nasopharynx

Summary

Summary: The nasal part of the pharynx, lying above the level of the soft palate.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The descriptive epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae nasopharyngeal carriage in children and adults in Kilifi district, Kenya
    Osman Abdullahi
    Wellcome Trust Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:59-64. 2008
  2. pmc Impact of more than a decade of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use on carriage and invasive potential in Native American communities
    Jennifer R Scott
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 205:280-8. 2012
  3. pmc Improved detection of nasopharyngeal cocolonization by multiple pneumococcal serotypes by use of latex agglutination or molecular serotyping by microarray
    Paul Turner
    Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sot, Thailand
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1784-9. 2011
  4. doi Viral respiratory infections in hospitalized and community control children in Alaska
    Rosalyn J Singleton
    Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, Alaska
    J Med Virol 82:1282-90. 2010
  5. pmc Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease in England: a cross-sectional study
    Stefan Flasche
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 8:e1001017. 2011
  6. ncbi Antibody responses to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults: a longitudinal household study
    David Goldblatt
    Immunobiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK
    J Infect Dis 192:387-93. 2005
  7. doi Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in rural Gambian villages: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1468-76. 2010
  8. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian villagers
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 43:673-9. 2006
  9. pmc Influence of bacterial interactions on pneumococcal colonization of the nasopharynx
    Joshua R Shak
    Molecules to Mankind Program and Graduate Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Trends Microbiol 21:129-35. 2013
  10. pmc Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 years after start of vaccination program, the Netherlands
    Judith Spijkerman
    University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:584-91. 2011

Detail Information

Publications309 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The descriptive epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae nasopharyngeal carriage in children and adults in Kilifi district, Kenya
    Osman Abdullahi
    Wellcome Trust Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:59-64. 2008
    ..In East Africa we do not know how these pathogens are transmitted between population subgroups nor which serotypes circulate commonly...
  2. pmc Impact of more than a decade of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use on carriage and invasive potential in Native American communities
    Jennifer R Scott
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 205:280-8. 2012
    ..We assessed the impact of 12 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) use on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype-specific invasive disease potential among Native Americans...
  3. pmc Improved detection of nasopharyngeal cocolonization by multiple pneumococcal serotypes by use of latex agglutination or molecular serotyping by microarray
    Paul Turner
    Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sot, Thailand
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1784-9. 2011
    Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx is critical for an understanding of transmission, estimates of vaccine efficacy, and possible replacement disease...
  4. doi Viral respiratory infections in hospitalized and community control children in Alaska
    Rosalyn J Singleton
    Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, Alaska
    J Med Virol 82:1282-90. 2010
    ..Rhinovirus and adenovirus were detected in two-thirds of hospitalized children, but their frequent detection in control children made their role in respiratory hospitalization uncertain...
  5. pmc Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease in England: a cross-sectional study
    Stefan Flasche
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 8:e1001017. 2011
    ....
  6. ncbi Antibody responses to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults: a longitudinal household study
    David Goldblatt
    Immunobiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK
    J Infect Dis 192:387-93. 2005
    ..pneumoniae or cross-reactive antigens. No longitudinal studies of carriage of and immune responses to S. pneumoniae have been conducted using sophisticated immunological laboratory techniques...
  7. doi Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in rural Gambian villages: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1468-76. 2010
    ..pneumoniae in rural Africa and a baseline for evaluating the impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the region...
  8. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian villagers
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 43:673-9. 2006
    ..To prepare for the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of restricted valency, we studied the nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian villagers...
  9. pmc Influence of bacterial interactions on pneumococcal colonization of the nasopharynx
    Joshua R Shak
    Molecules to Mankind Program and Graduate Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Trends Microbiol 21:129-35. 2013
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common commensal inhabitant of the nasopharynx and a frequent etiologic agent in serious diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis...
  10. pmc Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 years after start of vaccination program, the Netherlands
    Judith Spijkerman
    University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:584-91. 2011
    ..PCV7 serotypes were largely replaced by non-PCV7 serotypes. Disappearance of PCV7 serotypes in parents suggests strong transmission reduction through vaccination...
  11. pmc Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples
    Tobias Allander
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12891-6. 2005
    ..We suggest that a systematic exploration of the viruses that infect humans, "the human virome," can be initiated...
  12. ncbi Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease
    D Bogaert
    Laboratory of Paediatrics, Erasmus MC Sophia, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:144-54. 2004
    ....
  13. pmc A longitudinal household study of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage in a UK setting
    M Hussain
    Immunisation Department, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 133:891-8. 2005
    ..pneumoniae is common in a UK setting in the pre-conjugate vaccine era. PCV would protect against a large proportion of carriage isolates. However, the impact of vaccination on non-vaccine serotypes will need to be monitored...
  14. doi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian infants: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, MRC Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 46:807-14. 2008
    ..To prepare for national introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of restricted valency, we studied nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian infants...
  15. pmc Early acquisition and high nasopharyngeal co-colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae and three respiratory pathogens amongst Gambian new-borns and infants
    Brenda A Kwambana
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories UK, Atlantic Boulevard, Banjul, PO Box 273, The Gambia
    BMC Infect Dis 11:175. 2011
    ....
  16. pmc Deep sequencing analyses of low density microbial communities: working at the boundary of accurate microbiota detection
    Giske Biesbroek
    Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunity UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 7:e32942. 2012
    ..This study was aiming to establish protocols for accurate microbiota analysis at low microbial density...
  17. ncbi Report from a WHO Working Group: standard method for detecting upper respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:e1-11. 2003
    ..Numerous studies evaluating the efficacy of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines are being conducted or planned throughout the world. Some of these studies are evaluating the effect of vaccine on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage...
  18. pmc Genetic variability in the G protein gene of group A and B respiratory syncytial viruses from India
    Shama Parveen
    Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3055-64. 2006
    ..78) than within the genotypes (dN/dS, 0.69). These are among the first molecular analyses of RSV strains from the second most populous country in the world and will be useful for comparisons to candidate vaccine strains...
