Summary: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Adeno-associated virus serotype-9 efficiently transduces the retinal outer plexiform layer
    Bo Lei
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 1 You Yi Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing, China
    Mol Vis 15:1374-82. 2009
  2. pmc Human RPE65 gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis: persistence of early visual improvements and safety at 1 year
    Artur V Cideciyan
    Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 20:999-1004. 2009
  3. pmc The retinal proteome in experimental diabetic retinopathy: up-regulation of crystallins and reversal by systemic and periocular insulin
    Patrice E Fort
    Department of Ophthalmology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Mol Cell Proteomics 8:767-79. 2009
  4. pmc Molecular pathology of age-related macular degeneration
    Xiaoyan Ding
    Immunopathology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 1857, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 28:1-18. 2009
  5. pmc Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis
    Lauren S Talman
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Ann Neurol 67:749-60. 2010
  6. doi Connectomic reconstruction of the inner plexiform layer in the mouse retina
    Moritz Helmstaedter
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 500:168-74. 2013
  7. ncbi The classical complement cascade mediates CNS synapse elimination
    Beth Stevens
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Cell 131:1164-78. 2007
  8. doi Wiring specificity in the direction-selectivity circuit of the retina
    Kevin L Briggman
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biomedical Optics, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
    Nature 471:183-8. 2011
  9. pmc Treatment of leber congenital amaurosis due to RPE65 mutations by ocular subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus gene vector: short-term results of a phase I trial
    William W Hauswirth
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 19:979-90. 2008
  10. doi Self-organizing optic-cup morphogenesis in three-dimensional culture
    Mototsugu Eiraku
    Organogenesis and Neurogenesis Group, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
    Nature 472:51-6. 2011

Detail Information

Publications336 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Adeno-associated virus serotype-9 efficiently transduces the retinal outer plexiform layer
    Bo Lei
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 1 You Yi Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing, China
    Mol Vis 15:1374-82. 2009
    Adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AAV-9) is a promising gene delivery vector. In this study, we evaluated AAV-9 transduction in the mouse retina.
  2. pmc Human RPE65 gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis: persistence of early visual improvements and safety at 1 year
    Artur V Cideciyan
    Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 20:999-1004. 2009
    ..The safety and efficacy of human retinal gene transfer with rAAV2-RPE65 vector extends to at least 1 year posttreatment...
  3. pmc The retinal proteome in experimental diabetic retinopathy: up-regulation of crystallins and reversal by systemic and periocular insulin
    Patrice E Fort
    Department of Ophthalmology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Mol Cell Proteomics 8:767-79. 2009
    ..Altogether this work shows the importance of proteomics discovery methods coupled with targeted approaches to unveil new disease mechanistic details and therapeutic targets...
  4. pmc Molecular pathology of age-related macular degeneration
    Xiaoyan Ding
    Immunopathology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 1857, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 28:1-18. 2009
  5. pmc Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis
    Lauren S Talman
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Ann Neurol 67:749-60. 2010
    ..We determined how longitudinal changes in RNFL thickness relate to visual loss. We also examined patterns of RNFL thinning over time in MS eyes with and without a prior history of acute optic neuritis (ON)...
  6. doi Connectomic reconstruction of the inner plexiform layer in the mouse retina
    Moritz Helmstaedter
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 500:168-74. 2013
    ..Here we present for the mouse inner plexiform layer--the main computational neuropil region in the mammalian retina--the dense reconstruction of 950 neurons and their mutual contacts...
  7. ncbi The classical complement cascade mediates CNS synapse elimination
    Beth Stevens
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Cell 131:1164-78. 2007
    ..postnatal neurons in response to immature astrocytes and is localized to synapses throughout the postnatal CNS and retina. Mice deficient in complement protein C1q or the downstream complement protein C3 exhibit large sustained defects ..
  8. doi Wiring specificity in the direction-selectivity circuit of the retina
    Kevin L Briggman
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biomedical Optics, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
    Nature 471:183-8. 2011
    ..the implementation of the algorithms used in neural computations, such as the detection of directed motion by the retina. The analysis of neuronal connectivity is possible with electron microscopy, but technological limitations have ..
  9. pmc Treatment of leber congenital amaurosis due to RPE65 mutations by ocular subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus gene vector: short-term results of a phase I trial
    William W Hauswirth
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 19:979-90. 2008
    ..99). Comparisons are drawn between the present work and two other studies of ocular gene therapy for RPE65-LCA that were carried out contemporaneously and reported...
  10. doi Self-organizing optic-cup morphogenesis in three-dimensional culture
    Mototsugu Eiraku
    Organogenesis and Neurogenesis Group, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
    Nature 472:51-6. 2011
    ..We demonstrate that optic-cup morphogenesis in this simple cell culture depends on an intrinsic self-organizing program involving stepwise and domain-specific regulation of local epithelial properties...
  11. pmc A transition zone complex regulates mammalian ciliogenesis and ciliary membrane composition
    Francesc R Garcia-Gonzalo
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Genet 43:776-84. 2011
    ..Thus, a transition zone complex of Meckel and Joubert syndrome proteins regulates ciliary assembly and trafficking, suggesting that transition zone dysfunction is the cause of these ciliopathies...
  12. ncbi Dll4 signalling through Notch1 regulates formation of tip cells during angiogenesis
    Mats Hellstrom
    AngioGenetics Sweden AB, Scheeles vag 2, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nature 445:776-80. 2007
    ..regulates the formation of appropriate numbers of tip cells to control vessel sprouting and branching in the mouse retina. We show that inhibition of Notch signalling using gamma-secretase inhibitors, genetic inactivation of one allele ..
  13. ncbi Pigment epithelium-derived factor: a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis
    D W Dawson
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Department of Pathology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Science 285:245-8. 1999
    ..These results suggest that PEDF may be of therapeutic use, especially in retinopathies where pathological neovascularization compromises vision and leads to blindness...
  14. pmc Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer's patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model
    Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui
    Department of Neurosurgery and Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    Neuroimage 54:S204-17. 2011
    ..The retina as an extension of the brain presents an appealing target for a live, noninvasive optical imaging of AD if disease ..
  15. pmc CX3CR1-dependent subretinal microglia cell accumulation is associated with cardinal features of age-related macular degeneration
    Christophe Combadiere
    INSERM U543, Laboratoire d Immunologie Cellulaire, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 117:2920-8. 2007
    ..These findings reveal what we believe to be a novel pathogenic process with important implications for the development of new therapies for AMD...
