synapses

Summary

Summary: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate through direct electrical connections which are sometimes called electrical synapses; these are not included here but rather in GAP JUNCTIONS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A brain-specific microRNA regulates dendritic spine development
    Gerhard M Schratt
    Neurobiology Program, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 439:283-9. 2006
  2. ncbi Interneurons of the neocortical inhibitory system
    Henry Markram
    Laboratory of Neural Microcircuitry, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:793-807. 2004
  3. pmc Neuronal diversity and temporal dynamics: the unity of hippocampal circuit operations
    Thomas Klausberger
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK
    Science 321:53-7. 2008
  4. pmc The self-tuning neuron: synaptic scaling of excitatory synapses
    Gina G Turrigiano
    Department of Biology, Volen Center for Complex Systems, and National Center for Behavioral Genomics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA
    Cell 135:422-35. 2008
  5. doi Resting microglia directly monitor the functional state of synapses in vivo and determine the fate of ischemic terminals
    Hiroaki Wake
    Division of Homeostatic Development, National Institute of Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Neurosci 29:3974-80. 2009
  6. ncbi Synaptic mechanisms of synchronized gamma oscillations in inhibitory interneuron networks
    Marlene Bartos
    Physiologisches Institut der Universität Freiburg, Abteilung 1, Hermann Herder Strasse 7, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:45-56. 2007
  7. ncbi The molecular biology of memory storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses
    E R Kandel
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 294:1030-8. 2001
  8. pmc FMRP stalls ribosomal translocation on mRNAs linked to synaptic function and autism
    Jennifer C Darnell
    Laboratory of Molecular Neuro Oncology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 146:247-61. 2011
  9. pmc Amyloid-beta-induced neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: from synapses toward neural networks
    Jorge J Palop
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:812-8. 2010
  10. ncbi Imaging neuronal subsets in transgenic mice expressing multiple spectral variants of GFP
    G Feng
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Neuron 28:41-51. 2000

Research Grants

  1. SPINE AND SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IN MATURE HIPPOCAMPUS
    Kristen Harris; Fiscal Year: 2003
  2. Loss of synapses in physiological and pathological aging
    Pascale Lacor; Fiscal Year: 2003
  3. Distance-Dependent Structure and Function of Neuronal Dendrites
    Kristen M Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. Dopamine's Role in the Rapid Estradiol Enhancement of Excitatory Synapses
    CAROLINE COFER SMITH HAMILTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. RALPH FRANK FREGOSI; Fiscal Year: 2016
  6. Epigenetics of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior
    BRIDGET NUGENT; Fiscal Year: 2012
  7. MARK L DELL'ACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2016
  8. Glutamate receptor recruitment to new synapses in vivo
    PHILIP ERIC WASHBOURNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2016
  10. David E Clapham; Fiscal Year: 2014

Detail Information

Publications437 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A brain-specific microRNA regulates dendritic spine development
    Gerhard M Schratt
    Neurobiology Program, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 439:283-9. 2006
    ..Exposure of neurons to extracellular stimuli such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor relieves miR-134 inhibition of Limk1 translation and in this way may contribute to synaptic development, maturation and/or plasticity...
  2. ncbi Interneurons of the neocortical inhibitory system
    Henry Markram
    Laboratory of Neural Microcircuitry, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:793-807. 2004
    ..The largest obstacle is the daunting variety of inhibitory interneurons that are found in the circuit. This review focuses on the organizing principles that govern the diversity of inhibitory interneurons and their circuits...
  3. pmc Neuronal diversity and temporal dynamics: the unity of hippocampal circuit operations
    Thomas Klausberger
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK
    Science 321:53-7. 2008
    ..The spatiotemporal specializations in cortical circuits reveal that cellular diversity and temporal dynamics coemerged during evolution, providing a basis for cognitive behavior...
  4. pmc The self-tuning neuron: synaptic scaling of excitatory synapses
    Gina G Turrigiano
    Department of Biology, Volen Center for Complex Systems, and National Center for Behavioral Genomics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA
    Cell 135:422-35. 2008
    ..synaptic scaling is a form of synaptic plasticity that adjusts the strength of all of a neuron's excitatory synapses up or down to stabilize firing...