  19. doi Comparison of nasopharyngeal flocked swabs and aspirates for rapid diagnosis of respiratory viruses in children
    K H Chan
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong and Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China
    J Clin Virol 42:65-9. 2008
    ..The quality of clinical specimens is a crucial determinant for virological diagnosis...
  20. pmc Identification of respiratory viruses in adults: nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling
    David Lieberman
    Pulmonary Unit, Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3439-43. 2009
    ..Sampling by all three methods is required for the maximal detection of respiratory viruses...
  21. pmc Clinical assessment and improved diagnosis of bocavirus-induced wheezing in children, Finland
    Maria Söderlund-Venermo
    Department of Virology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1423-30. 2009
    ..Among children with bronchiolitis, >25% had acute HBoV infections. Accurate HBoV diagnosis requires serologic analysis or PCR of serum; PCR of NPAs alone is insufficient...
  22. pmc Pneumococcal interactions with epithelial cells are crucial for optimal biofilm formation and colonization in vitro and in vivo
    Laura R Marks
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
    Infect Immun 80:2744-60. 2012
    The human nasopharynx is the main reservoir for Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) and the source for both horizontal spread and transition to infection...
  23. ncbi Colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children
    D Bogaert
    Department of Paediatrics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet 363:1871-2. 2004
    ..These findings suggest a natural competition between colonisation with vaccine-type pneumococci and S aureus, which might explain the increase in S aureus-related otitis media after vaccination...
  24. pmc Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection of human metapneumoviruses from all known genetic lineages
    Jeroen Maertzdorf
    Vironovative BV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 42:981-6. 2004
    ..Here we describe the development and evaluation of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay that detects human metapneumovirus from the four known genetic lineages with equal specificities and sensitivities...
  25. pmc Clonal success of piliated penicillin nonsusceptible pneumococci
    K Sjostrom
    Department of Bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, SE 171 82 Solna, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12907-12. 2007
    ..In Sweden, a country where the low antibiotic usage does not explain the spread of resistant strains, at least 70% of all PNSP isolates collected during year 2003 carried the pilus islet...
  26. pmc Effects of community-wide vaccination with PCV-7 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in the Gambia: a cluster-randomized trial
    Anna Roca
    Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia
    PLoS Med 8:e1001107. 2011
    ..Long-term beneficial effects of PCVs may be countered by serotype replacement. We aimed to determine the impact of PCV-7 vaccination on pneumococcal carriage in rural Gambia...
  27. pmc Evaluation of a medium (STGG) for transport and optimal recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal secretions collected during field studies
    K L O'Brien
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:1021-4. 2001
    ..Recovery of pneumococci after storage of NP material in STGG medium at -70 degrees C is at least as good as that from direct plating. Storage at -20 degrees C is also acceptable. Storage at 4 degrees C for 5 days is not ideal...
  28. pmc New patterns in the otopathogens causing acute otitis media six to eight years after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Janet R Casey
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:304-9. 2010
    ....
  29. doi Invasive disease and paediatric carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ghana
    Eric S Donkor
    Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
    Scand J Infect Dis 42:254-9. 2010
    ..The high multiple drug resistance of the organism observed heightens the public health burden, which may be controlled by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to a large extent...
  30. pmc Multiple colonization with S. pneumoniae before and after introduction of the seven-valent conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
    Silvio D Brugger
    Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 5:e11638. 2010
    ..We studied the epidemiology of cocolonization with S. pneumoniae before and after introduction of the seven-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7)...
  31. doi First report of putative Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6D among nasopharyngeal isolates from Fijian children
    Ping Jin
    Bao an Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shenzhen, People s Republic of China
    J Infect Dis 200:1375-80. 2009
    ..A putative Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype, 6D, resulting from the introduction of wciN(beta) into serotype 6B has been proposed...
  32. ncbi Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization among immunized and unimmunized children in a community-randomized trial
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1211-20. 2007
    ..The impact of PCV on nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization is essential to understanding disease effects...
  33. doi The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease
    Aras Kadioglu
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:288-301. 2008
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that colonizes the mucosal surfaces of the host nasopharynx and upper airway...
  34. pmc Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults
    James P Watt
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 621 N Washington St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4974-6. 2004
    ..and oropharyngeal specimens by passing a flexible calcium alginate wire swab either nasally to the posterior nasopharynx or orally to the posterior oropharynx...
  35. ncbi Tissue-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence factors to pathogenesis
    Carlos J Orihuela
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 2794, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:1661-9. 2004
    ..We conclude that transitions between body sites require virulence determinants distinct from those involved in organ-specific replication...
  36. pmc Identification of a third human polyomavirus
    Tobias Allander
    Laboratory for Clinical Microbiology, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, L2 02, Karolinska University Hospital, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Virol 81:4130-6. 2007
    ..This finding further illustrates how unbiased screening of respiratory tract samples can be used for the discovery of diverse virus types...
  37. pmc Density interactions among Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx of young Peruvian children
    Yu Wen Chien
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:72-7. 2013
    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly carried in the nasopharynx of young children, and have been speculated to interact with each other...
  38. pmc Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory bacterial pathogens in children and adults: cross-sectional surveys in a population with high rates of pneumococcal disease
    Grant A Mackenzie
    Child Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia
    BMC Infect Dis 10:304. 2010
    ..To determine the prevalence of carriage of respiratory bacterial pathogens, and the risk factors for and serotype distribution of pneumococcal carriage in an Australian Aboriginal population...
  39. ncbi Human metapneumovirus infections in young and elderly adults
    Ann R Falsey
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Rochester General Hospital, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 1425 Portland Avenue, Rochester, NY 14621, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:785-90. 2003
    ..In conclusion, hMPV infection occurs in adults of all ages and may account for a significant portion of persons hospitalized with respiratory infections during some years...