  16. pmc The neuronal organization of the retina
    Richard H Masland
    Department of Opthamology, Harvard Medical School, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Neuron 76:266-80. 2012
    The mammalian retina consists of neurons of >60 distinct types, each playing a specific role in processing visual images. They are arranged in three main stages...
  17. pmc Inhibition of reactive oxygen species by Lovastatin downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression and ameliorates blood-retinal barrier breakdown in db/db mice: role of NADPH oxidase 4
    Jingming Li
    Harold Hamm Oklahoma Diabetes Center and Section of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
    Diabetes 59:1528-38. 2010
    ..We previously showed that lovastatin mitigates blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in db/db mice. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanisms underlying the salutary effects of lovastatin in diabetic retinopathy...
  18. pmc Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in mouse models of retinal degeneration
    Gesine Huber
    Division of Ocular Neurodegeneration, Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Centre for Ophthalmology, Tuebingen, Germany
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:5888-95. 2009
    ..Here, the authors report the efficacy of a commercially available SD-OCT device to study mouse models of retinal degeneration...
  19. doi Effect of gene therapy on visual function in Leber's congenital amaurosis
    James W B Bainbridge
    Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 358:2231-9. 2008
    ..These findings provide support for further clinical studies of this experimental approach in other patients with mutant RPE65. ( number, NCT00643747 [].)...
  20. pmc Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion-cell photoreceptors: cellular diversity and role in pattern vision
    Jennifer L Ecker
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Neuron 67:49-60. 2010
    ..Thus, nonclassical retinal photoreception occurs within diverse cell types and influences circuits and functions encompassing luminance as well as spatial information...
  21. pmc Efficient generation of retinal progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells
    Deepak A Lamba
    Department of Biological Structure and Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12769-74. 2006
    The retina is subject to degenerative conditions, leading to blindness. Although retinal regeneration is robust in lower vertebrates, regeneration does not occur in the adult mammalian retina...
  22. ncbi Age-related macular degeneration
    Paulus T V M De Jong
    Department of Ophthalmogenetics, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 355:1474-85. 2006
  23. doi Age-related macular degeneration
    Rama D Jager
    Section of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2606-17. 2008
  24. pmc Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina
    Anai Gonzalez-Cordero
    Department of Genetics, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK
    Nat Biotechnol 31:741-7. 2013
    ..This study shows conclusively that ESCs can provide a source of photoreceptors for retinal cell transplantation. ..
  25. doi Transcriptional regulation of photoreceptor development and homeostasis in the mammalian retina
    Anand Swaroop
    Neurobiology Neurodegeneration and Repair Laboratory, Building 6 338, MSC 0610, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:563-76. 2010
    In the developing vertebrate retina, diverse neuronal subtypes originate from multipotent progenitors in a conserved order and are integrated into an intricate laminated architecture...
  26. pmc Retinal light damage: mechanisms and protection
    Daniel T Organisciak
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 29:113-34. 2010
  27. pmc SOX2 is a dose-dependent regulator of retinal neural progenitor competence
    Olena V Taranova
    Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Genes Dev 20:1187-202. 2006
    ..of these phenotypes directly relates to the levels of SOX2 expression found in progenitor cells of the neural retina. Retinal progenitor cells with conditionally ablated Sox2 lose competence to both proliferate and terminally ..
  28. pmc Noninvasive volumetric imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography
    Vivek J Srinivasan
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:5522-8. 2006
    To demonstrate high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noninvasive, in vivo, three-dimensional imaging of the retina in rat and mouse models.
  29. pmc Unfolded protein response in a Drosophila model for retinal degeneration
    Hyung Don Ryoo
    Department of Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10021, USA
    EMBO J 26:242-52. 2007
    ..xbp1 splicing and hsc3 induction occur in the retina of ninaE(G69D)-/+, a Drosophila model for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), and reduction of xbp1 ..
  30. doi From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina
    Michalis Agathocleous
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 25:45-69. 2009
    ..We also propose some directions for future research...
  31. ncbi Retinal repair by transplantation of photoreceptor precursors
    R E MacLaren
    Division of Molecular Therapy, University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, 11 43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK
    Nature 444:203-7. 2006
    ..So far, brain- and retina-derived stem cells transplanted into adult retina have shown little evidence of being able to integrate into the ..
  32. pmc Transmembrane semaphorin signalling controls laminar stratification in the mammalian retina
    Ryota L Matsuoka
    The Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 470:259-63. 2011
    In the vertebrate retina, establishment of precise synaptic connections among distinct retinal neuron cell types is critical for processing visual information and for accurate visual perception...
  33. pmc Drusen proteome analysis: an approach to the etiology of age-related macular degeneration
    John W Crabb
    Cole Eye Institute and Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, and Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, OH 44195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14682-7. 2002
    ..These data strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative injury contributes to the pathogenesis of AMD and suggest that oxidative protein modifications may have a critical role in drusen formation...
  34. pmc IOP induces upregulation of GFAP and MHC-II and microglia reactivity in mice retina contralateral to experimental glaucoma
    Beatriz I Gallego
    Instituto de Investigaciones Oftalmologicas Ramon Castroviejo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, 28040, Spain
    J Neuroinflammation 9:92. 2012
    ..Here, we study the effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) in the macroglia, microglia and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of eyes with OHT (OHT-eyes) and contralateral eyes two weeks after lasering...
  35. doi Brn3a as a marker of retinal ganglion cells: qualitative and quantitative time course studies in naive and optic nerve-injured retinas
    Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás
    Departamento de Oftalmologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3860-8. 2009
    ..To characterize Brn3a expression in adult albino rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in naïve animals and in animals subjected to complete intraorbital optic nerve transection (IONT) or crush (IONC)...
  36. doi Dscam and Sidekick proteins direct lamina-specific synaptic connections in vertebrate retina
    Masahito Yamagata
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 451:465-9. 2008
    Synaptic circuits in the retina transform visual input gathered by photoreceptors into messages that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send to the brain...
  37. pmc Endogenous VEGF is required for visual function: evidence for a survival role on müller cells and photoreceptors
    Magali Saint-Geniez
    Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3554. 2008
    ..the widespread use of systemic and intraocular anti-VEGF therapies for the treatment of angiogenesis associated with tumor growth and wet macular degeneration, systematic investigation of the role of VEGF in the adult retina is critical.
