synaptic vesicles

Summary

Summary: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A novel mechanism for GABA synthesis and packaging into synaptic vesicles
    Chandana Buddhala
    Department of Basic Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, United States
    Neurochem Int 55:9-12. 2009
  2. pmc Bassoon and the synaptic ribbon organize Ca²+ channels and vesicles to add release sites and promote refilling
    Thomas Frank
    InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology and Center for Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Göttingen Medical Center, 37099 Gottingen, Germany
    Neuron 68:724-38. 2010
  3. pmc Membrane fusion: grappling with SNARE and SM proteins
    Thomas C Sudhof
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Science 323:474-7. 2009
  4. pmc RIM determines Ca²+ channel density and vesicle docking at the presynaptic active zone
    Yunyun Han
    Laboratory of Synaptic Mechanisms, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Neuron 69:304-16. 2011
  5. ncbi Actin in action: the interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and synaptic efficacy
    Lorenzo A Cingolani
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and MRC Cell Biology Unit, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:344-56. 2008
  6. ncbi Munc13-1 is essential for fusion competence of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles
    I Augustin
    Max Planck Institut fur experimentelle Medizin, AG Molekulare Neurobiologie, Gottingen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    Nature 400:457-61. 1999
  7. pmc Examining size-strength relationships at hippocampal synapses using an ultrastructural measurement of synaptic release probability
    Tiago Branco
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Struct Biol 172:203-10. 2010
  8. pmc Dynamin I phosphorylation by GSK3 controls activity-dependent bulk endocytosis of synaptic vesicles
    Emma L Clayton
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, George Square, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Nat Neurosci 13:845-51. 2010
  9. ncbi Visualizing secretion and synaptic transmission with pH-sensitive green fluorescent proteins
    G Miesenbock
    Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 394:192-5. 1998
  10. ncbi Molecular anatomy of a trafficking organelle
    Shigeo Takamori
    Department of Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Cell 127:831-46. 2006

Detail Information

Publications317 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A novel mechanism for GABA synthesis and packaging into synaptic vesicles
    Chandana Buddhala
    Department of Basic Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, United States
    Neurochem Int 55:9-12. 2009
    ..and project a model in which ATP generated by mitochondrial GAD65 may serve an important function in providing energy for GAD65 mediated GABA biosynthesis and packaging into synaptic vesicles by vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT).
  2. pmc Bassoon and the synaptic ribbon organize Ca²+ channels and vesicles to add release sites and promote refilling
    Thomas Frank
    InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology and Center for Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Göttingen Medical Center, 37099 Gottingen, Germany
    Neuron 68:724-38. 2010
    At the presynaptic active zone, Ca²+ influx triggers fusion of synaptic vesicles. It is not well understood how Ca²+ channel clustering and synaptic vesicle docking are organized...
  3. pmc Membrane fusion: grappling with SNARE and SM proteins
    Thomas C Sudhof
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Science 323:474-7. 2009
    ....
  4. pmc RIM determines Ca²+ channel density and vesicle docking at the presynaptic active zone
    Yunyun Han
    Laboratory of Synaptic Mechanisms, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Neuron 69:304-16. 2011
    ..Thus, RIM proteins co-ordinately regulate key functions for fast transmitter release, enabling a high presynaptic Ca²+ channel density and vesicle docking at the active zone...
  5. ncbi Actin in action: the interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and synaptic efficacy
    Lorenzo A Cingolani
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and MRC Cell Biology Unit, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:344-56. 2008
    ..The aim of this Review is to highlight some of the recent progress in elucidating the role of the actin cytoskeleton in synaptic function...
  6. ncbi Munc13-1 is essential for fusion competence of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles
    I Augustin
    Max Planck Institut fur experimentelle Medizin, AG Molekulare Neurobiologie, Gottingen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    Nature 400:457-61. 1999
    ..Neurotransmitter release at synapses between nerve cells is mediated by calcium-triggered exocytotic fusion of synaptic vesicles. Before fusion, vesicles dock at the presynaptic release site where they mature to a fusion-competent state...
  7. pmc Examining size-strength relationships at hippocampal synapses using an ultrastructural measurement of synaptic release probability
    Tiago Branco
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Struct Biol 172:203-10. 2010
    ..with the number of vesicles docked at the active zone it shows no relationship with the total number of synaptic vesicles. The lack of a direct correlation between total synaptic size and performance in these terminals suggests ..
  8. pmc Dynamin I phosphorylation by GSK3 controls activity-dependent bulk endocytosis of synaptic vesicles
    Emma L Clayton
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, George Square, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Nat Neurosci 13:845-51. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate a presynaptic role for GSK3 and they indicate that a protein kinase signaling cascade prepares synaptic vesicles for retrieval during elevated neuronal activity.
  9. ncbi Visualizing secretion and synaptic transmission with pH-sensitive green fluorescent proteins
    G Miesenbock
    Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 394:192-5. 1998
    ..When linked to a vesicle membrane protein, pHluorins were sorted to secretory and synaptic vesicles and reported transmission at individual synaptic boutons, as well as secretion and fusion pore 'flicker' of ..
  10. ncbi Molecular anatomy of a trafficking organelle
    Shigeo Takamori
    Department of Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Cell 127:831-46. 2006
    ..However, a detailed picture of an entire trafficking organelle is not yet available. Using synaptic vesicles as a model, we have now determined the protein and lipid composition; measured vesicle size, density, and ..
  11. pmc A vesicle superpool spans multiple presynaptic terminals in hippocampal neurons
    Kevin Staras
    School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
    Neuron 66:37-44. 2010
    ....
  12. ncbi CCL2 released from neuronal synaptic vesicles in the spinal cord is a major mediator of local inflammation and pain after peripheral nerve injury
    Juliette Van Steenwinckel
    PAIN Group, Centre de Recherche de l Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epiniere, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Inserm Unité Mixte de Recherche en Santé 975, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7225, 75013 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 31:5865-75. 2011
    ..Our data demonstrate that CCL2 has the typical characteristics of a neuronal mediator involved in nociceptive signal processing and that antagonists of its receptor are promising agents from treating neuropathic pain...
  13. pmc Uncoupling the roles of synaptotagmin I during endo- and exocytosis of synaptic vesicles
    Jun Yao
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Nat Neurosci 15:243-9. 2012
    ..Thus, syt1 functions as a dual Ca(2+) sensor for both endo- and exocytosis, potentially coupling these two components of the vesicle cycle...
  14. ncbi Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses
    Pietro Baldelli
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, The Italian Institute of Technology, 16163 Genova, Italy
    J Neurosci 27:13520-31. 2007
    ..The decreased size of the SV readily releasable pool, coupled with a decreased SV recycling rate and refilling by the SV reserve pool, may contribute to the epileptic phenotype of SynI knock-out mice...