  40. ncbi Dynamics of nasopharyngeal colonization by potential respiratory pathogens
    J A Garcia-Rodriguez
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Facultad de Medicina, Ps S Vicente 108, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 50:59-73. 2002
    Studies have shown that colonization of the nasopharynx by potential respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis is established early in childhood, although rates vary greatly ..
  41. ncbi Membranous cells in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue: a portal of entry for the respiratory mucosal pathogen group A streptococcus
    Hae Sun Park
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Immunol 171:2532-7. 2003
    ....
  42. doi Effect of reduced-dose schedules with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in children: a randomized controlled trial
    Elske J M van Gils
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85090, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    JAMA 302:159-67. 2009
    ..The effects of reduced-dose schedules of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) on pneumococcal carriage in children are largely unknown, although highly relevant in the context of subsequent herd effects...
  43. doi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian children who participated in a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial and in their younger siblings
    Yin Bun Cheung
    Biostatistics Department, Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:990-5. 2009
    ..We studied the effects of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on the carriage of individual serotypes and on antimicrobial resistance in vaccinated children and their younger siblings...
  44. doi The immunising effect of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonisation; protection against future colonisation and fatal invasive disease
    Luke Richards
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE19HN, United Kingdom
    Immunobiology 215:251-63. 2010
    The human nasopharynx is an important ecological niche for Streptococcus pneumoniae, and asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage is a common precursor to invasive disease...
  45. doi Potential of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue for vaccine responses in the airways
    Per Brandtzaeg
    Laboratory for Immunohistochemistry and Immunopathology, Centre for Immune Regulation, University of Oslo, Olso, Norway
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183:1595-604. 2011
    b>Nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), constituting Waldeyer's ring in humans, is a unique inductive site for B-cell responses and plasma cell generation...
  46. doi Dynamic of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in children with acute otitis media following PCV7 introduction in France
    R Cohen
    Departement de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Creteil, Service de Microbiologie, 40 avenue de Verdun, 94 000 Creteil, France
    Vaccine 28:6114-21. 2010
    ..Most of the serotype 19A replacement was related to the clonal expansion of ST276 which was found to be the predominant ST among penicillin non-susceptible isolates...
  47. ncbi PLUNC: a novel family of candidate host defence proteins expressed in the upper airways and nasopharynx
    Colin D Bingle
    Respiratory Medicine Unit, Division of Genomic Medicine, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 11:937-43. 2002
    ..We suggest that members of the PLUNC family may function in the innate immune response in regions of the mouth, nose and lungs, which are sites of significant bacterial exposure...
  48. doi Human bocavirus in children: mono-detection, high viral load and viraemia are associated with respiratory tract infection
    Andreas Christensen
    Department of Medical Microbiology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway
    J Clin Virol 49:158-62. 2010
    ..In order to study whether HBoV1 can cause RTI, we investigated its presence in children with upper RTI (URTI), lower RTI (LRTI) and a control group of children without RTI...
  49. pmc Protective contributions against invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia of antibody and Th17-cell responses to nasopharyngeal colonisation
    Jonathan M Cohen
    Centre for Respiratory Research, Department of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e25558. 2011
    ..These data suggest that whilst nasopharyngeal colonisation induces a range of immune responses, the effective protective responses depend upon the site of subsequent infection...
  50. doi Crowding and other strong predictors of upper respiratory tract carriage of otitis media-related bacteria in Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children
    Peter Jacoby
    Centre for Child Health Research, Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:480-5. 2011
    ..Data are limited on risk factors for carriage of these pathogens, particularly for Indigenous populations. We investigated predictors of nasopharyngeal carriage in Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children...
  51. doi Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococcal serotype 19A strains
    Elske J M van Gils
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    JAMA 304:1099-106. 2010
    ..Because spontaneous fluctuations in time and antibiotic selective pressure may have induced this serotype 19A increase, controlled studies are needed to assess the role of PCV-7...
  52. pmc Human bocavirus infections in hospitalized children and adults
    Jean Longtin
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:217-21. 2008
    ..Two clades of HBoV were identified. The pathogenic role of HBoV in RTIs is uncertain because it was frequently detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic children and was commonly found with other viruses in symptomatic children...
  53. ncbi Association between carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Children
    Gili Regev-Yochay
    Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    JAMA 292:716-20. 2004
    ..Of particular significance may be an interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, in view of the recent emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S aureus...
  54. doi Human bocavirus infection in children with respiratory tract disease
    Nathalie Brieu
    Department of Virology, Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier Cedex, France
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:969-73. 2008
    ....
  55. ncbi Reduction of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae after administration of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to toddlers attending day care centers
    Ron Dagan
    Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel
    J Infect Dis 185:927-36. 2002
    ..The rate of carriage of non-vaccine-type pneumococci (excluding serotype 6A) was higher in the pneumococcal-vaccine group than in the control group...
  56. pmc Nasal swab versus nasopharyngeal aspirate for isolation of respiratory viruses
    Terho Heikkinen
    Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital Department of Virology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    J Clin Microbiol 40:4337-9. 2002
    ..The sensitivity of nasal swabs was comparable to that of nasopharyngeal aspirates for the detection of all major respiratory viruses except respiratory syncytial virus...
  57. pmc Revisiting pneumococcal carriage by use of broth enrichment and PCR techniques for enhanced detection of carriage and serotypes
    Maria da Gloria Carvalho
    Streptococcus Laboratory, Respiratory Disease Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Mailstop C02, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1611-8. 2010
    ..A PCR-based approach that employed a broth enrichment step appeared to best enhance the detection of mixed serotypes and low-density pneumococcal carriage...