  38. ncbi Abnormal retinal thickness in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease
    Claire Paquet
    Department of Neurology, Poitiers University Hospital, 86021 Poitiers, France
    Neurosci Lett 420:97-9. 2007
    ..The RNFL seems to be involved early during the course of amnestic MCI and OCT tests could be carried out in patients with cognitive troubles...
  39. pmc Ocular pathology in multiple sclerosis: retinal atrophy and inflammation irrespective of disease duration
    Ari J Green
    Multiple Sclerosis Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Brain 133:1591-601. 2010
    ..The injury to both iris and retina could be seen at all stages of disease...
  40. pmc Quantification of oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse: a model of vessel loss, vessel regrowth and pathological angiogenesis
    Kip M Connor
    Department of Ophthalmology, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Protoc 4:1565-73. 2009
    ..On P12, mice are returned to room air and the hypoxic avascular retina triggers both normal vessel regrowth and retinal neovascularization (NV), which is maximal at P17...
  41. pmc Eye morphogenesis and patterning of the optic vesicle
    Sabine Fuhrmann
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    Curr Top Dev Biol 93:61-84. 2010
    ..The late optic vesicle becomes patterned into distinct ocular tissues: the neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and optic stalk...
  42. pmc Improvement of retinal vascular injury in diabetic rats by statins is associated with the inhibition of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species pathway mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha
    Zhi Zheng
    Department of Ophthalmology, First People s Hospital of Shanghai Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China
    Diabetes 59:2315-25. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to clarify the beneficial effects and mechanism of action of simvastatin against diabetes-induced retinal vascular damage...
  43. pmc Dicer inactivation leads to progressive functional and structural degeneration of the mouse retina
    Devid Damiani
    Neuroscience Institute, Italian National Research Council, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    J Neurosci 28:4878-87. 2008
    ..In this study, Dicer was removed specifically from the retina using a floxed Dicer conditional allele and the retinal Chx10Cre transgene...
  44. pmc DSCAM and DSCAML1 function in self-avoidance in multiple cell types in the developing mouse retina
    Peter G Fuerst
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA
    Neuron 64:484-97. 2009
    ..We examined the function of DSCAM and DSCAML1 in the developing mouse retina. In addition to a subset of amacrine cells, Dscam was expressed in most retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)...
  45. pmc Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second
    Benjamin Potsaid
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Opt Express 16:15149-69. 2008
    ..Ophthalmic OCT imaging of the normal human retina is investigated...
  46. ncbi Retinal degeneration mutants in the mouse
    B Chang
    The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME, USA
    Vision Res 42:517-25. 2002
    ..histology, we have discovered disorders affecting all aspects of the eye including the lid, cornea, iris, lens and retina, resulting in corneal disorders, cataracts, glaucoma and retinal degenerations...
  47. ncbi Transgenic mice with a rhodopsin mutation (Pro23His): a mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa
    J E Olsson
    Berman Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston 02114
    Neuron 9:815-30. 1992
    ..Our findings help to establish the pathogenicity of mutant human P23H rod opsin and suggest that overexpression of wild-type human rod opsin leads to a remarkably similar photoreceptor degeneration...
  48. ncbi MicroRNA (miRNA) transcriptome of mouse retina and identification of a sensory organ-specific miRNA cluster
    Shunbin Xu
    Department of Ophthalmology and Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60302, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:25053-66. 2007
    ..miRNAs) provide a newly recognized level of regulation of gene expression, the miRNA transcriptome of the retina and the contributions of miRNAs to retinal development and function are largely unknown...
  49. ncbi Effective gene therapy with nonintegrating lentiviral vectors
    Rafael J Yáñez-Muñoz
    Molecular Immunology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Nat Med 12:348-53. 2006
    ..For therapeutic application to postmitotic tissues, this system substantially reduces the risk of insertional mutagenesis...
  50. pmc Modeling early retinal development with human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells
    Jason S Meyer
    Stem Cell Research Program, Waisman Center, Departments of Anatomy and Neurology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1500 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16698-703. 2009
    ..Application of this culture method to a human iPS cell line also generated retina-specific cell types at comparable times in vitro...
  51. ncbi Aldose reductase deficiency prevents diabetes-induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown, apoptosis, and glial reactivation in the retina of db/db mice
    Alvin K H Cheung
    Institute of Molecular Biology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Diabetes 54:3119-25. 2005
    ..These changes in the diabetic retina were associated with increased expression of aldose reductase (AR)...
  52. pmc Optic vesicle-like structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells facilitate a customized approach to retinal disease treatment
    Jason S Meyer
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Stem Cells 29:1206-18. 2011
    ..In particular, early retina and forebrain derivatives often intermingle in pluripotent stem cell cultures, owing to their shared ancestry and ..
  53. ncbi Development of the retinal vasculature
    Marcus Fruttiger
    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11 43 Bath Street, London, EC1V 9EL, UK
    Angiogenesis 10:77-88. 2007
    Blood vessels that supply the inner portion of the retina are extensively reorganized during development...
  54. ncbi Mitochondrial respiratory inhibition and oxidative stress elevate beta-secretase (BACE1) proteins and activity in vivo in the rat retina
    Kun Xiong
    Department of Anatomy, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
    Exp Brain Res 181:435-46. 2007
    ..respiratory inhibitors and potential endogenous oxidative substances on BACE expression in vivo using the retina as a model...
  55. ncbi Relationship between cognitive impairment and retinal morphological and visual functional abnormalities in Alzheimer disease
    Pervin K Iseri
    Department of Neurology, Kocaeli University Medical School, Kocaeli, Turkey
    J Neuroophthalmol 26:18-24. 2006
    ..To evaluate this issue, we have used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess the thickness and volume of the retina. We have also sought to correlate our findings with visual function and cognitive impairment.
  56. doi Increased protein damage in renal glomeruli, retina, nerve, plasma and urine and its prevention by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy in a rat model of diabetes
    N Karachalias
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Central Campus, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex, UK
    Diabetologia 53:1506-16. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to quantify protein damage by glycation, oxidation and nitration in a rat model of diabetes at the sites of development of microvascular complications, including the effects of thiamine and benfotiamine therapy...
  57. pmc Beneficial effects of a novel RAGE inhibitor on early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia
    Guangyuan Li
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Mol Vis 17:3156-65. 2011
    ..We assessed the effect of a novel RAGE fusion protein inhibitor on retinal histopathology and nerve function, and on retinal inflammation and oxidative stress...
  58. pmc A two-way communication between microglial cells and angiogenic sprouts regulates angiogenesis in aortic ring cultures
    Simin F Rymo
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 6:e15846. 2011
    ..Monocyte-derived tissue macrophages of the CNS, or microglial cells, invade the mammalian retina before it becomes vascularized...