  15. ncbi Otoferlin, defective in a human deafness form, is essential for exocytosis at the auditory ribbon synapse
    Isabelle Roux
    Inserm UMRS587, Unité de Génétique des Déficits Sensoriels, College de France, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Cell 127:277-89. 2006
    ..hair cells correlates with afferent synaptogenesis and find that otoferlin localizes to ribbon-associated synaptic vesicles. Otoferlin binds Ca(2+) and displays Ca(2+)-dependent interactions with the SNARE proteins syntaxin1 and ..
  16. ncbi Essential functions of synapsins I and II in synaptic vesicle regulation
    T W Rosahl
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas 75235, USA
    Nature 375:488-93. 1995
    b>Synaptic vesicles are coated by synapsins, phosphoproteins that account for 9% of the vesicle protein. To analyse the functions of these proteins, we have studied knockout mice lacking either synapsin I, synapsin II, or both...
  17. ncbi A selective activity-dependent requirement for dynamin 1 in synaptic vesicle endocytosis
    Shawn M Ferguson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Science 316:570-4. 2007
    ..Thus, dynamin 1-independent mechanisms can support limited synaptic vesicle endocytosis, but dynamin 1 is needed during high levels of neuronal activity...
  18. ncbi The expression of vesicular glutamate transporters defines two classes of excitatory synapse
    R T Fremeau
    Department of Neurology, Graduate Program in Neuroscience, UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neuron 31:247-60. 2001
    The quantal release of glutamate depends on its transport into synaptic vesicles. Recent work has shown that a protein previously implicated in the uptake of inorganic phosphate across the plasma membrane catalyzes glutamate uptake by ..
  19. pmc The catenin/cadherin adhesion system is localized in synaptic junctions bordering transmitter release zones
    N Uchida
    Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Japan
    J Cell Biol 135:767-79. 1996
    ..These structures sharply bordered the transmitter release sites associated with synaptic vesicles, although their segregation was less clear in certain types of synapses...
  20. ncbi Mice lacking synaptophysin reproduce and form typical synaptic vesicles
    L G Eshkind
    Division of Cell Biology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Tissue Res 282:423-33. 1995
    ..9nm and an electron-translucent interior were seen in synaptic regions of synaptophysin-deficient mice; these vesicles could be labeled by antibodies against synaptic vesicle proteins, such as synaptobrevin 2...
  21. pmc v-SNARE composition distinguishes synaptic vesicle pools
    Zhaolin Hua
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neuron 71:474-87. 2011
    b>Synaptic vesicles belong to two distinct pools, a recycling pool responsible for the evoked release of neurotransmitter and a resting pool unresponsive to stimulation...
  22. ncbi The synaptic vesicle protein CSP alpha prevents presynaptic degeneration
    Rafael Fernandez-Chacon
    Center for Basic Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75390, USA
    Neuron 42:237-51. 2004
    ....
  23. ncbi Synaptotagmin I functions as a calcium regulator of release probability
    R Fernandez-Chacon
    Center for Basic Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Genetics, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75390 9111, USA
    Nature 410:41-9. 2001
    ..Therefore, Ca2+ binding to synaptotagmin I participates in triggering neurotransmitter release at the synapse...
  24. pmc Identification of a mutation in synapsin I, a synaptic vesicle protein, in a family with epilepsy
    C C Garcia
    Institute of Human Genetics, International Centre for Life, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    J Med Genet 41:183-6. 2004
    ..Synapsin I is a synaptic vesicle associated protein involved in the regulation of synaptogenesis and neurotransmitter release. The SYN1 nonsense mutation that was identified is the likely cause of the phenotype in this family...
  25. pmc Local sharing as a predominant determinant of synaptic matrix molecular dynamics
    Shlomo Tsuriel
    The Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences, Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel
    PLoS Biol 4:e271. 2006
    ....
  26. pmc The v-ATPase V0 subunit a1 is required for a late step in synaptic vesicle exocytosis in Drosophila
    P Robin Hiesinger
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cell 121:607-20. 2005
    ..The protein is only required in neurons, colocalizes with markers for synaptic vesicles as well as active zones, and interacts with t-SNAREs...
  27. ncbi Identification and characterization of the vesicular GABA transporter
    S L McIntire
    Graduate Programs in Neuroscience, Cell Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Neurology, UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, California 94143 0435, USA
    Nature 389:870-6. 1997
    ..Classical transmitters are synthesized in the cytoplasm, and so must be transported into synaptic vesicles. Although the vesicular transporters for monoamines and acetylcholine have been identified, the proteins ..
  28. ncbi Synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins and regulation of synaptic function
    P Greengard
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
    Science 259:780-5. 1993
    ..Several proteins associated with synaptic vesicles, the organelles that store neurotransmitters, are targets for protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation...
  29. pmc Glycosylated SV2 and gangliosides as dual receptors for botulinum neurotoxin serotype F
    Zhuji Fu
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Collegeof Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    Biochemistry 48:5631-41. 2009
    ..Thus, BoNT/F neuronal discrimination involves the recognition of ganglioside and protein (glycosylated SV2) carbohydrate moieties, providing a structural basis for the high affinity and specificity of BoNT/F for neurons...
  30. ncbi Imaging synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis with FM dyes
    Michael A Gaffield
    Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Medical School, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    Nat Protoc 1:2916-21. 2006
    FM dyes have been used to label and then monitor synaptic vesicles, secretory granules and other endocytic structures in a variety of preparations...
  31. pmc The presynaptic active zone
    Thomas C Sudhof
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94304 5453, USA
    Neuron 75:11-25. 2012
    ..This complex docks and primes synaptic vesicles for exocytosis, recruits Ca(2+) channels to the site of exocytosis, and positions the active zone exactly ..
  32. pmc Release probability of hippocampal glutamatergic terminals scales with the size of the active zone
    Noémi Holderith
    Laboratory of Cellular Neurophysiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
    Nat Neurosci 15:988-97. 2012
    ..Our results demonstrate that the numbers of several active-zone proteins, including presynaptic calcium channels, as well as the number of docked vesicles and the release probability, scale linearly with the active-zone area...
  33. pmc Systematic heterogeneity of fractional vesicle pool sizes and release rates of hippocampal synapses
    Oliver Welzel
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Biophys J 100:593-601. 2011
    ..This observation could be explained by assigning the rate-limiting factor for vesicle exocytosis at high frequency stimulation to the available active zone surface that is proportionally smaller in synapses with larger volumes...
  34. ncbi Essential role of phosphoinositide metabolism in synaptic vesicle recycling
    O Cremona
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Cell 99:179-88. 1999
    ..These results provide genetic evidence for a crucial role of phosphoinositide metabolism in synaptic vesicle recycling...
