adipose tissue

Summary

Summary: Connective tissue composed of FAT CELLS lodged in the meshes of areolar tissue.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance
    Haiyan Xu
    Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003
  2. ncbi Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies
    P A Zuk
    Laboratory for Regenerative Bioengineering and Repair, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Tissue Eng 7:211-28. 2001
  3. ncbi A central role for JNK in obesity and insulin resistance
    Jiro Hirosumi
    Division of Biological Sciences and Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 420:333-6. 2002
  4. pmc Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution
    Iris M Heid
    Regensburg University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg, Germany
    Nat Genet 42:949-60. 2010
  5. ncbi Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism
    A R Saltiel
    Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nature 414:799-806. 2001
  6. pmc Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue
    Stuart P Weisberg
    Division of Moleuclar Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1796-808. 2003
  7. ncbi Inflammation and metabolic disorders
    Gokhan S Hotamisligil
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 444:860-7. 2006
  8. ncbi Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue
    Paul Trayhurn
    Neuroendocrine and Obesity Biology Unit, Liverpool Centre for Nutritional Genomics, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK
    Br J Nutr 92:347-55. 2004
  9. ncbi Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight
    G J Morton
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Nature 443:289-95. 2006
  10. doi CD8+ effector T cells contribute to macrophage recruitment and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity
    Satoshi Nishimura
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Med 15:914-20. 2009

Detail Information

Publications341 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance
    Haiyan Xu
    Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003
    ..report, we show that many inflammation and macrophage-specific genes are dramatically upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT) in mouse models of genetic and high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
  2. ncbi Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies
    P A Zuk
    Laboratory for Regenerative Bioengineering and Repair, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Tissue Eng 7:211-28. 2001
    ..In this study, we determined if a population of stem cells could be isolated from human adipose tissue. Human adipose tissue, obtained by suction-assisted lipectomy (i.e...
  3. ncbi A central role for JNK in obesity and insulin resistance
    Jiro Hirosumi
    Division of Biological Sciences and Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 420:333-6. 2002
    ..Thus, JNK is a crucial mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and a potential target for therapeutics...
  4. pmc Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution
    Iris M Heid
    Regensburg University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg, Germany
    Nat Genet 42:949-60. 2010
    ..9 × 10⁻³ to P = 1.2 × 10⁻¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions...
  5. ncbi Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism
    A R Saltiel
    Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nature 414:799-806. 2001
    ..But recent studies have shown that numerous other hormones and signalling events attenuate insulin action, and are important in type 2 diabetes...
  6. pmc Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue
    Stuart P Weisberg
    Division of Moleuclar Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1796-808. 2003
    Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications...
  7. ncbi Inflammation and metabolic disorders
    Gokhan S Hotamisligil
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 444:860-7. 2006
    ..Collectively, these diseases constitute the greatest current threat to global human health and welfare...
  8. ncbi Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue
    Paul Trayhurn
    Neuroendocrine and Obesity Biology Unit, Liverpool Centre for Nutritional Genomics, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK
    Br J Nutr 92:347-55. 2004
    White adipose tissue is now recognised to be a multifunctional organ; in addition to the central role of lipid storage, it has a major endocrine function secreting several hormones, notably leptin and adiponectin, and a diverse range of ..
  9. ncbi Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight
    G J Morton
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Nature 443:289-95. 2006
    ..This new information provides a biological context within which to consider the global obesity epidemic and identifies numerous potential avenues for therapeutic intervention and future research...
  10. doi CD8+ effector T cells contribute to macrophage recruitment and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity
    Satoshi Nishimura
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Med 15:914-20. 2009
    ..In particular, obese adipose tissue shows features characteristic of active local inflammation...
  11. ncbi Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, or adipose tissue
    Susanne Kern
    Institute of Transfusion Medicine and Immunology, German Red Cross Blood Service of Baden Württemberg Hessen, Mannheim, Germany
    Stem Cells 24:1294-301. 2006
    ..Another promising source is adipose tissue (AT)...
  12. pmc Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells
    Patricia A Zuk
    Department of Surgery and Orthopedics, Regenerative Bioengineering and Repair Laboratory, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 13:4279-95. 2002
    ..b>Adipose tissue, like bone marrow, is derived from the embryonic mesenchyme and contains a stroma that is easily isolated...
  13. ncbi Adipocytokines: mediators linking adipose tissue, inflammation and immunity
    Herbert Tilg
    Christian Doppler Research Laboratory for Gut Inflammation and Department of Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:772-83. 2006
    ..which are soluble mediators derived mainly from adipocytes (fat cells), in the interaction between adipose tissue, inflammation and immunity...
  14. ncbi Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans
    Saverio Cinti
    Institute of Normal Human Morphology, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy
    J Lipid Res 46:2347-55. 2005
    Macrophage infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) is implicated in the metabolic complications of obesity. The precipitating event(s) and function(s) of macrophage infiltration into WAT are unknown...
  15. pmc Insulin sensitivity: modulation by nutrients and inflammation
    Simon Schenk
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Clin Invest 118:2992-3002. 2008
    ..obesity leads to insulin resistance via a complex interplay among systemic fatty acid excess, microhypoxia in adipose tissue, ER stress, and inflammation...
  16. pmc The NLRP3 inflammasome instigates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance
    Bolormaa Vandanmagsar
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrine Immunology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
    Nat Med 17:179-88. 2011
    ..and exercise-mediated weight loss in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes is associated with a reduction in adipose tissue expression of Nlrp3 as well as with decreased inflammation and improved insulin sensitivity...
  17. pmc Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and restore glucose homeostasis in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 313:1137-40. 2006
    ..Our results demonstrate that chemical chaperones enhance the adaptive capacity of the ER and act as potent antidiabetic modalities with potential application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
  18. ncbi Loss-of-function mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance
    Daniela M L Tsukumo
    Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Diabetes 56:1986-98. 2007
    ..decreased respiratory exchange ratio, improved insulin sensitivity, and enhanced insulin-signaling capacity in adipose tissue, muscle, and liver compared with control mice during high-fat feeding...