  59. ncbi Hyperglycemia increases mitochondrial superoxide in retina and retinal cells
    Yunpeng Du
    Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 4951, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 35:1491-9. 2003, we have investigated the effects of elevated glucose concentration on the production of superoxide anion by retina and retinal cells, the cellular source of the superoxide, the effect of therapies that are known to inhibit ..
  60. pmc Overexpression of SOD in retina: need for increase in H2O2-detoxifying enzyme in same cellular compartment
    Shinichi Usui
    Department of Ophthalmology and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 51:1347-54. 2011
    ..RP), various mutations cause rod photoreceptor cell death leading to increased oxygen levels in the outer retina, progressive oxidative damage to cones, and gradual loss of cone cell function...
  61. pmc Novel protective properties of IGFBP-3 result in enhanced pericyte ensheathment, reduced microglial activation, increased microglial apoptosis, and neuronal protection after ischemic retinal injury
    Jennifer L Kielczewski
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0267, USA
    Am J Pathol 178:1517-28. 2011 increased endothelial cell expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in mouse retina. The contribution of bone marrow cells in the IGFBP-3-mediated response was examined using green fluorescent ..
  62. doi Age related macular degeneration and drusen: neuroinflammation in the retina
    Elisa Buschini
    NICO, Neuroscience Institute of the Cavalieri Ottolenghi Foundation, University of Torino, Regione Gonzole 10, Orbassano TO, Italy
    Prog Neurobiol 95:14-25. 2011
    ..The retina is an immune-privileged site, and the tight balance of immune reaction can be disrupted and lead to age-related ..
  63. ncbi VSX1: a gene for posterior polymorphous dystrophy and keratoconus
    Elise Heon
    Cellular and Molecular Division, Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8
    Hum Mol Genet 11:1029-36. 2002
    ..However, with either the G160D or P247R mutation, electroretinography detected abnormal function of the inner retina, where VSX1 is expressed...
  64. ncbi Glial reactivity and impaired glutamate metabolism in short-term experimental diabetic retinopathy. Penn State Retina Research Group
    E Lieth
    Department of Neuroscience and Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, 17033, USA
    Diabetes 47:815-20. 1998
    ..rat model of short-term diabetic retinopathy to study glial reactivity and other glial functions in the retina in the first months after onset of diabetes...
  65. ncbi Histopathology of the human retina in retinitis pigmentosa
    A H Milam
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 6485, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 17:175-205. 1998 a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases that cause degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors in the human retina. Loss of photoreceptor cells is usually followed by alterations in the retinal pigment epithelium and retinal glia...
  66. ncbi RIBEYE, a component of synaptic ribbons: a protein's journey through evolution provides insight into synaptic ribbon function
    F Schmitz
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Basic Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Neuron 28:857-72. 2000
    ..We have partially purified synaptic ribbons from retina and identified a major protein component called RIBEYE...
  67. pmc Müller cell-derived VEGF is essential for diabetes-induced retinal inflammation and vascular leakage
    Juanjuan Wang
    Department of Ophthalmology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
    Diabetes 59:2297-305. 2010
  68. ncbi Immunocytochemical analysis of the mouse retina
    S Haverkamp
    Max Planck Institut f r Hirnforschung, D 60528 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 424:1-23. 2000
    Transgenic mice provide a new approach for studying the structure and function of the mammalian retina. In the past, the cellular organization of the mammalian retina was investigated preferentially in primates, cats, and rats but rarely ..
  69. pmc Norrin, frizzled-4, and Lrp5 signaling in endothelial cells controls a genetic program for retinal vascularization
    Xin Ye
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell 139:285-98. 2009
  70. pmc Impaired retinal function and vitamin A availability in mice lacking retinol-binding protein
    L Quadro
    Institute of Cancer Research, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    EMBO J 18:4633-44. 1999
    ..Thus RBP is needed for normal vision in young animals and for retinol mobilization in times of insufficient dietary intake, but is otherwise dispensable for the delivery of retinol to tissues...
  71. doi Immunological mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy
    Anthony P Adamis
    Jerini Ophthalmic, Time and Life Building, 111 West 50th Street, 7th Floor, Gilman 7 422A, New York, NY 10020, USA
    Semin Immunopathol 30:65-84. 2008
    ..In addition, emerging therapeutic approaches based on ongoing investigations will be discussed, including those involving blockade of angiotensin receptors and other molecular targets such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha...
  72. doi Macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using six different optical coherence tomography instruments
    Ute E K Wolf-Schnurrbusch
    Universitätsklinik für Augenheilkunde, Bern Photographic Reading Center, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3432-7. 2009
    ..To compare central retinal thickness (CRT) measurements in healthy eyes by different commercially available OCT instruments and to compare the intersession reproducibility of such measurements...
  73. ncbi Diabetic retinopathy: seeing beyond glucose-induced microvascular disease
    David A Antonetti
    Department of Ophthalmology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Diabetes 55:2401-11. 2006
    Diabetic retinopathy remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates physicians. Destruction of damaged retina by photocoagulation remains the primary treatment nearly 50 years after its introduction...
  74. ncbi Quantitative assessment of the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier in mice
    Nancy L Derevjanik
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 9277, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:2462-7. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a quantitative assay of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) function in mice and to determine the effect of several purported vasopermeability factors on the BRB...
  75. ncbi In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography
    Nader Nassif
    Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, BAR 724, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Opt Lett 29:480-2. 2004
    ..7-dB improvement of SD-OCT over TD-OCT. In vivo images of the human retina are presented, demonstrating the ability to acquire high-quality structural images with an axial resolution of 6 ..
  76. pmc P58(IPK) inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress in human retinal capillary endothelial cells in vitro
    Bin Li
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, People s Republic of China
    Mol Vis 14:1122-8. 2008
  77. ncbi Retinal nerve fiber layer axonal loss and visual dysfunction in optic neuritis
    S Anand Trip
    NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, Brain Injury and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Ann Neurol 58:383-91. 2005
    ..This noninvasive RNFL imaging technique could be used in trials of experimental treatments that aim to protect optic nerves from axonal loss...
  78. pmc Intrinsic circadian clock of the mammalian retina: importance for retinal processing of visual information
    Kai Florian Storch
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 130:730-41. 2007
    ..The retina has an intrinsic circadian clock, but its importance for vision is unknown...
