To establish a nomogram for fetal penile length during gestation...
  20. ncbi An oral formulation of angiotensin-(1-7) reverses corpus cavernosum damages induced by hypercholesterolemia
    Rodrigo A Fraga-Silva
    Institute of Bioengineering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Sex Med 10:2430-42. 2013
    ..Recently, we have developed a formulation based on Ang-(1-7) inclusion in cyclodextrin (CyD) [Ang-(1-7)-CyD], which allows for the oral administration of Ang-(1-7)...
  21. ncbi Potential differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell transplanted in rat corpus cavernosum toward endothelial or smooth muscle cells
    Y S Song
    Department of Urology, Soonchunhyang School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Int J Impot Res 19:378-85. 2007
    ..When human MSCs were transplanted into the penile cavernosum, they have the potential to differentiate toward ECs or SMCs. Human MSCs may be a good candidate in the treatment of penile cavernosum injury...
  22. ncbi Alterations in angiogenic growth factors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in chronic cavernosal ischemia
    T Wang
    Urology Department Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Int J Impot Res 16:403-11. 2004
    ..Taken together, this study suggests that supplementation of VEGF at earlier stages of ischemia may restore the damaged endothelial cells of the corpus cavernosum and support tissue perfusion...
  23. ncbi Effect of sildenafil citrate on penile weight and physiology of cavernous smooth muscle in a post-radical prostatectomy model of erectile dysfunction in rats
    Ender Ozden
    Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    Urology 77:761.e1-7. 2011
    ..To evaluate the gross morphometric changes and in vitro responses of the corpus cavernosus of rats treated with sildenafil citrate after cavernous neurotomy...
  24. ncbi Diminished penile expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors at the insulin-resistant stage of a type II diabetic rat model: a possible cause for erectile dysfunction in diabetes
    S Jesmin
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    J Mol Endocrinol 31:401-18. 2003
    ..expressions of VEGF, its receptors, Akt, nitric oxide synthase isoforms, and apoptosis-related molecules in the penis using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, in situ hybridization, and real-time quantitative PCR analyses...
  25. ncbi Intracavernous delivery of synthetic angiopoietin-1 protein as a novel therapeutic strategy for erectile dysfunction in the type II diabetic db/db mouse
    Hai Rong Jin
    National Research Laboratory of Regenerative Sexual Medicine and Department of Urology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea
    J Sex Med 7:3635-46. 2010
    ..Therefore, neovascularization is a promising strategy for curing diabetic ED...
  26. ncbi The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor and adeno-associated virus mediated brain derived neurotrophic factor on neurogenic and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction induced by hyperlipidemia
    Shahram S Gholami
    Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Urol 169:1577-81. 2003
    ....
  27. ncbi Characterization and localization of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in the BB/WOR diabetic rat
    C A Podlasek
    Department of Urology and Physiology Northwestern University Medical School Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Urol 166:746-55. 2001
    ..a decrease in NOS-III expression in diabetic pelvic ganglia and a decrease in NOS-Ib expression in the diabetic penis. NOS-I protein abundance was significantly decreased in diabetic pelvic ganglia...
  28. pmc New insights on the morphology of adult mouse penis
    Esequiel Rodriguez
    Division of Pediatric Urology, University of California, San Francisco Children s Hospital, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Biol Reprod 85:1216-21. 2011
    The adult mouse penis represents the end point of masculine sex differentiation of the embryonic genital tubercle and contains bone, cartilage, the urethra, erectile bodies, several types of epithelium, and many individual cell types ..
  29. pmc Posttranslational modification of constitutive nitric oxide synthase in the penis
    Biljana Musicki
    The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 600 N Wolfe Avenue, Marburg 143, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Androl 30:352-62. 2009
    ..This communication reviews the role of eNOS and nNOS in erectile physiology and discusses the alterations in eNOS and nNOS via posttranslation modification in various vascular diseases of the penis.
  30. pmc Prevalence and determinants of human papillomavirus genital infection in men
    S Franceschi
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, F 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Br J Cancer 86:705-11. 2002
    ..and 717 of control women (age range 19-82 years) were interviewed and a sample of exfoliated cells from the penis obtained in seven case-control studies conducted by the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
  31. ncbi The triad: erectile dysfunction--endothelial dysfunction--cardiovascular disease
    Charalambos Vlachopoulos
    Cardiovascular Diseases and Sexual Health Unit, 1st Department of Cardiology, Athens Medical School, Greece
    Curr Pharm Des 14:3700-14. 2008
    ....
  32. ncbi Current status and new developments in Peyronie's disease: medical, minimally invasive and surgical treatment options
    Serap Gur
    Department of Urology, Health Sciences Center, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 12:931-44. 2011
    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a wound-healing disorder of the tunica albuginea of the penis which affects 3-9% of adult males. Clinically, any combination of plaque formation, penile pain, angulation and erectile dysfunction may appear...
  33. ncbi Traction therapy for men with shortened penis prior to penile prosthesis implantation: a pilot study
    Laurence A Levine
    Department of Urology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Sex Med 8:2112-7. 2011
    ..Loss of penile length after penile prosthesis implantation is one of the most common complaints. There is no recognized reliable technique to gain length once the device is placed...
  34. pmc HIV infection and immune defense of the penis
    Deborah Anderson
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boston University School of Medicine, 670 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Am J Reprod Immunol 65:220-9. 2011
    ..The penile urethral mucosa contains accumulations of IgA(+) plasma cells and T lymphocytes and may provide a responsive target for future mucosal vaccines to prevent HIV sexual transmission...