  19. ncbi Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation
    K G M M Alberti
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, St Mary s Hospital, London, UK and International Diabetes Institute, Caulfield, Australia
    Diabet Med 23:469-80. 2006
    ..An additional aim was to highlight areas where more research into the MetS is needed...
  20. ncbi Adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression in human obesity and insulin resistance
    P A Kern
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280:E745-51. 2001
    b>Adipose tissue expresses tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6, which may cause obesity-related insulin resistance. We measured TNF and IL-6 expression in the adipose tissue of 50 lean and obese subjects without diabetes...
  21. ncbi Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals
    J M Friedman
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 395:763-70. 1998
    ..In vertebrates, the ability to store sufficient quantities of energy-dense triglyceride in adipose tissue allows survival during the frequent periods of food deprivation encountered during evolution...
  22. pmc Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease
    Carey N Lumeng
    Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 5652, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:2111-7. 2011
    ..We also emphasize how defining the immune regulation in metabolic tissues has broadened the understanding of the diversity of inflammatory responses...
  23. doi Genetics of gene expression and its effect on disease
    Valur Emilsson
    deCODE Genetics, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
    Nature 452:423-8. 2008
    ..such as obesity, we have analysed the expression of 23,720 transcripts in large population-based blood and adipose tissue cohorts comprehensively assessed for various phenotypes, including traits related to clinical obesity...
  24. pmc The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage
    Fredrik Backhed
    Center for Genome Sciences and Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15718-23. 2004
    ..Data deposition: The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. AY 667702--AY 668946)...
  25. doi Adipose tissue expandability, lipotoxicity and the Metabolic Syndrome--an allostatic perspective
    Sam Virtue
    Institute of Metabolic Science, Metabolic Research Laboratories, University of Cambridge, Box 289, Level 4, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1801:338-49. 2010
    ..One hypothesis linking obesity to type 2 diabetes is the adipose tissue expandability hypothesis...
  26. ncbi Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue
    Y Zhang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
    Nature 372:425-32. 1994
    ..The ob gene product may function as part of a signalling pathway from adipose tissue that acts to regulate the size of the body fat depot.
  27. pmc Normalization of obesity-associated insulin resistance through immunotherapy
    Shawn Winer
    Department of Pediatrics and Immunology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Med 15:921-9. 2009
    ..We discovered that CD4(+) T lymphocytes, resident in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), control insulin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
  28. ncbi Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene
    J L Halaas
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockfeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 269:543-6. 1995
    ..2 to 0.7 percent. These data suggest that the OB protein serves an endocrine function to regulate body fat stores...
  29. ncbi Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation
    Giamila Fantuzzi
    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 115:911-9; quiz 920. 2005
    White adipose tissue is no longer considered an inert tissue mainly devoted to energy storage but is emerging as an active participant in regulating physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity and inflammation...
  30. pmc MicroRNAs induced during adipogenesis that accelerate fat cell development are downregulated in obesity
    Huangming Xie
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes 58:1050-7. 2009
    ..We investigated the regulation and involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in fat cell development and obesity...
  31. doi Macrophages, inflammation, and insulin resistance
    Jerrold M Olefsky
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0651, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 72:219-46. 2010
    Obesity induces an insulin-resistant state in adipose tissue, liver, and muscle and is a strong risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  32. pmc Identification of a lipokine, a lipid hormone linking adipose tissue to systemic metabolism
    Haiming Cao
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 134:933-44. 2008
    ..Utilizing quantitative lipidomic analyses and mice deficient in adipose tissue lipid chaperones aP2 and mal1, we explored how metabolic alterations in adipose tissue are linked to whole-..
  33. ncbi A novel serum protein similar to C1q, produced exclusively in adipocytes
    P E Scherer
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 1479, USA
    J Biol Chem 270:26746-9. 1995
    ..Our experiments also further corroborate the existence of an insulin-regulated secretory pathway in adipocytes...
  34. pmc Adipose tissue remodeling and obesity
    Kai Sun
    Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8549, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:2094-101. 2011
    ..between adipose expansion and growth of solid tumors, a phenomenon that presents both an opportunity and a challenge, since pharmacological interventions supporting healthy adipose tissue adaptation can also facilitate tumor growth.
  35. ncbi A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome
    H Masuzaki
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, USA
    Science 294:2166-70. 2001
    ..We created transgenic mice overexpressing 11beta HSD-1 selectively in adipose tissue to an extent similar to that found in adipose tissue from obese humans...
  36. pmc Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis
    DAVINA WU
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0795, USA
    Science 332:243-7. 2011
    ..b>Adipose tissue AAMs are necessary to maintain glucose homeostasis and are induced by the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4)...
  37. pmc Lean, but not obese, fat is enriched for a unique population of regulatory T cells that affect metabolic parameters
    Markus Feuerer
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Med 15:930-9. 2009
    Obesity is accompanied by chronic, low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue, which promotes insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes...
  38. ncbi Secretion of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors by human adipose stromal cells
    Jalees Rehman
    Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Indiana Center for Vascular Biology and Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind 46202, USA
    Circulation 109:1292-8. 2004
    ..The beneficial effects of delivered cells appear to be related to their pluripotency and ability to secrete growth factors. We examined nonadipocyte stromal cells from human subcutaneous fat as a novel source of therapeutic cells...
  39. pmc High incidence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans: effects of cold exposure and adiposity
    Masayuki Saito
    Department of Nutrition, School of Nursing and Nutrition, Tenshi College, Sapporo, Japan
    Diabetes 58:1526-31. 2009
    The significant roles of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the regulation of energy expenditure and adiposity are established in small rodents but have been controversial in humans...
  40. ncbi Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice
    M A Pelleymounter
    Department of Neurobiology, Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA
    Science 269:540-3. 1995
    ..These data suggest that the OB protein regulates body weight and fat deposition through effects on metabolism and appetite...
  41. ncbi Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 306:457-61. 2004
    ..Pharmacologic manipulation of this pathway may offer novel opportunities for treating these common diseases...