  79. doi Physiology of circadian entrainment
    Diego A Golombek
    Laboratory of Chronobiology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Quilmes Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas CONICET, Quilmes, Argentina
    Physiol Rev 90:1063-102. 2010
    ..including retinal sensitivity to light by means of novel photopigments as well as circadian variations in the retina that contribute to the regulation of retinal physiology...
  80. doi Pax6: a multi-level regulator of ocular development
    Ohad Shaham
    Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Prog Retin Eye Res 31:351-76. 2012
    ..Pax6 functions at multiple levels to integrate extracellular information and execute cell-intrinsic differentiation programs that culminate in the specification and differentiation of a distinct ocular lineage...
  81. pmc How variable clones build an invariant retina
    Jie He
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Neuron 75:786-98. 2012
    ..These lineage data are consistent with a simple model in which the retina is derived from a set of equipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) that are subject to stochastic factors ..
  82. pmc Generation of Rx+/Pax6+ neural retinal precursors from embryonic stem cells
    Hanako Ikeda
    Organogenesis and Neurogenesis Group, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11331-6. 2005
    ..cells with the photoreceptor phenotype (marker expression and morphology) in the outer nuclear layer of the retina. Taken together, ES cells treated with SFEB/Dkk1/LeftyA/serum/activin generate neural retinal precursors, which ..
  83. pmc A phase II randomized clinical trial of intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema
    Ingrid U Scott
    Jaeb Center for Health Research, 15310 Amberly Drive, Suite 350, Tampa, FL 33647, USA
    Ophthalmology 114:1860-7. 2007
    ..To provide data on the short-term effect of intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema (DME)...
  84. pmc Restoration of visual function in P23H rhodopsin transgenic rats by gene delivery of BiP/Grp78
    Marina S Gorbatyuk
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5961-6. 2010
    ..Thus, the preservation of photoreceptor function resulting from elevated levels of BiP is due to suppression of apoptosis rather than to a promotion of rhodopsin folding...
  85. ncbi Interkinetic nuclear migration and the selection of neurogenic cell divisions during vertebrate retinogenesis
    Lisa M Baye
    Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    J Neurosci 27:10143-52. 2007
  86. pmc Noninvasive, in vivo assessment of mouse retinal structure using optical coherence tomography
    M Dominik Fischer
    Division of Ocular Neurodegeneration, Centre for Ophthalmology, Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e7507. 2009
    ..Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method of retinal in vivo imaging. In this study, we assessed the potential of OCT to yield histology-analogue sections in mouse models of retinal degeneration...
  87. pmc Lighting a candle in the dark: advances in genetics and gene therapy of recessive retinal dystrophies
    Anneke I den Hollander
    Department of Ophthalmology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands
    J Clin Invest 120:3042-53. 2010
  88. ncbi Distribution, markers, and functions of retinal microglia
    Ling Chen
    Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat Sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, P R China
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 10:27-39. 2002
    Retinal microglia originate from hemopoietic cells and invade the retina from the retinal margin and the optic disc, most likely via the blood vessels of the ciliary body and iris, and the retinal vasculature, respectively...
  89. doi Inner retinal layer thinning in Parkinson disease
    Mohammedyusuf E Hajee
    Department of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 127:737-41. 2009
    ..To quantify retinal thickness in patients with Parkinson disease (PD)...
  90. pmc Two retinotopic visual areas in human lateral occipital cortex
    Jonas Larsson
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 26:13128-42. 2006
    ..The topography, stimulus selectivity, and anatomical location of LO1 and LO2 indicate that they integrate shape information from multiple visual submodalities in retinotopic coordinates...
  91. pmc Tbx2b is essential for neuronal differentiation along the dorsal/ventral axis of the zebrafish retina
    Jeffrey M Gross
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:4371-6. 2005
    ..Injection of either of these morpholinos resulted in profound defects in the development of the dorsal retina. By using molecular markers for neuronal subtypes, the ventral retina contained all cell types, whereas in the ..
  92. pmc Photoreceptor cells are major contributors to diabetes-induced oxidative stress and local inflammation in the retina
    Yunpeng Du
    Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:16586-91. 2013
    ..lesions of early diabetic retinopathy, and we investigated whether the diabetes-induced oxidative stress in the retina emanates from photoreceptors...
  93. pmc IRE1 signaling affects cell fate during the unfolded protein response
    Jonathan H Lin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Science 318:944-9. 2007
    ..Key findings from our studies in cell culture were recapitulated in photoreceptors expressing mutant rhodopsin in animal models of retinitis pigmentosa...
  94. pmc Retinal organization in the retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mutant mouse: a morphological and ERG study
    Claudia Gargini
    Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, Universita di Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    J Comp Neurol 500:222-38. 2007
    ..The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the morphology and function of the rd10 mouse retina during the period of maximum photoreceptor degeneration, thus contributing useful data for exploiting this novel ..
  95. pmc Eyecup scope--optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina
    Thomas Euler
    Department of Biomedical Optics, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstr 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Pflugers Arch 457:1393-414. 2009
    Dendritic signals play an essential role in processing visual information in the retina. To study them in neurites too small for electrical recording, we developed an instrument that combines a multi-photon (MP) microscope with a through-..
  96. ncbi Late-stage neuronal progenitors in the retina are radial Müller glia that function as retinal stem cells
    Rebecca L Bernardos
    Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
    J Neurosci 27:7028-40. 2007
    Neuronal progenitors in the mammalian brain derive from radial glia or specialized astrocytes. In developing neural retina, radial glia-like Müller cells are generated late in neurogenesis and are not considered to be neuronal ..
  97. pmc Insm1a-mediated gene repression is essential for the formation and differentiation of Müller glia-derived progenitors in the injured retina
    Rajesh Ramachandran
    Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 14:1013-23. 2012
    ..progenitors and identified insm1a, a repressor exhibiting a biphasic pattern of expression that is essential for retina regeneration...
  98. pmc Erythropoietin deficiency decreases vascular stability in mice
    Jing Chen
    Department of Ophthalmology, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Clin Invest 118:526-33. 2008
    ..Exogenous late Epo treatment did not protect the retina, but rather enhanced pathological neovascularization...
  99. pmc Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived photoreceptors restores some visual function in Crx-deficient mice
    Deepak A Lamba
    Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Cell Stem Cell 4:73-9. 2009
    Some of the most common causes of blindness involve the degeneration of photoreceptors in the neural retina; photoreceptor replacement therapy might restore some vision in these individuals...