  35. ncbi Peyronie's disease (CME)
    Anthony J Bella
    Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Ottawa, Canada
    J Sex Med 4:1527-38. 2007
    ..Despite progress in the understanding of PyD on several fronts, it remains a physically and psychologically devastating condition for the affected patient and partner...
  36. pmc The role of the foreskin in male circumcision: an evidence-based review
    Minh H Dinh
    Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E Superior Street, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Am J Reprod Immunol 65:279-83. 2011
    ..The relative contribution of each of these areas is yet unknown, and further studies will be crucial in understanding how male circumcision affects HIV transmission in men...
  37. pmc The effect of intracavernous injection of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on hyperlipidemia-associated erectile dysfunction in a rat model
    Yun Ching Huang
    Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Sex Med 7:1391-400. 2010
    ..Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) have been shown to differentiate into endothelial cells and secrete vasculotrophic and neurotrophic factors...
  38. ncbi Factors affecting the loss of length associated with tunica albuginea plication for correction of penile curvature
    Jason M Greenfield
    Department of Urology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Urol 175:238-41. 2006
    ..Loss of length is a common postoperative complaint of the patient who undergoes surgical correction of penile curvature. We investigate the factors influencing complications in patients who have undergone TAP for PD and chordee...
  39. ncbi Erectile dysfunction in the type II diabetic db/db mouse: impaired venoocclusion with altered cavernosal vasoreactivity and matrix
    Ian P Luttrell
    Department of Urology, University of Washington, 300 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H2204-11. 2008
    ..These vasoreactive and sinusoidal matrix alterations may alter tissue compliance dispensability, preventing the normal expansion necessary for erection...
  40. pmc Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development
    Michelle Welsh
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 33:e144-52. 2010
    Androgen control of penis development/growth is unclear. In rats, androgen action in a foetal 'masculinisation programming window' (MPW; e15.5-e18.5)' predetermines penile length and hypospadias occurrence...
  41. ncbi Surgical approach to concealed penis: technical refinements and outcome
    A Borsellino
    Andrological Surgery Unit, Department of Nephrology and Urology, Bambino Gesu Children s Hospital, Rome, Italy
    Urology 69:1195-8. 2007
    A concealed penis is defined as a phallus of normal size buried in prepubic tissue (buried penis), enclosed in scrotal tissue (webbed penis), or trapped by scar tissue after penile surgery (trapped penis)...
  42. ncbi Effect of experimental hypercholesterolemia on cavernosal structures
    C Yesilli
    Department of Urology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    Urology 57:1184-8. 2001
    ..To determine the effect of experimental hypercholesterolemia on the ultrastructure of cavernosal smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, elastic fibers, and collagen content, which are the key structures fundamental for erection...
  43. ncbi The endothelial-erectile dysfunction connection: an essential update
    Carla Costa
    Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto, Department of Biochemistry U38 FCT, Porto, Portugal
    J Sex Med 6:2390-404. 2009
    ..Several noninvasive methods for endothelial function assessment have been proposed, including the Penile Nitric Oxide Release Test (PNORT)...
  44. pmc Endothelial nitric oxide synthase keeps erection regulatory function balance in the penis
    Trinity J Bivalacqua
    The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States
    Eur Urol 51:1732-40. 2007
    ..the regulatory influence of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) on the basal functional states of the NO and RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathways in the penis using endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) mutant mice and eNOS gene transfer technology.
  45. ncbi Evaluating the relationship between erectile dysfunction and dose received by the penile bulb: using data from a randomised controlled trial of conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer (MRC RT01, ISRCTN47772397)
    Stephen A Mangar
    Academic Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey, UK
    Radiother Oncol 80:355-62. 2006
    ..To evaluate the relationship between erectile function and the radiation dose to the penile bulb and other proximal penile structures in men receiving conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) for prostate cancer (PCa)...
  46. ncbi Differential structural and functional changes in penile and coronary arteries from obese Zucker rats
    Nuria Villalba
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297:H696-707. 2009
    ..The severity of the structural and functional abnormalities in PAs might anticipate the vascular dysfunction of the more preserved coronary vascular bed...
  47. pmc Hypercholesterolemia-induced erectile dysfunction: endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the mouse penis by NAD(P)H oxidase
    Biljana Musicki
    Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Sex Med 7:3023-32. 2010
    ..induces erectile dysfunction (ED) mostly by increasing oxidative stress and impairing endothelial function in the penis, but the mechanisms regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are not understood.
  48. ncbi Radiation dose-volume effects and the penile bulb
    Mack Roach
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1708, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76:S130-4. 2010
    ..It is acknowledged that the penile bulb may not be the critical component of the erectile apparatus, but it seems to be a surrogate for yet to be determined structure(s) critical for erectile function for at least some techniques...
  49. ncbi The role of high-risk HPV-DNA testing in the male sexual partners of women with HPV-induced lesions
    Paulo C Giraldo
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 137:88-91. 2008
    ..The objectives were to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV in the male sexual partners of women with HPV-induced lesions, and correlate it with biopsies guided by peniscopy...
  50. ncbi Penile bulb dose and impotence after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 9406: findings from a prospective, multi-institutional, phase I/II dose-escalation study
    Mack Roach
    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:1351-6. 2004
    To assess the relationship between the dose to the bulb of the penis and the risk of impotence in men treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9406.