  42. doi Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, diabetes, and vascular diseases
    Gideon R Hajer
    Department of Vascular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur Heart J 29:2959-71. 2008
    The classical perception of adipose tissue as a storage place of fatty acids has been replaced over the last years by the notion that adipose tissue has a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism and produces a large number of ..
  43. pmc White fat progenitor cells reside in the adipose vasculature
    Wei Tang
    Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Science 322:583-6. 2008
    ..Thus, the adipose vasculature appears to function as a progenitor niche and may provide signals for adipocyte development...
  44. ncbi Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in predicting risk of type 2 diabetes among men
    Youfa Wang
    Department of Human Nutrition and Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:555-63. 2005
    ..However, few studies have compared the predictive power of overall obesity with that of central obesity. The cutoffs for waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as measures of abdominal adiposity remain controversial...
  45. doi Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells
    Kazuyo Moro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Nature 463:540-4. 2010
    ..Thus, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells are T(H)2-type innate lymphocytes, and we propose that these cells be called 'natural helper cells'...
  46. pmc Obesity-associated improvements in metabolic profile through expansion of adipose tissue
    Ja Young Kim
    Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:2621-37. 2007
    ..We hypothesized that the inability to appropriately expand subcutaneous adipose tissue may be an underlying reason for insulin resistance and beta cell failure...
  47. doi Concise review: Adipose-derived stem cells as a novel tool for future regenerative medicine
    Hiroshi Mizuno
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Stem Cells 30:804-10. 2012
    ..In particular, large number of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be easily harvested from adipose tissue. Furthermore, recent basic research and preclinical studies have revealed that the use of ASCs in regenerative ..
  48. pmc PPAR-γ is a major driver of the accumulation and phenotype of adipose tissue Treg cells
    Daniela Cipolletta
    Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 486:549-53. 2012
    ..Prolonged nutrient excess promotes the accumulation and activation of leukocytes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and ultimately other tissues, leading to metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, type-2 ..
  49. pmc Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome
    Shigetada Furukawa
    Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Clin Invest 114:1752-61. 2004
    ..Production of ROS increased selectively in adipose tissue of obese mice, accompanied by augmented expression of NADPH oxidase and decreased expression of antioxidative ..
  50. ncbi Fat mobilization in adipose tissue is promoted by adipose triglyceride lipase
    Robert Zimmermann
    Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
    Science 306:1383-6. 2004
    Mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores in adipose tissue requires lipolytic enzymes. Dysfunctional lipolysis affects energy homeostasis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance...
  51. ncbi Endocrine regulation of the fasting response by PPARalpha-mediated induction of fibroblast growth factor 21
    Takeshi Inagaki
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Cell Metab 5:415-25. 2007
    ..FGF21 in turn stimulates lipolysis in white adipose tissue and ketogenesis in liver...
  52. pmc Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue
    Kathryn E Wellen
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1785-8. 2003
    ..in this issue of the JCI (see the related articles beginning on pages 1796 and 1821) now report that obese adipose tissue is characterized by macrophage infiltration and that these macrophages are an important source of inflammation ..
  53. ncbi Protection from obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking TNF-alpha function
    K T Uysal
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 389:610-4. 1997
    ..These results indicate that TNF-alpha is an important mediator of insulin resistance in obesity through its effects on several important sites of insulin action...
  54. pmc A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity
    Timothy M Frayling
    Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, Magdalen Road, Exeter, UK
    Science 316:889-94. 2007
    ..67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass...
  55. pmc Global analysis of DNA methylation variation in adipose tissue from twins reveals links to disease-associated variants in distal regulatory elements
    Elin Grundberg
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, CB101SA Hinxton, UK Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King s College London, SE17EH London, UK Electronic address
    Am J Hum Genet 93:876-90. 2013
    ....
  56. pmc Regulatory mechanisms for adipose tissue M1 and M2 macrophages in diet-induced obese mice
    Shiho Fujisaka
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science for Research, Tokyo, Japan
    Diabetes 58:2574-82. 2009
    To characterize the phenotypic changes of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) under different conditions of insulin sensitivity.
  57. pmc TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:3015-25. 2006
    ....
  58. pmc Weight loss and lipolysis promote a dynamic immune response in murine adipose tissue
    Aliki Kosteli
    Department of Medicine, Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:3466-79. 2010
    Obesity elicits an immune response characterized by myeloid cell recruitment to key metabolic organs, including adipose tissue. However, the response of immune cells to nonpathologic metabolic stimuli has been less well studied, and the ..
  59. ncbi Increased inflammatory properties of adipose tissue macrophages recruited during diet-induced obesity
    Carey N Lumeng
    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Diabetes 56:16-23. 2007
    Although recent studies show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) participate in the inflammatory changes in obesity and contribute to insulin resistance, the properties of these cells are not well understood...
  60. pmc Increased energy expenditure, decreased adiposity, and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B-deficient mice
    L D Klaman
    Cancer Biology Program, Division of Hematology Oncology, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:5479-89. 2000
    ..mice is tissue specific, as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is elevated in skeletal muscle, whereas adipose tissue is unaffected...
  61. pmc Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization
    Carey N Lumeng
    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:175-84. 2007
    b>Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltrate adipose tissue during obesity and contribute to insulin resistance...
  62. doi Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ
    Sandra Galic
    St Vincent s Institute of Medical Research and Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 316:129-39. 2010
    Obesity is characterized by increased storage of fatty acids in an expanded adipose tissue mass and is closely associated with the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle and the liver...
  63. doi Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to obesity related metabolic diseases
    Matthias Bluher
    Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr 20, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 27:163-77. 2013
    ..Adipocyte and adipose tissue dysfunction represent primary defects in obesity and may link obesity to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases...
  64. ncbi Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ
    Erin E Kershaw
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2548-56. 2004
    b>Adipose tissue is a complex, essential, and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Besides adipocytes, adipose tissue contains connective tissue matrix, nerve tissue, stromovascular cells, and immune cells...