  35. ncbi Calcium-channel number critically influences synaptic strength and plasticity at the active zone
    Jiansong Sheng
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Neurosci 15:998-1006. 2012
    ....
  36. pmc Extrasynaptic vesicle recycling in mature hippocampal neurons
    Arjuna Ratnayaka
    School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
    Nat Commun 2:531. 2011
    ..Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural work demonstrates that extrasynaptic fusion sites can have apposed postsynaptic specializations, suggesting that mobile vesicle recycling may underlie highly dynamic neuron-neuron communication...
  37. ncbi The synaptic vesicle cycle
    Thomas C Sudhof
    Center for Basic Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9111, USA Thomas
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:509-47. 2004
    Neurotransmitter release is mediated by exocytosis of synaptic vesicles at the presynaptic active zone of nerve terminals. To support rapid and repeated rounds of release, synaptic vesicles undergo a trafficking cycle...
  38. ncbi N-cadherin transsynaptically regulates short-term plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in embryonic stem cell-derived neurons
    Kay Jüngling
    Lehrstuhl fur Zellphysiologie, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany
    J Neurosci 26:6968-78. 2006
    ..This indicates a retrograde control of short-term plasticity by N-cadherin. In summary, our results revealed an unexpected involvement of a synaptic adhesion molecule in the regulation of short-term plasticity at glutamatergic synapses...
  39. pmc Immunocytochemical localization of synaptic proteins to photoreceptor synapses of Drosophila melanogaster
    Yoshitaka Hamanaka
    Department of Psychology, Life Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Comp Neurol 518:1133-55. 2010
    ..For synaptic vesicles, immunoreactivity to EPS-15 localized to sites of endocytosis, and anti-CSP labeled vesicles lying close to ..
  40. ncbi Macromolecular connections of active zone material to docked synaptic vesicles and presynaptic membrane at neuromuscular junctions of mouse
    Sharuna Nagwaney
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Comp Neurol 513:457-68. 2009
    ..Connections of the macromolecules to each other, to calcium channels in the presynaptic membrane, and to synaptic vesicles docked on the membrane prior to fusing with it during synaptic transmission were similar to those of AZM ..
  41. ncbi Different presynaptic roles of synapsins at excitatory and inhibitory synapses
    Daniel Gitler
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 24:11368-80. 2004
    ..This suggests that synapsins regulate the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles. This possibility was examined further by measuring synaptic vesicle density in living neurons transfected ..
  42. ncbi Vesicle pools and short-term synaptic depression: lessons from a large synapse
    Ralf Schneggenburger
    Max Planck Institut fur biophysikalische Chemie, Abteilung Membranbiophysik, Am Fassberg, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Trends Neurosci 25:206-12. 2002
    ..By influencing the synaptic output during repetitive activity, vesicle pool dynamics are expected to modulate information processing in neuronal networks of the CNS...
  43. ncbi Quantitative comparison of glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic vesicles unveils selectivity for few proteins including MAL2, a novel synaptic vesicle protein
    Mads Grønborg
    Department of Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurosci 30:2-12. 2010
    b>Synaptic vesicles (SVs) store neurotransmitters and release them by exocytosis. The vesicular neurotransmitter transporters discriminate which transmitter will be sequestered and stored by the vesicles...
  44. pmc The molecular physiology of activity-dependent bulk endocytosis of synaptic vesicles
    Emma L Clayton
    Membrane Biology Group, Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    J Neurochem 111:901-14. 2009
    ..Because maintenance of neurotransmitter release is dependent on the continual supply of synaptic vesicles (SVs), nerve terminals possess an array of endocytosis modes to retrieve and recycle SV membrane and ..
  45. pmc Piccolo and bassoon maintain synaptic vesicle clustering without directly participating in vesicle exocytosis
    Konark Mukherjee
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, CA 94304, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:6504-9. 2010
    ..Thus, we propose that piccolo and bassoon play a redundant role in synaptic vesicle clustering in nerve terminals without directly participating in neurotransmitter release...
  46. ncbi The cat-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a vesicular monoamine transporter required for specific monoamine-dependent behaviors
    J S Duerr
    Program in Molecular and Cell Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA
    J Neurosci 19:72-84. 1999
    ..C. elegans VMAT is associated with synaptic vesicles in approximately 25 neurons, including all of the cells reported to contain dopamine and serotonin, plus a ..
  47. ncbi Vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 target to functionally distinct synaptic release sites
    Robert T Fremeau
    Department of Neurology, Graduate Programs in Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, CA 94143, USA
    Science 304:1815-9. 2004
    ..The loss of VGLUT1 also reduced the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles. Thus, VGLUT1 plays an unanticipated role in membrane trafficking at the nerve terminal.
  48. pmc Inhibition of dynamin completely blocks compensatory synaptic vesicle endocytosis
    A Jamila Newton
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:17955-60. 2006
    ..Ultrastructural analysis revealed a reduction in the density of synaptic vesicles and the presence of endocytic structures only at synapses that were stimulated in the presence of dynasore...
  49. pmc Bassoon speeds vesicle reloading at a central excitatory synapse
    Stefan Hallermann
    Carl Ludwig Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 27, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Neuron 68:710-23. 2010
    ..Thus, our data show that the cytomatrix protein Bassoon speeds the reloading of vesicles to release sites at a central excitatory synapse...
  50. pmc Protein quantification at the single vesicle level reveals that a subset of synaptic vesicle proteins are trafficked with high precision
    Sarah A Mutch
    Department of Chemistry and Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 31:1461-70. 2011
    ..a potential point of regulation in neurotransmission because it dictates the protein composition of synaptic vesicles, the organelle that mediates transmitter release...
  51. pmc The molecular architecture of ribbon presynaptic terminals
    George Zanazzi
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, State Universtiy of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 5230, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 39:130-48. 2009
    ..of these neurons are marked by structures called synaptic ribbons, which tether a pool of releasable synaptic vesicles at the active zone where glutamate release occurs in response to calcium influx through L-type channels...
  52. ncbi Molecular determinants of synapsin targeting to presynaptic terminals
    Daniel Gitler
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 24:3711-20. 2004
    ..Domain D inhibited targeting, but this inhibition was overcome by domain E. Thus, multiple intermolecular and intramolecular interactions are required for synapsins to target to presynaptic terminals...
  53. pmc Scribble interacts with beta-catenin to localize synaptic vesicles to synapses
    Yu Sun
    Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences and the Brain Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Mol Biol Cell 20:3390-400. 2009
    An understanding of how synaptic vesicles are recruited to and maintained at presynaptic compartments is required to discern the molecular mechanisms underlying presynaptic assembly and plasticity...
  54. ncbi The architecture of active zone material at the frog's neuromuscular junction
    M L Harlow
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305, USA
    Nature 409:479-84. 2001
    Active zone material at the nervous system's synapses is situated next to synaptic vesicles that are docked at the presynaptic plasma membrane, and calcium channels that are anchored in the membrane...