  51. pmc Regeneration of the cavernous nerve by Sonic hedgehog using aligned peptide amphiphile nanofibers
    Nicholas L Angeloni
    Department of Urology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Biomaterials 32:1091-101. 2011
    ..Efforts to regenerate the cavernous nerve (CN), which provides innervation to the penis, have been minimally successful, with little translation into improved clinical outcomes...
  52. ncbi Oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy: their impact in diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction
    Ling De Young
    Department of Urology, St Joseph s Health Care, London, Canada N6A 4V2
    J Androl 25:830-6. 2004
    ..Vitamin E enhanced the therapeutic effect of the PDE5 inhibitor in this study, supporting the potential use of oxygen free radical scavengers in salvaging erectile function in diabetic patients...
  53. ncbi Relative importance of prenatal and postnatal androgen action in determining growth of the penis and anogenital distance in the rat before, during and after puberty
    S van den Driesche
    MRC University of Edinburgh Centre for Reproductive Health, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 34:e578-86. 2011
    Experimental animal studies show that measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and/or penis length may provide lifelong 'read-outs' of foetal androgen exposure during the masculinization programming window (MPW)...
  54. pmc Injections of adipose tissue-derived stem cells and stem cell lysate improve recovery of erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury
    Maarten Albersen
    Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0738, USA
    J Sex Med 7:3331-40. 2010
    ..However, the mechanisms of action for stem cell therapy remain controversial, with increasing evidence pointing to paracrine pathways...
  55. ncbi Sensitivity and specificity of the phallometric test for pedophilia in nonadmitting sex offenders
    R Blanchard
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Clarke Division, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8, Canada
    Psychol Assess 13:118-26. 2001
    ..Specificity, calculated for those who had sexual contact with the most women and thus the most evidence of attraction to them, was 96%. Sensitivity, calculated analogously for men with the most offenses against children, was 61%...
  56. ncbi Effects of icariin on erectile function and expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in castrated rats
    Wu Jiang Liu
    Andrology Center of Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100009, China
    Asian J Androl 7:381-8. 2005
    ..To investigate the effect of icariin on erectile function and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in castrated rats...
  57. ncbi Vascular endothelial growth factor restores erectile function through inhibition of apoptosis in diabetic rat penile crura
    Masaki Yamanaka
    Department of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California San Francisco, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Urol 173:318-23. 2005
    ..We hypothesized that intracavernous administration of VEGF would recover erectile dysfunction due to diabetes by protection from apoptosis in the penile cavernosum...
  58. pmc Transplantation of nonhematopoietic adult bone marrow stem/progenitor cells isolated by p75 nerve growth factor receptor into the penis rescues erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury
    Muammer Kendirci
    Department of Urology, Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
    J Urol 184:1560-6. 2010
    ..We investigated the effects of transplanting nonhematopoietic adult bone marrow stem/progenitor cells (multipotent stromal cells) into the corpus cavernosum in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury...
  59. ncbi Increased cavernosal relaxations in sickle cell mice priapism are associated with alterations in the NO-cGMP signaling pathway
    Mário Angelo Claudino
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Sex Med 6:2187-96. 2009
    ..Priapism is defined as prolonged and persistent penile erection, unassociated with sexual interest or stimulation, and is one of the many serious complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD)...
  60. pmc Attenuated RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling in penis of transgenic sickle cell mice
    Trinity J Bivalacqua
    James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Urology 76:510.e7-12. 2010
    ..gene family, member A (RhoA) and its main downstream effector, Rho-kinase (ROCK) are important in maintaining the penis in the flaccid state. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease-associated priapism is not well defined...
  61. ncbi Functional and morphologic characterizations of the diabetic mouse corpus cavernosum: comparison of a multiple low-dose and a single high-dose streptozotocin protocols
    Hai Rong Jin
    National Research Laboratory of Regenerative Sexual Medicine and Department of Urology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea
    J Sex Med 6:3289-304. 2009
    ..With the advent of genetically modified mice, it seems particularly advantageous to develop a mouse model of diabetic erectile dysfunction...
  62. ncbi Overexpression of arginase in the aged mouse penis impairs erectile function and decreases eNOS activity: influence of in vivo gene therapy of anti-arginase
    Trinity J Bivalacqua
    Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292:H1340-51. 2007
    ..increased nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) abundance and diminished NO signaling have been reported in the aging penis, the role of NO in the adaptations of aging remains controversial...
  63. ncbi Noncholinergic penile erection in mice lacking the gene for endothelial nitric oxide synthase
    Arthur L Burnett
    Department of Urology, The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 2411, USA
    J Androl 23:92-7. 2002
    ..7 +/- 4.0 mm Hg, P < .05). In penes of eNOS-/- mice, approximately 60% NO synthase activity of wild-type penis levels was retained (NS), and eNOS protein was absent...
  64. ncbi Formulas for determining the dimensions of venous graft required for penile curvature correction
    G L Hsu
    Microsurgical Potency Reconstruction and Research Center, Taiwan Adventist Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Int J Androl 29:515-20. 2006
    ..Because of its anatomical vicinity and its availability as material, the deep dorsal vein associated with the cavernosal vein may play an indispensable role in grafting even with local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis...
  65. ncbi Decreases in corporeal vascular endothelial growth factor expression precede vasoreactivity changes in cholesterol fed rabbits
    Donghua Xie
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Durham Veterans Affairs and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Urol 173:1418-22. 2005
    ..We determined temporal changes in vasoreactivity and angiogenic growth factor levels in corporeal tissue at varying time points after the induction of hypercholesterolemia in rabbits...