  5. doi Resting microglia directly monitor the functional state of synapses in vivo and determine the fate of ischemic terminals
    Hiroaki Wake
    Division of Homeostatic Development, National Institute of Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Neurosci 29:3974-80. 2009
    ..that the resting microglial processes make brief (approximately 5 min) and direct contacts with neuronal synapses at a frequency of about once per hour...
  6. ncbi Synaptic mechanisms of synchronized gamma oscillations in inhibitory interneuron networks
    Marlene Bartos
    Physiologisches Institut der Universität Freiburg, Abteilung 1, Hermann Herder Strasse 7, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:45-56. 2007
    ..Experimental analysis in the hippocampus and the neocortex reveals that synapses among these interneurons are highly specialized...
  7. ncbi The molecular biology of memory storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses
    E R Kandel
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 294:1030-8. 2001
    ....
  8. pmc FMRP stalls ribosomal translocation on mRNAs linked to synaptic function and autism
    Jennifer C Darnell
    Laboratory of Molecular Neuro Oncology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 146:247-61. 2011
    ..In addition, they provide insight into the molecular basis of the cognitive and allied defects in FXS and ASD and suggest multiple targets for clinical intervention...
  9. pmc Amyloid-beta-induced neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: from synapses toward neural networks
    Jorge J Palop
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:812-8. 2010
    ..Strategies that block these Abeta effects may prevent cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Potential obstacles and next steps toward this goal are discussed...
  10. ncbi Imaging neuronal subsets in transgenic mice expressing multiple spectral variants of GFP
    G Feng
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Neuron 28:41-51. 2000
    ..In some lines, intense labeling of small neuronal subsets provided a Golgi-like vital stain. In double transgenic mice expressing two different XFPs, it was possible to differentially label 3 neuronal subsets in a single animal...
  11. pmc Membrane fusion: grappling with SNARE and SM proteins
    Thomas C Sudhof
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Science 323:474-7. 2009
    ....
  12. ncbi Autism and abnormal development of brain connectivity
    Matthew K Belmonte
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2AH, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 24:9228-31. 2004
  13. ncbi Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system
    Guo li Ming
    Institute for Cell Engineering, Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:223-50. 2005
    ..Advances in our understanding of adult neurogenesis will not only shed light on the basic principles of adult plasticity, but also may lead to strategies for cell replacement therapy after injury or degenerative neurological diseases...
  14. pmc Petilla terminology: nomenclature of features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex
    Giorgio A Ascoli
    Molecular Neuroscience Department and Center for Neural Informatics, Structures, and Plasticity, Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, MS2A1, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:557-68. 2008
    ..Consistent adoption will be important for the success of such an initiative, and we also encourage the active involvement of the broader scientific community in the dynamic evolution of this project...
  15. ncbi An energy budget for signaling in the grey matter of the brain
    D Attwell
    Department of Physiology, University College London, London, UK
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21:1133-45. 2001
    ..Functional magnetic resonance imaging signals are likely to be dominated by changes in energy usage associated with synaptic currents and action potential propagation...
  16. ncbi A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus
    T V Bliss
    Division of Neurophysiology and Neuropharmacology, National Institute of Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, UK
    Nature 361:31-9. 1993
    ....
  17. ncbi GABA: a pioneer transmitter that excites immature neurons and generates primitive oscillations
    Yehezkel Ben-Ari
    Insititut de Neurobiologie de la Méditerranée, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 29, Marseille, France
    Physiol Rev 87:1215-84. 2007
    ..networks follow common rules to shift from silent cells to coactive networks that operate via thousands of synapses. This review deals with some of these rules and in particular those concerning the crucial role of the ..
  18. ncbi The classical complement cascade mediates CNS synapse elimination
    Beth Stevens
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Cell 131:1164-78. 2007
    ..complement cascade, is expressed by postnatal neurons in response to immature astrocytes and is localized to synapses throughout the postnatal CNS and retina...
  19. ncbi Learning induces long-term potentiation in the hippocampus
    Jonathan R Whitlock
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 313:1093-7. 2006
    ..Because the learning-induced synaptic potentiation occluded HFS-induced LTP, we conclude that inhibitory avoidance training induces LTP in CA1...