  100. pmc Computational processing of optical measurements of neuronal and synaptic activity in networks
    Mario M Dorostkar
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci Methods 188:141-50. 2010
    ..We demonstrate the use of these tools to analyse synaptic activity in the retina of live zebrafish by multi-photon imaging of SyGCaMP2, a genetically encoded synaptically localised calcium ..
  101. doi Cytokine-induced SOCS expression is inhibited by cAMP analogue: impact on regeneration in injured retina
    Kevin K Park
    School of Anatomy and Human Biology M309, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
    Mol Cell Neurosci 41:313-24. 2009
    ..We propose that, along with known reparative effects of elevated cAMP on neurons, reducing SOCS upregulation may be an additional way in which cyclic nucleotides augment cytokine-induced regenerative responses in the injured CNS...

Research Grants79

    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..12-EI-0167 Background: - Achromatopsia is an inherited condition that causes vision loss because cells in the retina do not work properly. It causes loss of acuity, sensitivity to light, and loss of color vision...
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..12-EI-0167 Background: - Achromatopsia is an inherited condition that causes vision loss because cells in the retina do not work properly. It causes loss of acuity, sensitivity to light, and loss of color vision...
  3. Axonopathy in Glaucoma
    Samuel D Crish; Fiscal Year: 2013 the principle investigator to compare degeneration measures in specific aim 1 (see above) with RGC soma in the retina. Second, we will use anterograde and retrograde tracing methods (intravitreal CTB and SC-applied fluorogold) in ..
  4. Prolonged Inhibition of Pathologic Neovascularization by Catalytic Antioxidants
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and cause the regression of existing pathologic neovessels in the Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor null retina by modulating the expression of many retinal genes including Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)...
  5. Therapeutic Effect of a Novel Antioxidant on Degenerative Eye Disorders
    Nuran Ercal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In the retina, it results in mitochondrial damage and the accumulation of drusen that characterizes dry AMD...
  6. Prevention of Inherited Retinal Diseases by Therapeutic Rare Earth Nanoparticles
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..transgene (Specific Aim 3) to provide enhanced and prolonged protection of the photoreceptor cells in the tubby retina will also be tested...
  7. Role of the kallikrein-kinin system in diabetic retinopathy
    Edward P Feener; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..inflammation and vasogenic edema in stroke and angioedema, little is known regarding the actions of the KKS on the retina and its potential role in diabetic retinopathy...
  8. Identifying all Meckel-like ciliopathy genes by established total exome capture a
    Friedhelm Hildebrandt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..mechanisms, and to study their role in organ dysplasia/malformation as well as fibrosis/degeneration of kidney, retina, brain and liver we propose to: 1...
  9. Mechanisms of Angiogenesis in Retinopathy of Prematurity
    Mary Elizabeth Hartnett; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..ROP, cause endothelial apoptosis and disordered angiogenesis through separate pathways to contribute to avascular retina, which precedes and is prerequisite for the development of severe ROP...
  10. Mechanisms of Angiogenesis of Retinopathy of Prematurity
    ..Our hypothesis is that in vivo oxygen stresses, relevant to human severe ROP, increase avascular retina, which precedes and is a necessary prerequisite for the development of severe ROP...
  11. A Computational Framework for Mapping Long Range Genetic Circuits
    Tolga Tasdizen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..who have recently (Anderson, 2009) developed a computational framework for 3-dimensional neurocircuitry of the retina and in fluorescence image reconstruction (Roysam), experts in non-human primate brain circuitry and neuroanatomy (..
  12. Cyr61/CCN1-Induced Angiogenesis and Vasculogenesis in the Retina
    Brahim Chaqour; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Neovascularization of the retina is a highly prevalent and potentially blinding disorder characteristic of a variety of ocular diseases including ..
  13. Role of endothelin receptors in glaucomatous optic neuropathy
    Raghu R Krishnamoorthy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..overall hypothesis to be tested is that IOP elevation in rats produces increased ETB receptor expression in the retina which contributes to retinal B ganglion cell death...
    Bradford C Berk; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..MEK1-ERK1/2 and PLC-CamKII in EC;3) GIT1 regulates VEGF-induced migration and tip cell function in the developing retina;and 4) GIT1 is required for angiogenesis in response to ischemia in the retina and hind-limb...
  15. New Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Glaucoma
    Andrei Surguchov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..responses of RGC, modulates cell survival/cell death cascades and is implicated in glaucomatous alterations in the retina and ON. To test these hypotheses we propose the following specific aims: Specific aims: 1)...
  16. Prevention of Retinal Degeneration by Crystallins in Experimental Uveitis
    Narsing A Rao; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..i. During the late phase, macrophages/neutrophils infiltrate the retina, and photoreceptor damage is noted histologically...
  17. Mechanisms of Astrocyte Development
    Teri L Belecky Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and may also increase our understanding of how reactive astrocytes develop following injury or disease to the retina. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Developing astrocytes in the optic stalk are critical for the path finding of retina ..
  18. Nitric Oxide and gastric motility in female diabetics
    Pandu R Gangula; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Diabetes causes several complications that affect retina, kidney, vascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous system...
  19. Connexins in Neuronal and Glial Gap Junctions in the Central Nervous System
    John E Rash; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that provide for direct intercellular ionic, electrical, and metabolic coupling between nerve cells in the brain, retina, and spinal cord...
  20. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium as a Model for A
    Alfred S Lewin; Fiscal Year: 2013 inflammatory cascade that leads to the pathologic hallmarks of the disease, localized atrophy of the retina and choroidal neovascularization...
  21. CCR3: a molecular marker for neovascular AMD
    Jayakrishna Ambati; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of severe vision loss in AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV), the growth of abnormal blood vessels into the retina. Despite the use of recently approved molecular therapeutics targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A,..
  22. Effects of environmental thyroid hormone disrupting compounds on CNS development
    CHRISTOPHER KIRK THOMPSON; Fiscal Year: 2013 a local thyroid hormone delivery system and use this system to target particular hormone treatments to the retina or the optic tectum...
  23. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors in vascular homeostasis and pathology
    TIMOTHY TUN HLA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Mouse models of angiogenesis in the retina will be used to obtain in vivo correlates...
  24. Downregulation of Rod Metabolism in Retinopathy of Prematurity
    JAMES DANIEL AKULA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Treatment of the vasculopathy has been the focus of much good work, but the insult to the neural retina has received less attention...