  66. ncbi Penile venous anatomy: an additional description and its clinical implication
    Geng Long Hsu
    Microsurgical Potency Reconstructive Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taiwan Adventist Hospital and Po Jen General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Androl 24:921-7. 2003
    ..Meticulous dissection of the penis under the microscope was then performed in 21 male cadavers and we found a cavernosal vein coursing along each ..
  67. ncbi Reperfusion of ischemic corporal tissue: physiologic and biochemical changes in an animal model of ischemic priapism
    Ricardo Munarriz
    Department of Urology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    Urology 62:760-4. 2003
    ..Data are limited concerning reperfusion injury of ischemic erectile tissue associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the potential role of ROS scavengers in the clinical therapy of ischemic priapism...
  68. ncbi Phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced penile erection
    Biljana Musicki
    Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Biol Reprod 70:282-9. 2004
    ..The data provide a molecular explanation for VEGF stimulatory effect on penile erection, which involves phosphorylated eNOS (Serine 1177) mediation...
  69. ncbi Altered Sonic hedgehog signaling is associated with morphological abnormalities in the penis of the BB/WOR diabetic rat
    Carol A Podlasek
    Departments of Urology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Biol Reprod 69:816-27. 2003
    ..targets of its signaling establish normal corpora cavernosal morphology during postnatal differentiation of the penis and regulate homeostasis in the adult...
  70. ncbi Functional sequelae of cavernous nerve injury in the rat: is there model dependency
    Michael Mullerad
    Department of Urology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA
    J Sex Med 3:77-83. 2006
    ..To address this issue, we induced CN injury using various techniques in an effort to compare the hemodynamic sequelae of these injuries...
  71. ncbi Immunohistochemical analysis of smooth muscle cells and volumetric density of the elastic system fibers of wild boar (Sus scrofa) penis
    M A Babinski
    Urogenital Research Unit, Department of Anatomy, State University of Rio de Janeiro, UERJ, RJ, Brazil
    Anim Reprod Sci 86:317-28. 2005
    ..and elastic system fibers volumetric density (Vv) in the corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosum of the wild boar penis. Adult wild boars (n=13) were used...
  72. ncbi Neurturin has multiple neurotrophic effects on adult rat sacral parasympathetic ganglion neurons
    Yewlan Wanigasekara
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Randwick NSW 2031, Australia
    Eur J Neurosci 22:595-604. 2005
    ..Our results also indicate that neurotrophic signalling in parasympathetic neurons is different from that in other types of peripheral neurons...
  73. ncbi Exposure to 9-cis retinoic acid induces penis and vas deferens development in the female rock shell, Thais clavigera
    Toshihiro Horiguchi
    Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Cell Biol Toxicol 24:553-62. 2008
    ..The effects of each treatment were measured as the incidence of imposex, the length of the penis-like structure, and the vas deferens sequence (VDS) index...
  74. ncbi [Necrosis of the glans penis: a complication of an injection of buprenorphin in a opioid abuser]
    E Hornez
    Service de Chirurgie Viscérale et Vasculaire, Hopital d Instruction des Armees Sainte Anne, Boulevard Sainte Anne, 83000 Toulon, France
    Ann Chir Plast Esthet 55:159-61. 2010
    Necrosis of the penis glans is commonly described after circumcision or strangulation. We report the case of a patient, opioid abuser, who presented an isolated glans necrosis after an injection of buprenorphin...
  75. ncbi Altered growth factor expression in the aging penis: the Brown-Norway rat model
    Mahadevan Rajasekaran
    Division of Urology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, 92103 8897, USA
    J Androl 23:393-9. 2002
    ..The observed alterations in the gene expression of growth factors such as VEGF may contribute to the abnormal age-related morphological and physiological alterations in the erectile tissue...
  76. ncbi Sexual selection and the rodent baculum: an intraspecific study in the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus)
    Steven A Ramm
    Mammalian Behaviour and Evolution Group, Department of Veterinary Preclinical Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Neston CH64 7TE, UK
    Genetica 138:129-37. 2010
    ....
  77. ncbi Diabetes exacerbates the functional deficiency of NO/cGMP pathway associated with erectile dysfunction in human corpus cavernosum and penile arteries
    Javier Angulo
    Departamento de Investigacion, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    J Sex Med 7:758-68. 2010
    ..non-diabetic ED, the functionality of NO/cGMP pathway in non-diabetic and diabetic ED patients with respect to non-ED patients has not been established...
  78. pmc The effects of circumcision on the penis microbiome
    Lance B Price
    Translational Genomics Research Institute TGen, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e8422. 2010
    ..Circumcision is associated with significant reductions in HIV, HSV-2 and HPV infections among men and significant reductions in bacterial vaginosis among their female partners...
  79. ncbi MR imaging of the penis
    E S Pretorius
    Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 1 Silverstein, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Radiographics 21:S283-98; discussion S298-9. 2001
    The signal intensity of the corpora cavernosa of the penis at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may vary from that of the corpus spongiosum; this difference is dependent on the rate of blood flow within the cavernous spaces that constitute ..
  80. pmc Hypoxic relaxation of penile arteries: involvement of endothelial nitric oxide and modulation by reactive oxygen species
    Dolores Prieto
    Dept of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 299:H915-24. 2010
    ..Therefore, cardiovascular disease involving decreased NO bioavailability and/or enhanced ROS generation may contribute to erectile dysfunction through impairing the relaxation of penile arteries to hypoxia...