  58. doi An easy method for detection of nasopharyngeal carriage of multiple Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes
    Margit S Kaltoft
    Neisseria and Streptococcus Reference Laboratory, Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Microbiol Methods 75:540-4. 2008
    ..A significant increase in the positive sampling rate (5.8%) was achieved by using the simplified method compared to conventional streaking of the swabs directly on blood agar (p<0.0001)...
  59. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Finnish children younger than 2 years old
    R K Syrjänen
    Department of Vaccines, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
    J Infect Dis 184:451-9. 2001
    ..The most frequent NP serotypes were 6B, 6A, 11, 19F, and 23F. Both age and health status were important determinants of NP carriage of S. pneumoniae and these features should be considered carefully during analysis of carriage rates...
  60. pmc The dynamics of nasopharyngeal streptococcus pneumoniae carriage among rural Gambian mother-infant pairs
    Momodou K Darboe
    MRC International Nutrition Group, Keneba Field Station, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    BMC Infect Dis 10:195. 2010
    ..Better understanding of the dynamics of transmission and carriage will inform control strategies...
  61. pmc The Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesin PsrP binds to Keratin 10 on lung cells
    Pooja Shivshankar
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Mol Microbiol 73:663-79. 2009
    ..We conclude that the BR domain of PsrP binds to K10 in a lectin-independent manner, that K10 is expressed on lung cells and that vaccination with rPsrP(BR) is protective against pneumococcal disease...
  62. pmc Microbial interactions during upper respiratory tract infections
    Melinda M Pettigrew
    Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8034, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1584-91. 2008
    ..pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus often colonize the nasopharynx. Children are susceptible to bacterial infections during or soon after upper respiratory tract infection (URI)...
  63. ncbi Clinical and molecular epidemiology of human bocavirus in respiratory and fecal samples from children in Hong Kong
    Susanna K P Lau
    State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    J Infect Dis 196:986-93. 2007
    ..We conducted the first systematic prospective clinical and molecular study using nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) and fecal samples...
  64. doi Association between nasopharyngeal load of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viral coinfection, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia in Vietnamese children
    Huong Thi Thu Vu
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:11-8. 2011
    ..The interplay between nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage, viral coinfection, and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is poorly understood. We explored this association in Vietnamese children aged less than 5 years...
  65. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae by adults and children in community and family settings
    Gili Regev-Yochay
    Infectious Disease Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    Clin Infect Dis 38:632-9. 2004
    ..In a subanalysis of 151 pairs of children and their parents and of 32 pairs of siblings, intrafamilial transmission of S. pneumoniae could not be demonstrated...
  66. pmc Characterization of biofilm matrix, degradation by DNase treatment and evidence of capsule downregulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates
    Luanne Hall-Stoodley
    Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    BMC Microbiol 8:173. 2008
    ..To better understand pneumococcal biofilm formation six low-passage encapsulated nasopharyngeal isolates of S. pneumoniae were assessed over a six-eight day period in vitro...
  67. ncbi Indirect effect of conjugate vaccine on adult carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae: an explanation of trends in invasive pneumococcal disease
    Laura L Hammitt
    Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:1487-94. 2006
    ..Vaccine use has also indirectly decreased the rate of invasive disease in adults, presumably through decreased transmission of pneumococci from vaccinated children to adults...
  68. pmc Use of a rapid test of pneumococcal colonization density to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia
    W C Albrich
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 54:601-9. 2012
    ..We therefore tested a quantitative lytA real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) on NP swab samples from patients with pneumonia and controls...
  69. pmc Early biofilm formation on microtiter plates is not correlated with the invasive disease potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Anel Lizcano
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Microb Pathog 48:124-30. 2010
    ..A disconnect between biofilm forming ability and the capacity to colonize the nasopharynx, cause pneumonia, and enter the bloodstream was also observed in mice. Importantly, S...
  70. doi Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries
    Victor A Laguna-Torres
    US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 5:123-34. 2011
    ..Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease...
  71. pmc Upper and lower respiratory tract infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae is affected by pneumolysin deficiency and differences in capsule type
    Aras Kadioglu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 70:2886-90. 2002
    ..Absence of pneumolysin was found to be associated with significantly lower numbers of pneumococci in the nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs...
  72. pmc Biofilm and planktonic pneumococci demonstrate disparate immunoreactivity to human convalescent sera
    Carlos J Sanchez
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78229, USA
    BMC Microbiol 11:245. 2011
    ....
  73. pmc Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia
    Patrick C Y Woo
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, University Pathology Building, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong
    J Virol 79:884-95. 2005
    ..13 x 10(6) copies per ml, from a 35-year-old woman with pneumonia. Our data support the existence of a novel group 2 coronavirus associated with pneumonia in humans...
  74. ncbi Post-PCV7 changes in colonizing pneumococcal serotypes in 16 Massachusetts communities, 2001 and 2004
    Susan S Huang
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Pediatrics 116:e408-13. 2005
    ..Analysis of colonizing serotypes among healthy children in the community provides critical data on such changes...
  75. ncbi Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) regulates TLR4 signal transduction in nasopharynx epithelial cell line 5-8F via NFkappaB and MAPKs signaling pathways
    Yixin Yang
    Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha, 410078 Hunan, PR China
    Mol Immunol 44:984-92. 2007
    ..The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the nasopharynx epithelial cells (NECs) could recognize and respond to LPS...
  76. ncbi Differential expression of key pneumococcal virulence genes in vivo
    Kim S LeMessurier
    School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
    Microbiology 152:305-11. 2006
    ..study, expression of key pneumococcal virulence genes cbpA, pspA, ply, psaA, cps2A, piaA, nanA and spxB in the nasopharynx, lungs and bloodstream of mice was investigated, following intranasal challenge with the serotype 2 strain D39...
  77. pmc Rapid identification viruses from nasal pharyngeal aspirates in acute viral respiratory infections by RT-PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    Kuan Fu Chen
    Johns Hopkins University, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol Methods 173:60-6. 2011
    ..Time to first result of RT-PCR/ESI-MS was 8h. RT-PCR/ESI-MS demonstrated capacity to detect respiratory viruses identifiable and unidentifiable by conventional methods rapidly...