  55. ncbi The existence of a second vesicular glutamate transporter specifies subpopulations of glutamatergic neurons
    E Herzog
    , , , France
    J Neurosci 21:RC181. 2001
    ..their exocytotic release during stimulation of nerve terminals, nonpeptide neurotransmitters are loaded into synaptic vesicles by specific transporters...
  56. pmc Essential cooperation of N-cadherin and neuroligin-1 in the transsynaptic control of vesicle accumulation
    A Stan
    Institute for Neuro and Sensory Physiology, Biologisch Medizinisches Forschungszentrum, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11116-21. 2010
    ..Strikingly, also the clustering of synaptic vesicles triggered by neuroligin-1 overexpression required the presence of N-cadherin in cultured neurons...
  57. ncbi Actin has a molecular scaffolding, not propulsive, role in presynaptic function
    Sethuraman Sankaranarayanan
    Department of Biochemistry, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Nat Neurosci 6:127-35. 2003
    ..These data rule out a propulsive role for actin, either in maintaining the vesicle cluster or in guiding vesicle recycling. Instead, we propose that actin acts as a scaffolding system for regulatory molecules in the nerve terminal...
  58. pmc Autapses and networks of hippocampal neurons exhibit distinct synaptic transmission phenotypes in the absence of synaptotagmin I
    Huisheng Liu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Neurosci 29:7395-403. 2009
    ..In autaptic cultures, the total extent of evoked release, size of readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles, and release probability were unchanged in syt-I KO neurons...
  59. ncbi Uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles by an inorganic phosphate transporter
    E E Bellocchio
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0435, USA
    Science 289:957-60. 2000
    Previous work has identified two families of proteins that transport classical neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles, but the protein responsible for vesicular transport of the principal excitatory transmitter glutamate has remained ..
  60. pmc Regulation of synaptic vesicle docking by different classes of macromolecules in active zone material
    Joseph A Szule
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e33333. 2012
    The docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of axon terminals is essential for their fusion with the membrane and exocytosis of their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission...
  61. pmc Synapsin selectively controls the mobility of resting pool vesicles at hippocampal terminals
    Ayelet Orenbuch
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    J Neurosci 32:3969-80. 2012
    ..The synapsins are a family of proteins that associate with synaptic vesicles and determine vesicle numbers at the terminal, but their specific function remains controversial...
  62. pmc Mu2 adaptin facilitates but is not essential for synaptic vesicle recycling in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Mingyu Gu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    J Cell Biol 183:881-92. 2008
    b>Synaptic vesicles must be recycled to sustain neurotransmission, in large part via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Clathrin is recruited to endocytic sites on the plasma membrane by the AP2 adaptor complex...
  63. ncbi Use dependence of presynaptic tenacity
    Arava Fisher-Lavie
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Rappaport Institute, Technion Faculty of Medicine, and Network Biology Research Laboratories, Lorry Lokey Center for Life Sciences and Engineering, Haifa 32000, Israel
    J Neurosci 31:16770-80. 2011
    Recent studies indicate that synaptic vesicles (SVs) are continuously interchanged among nearby synapses at very significant rates...
  64. ncbi Crystal structure of a SNARE complex involved in synaptic exocytosis at 2.4 A resolution
    R B Sutton
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 395:347-53. 1998
    ..These characteristics may be important for membrane fusion and for the binding of regulatory factors affecting neurotransmission...
  65. ncbi Synapsins contribute to the dynamic spatial organization of synaptic vesicles in an activity-dependent manner
    Eugenio F Fornasiero
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita Salute University, I 20132 Milan, Italy
    J Neurosci 32:12214-27. 2012
    The precise subcellular organization of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at presynaptic sites allows for rapid and spatially restricted exocytotic release of neurotransmitter...
  66. pmc The Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-14 RUN domain protein binds to the kinesin-1 and UNC-16 complex and regulates synaptic vesicle localization
    Rie Sakamoto
    Department of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Nagoya 464 8602, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 16:483-96. 2005
    ..Our data support a model whereby UNC-16 and UNC-14 function together as kinesin-1 cargos and regulators for the transport or localization of synaptic vesicle components...
  67. ncbi The stoned proteins regulate synaptic vesicle recycling in the presynaptic terminal
    T Fergestad
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    J Neurosci 19:5847-60. 1999
    ..At the EM level, stoned synapses show a depletion of synaptic vesicles and a concomitant increase in membrane-recycling intermediates...
  68. ncbi Molecular machines governing exocytosis of synaptic vesicles
    Reinhard Jahn
    Department of Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 490:201-7. 2012
    Calcium-dependent exocytosis of synaptic vesicles mediates the release of neurotransmitters. Important proteins in this process have been identified such as the SNAREs, synaptotagmins, complexins, Munc18 and Munc13...
  69. pmc The presynaptic dense projection of the Caenorhabditis elegans cholinergic neuromuscular junction localizes synaptic vesicles at the active zone through SYD-2/liprin and UNC-10/RIM-dependent interactions
    Christian Stigloher
    Institut de Biologie de l Ecole Normale Supérieure, Biology Department, F 75005 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 31:4388-96. 2011
    ..Efficient signaling requires synaptic vesicles (SVs) to be recruited, primed, and retained at the AZ, in close proximity to voltage-dependent calcium ..
  70. pmc Coordinated trafficking of synaptic vesicle and active zone proteins prior to synapse formation
    Luke A D Bury
    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Neural Dev 6:24. 2011
    ..Although both PTVs and STVs are recruited to the same site in the axon, often within minutes of axo-dendritic contact, it is not known whether or how PTV and STV trafficking is coordinated before synapse formation...
  71. ncbi In vivo imaging of intersynaptic vesicle exchange using VGLUT1 Venus knock-in mice
    Etienne Herzog
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurosci 31:15544-59. 2011
    The vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1 loads synaptic vesicles with the neurotransmitter glutamate and thereby determines glutamate release at many synapses in the mammalian brain...
  72. ncbi Molecular circuitry of endocytosis at nerve terminals
    Jeremy Dittman
    Department of Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 25:133-60. 2009
    ..The advent of imaging techniques suited to monitor membrane retrieval at presynaptic terminals and the discovery of the molecules that orchestrate endocytosis have revolutionized our understanding of this critical trafficking event...
  73. ncbi Presynaptic mechanism underlying cAMP-dependent synaptic potentiation
    Masahiro Kaneko
    Department of Neurophysiology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Neurosci 24:5202-8. 2004
    ..synaptic potentiation was associated with increases in release probability (P) and number of releasable synaptic vesicles (N)...