  65. ncbi Adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity and its impact on adipocytokine dysregulation
    Naomi Hosogai
    Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Diabetes 56:901-11. 2007
    ..Here, we show that adipose tissue of obese mice is hypoxic and that local adipose tissue hypoxia dysregulates the production of adipocytokines...
  66. ncbi Defective lipolysis and altered energy metabolism in mice lacking adipose triglyceride lipase
    Guenter Haemmerle
    Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Austria
    Science 312:734-7. 2006
    ..These results indicate that ATGL is rate limiting in the catabolism of cellular fat depots and plays an important role in energy homeostasis...
  67. ncbi Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia
    P D Cani
    Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Av E Mounier, 73 69, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Diabetologia 50:2374-83. 2007
    ..caecal content in mice. We therefore tested whether restoration of the quantity of caecal Bifidobacterium spp. could modulate metabolic endotoxaemia, the inflammatory tone and the development of diabetes...
  68. ncbi Mechanisms of obesity-associated insulin resistance: many choices on the menu
    Mohammed Qatanani
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, and The Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Genes Dev 21:1443-55. 2007
    ..Understanding the biology of these systems will inform the search for interventions that specifically prevent or treat insulin resistance and its associated pathologies...
  69. doi Adipokine dysregulation, adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic syndrome
    E Maury
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, University of Louvain, Faculty of Medicine, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 314:1-16. 2010
    ..Targeting the changes in the cellular composition of adipose tissue, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the altered production of adipokines may have therapeutic potential ..
  70. pmc Macrophage-specific PPARgamma controls alternative activation and improves insulin resistance
    Justin I Odegaard
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5103, USA
    Nature 447:1116-20. 2007
    ..In adipose tissue chronic overnutrition leads to macrophage infiltration, resulting in local inflammation that potentiates ..
  71. pmc Increased adipose tissue in male and female estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice
    P A Heine
    Departments of Veterinary Biosciences and Kinesiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:12729-34. 2000
    Estrogen regulates the amount of white adipose tissue (WAT) in females, but its role in males and whether WAT effects involve estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) or ERbeta were unclear...
  72. ncbi Chemerin, a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism
    Kerry B Goralski
    Department of Pharmacology and College of Pharmacy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1X5, Canada
    J Biol Chem 282:28175-88. 2007
    ..We conclude that chemerin is a novel adipose-derived signaling molecule that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism...
  73. doi Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: structural and functional differences
    M Mohsen Ibrahim
    Cardiology Department, Cairo University, 1 El Sherifein Street, Abdeen, Cairo 11111, Egypt
    Obes Rev 11:11-8. 2010
    ..There are differences between adipose tissue present in subcutaneous areas (SCAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) present in the abdominal cavity...
  74. pmc MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity
    Hajime Kanda
    Department of Clinical Molecular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    J Clin Invest 116:1494-505. 2006
    ..We now show that the abundance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA in adipose tissue and the plasma concentration of MCP-1 were increased both in genetically obese diabetic (db/db) mice and in WT ..
  75. ncbi Adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine
    Jeffrey M Gimble
    Stem Cell Biology Laboratory and Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
    Circ Res 100:1249-60. 2007
    ..b>Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate along ..
  76. ncbi Adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis of cellular fat stores is activated by CGI-58 and defective in Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome
    Achim Lass
    Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Heinrichstrasse 31, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    Cell Metab 3:309-19. 2006
    ..These data establish an important biochemical function for CGI-58 in the lipolytic degradation of fat, implicating this lipolysis activator in the pathogenesis of CDS...
  77. ncbi Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome
    Kiymet Bozaoglu
    Metabolic Research Unit, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, Victoria 3217, Australia
    Endocrinology 148:4687-94. 2007
    ..Gene expression of chemerin and its receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), was significantly higher in adipose tissue of obese and type 2 diabetic P. obesus compared with lean, normoglycemic P. obesus. Fractionation of P...
  78. ncbi Human epicardial adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory mediators
    Tomasz Mazurek
    Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Suite 623, 1025 Walnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Circulation 108:2460-6. 2003
    Inflammatory mediators that originate in vascular and extravascular tissues promote coronary lesion formation. Adipose tissue may function as an endocrine organ that contributes to an inflammatory burden in patients at risk of ..
  79. pmc Severe diabetes, age-dependent loss of adipose tissue, and mild growth deficiency in mice lacking Akt2/PKB beta
    Robert S Garofalo
    Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06357, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:197-208. 2003
    ..Both male and female Akt2/PKBbeta-null mice exhibit mild growth deficiency and an age-dependent loss of adipose tissue or lipoatrophy, with all observed adipose depots dramatically reduced by 22 weeks of age...
  80. pmc Stromal cells from the adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction and culture expanded adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells: a joint statement of the International Federation for Adipose Therapeutics and Science (IFATS) and the International So
    Philippe Bourin
    CSA21, Toulouse, France
    Cytotherapy 15:641-8. 2013
    b>Adipose tissue is a rich and very convenient source of cells for regenerative medicine therapeutic approaches...
  81. doi Effect of reducing the n-6:n-3 long-chain PUFA ratio during pregnancy and lactation on infant adipose tissue growth within the first year of life: an open-label randomized controlled trial
    Hans Hauner
    Else Kroner Fresenius Center for Nutritional Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:383-94. 2012
    ..The composition of long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) in the maternal diet may affect obesity risk in the mother's offspring...
  82. doi Human adult stem cells derived from adipose tissue protect against experimental colitis and sepsis
    E Gonzalez-Rey
    School of Medicine, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
    Gut 58:929-39. 2009
    ..This work investigates the therapeutic effects of human adipose-derived MSCs (hASCs) in various models of IBD and sepsis...
  83. pmc A novel ChREBP isoform in adipose tissue regulates systemic glucose metabolism
    Mark A Herman
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 484:333-8. 2012
    ..Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in adipose tissue through the GLUT4 (also known as SLC2A4) glucose transporter, and alterations in adipose tissue GLUT4 ..