  78. doi Postradiation nasopharyngeal necrosis in the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    Yi Jun Hua
    State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, China
    Head Neck 31:807-12. 2009
    ..However, the analysis of PRNN with a significant cohort of patients has not been reported in English-language literature. In this study, we aimed to evaluate PRNN in 28 patients with NPC...
  79. pmc Inactivation of the CovR/S virulence regulator impairs infection in an improved murine model of Streptococcus pyogenes naso-pharyngeal infection
    Faraz M Alam
    Section of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e61655. 2013
    ..The human nasopharynx represents the major reservoir for all S. pyogenes infection, including severe invasive disease...
  80. pmc Changes in serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Korea, after optional use of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine
    Eun Young Cho
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children s Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    J Korean Med Sci 27:716-22. 2012
    ..5% to 95.4% (P = 0.001). This study demonstrates the impact of optional PCV7 vaccination in Korea; the proportion of all PCV7 serotypes except 19F decreased while antimicrobial resistant serotypes 6A and 19A further increased...
  81. doi Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in tropical rural areas of Senegal: The EVIRA project
    Mbayame Ndiaye Niang
    Unit of Medical Virology, Institut Pasteur of Dakar, Dakar, Senegal
    J Med Virol 82:866-72. 2010
    ....
  82. doi Nasopharyngeal microbiota in infants with acute otitis media
    Markus Hilty
    Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
    J Infect Dis 205:1048-55. 2012
    ..Capturing the breadth of microbial interactions requires a detailed description of the microbiota during health and AOM...
  83. ncbi Persistent symptomless human metapneumovirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients
    Maurizia Debiaggi
    Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologiche, Eidologiche e Cliniche, Sezione di Microbiologia, Universita di Pavia, via Brambilla, 74, 27100, Pavia, Italy
    J Infect Dis 194:474-8. 2006
    ..The data indicate that HSCT recipients may frequently develop symptomless hMPV infection...
  84. doi Respiratory viruses in nepalese children with and without pneumonia: a case-control study
    Maria Mathisen
    Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:731-5. 2010
    ..The causative role of respiratory viruses detected in upper airway secretions in childhood pneumonia needs further investigation...
  85. doi Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage with high heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage in Central Greece
    Ioanna N Grivea
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Thessaly, School of Medicine, General University Hospital of Larissa, Biopolis, 411 10 Larissa, Greece
    Vaccine 29:8882-7. 2011
    ..Intermediate resistance to penicillin was observed in serotype 23B, 15B, 15C, 15A, 35F, 6C, and 24F pneumococci. Their exact role in invasive and non-invasive disease remains to be seen in the years ahead...
  86. pmc Effect of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in a randomised controlled trial
    Elske J M van Gils
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e20229. 2011
    ..Because of the reported negative association of vaccine serotype pneumococci and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx, we explored the effect of PCV7 on nasopharyngeal colonisation with S. aureus in children and parents.
  87. doi Development and implementation of a molecular diagnostic platform for daily rapid detection of 15 respiratory viruses
    Annika Tiveljung-Lindell
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Med Virol 81:167-75. 2009
    ..The new platform was introduced in the laboratory in October 2007 and has then fully replaced the standard immunofluorescence assay for rapid detection of viruses and virus isolation...
  88. ncbi Long-term study on symptomless human metapneumovirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients
    Maurizia Debiaggi
    Dipartimento Scienze Morfologiche Eidologiche e Cliniche, Sezione Microbiologia, Universita di Pavia, Italy
    New Microbiol 30:255-8. 2007
    ..In addition, data collected suggest a hospital origin of hMPV infection in most HSCT patients during the 2004-2005 period...
  89. pmc Sucrose metabolism contributes to in vivo fitness of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Ramkumar Iyer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02110, USA
    Mol Microbiol 66:1-13. 2007
    ..The scrH/susH double mutant is more attenuated than scrH in the nasopharynx, indicating SusH can substitute in this niche...
  90. pmc Detection of human bocavirus mRNA in respiratory secretions correlates with high viral load and concurrent diarrhea
    José Luiz Proença-Módena
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 6:e21083. 2011
    ..9% of patients with HBoV. In summary, our data demonstrated that active HBoV replication was detected in a small percentage of patients with ARI and was correlated with concurrent diarrhea and lack of other viral co-infections...
  91. pmc Added value of an oropharyngeal swab in detection of viruses in children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection
    Laura L Hammitt
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2318-20. 2011
    ..Oropharyngeal swabs increased the number of viral infections detected by 15%, compared to collection of a nasopharyngeal swab alone. This advantage was most pronounced for detection of influenza, parainfluenza, and adenovirus...
  92. doi Predominance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in children with otitis media following introduction of a 3+0 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine schedule
    Selma P Wiertsema
    School of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, WA 6009, Perth, Australia
    Vaccine 29:5163-70. 2011
    ..Immunisation Program, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was the predominant pathogen isolated from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with a history of rAOM...
  93. pmc Self-collected mid-turbinate swabs for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory illnesses
    Oscar E Larios
    Department of Medicine, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    PLoS ONE 6:e21335. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory virus isolation of flocked MT swabs compared to flocked NP swabs...
  94. pmc Improved detection of respiratory viruses in pediatric outpatients with acute respiratory illness by real-time PCR using nasopharyngeal flocked swabs
    Patrick Kiio Munywoki
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya
    J Clin Microbiol 49:3365-7. 2011
    ..6% versus 79.2%; P = 0.0043). NFS collection was noninferior to NW collection in the detection of RSV by IF...
  95. pmc Evidence from multiplex molecular assays for complex multipathogen interactions in acute respiratory infections
    John D Brunstein
    Centre for Translational and Applied Genomics, PHSA Labs, Children s and Women s Health Centre of BC, PHSA, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 46:97-102. 2008
    ....