  74. ncbi Motorneurons require cysteine string protein-α to maintain the readily releasable vesicular pool and synaptic vesicle recycling
    José Luis Rozas
    Universidad de Sevilla and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas CIBERNED, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
    Neuron 74:151-65. 2012
    ..The unexpected defect in vesicle recycling in CSP-α knock-out mice provides insights into understanding molecular mechanisms of degeneration in motor nerve terminals...
  75. ncbi Beta-bungarotoxin-induced depletion of synaptic vesicles at the mammalian neuromuscular junction
    S Prasarnpun
    School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
    Neuropharmacology 47:304-14. 2004
    ..Terminal bouton area was also unchanged. The depletion of synaptic vesicles was completely prevented by prior exposure to botulinum toxin C and significantly reduced by prior exposure ..
  76. pmc The lipid binding pleckstrin homology domain in UNC-104 kinesin is necessary for synaptic vesicle transport in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Dieter R Klopfenstein
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 15:3729-39. 2004
    UNC-104 (KIF1A) is a kinesin motor that transports synaptic vesicles from the neuronal cell body to the terminal...
  77. ncbi Endocytosis and vesicle recycling at a ribbon synapse
    Christophe Paillart
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
    J Neurosci 23:4092-9. 2003
    ..The resulting large endosomes bud off small vesicles, which reenter the reserve pool and finally the releasable pool...
  78. pmc Calcium-dependent synaptic vesicle trafficking underlies indefatigable release at the hair cell afferent fiber synapse
    Michael E Schnee
    Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94304, USA
    Neuron 70:326-38. 2011
    ..These data, supported by a mass action model, suggest sustained release at hair cell afferent fiber synapse is dictated by Ca(2+)-dependent vesicle recruitment from a reserve pool...
  79. ncbi Presynaptic regulation of quantal size by the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1
    Nathan R Wilson
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Picower Center for Learning and Memory, and The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 4307, USA
    J Neurosci 25:6221-34. 2005
    ..We provide direct evidence that filling in isolated synaptic vesicles is subject to a dynamic equilibrium that is determined by both the concentration of available glutamate and ..
  80. ncbi EphA4 is localized in clathrin-coated and synaptic vesicles in adult mouse brain
    David Bouvier
    Département de pathologie et biologie cellulaire and Groupe de recherche sur le système nerveux central, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
    J Neurochem 113:153-65. 2010
    ..In this study, we examine the association of EphA4 with transport, clathrin-coated and synaptic vesicles using cell fractionation, vesicle immunoisolation and electron microscopy...
  81. ncbi Alzheimer amyloid protein precursor is localized in nerve terminal preparations to Rab5-containing vesicular organelles distinct from those implicated in the synaptic vesicle pathway
    A F Ikin
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences and Zachary and Elizabeth M Fisher Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:31783-6. 1996
    ..The synaptophysin immunoisolates represented a nearly homogeneous population of small synaptic vesicles, with less than 10% contamination by other organelles, and very little APP...
  82. ncbi Formation of presynaptic terminals at predefined sites along axons
    Shasta L Sabo
    Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Neurosci 26:10813-25. 2006
    ....
  83. pmc Colocalization of synapsin and actin during synaptic vesicle recycling
    Ona Bloom
    The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Cell Biol 161:737-47. 2003
    ..that in the mature nerve terminal, interactions between synapsin and actin regulate the clustering of synaptic vesicles and the availability of vesicles for release during synaptic activity...
  84. pmc Vesicle pool size at the salamander cone ribbon synapse
    Theodore M Bartoletti
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 4050 Durham Research Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5840, USA
    J Neurophysiol 103:419-23. 2010
    ..EPSCs evoked by lengthy depolarization suggest a reserve pool of approximately 90 vesicles per ribbon, similar to the number of additional docking sites further up the ribbon...
  85. pmc Conical electron tomography of a chemical synapse: polyhedral cages dock vesicles to the active zone
    Guido A Zampighi
    Department of Neurobiology, Jules Stein Eye Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurosci 28:4151-60. 2008
    ....
  86. pmc An Arf-like small G protein, ARL-8, promotes the axonal transport of presynaptic cargoes by suppressing vesicle aggregation
    Matthew P Klassen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 66:710-23. 2010
    ..Together, these results suggest that arl-8 promotes a trafficking identity for presynaptic cargoes, facilitating their efficient transport by repressing premature self-association...
  87. pmc Molecular basis of synaptic vesicle cargo recognition by the endocytic sorting adaptor stonin 2
    Nadja Jung
    Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universitat Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    J Cell Biol 179:1497-510. 2007
    Synaptic transmission depends on clathrin-mediated recycling of synaptic vesicles (SVs). How select SV proteins are targeted for internalization has remained elusive...
  88. pmc FM 1-43 labeling of synaptic vesicle pools at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction
    Patrik Verstreken
    VIB, Department of Molecular and Developmental Genetics and K U Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Leuven, Belgium
    Methods Mol Biol 440:349-69. 2008
    ..Most synapses, including the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), can also recycle synaptic vesicles directly by closing the fusion pore, a process referred to as "kiss and run...
  89. ncbi SNARE complexes prepare for membrane fusion
    Jakob B Sørensen
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Trends Neurosci 28:453-5. 2005
    ..However, individual reactions in this process have been difficult to resolve. Now, two groups have succeeded in studying a very early and a very late step in the fusion process...
  90. pmc In vitro system capable of differentiating fast Ca2+-triggered content mixing from lipid exchange for mechanistic studies of neurotransmitter release
    Minjoung Kyoung
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 318 Campus Drive West, Stanford, CA 94305 5432, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E304-13. 2011
    ..from stable interacting pairs of donor and acceptor vesicles, mimicking the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles prior to an action potential...
  91. pmc Bulk synaptic vesicle endocytosis is rapidly triggered during strong stimulation
    Emma L Clayton
    Membrane Biology Group, Centre for Integrative Physiology, George Square, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:6627-32. 2008
    ....
  92. ncbi Rim is a putative Rab3 effector in regulating synaptic-vesicle fusion
    Y Wang
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235, USA
    Nature 388:593-8. 1997
    Rab3 is a neuronal GTP-binding protein that regulates fusion of synaptic vesicles and is essential for long-term potentiation of hippocampal mossy fibre synapses...
  93. pmc Impaired recycling of synaptic vesicles after acute perturbation of the presynaptic actin cytoskeleton
    Oleg Shupliakov
    Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14476-81. 2002
    ..multiple steps of the synaptic vesicle cycle, including reversible anchoring, exocytosis, and recycling of synaptic vesicles. In the present study we used the lamprey reticulospinal synapse to examine the role of actin at the site of ..
  94. pmc Dynamic Ca2+-dependent stimulation of vesicle fusion by membrane-anchored synaptotagmin 1
    Han Ki Lee
    Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305 701, South Korea
    Science 328:760-3. 2010
    In neurons, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is thought to mediate the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane when presynaptic Ca2+ levels rise...