  81. ncbi Chronic administration of udenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, promotes erectile function recovery in an animal model of bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury
    Chan Ho Lee
    Dong A Pharmaceutical Company, Giheung, Yongin, Gyeonggi, Korea
    J Sex Med 8:1330-40. 2011
    ..Despite advances in operative technique, the majority of men report compromised erectile function postprostatectomy or complete loss of potency due to CN trauma even with nerve-sparing modifications...
  82. ncbi Androgens are not major down-regulators of androgen receptor levels during growth of the immature rat penis
    R Shen
    Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, University of California School of Medicine, Torrance 90509, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 57:301-13. 1996
    ..PolyA + RNA was analysed by Northern blot hybridization and ARs were estimated in the penis and ventral prostates by (3-H)R-1881 binding in the cytosol...
  83. ncbi Distribution of neurons in the major pelvic ganglion of the rat which supply the bladder, colon or penis
    J R Keast
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    Cell Tissue Res 256:105-12. 1989
    ..have identified the location within this ganglion of neurons which project to either of three pelvic organs, the penis, colon or urinary bladder. Two fluorescent retrogradely-transported dyes, Fast Blue and Fluoro-Gold, were used...
  84. ncbi Localization and function of cannabinoid receptors in the corpus cavernosum: basis for modulation of nitric oxide synthase nerve activity
    Christian Gratzke
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Lund University Hospital, S 22185 Lund, Sweden
    Eur Urol 57:342-8. 2010
    ..However, no information is available on the distribution of CB-receptors or effects by anandamide in CC from primates or humans...
  85. ncbi Improvement of endothelial function of the corpus cavernosum in apolipoprotein E knockout mice treated with irbesartan
    Magnus Baumhakel
    Klinik fur Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie, und Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg Saar, Germany
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 327:692-8. 2008
    ..This result emphasizes the beneficial effect of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system even in terms of erectile function...
  86. ncbi Homocysteine and copper interact to promote type 5 phosphodiesterase expression in rabbit cavernosal smooth muscle cells
    Matthew Hotston
    Department of Urology, University of Bristol, 13 Freeland Place, Bristol BS8 4NP, UK
    Asian J Androl 10:905-13. 2008
    ..derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase as homocysteine and copper generate O(2)(.-), and O(2)(.-) upregulates PDE5 expression...
  87. doi Contemporary diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis
    Samuel Deem
    Department of Urology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    BJU Int 108:1378-92. 2011
  88. ncbi A VEGF trap inhibits the beneficial effect of bFGF on vasoreactivity in corporal tissues of hypercholesterolemic rabbits
    Donghua Xie
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and the Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Sex Med 5:2069-78. 2008
    ....
  89. ncbi Arteriogenic erectile dysfunction alters protein expression within the cavernosal tissue in an animal model
    Ling De Young
    Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    J Sex Med 2:199-206. 2005
    ..Penile arterial insufficiency, frequently found in association with hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, pelvic irradiation, trauma, and smoking, is the most common cause of ED...
  90. ncbi Insulin-like growth factor-1 restores erectile function in aged rats: modulation the integrity of smooth muscle and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling activity
    Xiao Yong Pu
    Guangdong Provincial People s Hospital Department of Urology, Cancer Center and The Medical Research Center, Guangdong, Guangzhou, China
    J Sex Med 5:1345-54. 2008
    ..We have confirmed that gene transfer of IGF-1 to the penis could improve erectile capacity...
  91. pmc Insulin resistance in penile arteries from a rat model of metabolic syndrome
    CRISTINA CONTRERAS
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Br J Pharmacol 161:350-64. 2010
    ..The purpose of the present study was to investigate the vascular effects of insulin in penile arteries and whether these effects are impaired in a rat model of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome...
  92. ncbi Primary tuberculosis of glans penis after intravesical Bacillus Calmette Guerin immunotherapy
    V K Sharma
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 77:47-50. 2011
    ..multiple, firm, indurated, nontender papules and few deeper nodules were present on the proximal part of glans penis, along with bilateral enlarged, matted and nontender inguinal lymph nodes...
  93. pmc eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction
    J M Johnson
    Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Int J Impot Res 23:43-8. 2011
    ..Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined...
  94. ncbi Distal ligament in human glans: a comparative study of penile architecture
    Geng Long Hsu
    Microsurgical Potency Reconstruction and Research Center, Taiwan Adventist Hospital, Taipei 105, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Androl 26:624-8. 2005
    To elucidate the anatomic distal ligament of the human glans penis and associated clinical implications, we compared the structures of the glans penis and corpora cavernosa in dogs, rats, and humans...
  95. ncbi Six years follow-up of a penis replantation in a child
    Pascal De Lagausie
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hôpital d Enfants La Timone, 13005 Marseille, France
    J Pediatr Surg 43:E11-2. 2008
    Total amputation of the penis is very rare in a child. This article presents a case of a traumatic penile amputation at the base of the perineum, with scissors, in a 4-year-old child...
  96. ncbi Pathophysiology and treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction
    Charles R Moore
    Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center and MD Anderson Cancer Center, 6431 Fannin Street, Suite 6 018, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Asian J Androl 8:675-84. 2006
    ..Further studies in gene therapy are needed to fully ascertain its safety and utility in humans...
  97. ncbi Post-translational inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis
    Biljana Musicki
    The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Urology, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Sex Med 8:419-26. 2011
    ..cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction in the penis. However, the mechanism of decreased eNOS function/activation in the penis in association with SCD is not known.