  84. ncbi Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism
    Andrew S Greenberg
    Obesity and Metabolism Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston 02111 1524, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:461S-465S. 2006
    ..Increasingly, our understanding of the adipocyte as an endocrine organ is leading to new insights into obesity and health...
  85. pmc Deletion of the androgen receptor in adipose tissue in male mice elevates retinol binding protein 4 and reveals independent effects on visceral fat mass and on glucose homeostasis
    Kerry J McInnes
    Endocrinology Unit, University British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Diabetes 61:1072-81. 2012
    ..AR) knockout mice are insulin resistant with increased fat, but it is unclear whether AR signaling in adipose tissue mediates body fat redistribution and alters glucose homoeostasis...
  86. ncbi Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance
    Jean Philippe Bastard
    INSERM U680, Faculte de Medecine Pierre et Marie Curie, site Saint Antoine, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6 et Service de Biochimie et Hormonologie, Hopital Tenon, AP HP, 75970 Paris Cedex 20, France
    Eur Cytokine Netw 17:4-12. 2006
    It now appears that, in most obese patients, obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting from chronic activation of the innate immune system and which can subsequently lead to insulin ..
  87. doi Mechanisms of cancer cachexia
    Michael J Tisdale
    Nutritional Biomedicine, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Physiol Rev 89:381-410. 2009
    Up to 50% of cancer patients suffer from a progressive atrophy of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, called cachexia, resulting in weight loss, a reduced quality of life, and a shortened survival time...
  88. doi Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood in humans and its use as a biomarker of dietary intake
    Leanne Hodson
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
    Prog Lipid Res 47:348-80. 2008
    ..variety of cross-sectional and intervention studies and summarise typical values for fatty acid composition in adipose tissue and blood lipids and changes that can be expected in response to varying dietary intake...
  89. pmc The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences
    Sarah M Camhi
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 19:402-8. 2011
    ..Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT)...
  90. pmc The G(0)/G(1) switch gene 2 regulates adipose lipolysis through association with adipose triglyceride lipase
    Xingyuan Yang
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA
    Cell Metab 11:194-205. 2010
    ..G0S2 is highly expressed in adipose tissue and differentiated adipocytes...
  91. doi Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans
    Kirsty L Spalding
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nature 453:783-7. 2008
    ..The high turnover of adipocytes establishes a new therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in obesity...
  92. ncbi A long-term high-protein diet markedly reduces adipose tissue without major side effects in Wistar male rats
    Magali Lacroix
    Unité INRA 914 Physiologie de la Nutrition et Comportement Alimentaire, INA PG, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287:R934-42. 2004
    ..In contrast, HP rats showed a sharp reduction in white adipose tissue and lower basal concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, leptin, and insulin...
  93. ncbi The inflammatory syndrome: the role of adipose tissue cytokines in metabolic disorders linked to obesity
    Brent E Wisse
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104 2499, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 15:2792-800. 2004
    ..possible factor that links visceral obesity to adverse metabolic consequences; however, the mechanism whereby adipose tissue causes alterations in insulin sensitivity remains unclear...
  94. ncbi Visceral adipose tissue accumulation differs according to ethnic background: results of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT)
    Scott A Lear
    School of Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:353-9. 2007
    ..Previous studies have not adequately investigated differences in discrete regions of abdominal adiposity across ethnic groups...
  95. ncbi daf-2, an insulin receptor-like gene that regulates longevity and diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans
    K D Kimura
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Science 277:942-6. 1997
    ..Life-span regulation by insulin-like metabolic control is analogous to mammalian longevity enhancement induced by caloric restriction, suggesting a general link between metabolism, diapause, and longevity...
  96. ncbi Diet-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking adiponectin/ACRP30
    Norikazu Maeda
    Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
    Nat Med 8:731-7. 2002
    ..transport protein 1 (FATP-1) mRNA in muscle, high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA in adipose tissue and high plasma TNF-alpha concentrations...
  97. ncbi Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease
    Anders H Berg
    Department of Cell Biology, Bronx, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Circ Res 96:939-49. 2005
    Mounting evidence highlights the role of adipose tissue in the development of a systemic inflammatory state that contributes to obesity-associated vasculopathy and cardiovascular risk...
  98. pmc Lack of interleukin-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) protects mice from high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation coincident with improved glucose homeostasis
    Fiona C McGillicuddy
    Nutrigenomics Research Group, University College Dublin Conway Institute, School of Public Health and Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Diabetes 60:1688-98. 2011
    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced adipose tissue inflammation is a critical feature of diet-induced insulin resistance (IR); however, the contribution of interleukin-1 receptor I (IL-1RI)-mediated signals to this phenotype has not been defined...
  99. ncbi Adipose tissue, inflammation and atherosclerosis
    Birgit Gustafson
    The Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, Center of Excellence for Metabolic and Cardiovascular Research, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
    J Atheroscler Thromb 17:332-41. 2010
    Metabolic syndrome is associated with dysfunctional adipose tissue that is most likely a consequence of the enlargement of adipocytes and infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue...
  100. pmc High-fat diet triggers inflammation-induced cleavage of SIRT1 in adipose tissue to promote metabolic dysfunction
    Angeliki Chalkiadaki
    Paul F Glenn Laboratory and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Cell Metab 16:180-8. 2012
    b>Adipose tissue plays an important role in storing excess nutrients and preventing ectopic lipid accumulation in other organs...
  101. doi Isolation, identification and multipotential differentiation of mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells
    Masoumeh Fakhr Taha
    Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology NIGEB, Tehran, Iran
    Tissue Cell 42:211-6. 2010
    Bone marrow and adipose tissue have provided two suitable sources of mesenchymal stem cells...

Research Grants74

  1. TONIC ACTIVITY OF ADENOSINE A1-ADENOSINE RECEPTORS
    John Shryock; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..is a potent and efficacious inhibitor of lipolysis and adenylate and adenylate cyclase activity in white adipose tissue. A1-adenosine receptors in white adipose tissue are tonically active and treatment with antagonists of the A1- ..