  96. doi Effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage with Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in a randomized controlled trial
    Elske J M van Gils
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 29:7595-8. 2011
    ..influenzae and 68% for M. catarrhalis at the age of 18 months. Reduced dose (CRM197) schedules induced a slight reduction in overall pneumococcal carriage but no increases in the presence of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis...
  97. pmc Detection of multiple respiratory pathogens during primary respiratory infection: nasal swab versus nasopharyngeal aspirate using real-time polymerase chain reaction
    T J Meerhoff
    NIVEL Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:365-71. 2010
    ....
  98. pmc A novel adenovirus expressing Flt3 ligand enhances mucosal immunity by inducing mature nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue dendritic cell migration
    Shinichi Sekine
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Microbiology, Immunobiology Vaccine Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Immunol 180:8126-34. 2008
    ....
  99. doi Evaluation of sequential multiplex PCR for direct detection of multiple serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal secretions
    Martin Antonio
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Med Microbiol 58:296-302. 2009
    ..0001). The multiplex PCR method identified significantly more serotypes than the latex/Quellung method if limited to the 29 serotypes (P=0.001 and P=0.014, respectively)...
  100. pmc A combination of Flt3 ligand cDNA and CpG ODN as nasal adjuvant elicits NALT dendritic cells for prolonged mucosal immunity
    Tatsuya Fukuiwa
    The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0007, USA
    Vaccine 26:4849-59. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that nasal delivery of a combined DNA adjuvant offers an attractive possibility for the development of an effective mucosal vaccine for the elderly...
  101. pmc Regulation of production of mucosal antibody to pneumococcal protein antigens by T-cell-derived gamma interferon and interleukin-10 in children
    Qibo Zhang
    Department of Clinical Sciences at South Bristol, Academic Unit of Child Health, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 74:4735-43. 2006
    Nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) are part of human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue, which may play an important role in local defense against pneumococci...

Research Grants70

  1. Pilot Studies of the Effect of Aging on Mucociliary Clearance
    Lawrence E Ostrowski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mucociliary clearance will be measured in the trachea and nasopharynx of 3, 6, 12, and 24 month old C57BL/6 mice by tracking the movement of endogenous mucus particles or instilled ..
  2. Mechanisms of Haemophilus influenzae pathogenesis in the lung
    Hao Shen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae inhabits the human nasopharynx and conjunctiva, and can disseminate to cause pneumonia, otitis media, or meningitis...
  3. Complement Activation on Neisseria meningitidis
    Sanjay Ram; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..strategies dictates whether the organism is cleared from the mucosa, remains an asymptomatic colonizer in the nasopharynx, or proceeds to cause invasive disease...
  4. Global Regulation of Gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Bernard Weisblum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Streptococcus pneumoniae is normally found as an inhabitant of the human nasopharynx that becomes pathogenic in response to environmental changes...
  5. GENETICS AND VIRULENCE OF PNEUMOCOCCAL CAPSULAR TYPES
    JANET L YOTHER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In contrast, low levels of capsule are sufficient to sustain colonization in the nasopharynx, as factors necessary for adherence are unmasked as capsule is reduced...
  6. H. influenzae: Role of Sialic Acid in Virulence
    Michael A Apicella; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of serum resistance in NTHi including strains which do not sialylate their LOS, C) NTHi residence in the human nasopharynx selects for specific LOS phase variants and D) the transformability of NTHi allows introduction of foreign DNA ..
  7. H. influenzae: Role of Sialic Acid in Virulence
    Michael Apicella; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the state of sialylation and phosphorylcholine expression in NTHi after colonization of the normal human nasopharynx. In addition, we can determine whether foreign DNA is introduced into the genome of a highly transformable NTHi ..
  8. Mechanisms of Haemophilus influenzae pathogenesis in the lung
    Hao Shen; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Project Summary/Abstract The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae inhabits the human nasopharynx and conjunctiva, and can disseminate to cause pneumonia, otitis media, or meningitis...
  9. The role of the primitive choana in amniote craniofacial morphogenesis
    John Abramyan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In mammals, the choanae are covered by the secondary palate and therefore, open directly into the nasopharynx. In most other reptilian amniotes however, the choanae open directly into the oral cavity...
  10. Pneumococcal capsule and host innate immunity
    Moon H Nahm; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..can express more than 90 different capsule types (serotypes) and is often carried as a commensal in the human nasopharynx (NPX), but can also cause serious diseases by invading deeper tissues...
  11. Mechanisms of pneumococcal persistence during carriage.
    JEFFREY NEAL WEISER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The initial step in the interaction of the pneumococcus with its host is colonization of the nasopharynx. Experience with conjugate vaccines has demonstrated that interrupting colonization results in herd immunity ..
  12. Influence of Macrophage NF-kB Activation on the Outcome of Pneumococcal Pneumonia
    FADIE THOMAS COLEMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pneumococcus colonizes the nasopharynx of most children during the first few years of life...
  13. Glucose regulation of bacterial virulence in diabetes and hyperglycemia
    JANET L YOTHER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We found that glucose represses the expression of factors important for S. pneumoniae to colonize the nasopharynx, and increases expression of factors required for systemic virulence...
  14. Midface and Upper Airway in Craniosynostosis
    JOAN THERESE RICHTSMEIER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypoplasia', a catch-all diagnosis that is defined on the basis of deficient development of the upper jaw, nasopharynx, and cheekbones presenting with a flatter than average face and associated respiratory difficulties...
  15. Bacterial cation exporters: a new signaling paradigm for bacterial virulence
    Jason W Rosch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The pneumococcus is able to colonize and replicate in a number of sites in the human host including the nasopharynx (colonization), lungs (pneumoniae), blood (sepsis, and the brain (meningitis)...