  95. pmc BDNF enhances quantal neurotransmitter release and increases the number of docked vesicles at the active zones of hippocampal excitatory synapses
    W J Tyler
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-0021, USA
    J Neurosci 21:4249-58. 2001
    ..the hypothesis that BDNF enhances quantal neurotransmitter release by modulating the distribution of synaptic vesicles within presynaptic terminals using organotypic slice cultures of postnatal rat hippocampus...
  96. ncbi Exocytosed protons feedback to suppress the Ca2+ current in mammalian cone photoreceptors
    S H DeVries
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Houston Health Science Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neuron 32:1107-17. 2001
    A proton pump acidifies synaptic vesicles and provides the electrochemical gradient for transmitter uptake...
  97. ncbi Complexins regulate a late step in Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release
    K Reim
    Max Planck Institut fur experimentelle Medizin, Abteilung Neurogenetik, AG Molekulare Neurobiologie, Hermann Rein Str 3, D 37075 Gottingen, Bundesrepublik, Deutschland
    Cell 104:71-81. 2001
    ....
  98. ncbi Cell entry strategy of clostridial neurotoxins
    Thomas Binz
    Institut fur Biochemie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    J Neurochem 109:1584-95. 2009
    ..They block the release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles in susceptible animals and man and act in nanogram quantities because of their ability to specifically ..
  99. pmc The phospho-dependent dynamin-syndapin interaction triggers activity-dependent bulk endocytosis of synaptic vesicles
    Emma L Clayton
    Membrane Biology Group, Centre for Integrative Physiology, George Square, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 29:7706-17. 2009
    b>Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are retrieved by more than one mode in central nerve terminals. During mild stimulation, the dominant SV retrieval pathway is classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME)...
  100. ncbi Vesicle depletion and synaptic depression at a mammalian ribbon synapse
    Joshua H Singer
    Synaptic Physiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:3191-8. 2006
    ..The small RRP and very high release probability likely contribute to the transient characteristics of neurotransmission at RBC synapses...
  101. ncbi The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-17 gene: a putative vesicular acetylcholine transporter
    A Alfonso
    Program in Molecular and Cell Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City 73104
    Science 261:617-9. 1993
    ..basis of sequence similarity to mammalian vesicular transporters of biogenic amines and of localization to synaptic vesicles of cholinergic neurons in C. elegans, unc-17 likely encodes the vesicular transporter of acetylcholine...

Research Grants73

  1. Glutamate receptor recruitment to new synapses in vivo
    PHILIP ERIC WASHBOURNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to test a model describing specific mechanisms through which SynCAM family members 1 and 2 can recruit both synaptic vesicles (SVs) to the presynaptic terminal and glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic specialization...
  2. HYPOXIA AND CONTROL OF FETAL BREATHING MOVEMENTS
    Brian J Koos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will establish whether ATP released from synaptic vesicles or glia is the primary precursor for the hypoxia-induced rise in Pf ADO levels...
  3. STRUCTURE OF THE VACUOLAR ATPase
    Stephan Wilkens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of intracellular compartments like clathrin-coated vesicles, chromaffin granules, endosomes, lysosomes, synaptic vesicles, Golgi derived vesicles and the yeast vacuole...
  4. DEPOLARIZATION-SECRETION COUPLING IN NERVE TERMINALS
    Jose R Lemos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Furthermore, since all synaptic vesicles/neurosecretory granules appear to contain ATP, these purinergic feedback mechanisms could be physiologically ..
  5. Neuroprotective role of RAB3B in rodent models of Parkinson's disease
    Chee Yeun Chung; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RAB3B is localized to synaptic vesicles in neurons and is known to regulate neurotransmitter exocytosis by regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking ..
  6. Cellular and Molecular Analysis of Defects at Aging Neuromuscular Synapses
    Joshua R Sanes; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..correlative light and electron microscopy, along with use of new transgenic mice in which mitochondria and synaptic vesicles are labeled...
  7. Neonatal Anesthetic Neurotoxicity
    Piyush M Patel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..BDNF can, however, also result in neuronal apoptosis [17,18]. BDNF is secreted from synaptic vesicles as a pro molecule (proBDNF) and undergoes proteolytic cleavage in the synaptic cleft by plasmin to generate ..
  8. PARASYMPATHETIC DYSFUNCTION IN OBESITY: EFFECT OF CHOLESTEROL ON VAChT
    Yifan Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on the ubiquitination-mediated VAChT recycling, leading to the reduced VAChT level and function in synaptic vesicles and decreased Ach release in PSNS cholinergic terminals...
  9. Receptors for clostridial neurotoxins
    Edwin R Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our new preliminary data indicate that BoNT/F enters via recycling synaptic vesicles, but utilizes a novel receptor that is not involved in the entry of the other BoNTs for which protein ..
  10. Computational and Functional Characterization of the Molecular Steps in Membran*
    J Troy Littleton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles that dock at the synaptic membrane, undergo a series of preparatory steps, open a pore, and fuse with the ..
  11. PRESERVATION OF TIMING IN PLASTIC AUDITORY PATHWAYS
    HENRIQUE PRADO VON GERSDORFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and simultaneously to measure membrane capacitance changes from the hair cell to assay the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. We will pursue three Specific Aims: First, we hypothesize that hair cells contain three distinct readily ..
  12. Regulation of Synaptic Transmission by Gq
    Michael Ailion; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in part because it has not been possible to biochemically purify proteins specific to DCVs as it has for synaptic vesicles. Instead, a genetic screen in the nematode C...
  13. Investigating the role of ribeye in retinal ribbon function
    DAVID PAUL ZENISEK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To do so, these cells have evolved synaptic ribbons, proteinaceous structures that tether large numbers of synaptic vesicles near release sites. The molecular biology of the synaptic ribbon is poorly understood...
  14. Optical studies of the cone photoreceptor synapse
    Richard H Kramer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cone terminals contain a specialized structure called the synaptic ribbon. The ribbon binds synaptic vesicles and is thought to deliver them to the plasma membrane where they undergo Ca2+-dependent exocytosis...
  15. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE SYNAPSE
    Eileen M Lafer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Underlying synaptic transmission is the synaptic vesicle cycle, which involves fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane to release neurotransmitter and subsequent retrieval of vesicular proteins via ..
  16. Glycolysis and Glutamate Storage into Synaptic Vesicles
    Tetsufumi Ueda; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, glycolytic enzymes responsible for production of ATP, are associated with synaptic vesicles and that activation of these enzymes is sufficient to support glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles...
  17. Synaptic Processing in the Vestibular System
    Ruth Anne Eatock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These uniquely postsynaptic calyces may receive transmitter released from synaptic vesicles arrayed around dozens of synaptic ribbons...