  25. Multimodal Retinal Functional Imaging for Diabetic Retinopathy
    Hao F Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..adults, which is a typical type of ischemia driven retinal disease characterized by microvascular damage to the retina in patients with diabetes...
  26. Characterization of the thioredoxins system in the diabetic retina
    Folami Lamoke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..regulator of cellular redox homeostasis, and to develop strategies to prevent its malfunction in the diabetic retina. The thioredoxin system (TrxS) consists of thioredoxin (Trx1), Trx reductase (TrxR1), thioredoxin inhibitory ..
  27. A reconstructed skin model for development of treatments for albinism
    Seth J Orlow; Fiscal Year: 2010 and eyes as well as visual deficits resulting from misrouting of the optic tract and maldevelopment of the retina. In addition to loss of visual acuity, greatly increased risk of skin cancers and substantial psychosocial burdens ..
  28. Role in Myopia Development of Retinal Pigment Epithelium - A New Therapeutic Targ
    Yan Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The RPE is known to be a component of the blood-retina barrier, with critical roles in maintaining normal retinal and choroidal functions...
  29. Familial and Birth Cohort Effects on the Aging Senses
    Karen J Cruickshanks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..eye examination (refraction, visual acuity measures, contrast sensitivity, and digital images of the lens and retina), olfaction testing (San Diego Odor Identification Test), and vascular measures (intima-medial thickness, blood ..
  30. Endothelial-reactive antibodies: a diagnostic test for Susac's syndrome
    WILLIAM JAMES WALDMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..It appears to result from microangiopathy affecting the precapillary arterioles of the brain, retina, and inner ear...
  31. Effect of Maspin on Corneal Heme-and lymph- angiogenesis
    Sally S Twining; Fiscal Year: 2013 a barrier for the eye and its transparency is required for its function to refract and transmit light to the retina. The normal cornea is avascular...
  32. Structure-function analyses on novel processes of type II vestibular hair cells
    Jennifer S Stone; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..our understanding of hair cell biology by allowing the possibility of lateral interactions as documented in the retina. Studies of damaged vestibular organs will help uncover the relationship between normal and regenerated hair cells ..
  33. Novel Mitochondrial Targeted Neuroprotectants for Glaucoma
    Leonard Levin; Fiscal Year: 2009 the selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that convey visual information from the retina to the brain via their axons in the optic nerve...
  34. Endothelial Cell Dysregulation in Neovascular AMD
    Mark E Kleinman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..severe vision loss in AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV), the growth of abnormal blood vessels beneath the retina. Despite the use of recently approved molecular therapeutics targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A,..
  35. Genetic Control of Axial Patterning in Drosophila Eye
    Amit Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In humans and other vertebrates, DV polarity of the retina directs the retinal axon projections to the brain...
  36. Astrocyte Development and Reactive Gliosis
    Teri L Belecky-Adams; Fiscal Year: 2012
    The long term goal of this laboratory is to enhance the ability of the human nervous system, particularly the retina and/or optic nerve, to regenerate...
  37. The Role of RNA Splicing Factors in Retinal Degeneration
    Michael Farkas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..retinal degeneration that is characterized by the progressive loss of photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) of the retina. While mutations in many genes have been implicated in the disease, we propose to investigate how mutations in ..
  38. Vision Sciences Training Grant
    Carol A Mason; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Training focuses on analysis of the visual pathways from retina to brain, and cellular, molecular and genetic aspects of the normal and diseased eye, in both basic science and ..
    Eric E Turner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..0, Pou4f1), expressed in primary sensory neurons at all axial levels and in selected neurons of the retina, diencephalon, brainstem and spinal cord...
  40. Role of lipoxygenase pathway in early microvascular dysfunction during diabetic r
    MOHAMED AL SAYED AL-SHABRAWEY; Fiscal Year: 2013 VEGF produced by Muller cells which are activated by the excess lipid metabolites of 12/15-LOX in diabetic retina. Our hypothesis will be investigated via 3 specific aims 1) To determine whether 12/15-LOX pathway contributes to ..
  41. Genetically testing interactions of ER and oxidative stresses in retinal disease
    Douglas Gould; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..experiments outlined in this proposal will reveal tangible cellular processes important in pathophysiology of the retina and with potential for broader application...
  42. Gene Therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa
    Rajendra Kumar-Singh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..To examine whether the photoreceptor targeted Hd-Ad system can express [unreadable] PDE in the rd1 and rd10 murine retina specifically in rod photoreceptor cells using native (10Kb) [unreadable] PDE 5'and 3'gene regulatory ..
  43. Mechanisms of assembly of photoreceptor G protein complexes
    Barry M Willardson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Similar disruptions of proteome homeostasis cause neuronal degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina. Many severe retinopathies have been linked to misfolding mutations in rhodopsin and other photoreceptor proteins...
  44. Serotonin Receptor Modulation of Neurotrophic Factors in the Retina
    Mark E Pennesi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One novel approach might be to increase the levels of neuroprotective growth factors, such as BDNF in the retina by administering oral selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)...
  45. Melanopsin Signal Transduction Studied by FTIR Spectroscopy
    Kenneth J Rothschild; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..project is to investigate the mechanism by which human melanopsin, the recently discovered light-receptor in the retina, controls the body's internal clock as well as pupillary response...
  46. The Effect Of Deafness Associated Mutations on MyosinVIIA Function
    Eva Forgacs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Myosin VIIA is a cellular motor protein which is expressed in a several tissues including the inner ear and the retina. Mutations in the myosin VIIA gene are associated with a variety of sensory neuronal disorders including the Usher ..
  47. Screen for Small Molecule Regulators of Retinal Progenitor Epithelial Cell Phagoc
    CHARLES YOON HYUNG CHO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..OS preps from bovine retina were labeled with a fluorescent dye and could be efficiently phagocytosed by ARPE19 cells, an RPE cell line...
    Anthony Carruthers; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. brain, peripheral nerve, myocardium, retina) and that GLUT1 is uniquely amenable to acute catalytic regulation...
  49. The role of IFT80 in bone formation
    Shuying Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..which can lead to numerous human diseases characterized by various combinations of pathological changes of kidney, retina, and skeleton...
    DOMINIC E COSGROVE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that usher proteins function to mediate translocation of proteins in ciliated neuroepithelial cells of the retina and the cochlea. Defects in this process lead to stereo- ciliary defects and photoreceptor cell degeneration...
  51. Role of H-Ras in Retinal Cell Death in Diabetes
    Renu A Kowluru; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have shown that in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, matrixmetalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is activated in the retina via a small molecular weight G-protein, H-Ras, activated MMP-9 damages mitochondria and accelerates retinal ..