  16. Impact of Antibiotics and Vaccines on the in vivo Evolution of S. pneumoniae
    Garth D Ehrlich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..WGS will be used to test if the emergence of these strains from minority to majority status in the nasopharynx and from colonizers to disease causing strains [unreadable] is accompanied by changes in genetic makeup
  17. Gene Expression by Moraxella catarrhalis in vivo
    Todd C Hoopman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..catarrhalis genes that are induced or up-regulated during growth in the chinchilla nasopharynx. Mutant analysis will be used in the second Specific Aim to determine which of these gene products is essential ..
  18. SURFACE PROTEINS OF MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS
    ERIC JOHN HANSEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The ability of this organism to colonize the mucosal surface of the nasopharynx is crucial to its ability to cause disease in other anatomic regions because this colonization event provides a ..
  19. Reduced-Order Constrained Optimization for Rapid IMRT and VMAT Treatment Planning
    Richard J Radke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are to (1) apply Reduced-Order Con- strained Optimization to IMRT planning for non-small cell lung cancers and nasopharynx cancers, where the planning process is highly time-consuming;(2) develop and extend the Reduced-Order ..
  20. Recombinant streptococcus mitis vaccine technology against HIV and other diseases
    Mark Cayabyab; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The recombinant S. mitis vector will be safe and capable of colonizing the oral cavity and nasopharynx of infants and adults abundantly and persistently to elicit robust mucosal immunity...
  21. DEVELOPMENT OF A FIMBRIN VACCINE AGAINST OTITIS MEDIA
    LAUREN BAKALETZ; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..that immunization with fimbrin protein will result ultimately in the reduced ability of NTHi to colonize the nasopharynx, thus lessening or eradicating its ability to induce otitis media...
  22. Conjugate vaccine impact on pneumococcal carriage, disease, and population geneti
    Jonathan A Finkelstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As PCV7 vaccine serotypes have virtually disappeared from the nasopharynx, they have been quickly and completely replaced by non-vaccine serotypes...
  23. STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ADHERENCE AND OTITIS MEDIA PATH
    Thomas Demaria; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), is one of the foremost human pathogens and is the primary nasopharynx, the initial event in the induction of OM and the mechanisms which effect the transition for a colonized state ..
  24. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF H. INFLUENZAE CAPSULE EXPRESSION
    SUSAN HOISETH; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..shift from b+ to b- has been observed in the nose of an infant rat, and b-mutants have been isolated from the nasopharynx of infants with systemic type b disease...
  25. VOLITIONAL, BOLUS, AND AGE EFFECTS ON HUMAN SWALLOWING
    Peter Kahrilas; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of the oropharyngeal swallow as a tightly integrated group of functional elements (closure of the nasopharynx, UES Opening, laryngeal vestibule closure, tongue loading (ramping), tongue pulsion, and pharyngeal clearance), ..
  26. EBV-Specific T-Cell Therapy for Nasopharynx Cancer: Immunomodulation and Response
    Marshall Posner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Nasopharynx cancer is caused by a common virus that is present in all the tumor cells and causes the cancer...
  27. EFFECT OF PORA ON MENINGOCOCCI-MACROPHAGE INTERACTION
    Lillian Waldbeser; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..It enters the bloodstream from the nasopharynx and from there crosses the blood brain barrier to cause inflammation of the meninges...
  28. Mechanisms of intraspecies Competition in Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    SUZANNE R DAWID; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Colonization of the nasopharynx is a prerequisite to disease with the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  29. MOLECULAR PROPERTIES OF CLASS I AND II STREPTOCOCCI
    DEBRA BESSEN; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Although GABHS can thrive in almost any bodily tissue, it is the nasopharynx and impetigo lesion that serve as the primary sites of infection and principal reservoirs for transmission...
  30. Diagnosing Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children and Measuring Treatment Response
    Nader Shaikh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..At baseline, we will collect detailed information regarding signs and symptoms, along with a culture from the nasopharynx. All children will undergo sinus radiography;those with radiographic evidence of sinusitis will be treated with ..
  31. Proteomic analysis of head & neck squamous cell cancer
    Michael Prystowsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..anatomically heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and nasopharynx. While all have in common an etiological association with tobacco and/or alcohol exposure, tumors originating ..
  32. Array-based outcome prediction in head and neck cancer
    Thomas Belbin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..arising from diverse anatomic locations including the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and nasopharynx. Treatment planning for HNSCC depends largely on anatomical staging of the disease at presentation...
  33. ORAL TRANSMISSION OF SIV IN NEONATAL AND ADULT MACAQUES
    SHAWN O NEIL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..sites within the alimentary tract, including the lymphoepithelium of the tonsil, the respiratory mucosa of the nasopharynx, and the columnar epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract...
  34. Functional Characterization of the Septal Organ
    Minghong Ma; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..a region of respiratory epithelium, lying bilaterally near the base of the nasal septum at the entrance to the nasopharynx. Compared to the main olfactory epithelium, which contains ~2 million receptor neurons expressing ~1000 ..
  35. Proteomic analysis of head & neck squamous cell cancer
    Michael Prystowsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the oral cavity, oropharyrax, hypopharynx, larynx and nasopharynx. While all have in common an etiological association with tobacco and/or alcohol exposure, tumors originating ..
  36. Structural mimicry and host innate responses
    Shayla West Barnette; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Understanding how the host normally contains these bacteria within the nasopharynx, how the bacteria are adapted to persist in the face of host clearance, and how host-pathogen interactions are ..
  37. SYNTHESIS OF THE PODOCARPUS DILACTONES
    ROBERT WOLLENBERG; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..against leukemia in mice and cytotoxicity in vitro towards cells derived from both human carcinoma of the nasopharynx (KB) and P-388 murine leukemia...
  38. EPIDEMIOLOGY & CANCER REGISTRIES IN THE PACIFIC BASIN
    Brian Henderson; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..In addition, important collaborative research on several cancers (e.g., lung, breast, nasopharynx and liver) was developed...