  18. Biophysical Characterization of Complexin C-terminal Domain Lipid Interactions
    David M Snead; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our data suggest that synaptic vesicles are likely the relevant in vivo targets for the Cpx CTD, but it is unclear what might direct Cpx ..
  19. Explore fundamental aspects of neurotransmission with multifunctional nanosensor
    Qi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..became clear that synaptic transmission is conducted via the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles and the subsequent activation of postsynaptic receptors...
  20. Genetic dissection of sleep regulation by ventrolateral preoptic area
    Vetrivelan Ramalingam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As VGAT is critical for transporting GABA into the synaptic vesicles, the loss of VGAT will result in selective loss of GABA neurotransmission from the VLPO neurons...
  21. Role of SNARE Interactions in Central Synapse Function
    Ege T Kavalali; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the second aim, we will determine the function of v-SNAREs in postendocytic trafficking of synaptic vesicles by detecting uptake and release fluorescent probes, monitoring neurotransmitter release and electron ..
  22. Role of BCL-xL in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus
    Elizabeth Ann Jonas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In part Bcl-xL functions to enhance the rate of recovery of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. Our recent preliminary data show that Bcl-xL binds directly to vesicle membranes, enhancing the rate of ..
  23. Mints: Adaptor Proteins Coupling APP of Alzheimer's Disease to the Synapse
    Angela Ho; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..electrophysiological recordings, and optical recording techniques of cultured neurons to look at kinetics of synaptic vesicles. We will characterize the structural dynamic of synaptic junctions by electron microscopy, and E-PTA ..
  24. The role of spontaneous neurotransmission in synaptic plasticity and behavior
    Devon C Crawford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neurotransmission requires the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane, which releases neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft...
  25. Role of Rab-5 regulators in neuronal development
    Sharon B Sann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Synaptic vesicles are required for release of neurotransmitters and subsequent communication between neurons...
  26. Role of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter in Dictating Reserve Pool Capacity
    Ericka C Holmstrand; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..tissue ACh content and ACh release in these animals suggest that CHT may also impact the distribution of synaptic vesicles to physiologically distinct pools...
  27. Molecular Mechanism of Imac-dependent axonal transport
    STEPHEN RAIKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mutants, axons reach their proper targets but fail to form boutons, have decreased active zones and lack synaptic vesicles at the terminals...
  28. Contribution of synaptic vesicle proteins to molecular mechanisms of amphetamine
    KATHLEEN MARIE SALERNO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..VMAT2 transports cytosolic DA into synaptic vesicles. AMPH binds to DAT causing a reversal of DA transport and a net efflux of DA from the cytosol to the ..
  29. Molecular Genetics of Age-Dependent Retinal Degeneration
    Akihiro Ikeda; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We further determined that the TMEM135 protein is localized to mitochondria as well as synaptic vesicles of photoreceptor cells, and its expression is reduced in the normal aging retina...
  30. MECHANISMS OF NEURONAL DEATH IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE
    KAREN L OMALLEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..When axon transport is disrupted, trophic support is lost, synaptic vesicles and transmitters are depleted, biological materials accumulate, degeneration occurs and ultimately the ..
  31. Mechanisms of Synaptic Specificity in C. elegans
    Kang Shen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Another poorly understood question in synapse formation is how the pool size of synaptic vesicles is determined...
  32. Molecular Analysis of Presynaptic Choline Transporters
    Randy D Blakely; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CHT appears to reside )n a subpopulation of cholinergic synaptic vesicles that express the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT) and which store ACh...
  33. Synaptic Calcium Channels
    SEAN ARIC MERRILL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Calcium is the critical trigger that fuses synaptic vesicles. So, the placement of calcium channels at the synapse can determine the site and probability of vesicle fusions...
  34. Regulation of insulin secretion C. elegans
    Joshua M Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Classical neurotransmitters are packaged in synaptic vesicles (SVs), which are clustered at active zones...
  35. Retinal Synaptic Transmission
    DAVID PAUL ZENISEK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Synaptic ribbons are osmiophilic proteinaceous structures that tether synaptic vesicles near active zones...
  36. Targeting acid-sensing ion channel 1a to prevent drug addiction
    Xiangping Chu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Proton concentrations change both acutely, when synaptic vesicles release their acidic contents into the synaptic cleft, and chronically during ischemia, seizures, and other ..
  37. CELLULAR NEUROBIOLOGY OF THE RETINA
    GARY G MATTHEWS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..which they accomplish by enhancing the size and accessibility of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. Ribbons tether large numbers of synaptic vesicles to their surface, and these vesicles are thought to ..
  38. CHANNELS, CALCIUM AND PEPTIDE SECRETION
    Edwin S Levitan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, it remains unclear how presynaptic signaling controls exocytosis of DCVs and small synaptic vesicles (SSVs), which contain classical transmitters...
  39. GABA transporter type 1 (GAT1) function in epilepsy
    CHRISTOPHER BRUCE RANSOM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..vesicular GABA release at synapses is compromised by reductions in extracellular [Ca2+], GABA packaging into synaptic vesicles is limited by energy failure, and GABA synthesis is stimulated by low [ATP], causing an increase in ..
  40. Membrane Trafficking of Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporters
    Susan M Voglmaier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the transformation of electrical into chemical signals by the regulated release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles. High frequency synaptic transmission depends on the recycling of neurotransmitter back into the nerve ..
  41. Activity-dependent regulation of membrane traffic and growth signaling in neurons
    AVITAL ADAH RODAL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..compartment of neurons, because synapses are highly specialized for both exocytic and endocytic traffic of synaptic vesicles in response to activity...
  42. Mechanisms of Endosome Trafficking in Neurons
    Victor Faundez; Fiscal Year: 2012
    A defining feature of presynaptic terminals is the presence of synaptic vesicles (SVs), secretory organelles that store and secrete neurotransmitters. SVs functions are specified by the organelle membrane protein composition...
  43. SYNAPTIC FUNCTION IN THE NEMATODE C. ELEGANS
    Erik M Jorgensen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is not possible to synthesize new synaptic vesicles at this pace, so rapid recycling is essential...
  44. CSP alpha regulation of exo-endocytic cycle enhances synaptic stability
    Michael Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We therefore hypothesize that CSP[unreadable] stabilizes synapses by regulating the exo-endocytic cycling of synaptic vesicles and interacting with the presynaptic cytoskeleton...
  45. TRANSPORT OF NEUROTRANSMITTER INTO SYNAPTIC VESICLES
    Robert H Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The transport of all classical neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles involves a mechanism of H+ exchange and hence depends on a H+ electrochemical driving force (?[unreadable]H+) generated by the ..
  46. Interaction between DA, alpha-Synuclein and Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy
    Eugene V Mosharov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and on non-neuronal cells suggest that a-synuclein overexpression induces a leakage of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles, disrupts stimulation-dependent neurotransmitter release and elevates DAcyt...