  2. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase kinase as Therapeutic Target for Hepatic Steatosis, Obesit
    Robert A Harris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..acids synthesized in the liver in the absorptive state should be esterified to glycerol and shipped to the adipose tissue for storage, never retained in the liver...
  3. Bone Deficits and Excess Adiposity after Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation
    Sogol Mostoufi-Moab; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since the original K07 application, the applicant was awarded a Foundation grant to evaluate marrow adipose tissue in HSCT survivors...
  4. Pharmacogenetics of obesity and endocannabinergic modulation (POEM)
    Russell A Wilke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..also regulates food intake at the hypothalamus;and it modulates peripheral metabolism through effects on adipose tissue, the liver, skeletal muscle and the endocrine pancreas...
  5. Physiological role of PRDM16 in brown fat development and energy balance
    Patrick Seale; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..transplantation protocol using PRDM16-expressing precursor cells to form ectopic deposits of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in animals...
  6. Air Pollution on Adiposity and Vascular Dysfunction: White or Brown Matters?
    Qinghua Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To achieve this goal, we first assess PM2.5-induced ER stress in visceral (white adipose tissue) and perivascular tissue (brown adipose tissue) and potentiation of adipose vascular dysfunction in wild type (..
  7. Effects of Evoked Resistance Training and Testosterone after Spinal Cord Injury
    Ashraf Gorgey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), reduction in % leg FM and a trend towards decrease in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) CSA...
  8. Role of SCD1 and Dietary Methionine Restriction on Energy Homeostasis
    ERIC PAUL PLAISANCE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..insight into the capacity of nutrients to functionally remodel the storage and production capacity of fat in adipose tissue. These studies have the potential to enhance our understanding of the causes of obesity and could lead to the ..
  9. Mechanisms of action of ghrelin in muscle and adipose tissue in cancer-related ca
    Jose M Garcia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..which ghrelin improves cachexia and to establish the mechanisms mediating ghrelin's action in muscle and adipose tissue in this setting...
  10. Biology and Pathologies of Type V Collagen
    Daniel S Greenspan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Col5a3 is most highly expressed in adipose tissue, and Col5a3-/- females also have decreased adiposity, accompanied by glucose-intolerance, insulin-resistance, ..
  11. Molecular Mechanism of Protein Kinase Cbeta-Mediated Cholesterol Homeostasis
    Kamal D Mehta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Considering that adipose tissue accumulates one of the largest pools of exchangeable free cholesterol, there is no information available ..
  12. Ghrelin: Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Components of Obesity
    BRETT JOHN WARREN TEUBNER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In addition, I will test the role of central-acting ghrelin in promoting obesity by inhibiting brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, while simultaneously inhibiting white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid mobilization (lipolysis)...
  13. Lipid Droplet Metabolism
    Fredric B Kraemer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The major contribution of adipose tissue to whole body metabolism is the storage of energy in the form of TAG and the mobilization of this stored ..
  14. Air Pollution on Adiposity and Vascular Dysfunction: White or Brown Matters?
    Qinghua Sun; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..5) pollution induces inflammation in both white (visceral) and brown (peri-aortic) adipose tissue, increases accumulation of white fat mass, and potentiates vascular dysfunction via monocyte/macrophage ..
  15. Monocyte activation and the role of CD11c in obesity-linked metabolic syndrome
    Huaizhu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with chronic inflammation-characterized by increased production and secretion of cytokines/chemokines by adipose tissue (AT) and liver-and with increased hepatic production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) and increased ..
  16. A2b Adenosine Receptor Regulation of Metabolic Disease and Inflammation
    Anna Eisenstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Intriguingly, A2bAR KO mice also have delayed glucose clearance and augmented insulin levels following HFD. Adipose tissue and liver insulin signaling is reduced in A2bAR KO mice relative to WT mice...
  17. Lipid Binding Proteins in Obesity and Diabetes Syndromes
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In contrast, mice over-expressing FABP in adipose tissue exhibit potentiated characteristics of the metabolic syndrome included increased lipolysis, exacerbated ..
  18. The Somatotropic Axis and Health Aging: A Search for Mechanisms
    Andrzej Bartke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed collaborative studies will define the role of liver, adipose tissue and muscle in mediating the effects of GH and IGF-I on age-sensitive traits and longevity;and to elucidate the ..
  19. Chronic stress mediates fat-related changes in insulin signaling and gut motility
    CHARALABOS contact POTHOULAKIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our general hypothesis is that stress- induced changes in neuropeptides levels within visceral adipose tissue trigger adipocyte specific impairment of insulin signaling, which contributes to changes in gastrointestinal ..
  20. MECHANISMS OF MILK LIPID SECRETION
    JAMES LEWIS MCMANAMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, elevated CLD accumulation in non-adipose tissue is a prominent pathological feature of many human metabolic diseases, such as obesity, type-II diabetes and ..
  21. Misty: a model for central regulation of bone remodeling
    CLIFFORD JAMES ROSEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, aging also profoundly affects adipose tissue through atrophy of preformed brown adipose tissue (BAT), lipid deposition in non-adipose sites, and changes in ..
  22. Secondary Muscle Pathology &Metabolic Dysregulation in Adult with Cerebral Palsy
    Mark Peterson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the technical and statistical skills to conduct specialized imaging for quantifying skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, serum and in vivo studies for markers of inflammation and insulin resistance, and immunohistochemical ..
  23. Lipid Binding Proteins in Obesity and Diabetes Syndromes
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In contrast, mice over-expressing FABP in adipose tissue exhibit potentiated characteristics of the metabolic syndrome included increased lipolysis, exacerbated ..
  24. Lifespan Extension Despite Greatly Elevated Insulin and Body Fat
    David E Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1) the insulin, IGF-1, mTOR, and nutrient signaling transduction pathways, 2) fuel utilization pathways, 3) adipose tissue function...
  25. Mechanisms of Obesity in Mice with Neuron-Specific Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency
    Robert H Eckel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..littermate controls, and also demonstrate increases in Mc3r gene expression in the hypothalamus, marked brown adipose tissue (BAT) hyperplasia/hypertrophy and increased BAT UCP-1 gene expression...