  39. AMINE-BORANES AS NEW TOPOISOMERASE II INHIBITORS
    BERNARD SPIELVOGEL; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..g. P388, L1210, Tmolt3, HeLa-S3, lung brochogenic, KB nasopharynx, glioma, and osteosarcoma...
  40. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy
    Howard Amols; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..There are three research projects (RP). The overall goal of RP1 Is to use IMRT to improve nasopharynx. The first aim is to examine whether dose in a randomized Phase III study, comparing the adjuvant androgen ..
  41. Molecular Mechanisms of Pneumococcal Colonization
    Michael Sebert; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..have revealed that one of these systems, CiaRH, is required for persistence of the organism in the infant rat nasopharynx and that a portion, but not all, of this failure to colonize effectively can be attributed to downregulation of ..
  42. Segregation of H.i nfluenzae LPS genes in otitis media
    KIRK MCCREA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..isolated from the middle ear of children with otitis media and compared to isolates obtained from the nasopharynx of healthy children in daycare...
  43. Recurrent otitis media and COPD: immunity and vaccines
    Timothy Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed studies will advance the field of vaccine development to prevent otitis media and respiratory tract infections in COPD. ..
  44. Epidemiologic Methods: Resistant Nosocomial Infections
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This will in turn lead to better practices to reduce the incidence of ARNI. ..
  45. Molecular epidemiologic identification of pneumococcal tissue specific genes
    MELINDA MARY PETTIGREW; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A greater understanding of the genetic factors that influence the virulence potential of pneumococcal clones is critical to our ability to develop effective methods to control, prevent, and treat these important infections. ..
  46. Competition Among Bacterial Resiratory Pathogens
    Jeffrey Weiser; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Colonization of their common niche, the nasopharynx, is extremely common for both species and represents the first step in their pathogenesis...
  47. Rural Trial of Clinic Order Entry with Decision Support
    Matthew Samore; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The cost impact of the intervention will be measured to allow a comprehensive assessment of the value of this HIT. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  48. BACTERIAL PHOSPHORYLCHOLINE AND PATHOGENESIS
    Jeffrey Weiser; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim 3 will determine the effects of the immune response to ChoP on colonization, where our findings demonstrate that expression of ChoP is most important to pathogenesis. ..
  49. DEVELOPMENT OF A VACCINE FOR MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS
    Timothy Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..catarrhalis surface, the identification of surface antigens expressed specifically during human infection and critical information about the human immune response to surface antigens of M. catarrhalis. ..
  50. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BACTERIAL PATHOGENESIS
    David Briles; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The MCBP advisory committee will advise the trainees in their research and training programs and in their search for a job or postdoctoral position at the completion of their MCBP training. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. Gene Discovery for Pneumococcal Otitis Media
    Melinda Pettigrew; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Discovery of additional factors involved in streptococcal OM will facilitate the development of new strategies for the control and prevention of this important disease. ..
  52. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL OF THE PHARYNGEAL AIRWAY
    RALPH FREGOSI; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These experiments will lay the foundation for new and improved treatment strategies for persons with obstructive sleep apnea or with other conditions that are caused by malfunction of the tongue motor system. ..
  53. Pneumolysin, Innate and Acquired Immunity to Pneumococci
    Richard Malley; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The establishment of a link between the innate and the acquired arm of the immune response to pneumococcus may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms by which immunity to pneumococcus is acquired. ..
  54. Oral HPV Infection in HIV-Infected Men and Women
    Maura Gillison; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This proposal has the potential to yield information important for future efforts at primary prevention and early detection of HPV-HNSCC. ..
  55. Multiplexed pathogen detection by on-chip amplification
    Darrell Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Funds to acquire a JEOL JSM-7401F FESEM
    Michael Apicella; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Wilson examines Leismania compromised human macrophages. Starner will study the relationship of Haemophilus biofilms to infection and inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis patients. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. Obesity Effects on Pharyngeal Airway Mechanics by MRI
    Michael J Brennick; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies will provide new information on how obesity affects pharyngeal mechanics and increase our understanding of why obese patients are predisposed to pharyngeal airway collapse during sleep. ..
  58. PCR assays to detect individual pneumococcal serotypes
    LORRY RUBIN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Furthermore, they will be critical for determining the effects of current and future pneumococcal vaccines on serotype-specific carriage. ..
  59. Novel Strategies Targeting Acute Exacerbation of COPD
    Richard Albert; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This information will, at the same time, also provide information regarding the pathobiology of COPD exacerbations. ..
  60. Integrated, on-chip RT-MME-PCR for influenza diagnostics; Phase 1 = sample prepar
    Darrell Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. Sixth International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium
    ANN FALSEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLY
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  63. HAEMOPHILUS ANTIGEN REGULATION OF INFLAMMATION IN COPD
    Sanjay Sethi; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Identification of the integral bacterial and host components that contribute to immune-mediated inflammation in COPD will ultimately lead to novel therapeutic strategies to alter disease progression and improve outcome in COPD. ..
  64. 'Lyme disease: A possible test for cure
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Cure of LD will be assessed objectively (by culture and PCR) both in rhesus monkeys (chronic LD) and in mice (acute LD). Correlation between LD cure and anti-C6 Ab titers will be evaluated. ..
  65. Vulnerability to Smallpox Due to Declining CTL Immunity
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..By correlating these responses with vaccinia lesion sizes in new vaccinees, markers of severe complications from vaccinia vaccination may be identified. ..
  66. Tenth Annual Midwest Microbial Pathogenesis Conference
    Michael Apicella; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Such interdisciplinary collaborations have fostered open dialogues and it is expected that the Tenth Annual Midwest Microbial Pathogenesis Conference will continue in this tradition. ..
  67. IKK-NF-kB pathways in viral-induced lung inflammation
    Roberto Garofalo; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..