  47. Role of the SNARE proteins Vti1a and VAMP7 in central synaptic transmission
    DENISE MARIE RAMIREZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..SNAREs have been extensively characterized in synaptic vesicles, where they are required for synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release...
  48. Protein targeting in vertebrate photoreceptors
    Sheila A Baker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are targeted to the plasma membrane transiently prior to their incorporation into organelles such as synaptic vesicles. In Aim 3 we will focus on one such synaptic vesicle resident protein, synaptophysin...
  49. Development of a model system for presynaptic study
    David Zenisek; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..nerve cell causes the release of neurotransmitter from small membrane bound structures, known as synaptic vesicles. Deficiencies in this process have been suggested to underlie and contribute to the pathologies of a number ..
  50. Membrane binding and aggregation of alpha-synuclein
    Jean Christophe Rochet; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is most likely essential for the protein's normal function, which consists of modulating the release of synaptic vesicles. Neuropathological and genetic data suggest that aggregated (oligomeric) species of a-synuclein are ..
  51. Optical Tools to Dissect Synaptic Changes Underlying Epilepsy
    Richard W Tsien; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have constructed a new optical probe for vesicle fusion, called sypHTomato, which fluoresces in the red when synaptic vesicles fuse and release neurotransmitter...
  52. Auditory coding at the hair cell ribbon synapse
    Geng Lin Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The third hypothesis to be tested is that fused synaptic vesicles can be recycled through fast endocytosis following MVR...
  53. Synapse Maturation by Activity-Dependent Ectodomain Shedding of SIRP
    Hisashi Umemori; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..During maturation presynaptic boutons enlarge, more synaptic vesicles accumulate to the presynaptic terminal, the number of active zones and postsynaptic densities increases, and ..
  54. Modeling synaptic vesicles: how does alpha-Synuclein inhibit fusion?
    Jonathan N Sachs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., restoring proper vesicle trafficking). ..
  55. A NOVEL MECHANISM OF REGULATION OF INOSITOL BIOSYNTHESIS IN YEAST
    Miriam L Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In synaptic vesicles, V-ATPase activity drives the uptake of neurotransmitters...
  56. NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORT
    GARY W RUDNICK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5-HT is transported into the cell from which it was released, where it is available for repackaging into synaptic vesicles. Drugs that inhibit SERT increase the level of synaptic 5-HT and lengthen the duration of its action...
  57. Presynaptic regulation of quantal size by the cation/H+ exchangers NHE6 &NHE9
    JULIE C ULLMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Interestingly, recent work from the Edwards lab has identified a novel NHE activity on synaptic vesicles. This activity promotes the uptake of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate into vesicles by converting the ..
  58. Single Molecule Studies of SNARE-Induced Vesicle Fusion
    Axel T Brunger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unlike constitutive vesicle trafficking, synaptic vesicles are recruited to the presynaptic membrane, but do not readily fuse...
  59. Structure and regulation of synaptic architecture
    AVITAL ADAH RODAL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..compartment of neurons, because synapses are highly specialized for both exocytic and endocytic traffic of synaptic vesicles in response to activity...
  60. Environmental toxin interactions with genetic risks for Parkinson's disease
    DAVID EVAN KRANTZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..thought to act by a different mechanism than rotenone, and whether this requires its localization to synaptic vesicles and if it is required at a specific time relative to neurotoxic insults...
  61. Compromised GABA Recycling as an Epileptogenic Mechanism
    Douglas A Coulter; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..GABA recycling is required to reload synaptic vesicles following release, a critical function determining the ability of inhibitory synapses to dynamically ..
  62. Physial and Functional Link of the Dopamine Transporter with Synaptic Proteins
    Gonzalo E Torres; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..approaches in vitro and in vivo will be used with cells in culture, synaptosomal preparations, purified synaptic vesicles, and whole animals to generate a detailed structural, functional, and subcellular description of the DAT/SG3 ..
  63. ASPARTATE TRANSMISSION
    J Victor Nadler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Aspartate is associated with the synaptic vesicles of certain excitatory hippocampal pathways and is released by hippocampal slices and synaptosomes in a calcium-dependent manner...
  64. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SYNAPTIC VESICLES FROM BRAIN
    Erik Floor; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..In research to elucidate these mechanisms the major proteins of mammalian synaptic vesicles have been identified and characterized. The functions of these proteins are not known...
  65. NEUROMODULATION BY ZINC IN THE HIPPOCAMPAL REGION
    John White; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..formation, important for the process of laying down new memories, contains large amounts of zinc, located in synaptic vesicles and released with high-frequency stimulation...
  66. UNDERSTANDING MEMBRANE FUSION A BIOENGINEERING APPROACH
    BHANU JENA; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..immediate research goal is to characterize and determine the involvement of this structure in the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane...
  67. UNDERSTANDING MEMBRANE FUSION A BIOENGINEERING APPROACH
    BHANU JENA; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..immediate research goal is to characterize and determine the involvement of this structure in the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane...
  68. REGULATION OF GABA BIOSYNTHESIS IN THE BRAIN
    Jang Yen Wu; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..the membrane associated GAD (MGAD) is activated by protein phosphorylation which depends on the integrity of synaptic vesicles (Hsu et al., 1999). In addition, we have identified MGAD from synaptosomes as GAD65 (Hsu et al., 1999)...
  69. Defining the roles of Metals in Synaptic transmission
    Alan Kay; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..populations of glutamatergic neurons in the mammalian forebrain have high levels of chelatable-zinc in their synaptic vesicles. The precise role of this vesicular-Zn remains enigmatic, as does the reason for the division of the nervous ..
  70. Study of novel REST/NRSF-Interacting LIM domain Protein
    Masahito Shimojo; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..acetylcholine and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) which transports acetylcholine into synaptic vesicles. It was found that ChAT and VAChT are coordinately regulated through a protein kinase All dependent pathway...
  71. N TYPE CA CHANNELS IN GROWTH CONES
    Maureen McEnery; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..N-type VDCC in mature neurons promotes the release of neurotransmitters via calcium-dependent exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Several lines of evidence suggest that N-type VDCC is also involved in the signalling mechanism that ..
  72. SYNAPSINS--REGULATORS OF NEUROTRANSMITTER RELEASE
    Paul Greengard; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..synaptic vesicle- associated phosphoprotein, regulates neurotransmitter release by affecting the movement of synaptic vesicles from a "reserve" pool to a "readily-releasable" pool...
  73. STRUCTURAL AND BINDING PROPERTIES OF SYNAPTOTAGMIN
    JOSE RIZO REY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Despite extensive characterization of the proteins of synaptic vesicles, their role in the exocytotic event is poorly understood...