  98. ncbi Mechanisms of the relaxant effect of vardenafil in rat penile arteries
    Ana Sanchez
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Pharmacol 586:283-7. 2008
    ..Vardenafil induces a potent vasodilatation in rat penile arteries that is partially dependent on the endothelium and the NO/cGMP pathway and involves activation of both BK(Ca) and K(ATP) channels...
  99. ncbi Salvage penile curvature correction surgery
    Cheng Hsing Hsieh
    Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taipei Branch, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Androl 31:450-6. 2010
    ..2 ± 3.6 vs 21.9 ± 2.1, n = 20, P < .001). These results suggest that in penile tunical surgery, fine sutures such as 6-0 nylon may result in better penile morphology and functional outcomes...
  100. ncbi Treatment of men complaining of short penis
    Rany Shamloul
    Department of Andrology and Sexology, Cairo University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt
    Urology 65:1183-5. 2005
    To report the outcome of a sex education-integrated treatment program of men complaining of a short-sized penis.
  101. ncbi Pedophilia, hebephilia, and the DSM-V
    Ray Blanchard
    Law and Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Arch Sex Behav 38:335-50. 2009
    ..We further recommend that the DSM-V encourage users to record the typical age of children who most attract the patient sexually as well as the gender of children who most attract the patient sexually...

Research Grants63

  1. Chronic Electrical Stimulation to Reduce Bladder Hyperreflexia after SCI
    Kenneth J Gustafson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Surface electrodes will be placed on the shaft of the penis to stimulate the GN, and urodynamic studies will be conducted every two weeks over the course of the ten week ..
  2. Effectivenss of a New Non-Invasive Erectile Support System in Aging Populations
    S ALEXANDER WEINSTOCK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to gently and non-ischemically compress ambient fluids permitting the then flaccid or semi-flaccid penis to harden sufficiently for intercourse...
  3. Exercise training improves erectile dysfunction in diabetes: role of central mech
    Kaushik P Patel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..male patients sildenafil (Viagra) appears to be therapeutic only in 50% of the patients at the level of the penis. The proposed studies should provide significant new information regarding the central mechanisms involved in ..
  4. Diabetes Erectile dysfunction and apoptosis of cavernous tissues
    Rajvir Dahiya; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..c) Analysis of the effects of Bcl2 gene therapy on the expression of smooth muscle markers in diabetic rat penis. This proposal is novel because oxidative stress and apoptotic pathways in diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction ..
  5. A Developmental And Molecular Investigation Of How Vitamin E Ameliorates Endocrin
    Krista McCoy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The most common of these defects, hypospadias, occurs when the urethral tube opens on the ventral side of the penis. In severe cases, boys are born with feminized genitalia...
  6. The role of Sprouty genes in development of mammalian external genitalia
    Ophir D Klein; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..signaling molecules plays a central role in formation of the genital tubercle, which is the anlage of the glans penis and clitoris...
  7. HPV Knowledge Awareness and Vaccine Acceptability among Inner City Black Males
    SHERRIE LEE WALLINGTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HPV has been associated with anogenital warts and cancers of the cervix, penis, and anus, and also with vulvar, vaginal, and oropharyngeal cancers...
  8. Comparative and Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing HPV-Related Diseases
    JANE JOOYUN KIM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the United States;nearly 50% are cervical cancer, while the rest involve the oral cavity/oropharynx, anus, vulva, penis, and vagina...
  9. Mechanism of Estrogen-Induced Penile Dysfunction and Loss of Fertility
    HARI OM GOYAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..determine molecular and cellular mechanisms whereby neonatal E exposure results in infertility and mal-developed penis characterized by abnormal accumulation of fat cells and loss of smooth muscle and blood vessels in the penis body...
  10. Genes, environmental exposures, and hypospadias
    Suzan L Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Hypospadias, a congenital malformation in which the urethral opening is on the ventral side of the penis, is one of the most common congenital malformations...
  11. HIV/AIDS Prevention for Men with Intellectual Disabilities
    JENNIFER J WELLS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e., what a condom is, where to purchase them, keeping them handy, how to put a condom on a penis)...
  12. Targets of Endocrine Disruptors in External Genitalia
    Martin J Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..characterized by failure of urethral tube closure and incomplete formation of the prepuce (foreskin) and ventral penis. Affected children can have oversized or multiple urethral openings, and children with severe hypospadias are born ..
  13. Live Smart Live Safe: HIV Prevention for Youth with Intellectual Disabilities
    JENNIFER J WELLS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., what a condom is, where to purchase them, keeping them handy, how to put a condom on a penis), relationship-based HIV avoidance strategies and getting tested for HIV...
  14. Disorganization of Elastin Matrix Mediates Erectile Dysfunction
    KANCHAN CHITALEY SCHINDLAUER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to expand in response to the force of blood pressure, resulting in an increased length and diameter of the penis. However, the expandability of the tunica is finite, and ultimately the initial rise in intracavernosal pressure (..
  15. New Players in Urethral Closure;Defining the Role of a Novel Long Noncoding RNA
    Andrew J Pask; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A few genes have been isolated that predispose the penis to hypospadias...
  16. Incidence of HIV among Indian men who have sex with men
    Joel Michael Palefsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..HPV DNA samples will be collected from the anus, penis and mouth. Blood will be obtained for HIV testing...
  17. Hypospadias: Morphogenesis of the Proximal Urethra
    Christine E Larkins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hypospadias is a congenital defect characterized by an ectopic opening of the urethra on the ventral side of the penis. It is one of the most common birth defects in males with an incidence of 1 in 125 live births...