  52. Transscleral Transport & Polymeric Delivery of Antibody & Steroids for Macular Ed
    Ashim K Mitra; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pharmacology (bioreversion and metabolism) of these compounds in ocular fluids and tissue homogenates including retina/choroid, lens, iris-ciliary body, sclera, vitreous humor and aqueous humor (3) to determine enzymatic stability of ..
  53. Experimental Optic Neuritis: Gene Therapy
    John Guy; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Mitochondrial oxidative injury in EAE animals resulted in apoptosis of ganglion cells of the retina and oligodendrocytes in the optic nerve...
    JOHN PATTERSON ATKINSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gout), amyloid proteins in the brain (Alzheimer's disease - AD) and lipofuscin pigments (drusen) in the retina (age-related macular degeneration - AMD)...
  55. Retinal Imaging of Prognostic Indicators of Atherosclerosis
    Frederick R Haselton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The retina offers a continuously-accessible, noninvasive window into the circulation, and can be used to rapidly and safely ..
  56. Opioidergic System: Its Role(s) in Glaucoma
    Shahid Husain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..specific aims are proposed: Specific Aim 1: Determine if activation of specific opioid-receptor subtypes promotes retina neuroprotection in a chronic ocular-hypertension rat model...
  57. Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Photoreceptor Mitochondrial DNA Damage
    Narsing A Rao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..injected at distant sites initiates neuronal cell oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA damage in the retina. The TLR4 upregulation was also found to associate primarily with the retinal microglia...
    RAJU VS RAJALA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Studies from our laboratory over the past two decades have shown that the retina and rod outer segments (ROS) have an active PI metabolism...
  59. Role of exogenous melatonin in skin biology
    Andrzej T Slominski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): It was assumed that in vertebrates melatonin is only produced in the pineal gland and retina. However, evidence has accumulated that melatonin is widely detectable throughout Nature, being found in ..
  60. RPE Phenotype and Oxidative Stress
    Janice M Burke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..photic stress, contributes to functional impairments in the tissue that limit its ability to support the adjacent retina. Sub-lethal photic stress to the RPE was recently shown to have an unexpected functional consequence: organelle ..
    Christine A Curcio; Fiscal Year: 2012 of patients with age-related maculopathy (ARM) has been revolutionized by non-invasive imaging of the retina at near-histological detail...
  62. Circadian Rhythm in Cone Photoreceptors: Cellular Mechanisms
    GLADYS Y KO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..especially for preventing blindness caused by macular degeneration, since disruption of circadian rhythms in the retina causes photoreceptor death that could lead to macular degeneration...
    PAUL STEVEN BERNSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..macula lutea of the human eye where they are thought to provide protection against degenerative diseases of the retina including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by multiple mechanisms including filtration of phototoxic blue ..
  64. Targeting Muller Cells to Treat Optic Nerve Injury
    Sherry Ball; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our goal is to identify the underlying signals triggering degenerative processes in the retina. It is well established that both glial and neuronal cells in the retina respond to ocular trauma...
  65. Pluripotent Adult Spermatogonial Stem Cells: Prospective for Retinal Degeneration
    Nady Golestaneh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The neural retina is subject to a number of degenerative conditions, including retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular ..
  66. Easy-to-Use, Low-Cost, Handheld Retinal Camera for Screening for Diabetic Retinop
    RANDAL CHINNOCK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..commercialization of a handheld, TeleOphthalmoscope" that is capable of performing visual assessment of the human retina. The device is intended as a screening or diagnostic tool for diabetic retinopathy and other abnormalities of the ..
  67. Advanced Engineering Development of a Chronic Retinal Implant
    JOHN L contact WYATT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Only a thin microelectrode array will penetrate the sclera to electrically stimulate the retina from beneath...
  68. Novel Adeno-Associated Viral Therapy for Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration
    James M Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Wet AMD is initiated by a thickening and disruption of the membrane underlying the retina. The oxygen supply to the macula is disrupted and the body responds by growing new, abnormal blood vessels...
    David Marshak; Fiscal Year: 2000 understand the role of histamine released from centrifugal axons in the etiology of small vessel damage to the retina of diabetic patients...
  70. Retinal Circadian Signaling in a Transgenic Model
    Allan Wiechmann; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In the retina, melatonin acts as a paracrine signal of darkness by activating specific receptors that ultimately leads to ..
    KATHERINE FITE; Fiscal Year: 1991
    A series of studies are proposed to investigate age-related alterations in the outer retina of the Japanese quail, which is a relatively short-lived, highly visual species with a cone-rich retina...
    Steven Rosenzweig; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..examining the binding specificities and kinetics of binding of the VIP receptors in membranes prepared from bovine retina and liver and rat retina and liver...
  73. FASEB Summer Research Conference on Retinal Neurobiology and Visual Processing
    Maureen A McCall; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..4) Plasticity of Visual Signaling, 5) Metabotropic Signaling Dynamics, 6) Information Flow In and Out of the Retina, 7) Synaptic and Circuit Mechanisms in the Inner Retina, and 8) Lessons from Other Sensory Systems...
    PETER MACLEISH; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Retinal regeneration in adult vertebrates is a process exclusive to newts and salamanders. One source of the new retina is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) which is induced to divide and provide progenitor cells...
  75. Release of Angiogenic Inhibitors for Macular Edema
    Yan Feng; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant) Increased vascular permeability or vascular leakage in the retina is an early and common feature of diabetic retinopathy and can result in diabetic macular edema...
  76. Treatment of Retinal Vascular Leakage Using Angiostatin
    Gennadiy Moiseyev; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..DME can occur at early stages of diabetic retinopathy. The breakdown of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) and subsequent retinal vascular hyper-permeability or leakage of macromolecules from the blood ..
  77. Retinal Inhibitory Glycine Receptors
    Malcolm Slaughter; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Almost all retinal neurons express glycine receptors. Although glycine performs a number of roles in retina, there has not been a description of the different glycine receptors that may exist...
  78. Disposable Instrument for Broader Patient Access to Vision Restoration Therapy
    Robert B Aramant; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the early stages of these diseases in attempts to rescue the photoreceptors, the light-sensitive cells of the retina. However, once the photoreceptors have died, they cannot be regenerated...
    BERNARD AGRANOFF; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Comparisons between the axotomized goldfish retina, which does regenerate, and that of the adult rat retina, which does not regenerate, will aid in the ..