  20. doi Wiring specificity in the direction-selectivity circuit of the retina
    Kevin L Briggman
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biomedical Optics, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
    Nature 471:183-8. 2011
    ..and two-photon calcium imaging, that the dendrites of mouse starburst amacrine cells make highly specific synapses with direction-selective ganglion cells depending on the ganglion cell's preferred direction...
  21. ncbi Sleep function and synaptic homeostasis
    Giulio Tononi
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, 6001 Research Park Blvd, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Sleep Med Rev 10:49-62. 2006
    ..The hypothesis accounts for a large number of experimental facts, makes several specific predictions, and has implications for both sleep and mood disorders...
  22. doi Experience-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain
    Anthony Holtmaat
    Department of Basic Neurosciences, Medical Faculty, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:647-58. 2009
    Synaptic plasticity in adult neural circuits may involve the strengthening or weakening of existing synapses as well as structural plasticity, including synapse formation and elimination...
  23. pmc Arc-dependent synapse-specific homeostatic plasticity
    Jean Claude Beique
    The Solomon Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:816-21. 2011
    ..This mechanism refers to the bidirectional ability of all synapses impinging on a neuron to actively compensate for changes in the neuron's overall excitability...
  24. ncbi Synaptic scaling mediated by glial TNF-alpha
    David Stellwagen
    Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94304 5485, USA
    Nature 440:1054-9. 2006
    ..potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), which involve rapid adjustments in the strengths of individual synapses in response to specific patterns of correlated synaptic activity, and (2) homeostatic synaptic scaling, which ..
  25. ncbi A quantitative map of the circuit of cat primary visual cortex
    Tom Binzegger
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich, and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 24:8441-53. 2004
    ..morphometrical data about the laminar distribution of the dendritic trees and synaptic boutons and the number of synapses formed by a given type of neuron...
  26. pmc Mechanisms of CaMKII action in long-term potentiation
    John Lisman
    Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:169-82. 2012
    ..These processes are all localized to stimulated spines and account for the synapse-specificity of LTP. In the later stages of LTP, CaMKII has a structural role in enlarging and strengthening the synapse...
  27. pmc GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain
    Shaoyu Ge
    Institute for Cell Engineering, Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 439:589-93. 2006
    ....
  28. ncbi Thrombospondins are astrocyte-secreted proteins that promote CNS synaptogenesis
    Karen S Christopherson
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Cell 120:421-33. 2005
    The establishment of neural circuitry requires vast numbers of synapses to be generated during a specific window of brain development, but it is not known why the developing mammalian brain has a much greater capacity to generate new ..
  29. ncbi Variations on an inhibitory theme: phasic and tonic activation of GABA(A) receptors
    Mark Farrant
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:215-29. 2005
    ..of ambient GABA can persistently activate certain subtypes of GABA(A) receptor, which are often remote from synapses, to generate a 'tonic' conductance...
  30. doi Decorrelated neuronal firing in cortical microcircuits
    Alexander S Ecker
    Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Science 327:584-7. 2010
    ..Our findings suggest a refinement of current models of cortical microcircuit architecture and function: Either adjacent neurons share only a few percent of their inputs or, alternatively, their activity is actively decorrelated...
  31. doi Dendritic function of tau mediates amyloid-beta toxicity in Alzheimer's disease mouse models
    Lars M Ittner
    Alzheimer s and Parkinson s Disease Laboratory, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2050, Australia
    Cell 142:387-97. 2010
    ..Our findings suggest that this dendritic role of tau confers Abeta toxicity at the postsynapse with direct implications for pathogenesis and treatment of AD...
  32. ncbi Gain modulation from background synaptic input
    Frances S Chance
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 35:773-82. 2002
    ..These results suggest that, within active cortical circuits, the overall level of synaptic input to a neuron acts as a gain control signal that modulates responsiveness to excitatory drive...
  33. ncbi The role of the GluR2 subunit in AMPA receptor function and synaptic plasticity
    John T R Isaac
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 35 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuron 54:859-71. 2007
    ..Here, we bring together recent data highlighting the novel and important roles of GluR2 in synaptic function and plasticity...