  18. HPV-related neoplasia among HIV-seropositive Indian men who have sex with men
    Joel Michael Palefsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..malignancies and their precursor lesions is increased in HIV-seropositive MSM including cancers of the anus and penis. We recently completed a cross-sectional study of HPV infection in 300 HIV-seropositive MSM at Humsafar Trust in ..
  19. Adenosine Signaling, Priapism and Sickle Cell Disease
    Yang Xia; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mice, one with ADA deficiency and another with SCD, we have shown that excessive adenosine accumulation in the penis, coupled with increased A2BR signaling, contributes to priapism...
  20. Behavioral and Manufacturing Science to Commercially Develop Fitted Condoms
    PATRICK SEAN SULLIVAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also seek to improve upon traditional self-report mechanisms of penis measurement by validating the TheyFit measuring tool...
  21. HIV-1 subtype B transmission in a heterosexual incident cohort
    Jean Carr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of this fitness relates to matching inoculated viral trophisms to the HIV target cell in the vagina, rectum, or penis through established receptors such as DC-SIGN, CD4 and CCR-5...
  22. 3D imaging and deep sequencing of gene expression in the genital tubercle
    Martin J Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..characterized by failure of urethral tube closure and incomplete formation of the prepuce (foreskin) and ventral penis. The incidence of hypospadias has more than doubled over the past 30 years, without explanation, and it is now the ..
  23. Penile transmission and neutralization of pathogenic SIVsmm
    George M Shaw; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying successful infection at epithelial and mucosal surfaces of the penis could be instrumental in the design of effective vaccines...
  24. Hypospadias Differentiation and Endocrine Disrupters
    Laurence Baskin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..profound effects of these "estrogen mutants" on clitoral development, and subtle effects on development of the penis. Given the wealth of our Preliminary Data, we are in an excellent position (a) to establish an important role of ..
  25. ADOLESCENT MEDICINE HIV/AIDS RESEARCH NETWORK
    Anna Barbara Moscicki; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..e. cervix, vagina, vulva,anus, penis, and scrotum) in adolescents infected with HIV and to compare the prevalence and severity of HPV disease in a ..
  26. NOS Regulation in the Penis
    Arthur Louis Burnett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in this field of study has acknowledged the importance of nitric oxide (NO) as a major chemical effector in the penis having been well described as the principal mediator of a signaling pathway that mediates episodic penile erection...
  27. Sonic hedgehog, a regulator of CN injury induced apoptosis
    CAROL ANN PODLASEK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..then resumption of normal erectile function would occur more quickly, and irreversible morphology changes in the penis that cause ED would be prevented...
  28. SIV Transmission in Male NHP
    CHRISTOPHER JAMES MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in to males when the inoculum is placed into the foreskin rather than simply onto the glans and shaft of the penis;and a single viral variant is found in plasma immediately after transmission (Keele, Miller Unpublished and see ..
  29. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BIRTH DEFECTS
    Jeanne Manson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..male genital tract, and dihydrotestosterone produced by this enzyme is essential for normal development of the penis, scrotum and prostate...
  30. ACCEPTABILITY AND SAFETY STUDY OF JANESWAY FEMALE CONDOM
    Ron Frezieres; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The condom is naturally inserted into the vagina during intercourse by the penetration of the penis. The underwear anchors the condom liner during intercourse completely shielding the external genitalia...
  31. Structure/Function of Human Papillomavirus Oncoproteins
    Ronen Marmorstein; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..HPV infections are also implicated in other malignancies including cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, skin, esophagus, and oropharyngeal region...
  32. Hypospadias: Interactions of Sex Steroids and Fgfr2
    Martin Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..that is characterized by a failure of urethral tube closure and incomplete formation of the prepuce and ventral penis. In the US the incidence of hypospadias approximately doubled, without explanation, between 1968 and 1993 and now ..
  33. PATTERNS OF BEHAVIORAL AND HORMONAL DEVELOPMENT
    STEPHEN GLICKMAN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The clitoris has hypertrophied until it is the approximate size and shape of the male penis, and is traversed by a central urogenital canal...
  34. MOLECULAR MECHANISM FOR ERECTILE FUNCTION & DYSFUNCTION
    Michael Disanto; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..is a complex neurophysiologic event that leads to relaxation of the smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum penis which allows filling of blood into the cavernous spaces causing an increase in the size and rigidity of the penis...
  35. Cell Signaling and Lineage During Penile Development
    Martin Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Congenital malformations of the penis arise when these processes are disrupted...
  36. HIV INFECTION AND AIDS IN UGANDA
    Frederick Robbins; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Possible association of HIV infection with cancer of the cervix and penis also will be explored...
  37. Development of tissue explant models for microbicide evaluation
    Thomas Hope; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..sexual transmission that can determine whether potential microbicides are capable of preventing infection via the penis. To fill this gap, this application seeks to develop an explant culture system using human penile tissue...
  38. EFFECTIVENESS OF AIR INFUSIBLE CONDOM TO INCREASE USE
    S Weinstock; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..from strategically directed (controlled) air-flow through channels creating specific pressure areas: a) Base of penis (erection enhancement); b) Sides of penis (support/stimulation)...
  39. PHYSIOLOGY OF PENILE SMOOTH MUSCLE
    Irwin Goldstein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The goals are to define the role of NO in penile erection, to study its physiologic regulation in the penis and to define how disease states interfere with the NO pathway...