  26. Effects of periodontitis on insulin target organs and glucose homeostasis
    Keiko Watanabe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a narrow ideal range by balancing production of glucose by the liver and glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. We therefore hypothesize that: 1) periodontitis affects insulin target organs (liver, muscle and adipose ..
  27. Novel pathways for fat burning that protects from high fat diet-induced metabolic
    Sihem Boudina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Increased oxidative stress in adipose tissue of obese humans and animals in response to excess nutrient intake has been documented...
  28. Adipose Tissue Macrophage Phenotype and Function
    Anthony W Ferrante; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Adipose tissue development, metabolism and endocrine function are essential for the efficient storage of lipids in adipocytes and for normal systemic metabolism...
  29. Adiponectin and fetal programming
    Jianhua Shao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies have shown that adiponectin enhances adipocyte differentiation, inhibits lipolysis and increases adipose tissue mass in mice...
  30. The Role of H6PDH and 11beta-HSD1 in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity
    Yanjun Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Metabolic tissues such as liver and adipose tissue solely express 112- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (112-HSD1) where it acts in intact cells and organs as a ..
  31. Metabolic Actions of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Inflammation
    Michael Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..not only reduce plasma TG, but also decrease systemic and tissue inflammation, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adipose tissue lipolysis and cytokine release to enhance the TG storage capacity of adipose tissue...
  32. A Prospective Study of Adiposity and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease
    CHRISTINA LYNN WASSEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Additionally, recent evidence suggests that the failure to develop adequate adipose tissue mass (lipodystrophy) and instead storing fat ectopically (i.e...
  33. NPC1L1 and Metabolic Diseases
    Liqing Yu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and fatty liver, which was associated with increased expression of genes promoting energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle...
  34. The Role of Substrate Metabolism and Macrophage Activation in Obesity
    Amy Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..classically activated M1 macrophage cells of the innate immune system infiltrate adipose tissue at the onset of weight gain contributing to the inflammatory state of fat, ultimately resulting in systemic ..
  35. Calorie Restriction &Body Composition, Function, &QoL in Older Adults
    Julie L Locher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Prior research suggests that visceral adipose tissue may be primarily responsible for driving obesity associated risk in older adults, leading to increased ..
  36. Fatty Acids, Eicosanoids and Inflammation
    Eric K Long; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In adipose tissue, adipocyte derived fatty acids bind to TLR4 and other free fatty acid receptors on the macrophage cell surface ..
  37. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone as a Regulator of Obesity and Diabetes
    Amy S Lee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that involve increased demand on the synthetic machinery of the cells in many secretory organ systems, such as adipose tissue. Thus, obesity acts as a chronic stimulus for ER stress in peripheral tissues, triggering insulin resistance ..
  38. Leptin as a Regulator of T Cell Metabolism and Function
    NANCIE MACIVER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Deficits in adipose tissue, as seen in malnutrition, lead to a deficiency of the adipose hormone leptin, which plays a critical role in ..
  39. Mechanisms and Consequences of Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Lipolysis
    Jonathan C Jun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..FFA are circulating lipids released by adipose tissue during lipolysis, which in excess induce insulin resistance, fatty liver, and hyperlipidemia...
  40. Novel PPAR-Independent Peroxisome Proliferators for Type 2 Diabetes
    LIDIA NIEROBISZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..these results and states that elevated plasma fatty acids lead to ectopic harmful lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissue, particularly in the liver ("fatty liver") resulting in impaired metabolic function...
  41. EPICARDIAL ADIPOSE TISSUE, OBESITY AND INFLAMMATION IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    Devendra K Agrawal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is present in close proximity to the adventitia of the coronary arteries and the underlying myocardium, and functions as both endocrine organ and inflammatory tissue, ..
  42. RYGB Improves Metabolism by Interrupting the Gastric Adipose Tissue Axis
    Naji N Abumrad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These changes associate with significant reductions in oxidative stress in adipose tissue. The general hypothesis is that RYGB results in interruption of a gastric-adipose tissue axis leading to ..
  43. Development of Novel LANCL2-based Anti-diabetic Compounds
    JOSEP BASSAGANYA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..their chronic administration has significant side effects suc as cardiovascular complications, hepatotoxicity, adipose tissue accumulation, and fluid retention, bladder tumors...
  44. Remodeling of Lipid Metabolism by Dietary Methionine Restriction
    ERIC PAUL PLAISANCE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..for fat synthesis in the liver and increases the expression of genes related to fat synthesis and oxidation in adipose tissue, and that these changes are responsible for at least part of the increase in energy expenditure following MR...
  45. Phospholipid-Mediated Metabolic Control in Liver and Brown Adipose Tissue
    David E Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed studies are relevant to the mission of the NIDDK because they are expected to identify new therapeutic targets for the management of common disorders related to diabetes and obesity. ..
  46. In vitro Type Two Diabetes Mellitus Tissue Model to Investigate Insulin Resistanc
    KELLY ANNE BURKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While adipose tissue is not the primary site for glucose disposal in humans, glucose uptake, secretion of adipokines, and lipolysis ..
  47. Effect of Perinatal Diet on Developmental Programming of the Skeleton
    Mary L Bouxsein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal is also directly relevant to Challenge Topic 15-AR-105 Bone and Adipose Tissue. Osteoporosis and obesity are growing sources of morbidity and mortality in the US, and together impose ..
  48. Group X sPLA2: Regulator of lipolysis and glucose homeostasis
    Nancy R Webb; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Based on our preliminary findings, we hypothesize that GX sPLA2 expressed by adipose tissue macrophages modulates the equilibrium between adipocyte lipid storage and lipid catabolism...
  49. Novel Small Molecule Therapeutics to Treat Obesity
    SUSAN MEDGHALCHI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The morbidity of obesity is a direct result of excess triglyceride accumulation, predominantly in adipose tissue and liver...
  50. The Impact of Heat Shock Protein Expression on Inflammation and Insulin Action
    Andrea L Hevener; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of type 2 diabetes and is characterized by diminished insulin action in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. While the precise mechanisms involved in the etiology of insulin resistance are not fully understood, many ..