  34. pmc Long-term potentiation depends on release of D-serine from astrocytes
    Christian Henneberger
    UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Nature 463:232-6. 2010
    ..Release of D-serine from glia enables LTP in cultures and explains a correlation between glial coverage of synapses and LTP in the supraoptic nucleus...
  35. pmc Projection-specific modulation of dopamine neuron synapses by aversive and rewarding stimuli
    Stephan Lammel
    Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Lokey Stem Cell Research Building, 265 Campus Drive, Room G1021, Stanford, CA 94305 5453, USA
    Neuron 70:855-62. 2011
    ..We examined whether the modulation of excitatory synapses on DA neurons by rewarding or aversive stimuli depends on the brain area to which these DA neurons project...
  36. pmc Nanodomain coupling between Ca²⁺ channels and sensors of exocytosis at fast mammalian synapses
    Emmanuel Eggermann
    IST Austria Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Am Campus 1, A 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:7-21. 2012
    ..trigger exocytosis of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles is a key determinant of the signalling properties of synapses in the nervous system...
  37. pmc The human connectome: A structural description of the human brain
    Olaf Sporns
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 1:e42. 2005
    ..We propose a research strategy to achieve this goal, and discuss its potential impact...
  38. ncbi Control of synaptic strength by glial TNFalpha
    Eric C Beattie
    Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Science 295:2282-5. 2002
    ..Although glia are affected by activity and ensheathe synapses, their influence on synaptic strength has largely been ignored...
  39. ncbi Probabilistic decision making by slow reverberation in cortical circuits
    Xiao Jing Wang
    Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254, USA
    Neuron 36:955-68. 2002
    ....
  40. ncbi Short-term synaptic plasticity
    Robert S Zucker
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 64:355-405. 2002
    ..prominent characteristic of chemical synaptic transmission is a crucial determinant of the response properties of synapses and, in turn, of the stimulus properties selected by neural networks and of the patterns of activity generated by ..
  41. pmc Synaptic AMPA receptor plasticity and behavior
    Helmut W Kessels
    Department of Neuroscience, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0634, USA
    Neuron 61:340-50. 2009
    The ability to change behavior likely depends on the selective strengthening and weakening of brain synapses. The cellular models of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) of synaptic strength, can be ..
  42. pmc Regulation of cortical microcircuits by unitary GABA-mediated volume transmission
    Szabolcs Oláh
    Research Group for Cortical Microcircuits of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, Szeged H 6726, Hungary
    Nature 461:1278-81. 2009
    ..enough GABA for volume transmission within the axonal cloud and, thus, that neurogliaform cells do not require synapses to produce inhibitory responses in the overwhelming majority of nearby neurons...
  43. ncbi Astrocytic purinergic signaling coordinates synaptic networks
    Olivier Pascual
    Department of Neuroscience, Conte Center for Integration at the Tripartite Synapse, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 310:113-6. 2005
    ..These results indicate that astrocytes are intricately linked in the regulation of synaptic strength and plasticity and provide a pathway for synaptic cross-talk...
  44. ncbi Dynamics of sparsely connected networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons
    N Brunel
    LPS, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France
    J Comput Neurosci 8:183-208. 2000
    ..In the slow oscillatory state, the network frequency depends mostly on the membrane time constant. Finite size effects in the asynchronous state are also discussed...
  45. ncbi Synaptic plasticity: multiple forms, functions, and mechanisms
    Ami Citri
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304 5485, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:18-41. 2008
    ..Here, we review current understanding of the mechanisms of the major forms of synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain...
  46. doi Cation-chloride cotransporters and neuronal function
    Peter Blaesse
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, FIN 00014, Helsinki, Finland
    Neuron 61:820-38. 2009
    ..The rapidly expanding work on CCCs promotes our understanding of fundamental mechanisms that control brain development and functions under normal and pathophysiological conditions...
  47. pmc The neural code between neocortical pyramidal neurons depends on neurotransmitter release probability
    M V Tsodyks
    Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:719-23. 1997
    ..We conclude that by setting the rate of synaptic depression, release probability is an important factor in determining the neural code...