  40. EPITHELIAL FUSION: FACTORS INVOLVED IN TERATOGENESIS
    THOMAS SADLER; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..ridges is important during development of the neural tube, secondary palate, nasal processes, optic cup, penis and heart...
  41. Fall SBUR Meeting: Membrane Biology in Basic Urology
    Karl Chai; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of scientists specializing in research on cancers and the biology of the prostate, kidney, bladder, testis, and penis; and in other areas such as autoimmune urologic, infectious, and neuro-urologic diseases...
  42. 2008 AUA/SBUR Summer Research Conference
    Arthur Burnett; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The meeting will be broken into eight main sessions: Smooth Muscle Biology in the Penis, Regulatory Systems of the Male Sexual Response, Female Sexual Dysfunction, Experimental Animal Disease State ..
  43. NITRIC OXIDE REGULATORY SYSTEM IN THE PENIS
    Arthur Burnett; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..It is currently accepted that the mechanism of vascular and trabecular smooth muscle relaxation in the penis required for penile erection depends upon nitric oxide...
  44. TRANSDERMAL PROSTAGLANDIN E1 TO TREAT MALE IMPOTENCE
    Larry Nichols; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..user-acceptable method for treating male impotence by administering prostaglandin E1 through the surface of the penis. Until recently, the most reliable methods involved self-injection, which may evoke needle phobia and involve risk ..
  45. Urological Clamp for Incontinence
    William Krause; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Such devices cause pressure to be applied upon the urethra, which consequently stops the flow of urine through the penis but at the same time restricts blood flow to the organ...
  46. Magnetic Urethral Occlusive Device
    GERALD TIMM; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..an external magnet that is geometrically matched with the implanted component and attached to the surface of the penis in such a way as to be optimally aligned with it...
  47. Smooth Muscle Differential Tissue Function & Diabetes
    Arnold Melman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our hypothesis is that differential organ function, as it relates to myocyte physiology in the bladder and penis, is attributable to quantifiable differences in the way that ionic mechanisms participate in the control of ..
  48. Prosthesis to Mitigate Erectile Dysfunction
    ALFRED STRICKHOLM; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The elastic band, which when wrapped around the penis, provides uniform light compression and support, to hold a flaccid penis, and creates a comfortable elastic ..
  49. Erectile Function and the Influence of Rho-kinase
    Christopher Wingard; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The erectile response in the penis is dependent on the reactive state of the smooth muscle of the cavernosal sinuses and of the arteries supplying ..
  50. Development of tissue explant models for microbicide evaluation
    Thomas Hope; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..sexual transmission that can determine whether potential microbicides are capable of preventing infection via the penis. To fill this gap, this application seeks to develop an explant culture system using human penile tissue...
  51. eNOS-Protein Interaction in the Penis
    Biljana Musicki; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The overall goal of the proposal is to investigate the molecular mechanisms of eNOS regulation in the penis by eNOS-protein interactions, and its physiological significance in penile erection...
  52. Posttranslational Regulation of eNOS by Estrogen in the Vagina and Clitoris
    Biljana Musicki; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..At the same time it may advance treatments for multiple disease states associated with endothelial dysfunction and alterations in hormonal milieu. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. Can abnormal Shh signaling cause ED?
    Carol Podlasek; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The morphological and physiological changes of the Shh inhibited penis parallel observations of smooth muscle loss and decreased Shh protein in diabetic and CN injured rat models of ED ..
  54. Sonic hedgehog, a morphogen in penile development
    Carol Podlasek; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..one aspect of urogenital development, specifically how neural Shh signaling during postnatal morphogenesis of the penis establishes corporal cavernosal integrity required for erection...
  55. Shh, a potential regulator of penile development
    Carol Podlasek; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..research will examine the significance of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling during postnatal development of the penis and will examine the potential regulation of Shh by testosterone...
  56. FEMALE SEXUAL AROUSAL: CLITORAL AND VAGINAL PHYSIOLOGY
    Abdulmaged Traish; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  57. ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION AND NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE IN AGING
    Nestor Gonzalez Cadavid; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..duration of intracavernosal gene therapy with PnNOS cDNA, by: a) stimulating persistence of gene expression in the penis of adult rats using novel helper-dependent (HD) adenovirus (AdV) and tissue-specific promoters directing the ..
  58. CELL-SELECTIVE EXPRESSION OF FIBROTIC GENE PATHWAYS
    Nestor Gonzalez Cadavid; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..to clarify some aspects that would help to define a common molecular profile of vascular fibrosis, that in the penis causes Peyronie's disease (PD) and aging-related vasculogenic erectile dysfunction, and that in the arteries ..
  59. Effect of Oxidant Load on HPV Persistence and CIN (SIL)
    Anna Giuliano; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. GENE THERAPY OF DIABETIC PENILE ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION
    Hunter Wessells; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Such a strategy may ultimately be beneficial to men with ED due to diabetes as well as smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and aging. ..
  61. Immortalized Human Cavernosal Endothelial Cells
    Hunter Wessells; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..this cell system could be used to identify novel drugs targeting the penile endothelium and have applications in the area of tissue engineering and the investigation of endothelial-stromal interactions in the penis.
  62. Neural Melanocortin Signaling and Erectile Function
    Hunter Wessells; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The findings may allow us to develop receptor-specific therapeutic strategies, which may ultimately be beneficial to men and women with sexual dysfunction. ..
  63. Assessment of Penile Autonomic Innervation
    Claire Yang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Assessment of Penile Autonomic Innervation The cavernous nerves provide the autonomic innervation of the penis and are crucial to healthy erectile function...