  51. Regulation of Metabolism by Dietary Sterols
    SHAILENDRA BHANUBHAI PATEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This research aims to investigate the important role of diet, and specifically dietary plant sterols, on adipose tissue function...
  52. Lipocalin 2 in Inflammation and Metabolic Control
    Xiaoli Chen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Obesity is a major risk for developing insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. Adipose tissue plays a critical role as an endocrine organ and a major source of chronic low-grade inflammation in the regulation of insulin action and ..
  53. Quantitative Assessment of Oxidative Metabolism in Brown Fat
    Otto Muzik; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Brown adipose tissue (BAT or brown fat) is a thermogenic organ that plays a critical role in non- shivering thermogenesis with the purpose of generating heat in response to cold stress...
  54. Macrophage AMPK, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis
    Bingzhong Xue; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration, ER stress and inflammation will be determined in these mice on a high fat diet...
  55. NAFLD in T2DM: Prevalence in Hispanics and Role of Treatment
    Kenneth Cusi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also assess: i) insulin secretion by an OGTT, ii) muscle/live/adipose tissue insulin resistance by a euglycemic insulin clamp;iii) total body fat by DXA, to assess the relationship ..
  56. Sympathetic Regulation of AMPK in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis
    Jacob D Mulligan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..studies will test two hypotheses, the first being that adrenergic signaling regulates AMPK activity in white adipose tissue, which in turn plays a role in controlling white adipocyte insulin sensitivity and adipokine production...
  57. Adipocyte Renin-Angiotensin System and Programming of Hypertension
    Mina Desai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Although the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully understood, adipose tissue clearly is a critical factor in the development of obesity- mediated hypertension...
  58. Depression, Adipocytokines and Metabolic Dysregulation in Black and White Women
    Susan A Everson Rose; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..depression is associated with the adipocytokines, adiponectin and leptin, bioactive molecules secreted by adipose tissue that play a critical role in atherogenesis and metabolic dysregulation, in a sample of middle-aged black and ..
  59. Imaging Strategies to Measure Brown Fat and Its Activity
    C Ronald Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In obesity these excess calories are stored in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots that are distributed throughout the body in both subcutaneous and intra-abdominal areas...
  60. NKT cells, fatty acids, and insulin resistance
    CURTIS LEE GABRIEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..we will measure weight gain, body composition, insulin resistance, and expression of pro-inflammatory genes in adipose tissue. Obesity is a preeminent public health concern of the 21st century, and inflammation appears to play a central ..
  61. Translating human PPARy binding regions to gene regulation and metabolic disease
    RAYMOND EDWARD SOCCIO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 2 is to determine the PPAR cistrome in human adipose tissue, rather than in cultured adipocytes...
  62. Thyroid-adrenergic synergism and adaptive thermogenesis
    Antonio C Bianco; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At the same time, disruption of the D2 pathway (D2KO) reduces cold-induced and also diet- induced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis...
  63. Adipose Organ Transplant for Treatment of Maple Syrup Urine Disease
    CHRISTOPHER JOHN LYNCH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Adipose tissue is highly amendable for transplantation because of its low oxygen requirements, along with its abilities to ..
  64. Long-acting Growth Hormone for Treating HIV-Associated Adipose Redistribution Syn
    George Cox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..HARS is characterized by an increase in visceral adipose tissue, dyslipidemia, and insulin insensitivity, all of which are believed to increase the patient's risk for ..
  65. Identification of biomarkers of fatty acid intake
    Hannia Campos; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Fatty acids in the blood and more recently in adipose tissue are widely used as biomarkers of fatty acid intake in individuals and populations...
  66. Breast Adipose Participates to Bioactivate Vitamin D and Inhibit Breast Cancer
    Glendon M Zinser; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our overall objective for this R21 application is to test the concept that vitamin D3 signaling in mammary adipose tissue contributes to the negative growth regulation of mammary epithelial cells...
  67. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Resistance to Leptin Signaling During Fat Gain
    Virend Somers; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the molecular mechanisms involved in disruption of leptin signaling during weight gain, using abdominal adipose tissue obtained from healthy human subjects who gain body fat in response to an overfeeding protocol...
  68. BREAST TUMOR PROXIMAL STROMA INTERACTION AND AROMATASE
    Serdar Bulun; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Recent work from our laboratory revealed the following: P45Oarom transcript levels and fibroblast content in adipose tissue proximal to a breast tumor are significantly higher than in the distant sites...
  69. Adipose Tissue-specific Angiogenesis and Insulin Sensitivity
    Silvia Corvera; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In this context, it becomes clear that factors that determine the capacity of adipose tissue depots to expand may contribute to individual susceptibility to diabetes...
  70. Transcription & Function of Adipocyte Beta3AR in Obesity
    Sheila Collins; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) is a G protein- coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed predominantly in adipose tissue, where it mediates the effects of noradrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and thermogenesis ..
  71. NUTRITION AND LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE-MOLECULAR MECHANISMS
    SUSAN FRIED; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The cellular bases for nutritionally-induced and depot variations in LPLA in human adipose tissue are unknown and will be investigated...
  72. TNF ALPHA REG OF THE GROWTH HORMONE/IGF-1 AXIS WITH AGE
    William Sonntag; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Enhanced secretion of TNFa has been detected in abdominal adipose tissue of older animals and moderate caloric restriction, which decreases adipose tissue mass and potentially ..
  73. Interleukin-6 Expression and Function in Adipose Cells
    Jianbei Deng; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..However, important new data indicates that circulating IL-6 is also elevated in human obesity, and adipose tissue is the principal source of this elevation...
  74. AROMATASE IN ADIPOSE--RELATIONSHIP TO AGING AND CANCER
    Evan Simpson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..granulosa cells and corpus luteum, placental syncytiotrophoblast, various sites in the brain, as well as adipose tissue. Estrogen biosynthesis in adipose tissue increases not only with obesity but also with age...