  48. ncbi Glia-derived D-serine controls NMDA receptor activity and synaptic memory
    Aude Panatier
    INSERM, U378, Bordeaux, F 33077, France
    Cell 125:775-84. 2006
    ..Such a contribution of astrocytes to synaptic metaplasticity fuels the emerging concept that astrocytes are dynamic partners of brain signaling...
  49. doi The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and disease
    Ben A Barres
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 60:430-40. 2008
    ..I argue that until the roles of nonneuronal cells are more fully understood and considered, neurobiology as a whole will progress only slowly...
  50. pmc Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to reconstruct three-dimensional tissue nanostructure
    Winfried Denk
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Biol 2:e329. 2004
    ..The resolution is sufficient to trace even the thinnest axons and to identify synapses. Stacks of several hundred sections, 50-70 nm thick, have been obtained at a lateral position jitter of typically ..
  51. pmc Unraveling mechanisms of homeostatic synaptic plasticity
    Karine Pozo
    MRC Cell Biology Unit and MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Neuron 66:337-51. 2010
    ..of homeostatic plasticity as a slow, global phenomenon, neurons may also rapidly tune the efficacy of individual synapses on demand...
  52. doi Synaptic integration in tuft dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons: a new unifying principle
    Matthew E Larkum
    Department of Physiology, University of Berne, Buhlplatz 5, 3012 Berne, Switzerland
    Science 325:756-60. 2009
    ....
  53. pmc Microglial interactions with synapses are modulated by visual experience
    Marie Eve Tremblay
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy and Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000527. 2010
    ..Aside from monitoring, their physiological roles at synapses are not known...
  54. ncbi Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex
    P R Huttenlocher
    Department of Pediatrics, Committee on Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Comp Neurol 387:167-78. 1997
    ....
  55. ncbi Dendritic protein synthesis, synaptic plasticity, and memory
    Michael A Sutton
    Division of Biology 114 96, California Institute of Technology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Cell 127:49-58. 2006
    ..Here, we review the experimental support for this idea and highlight some of the key questions outstanding in this area...
  56. pmc Amyloid-beta protein dimers isolated directly from Alzheimer's brains impair synaptic plasticity and memory
    Ganesh M Shankar
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Med 14:837-42. 2008
    ..We conclude that soluble Abeta oligomers extracted from Alzheimer's disease brains potently impair synapse structure and function and that dimers are the smallest synaptotoxic species...
  57. pmc Interaction of sensory responses with spontaneous depolarization in layer 2/3 barrel cortex
    Carl C H Petersen
    Department of Cell Physiology, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, Heidelberg D 69120, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13638-43. 2003
    ..The ongoing spontaneous activity thus regulates the amplitude and the time-dependent spread of the sensory response in layer 2/3 barrel cortex...
  58. ncbi Sleep and synaptic homeostasis: a hypothesis
    Giulio Tononi
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, 6001 Research Park Blvd, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Brain Res Bull 62:143-50. 2003
    ..Synaptic downscaling is tied to the beneficial effects of sleep on performance. The hypothesized link between sleep and synaptic homeostasis is supported by several lines of evidence and leads to testable predictions...
  59. ncbi Deciphering the molecular basis of memory failure in Alzheimer's disease
    Dominic M Walsh
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 44:181-93. 2004
    ..Accordingly, attempts to slow memory and cognitive loss by decreasing cerebral Abeta levels have entered human trials...
  60. doi Tripartite synapses: astrocytes process and control synaptic information
    Gertrudis Perea
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 28002, Spain
    Trends Neurosci 32:421-31. 2009
    ....
  61. ncbi Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation
    U Frey
    Federal Institute for Neurobiology, Gene Regulation and Plasticity, Magdeburg, Germany
    Nature 385:533-6. 1997
    ..The synaptic tag decays in less than three hours. These findings indicate that the persistence of LTP depends not only on local events during its induction, but also on the prior activity of the neuron...
  62. pmc Requirement for hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors in associative memory recall
    Kazu Nakazawa
    Picower Center for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 297:211-8. 2002
    ..These results provide direct evidence for CA3 NMDA receptor involvement in associative memory recall...
  63. pmc Neuroligin-1 deletion results in impaired spatial memory and increased repetitive behavior
    Jacqueline Blundell
    Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, 75390 8813, USA
    J Neurosci 30:2115-29. 2010
    ..repetitive grooming abnormality in NL1 KO mice is associated with a reduced NMDA/AMPA ratio at corticostriatal synapses. Interestingly, we further demonstrate that the increased repetitive grooming phenotype can be rescued in adult ..
  64. pmc Actin in dendritic spines: connecting dynamics to function
    Pirta Hotulainen
    Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    J Cell Biol 189:619-29. 2010
    ..are small actin-rich protrusions from neuronal dendrites that form the postsynaptic part of most excitatory synapses and are major sites of information processing and storage in the brain...
  65. ncbi Alzheimer's disease is a synaptic failure
    Dennis J Selkoe
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and the Harvard Center for Neurodegeneration and Repair, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 298:789-91. 2002
    ....
  66. pmc mTOR-dependent synapse formation underlies the rapid antidepressant effects of NMDA antagonists
    Nanxin Li
    Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, Center for Genes and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06508, USA
    Science 329:959-64. 2010
    ..mTOR) pathway, leading to increased synaptic signaling proteins and increased number and function of new spine synapses in the prefrontal cortex of rats...
  67. pmc A synaptic organizing principle for cortical neuronal groups
    Rodrigo Perin
    Blue Brain Project, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5419-24. 2011
    ..We speculate that these elementary neuronal groups are prescribed Lego-like building blocks of perception and that acquired memory relies more on combining these elementary assemblies into higher-order constructs...
  68. ncbi Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks
    Gyorgy Buzsaki
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Science 304:1926-9. 2004
    ....
  69. ncbi Triple-transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease with plaques and tangles: intracellular Abeta and synaptic dysfunction
    Salvatore Oddo
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Neuron 39:409-21. 2003
    ....
  70. ncbi A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes
    Shiaoching Gong
    GENSAT Project, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 260, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 425:917-25. 2003
    ..The atlas, library of BAC vectors and BAC transgenic mice generated in this screen provide a rich resource that allows a broad array of investigations not previously available to the neuroscience community...
  71. doi The excitatory neuronal network of the C2 barrel column in mouse primary somatosensory cortex
    Sandrine Lefort
    Laboratory of Sensory Processing, Brain Mind Institute, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH1015, Switzerland
    Neuron 61:301-16. 2009
    ..Our data set provides the first functional description of the excitatory synaptic wiring diagram of a physiologically relevant and anatomically well-defined cortical column at single-cell resolution...
  72. ncbi Reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex
    Tommaso Pizzorusso
    Scuola Normale Superiore, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    Science 298:1248-51. 2002
    ..The mature ECM is thus inhibitory for experience-dependent plasticity, and degradation of CSPGs reactivates cortical plasticity...
  73. pmc Rare de novo variants associated with autism implicate a large functional network of genes involved in formation and function of synapses
    Sarah R Gilman
    Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University, 1130 St Nicolas Ave, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 70:898-907. 2011
    ..More generally, our study provides proof of the principle that networks underlying complex human phenotypes can be identified by a network-based functional analysis of rare genetic variants...
  74. ncbi Shrinkage of dendritic spines associated with long-term depression of hippocampal synapses
    Qiang Zhou
    Division of Neurobiology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Helen Will Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Neuron 44:749-57. 2004
    ..This activity-induced spine shrinkage may contribute to activity-dependent elimination of synaptic connections...
  75. ncbi Targeted expression of tetanus toxin light chain in Drosophila specifically eliminates synaptic transmission and causes behavioral defects
    S T Sweeney
    Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, England
    Neuron 14:341-51. 1995
    ..Targeted expression of toxin can produce specific behavioral defects; in one case, the olfactory escape response is reduced...
  76. pmc Ultrafast endocytosis at mouse hippocampal synapses
    Shigeki Watanabe
    Department of Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112, Utah, USA
    Nature 504:242-7. 2013
    To sustain neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles and their associated proteins must be recycled locally at synapses. Synaptic vesicles are thought to be regenerated approximately 20 s after fusion by the assembly of clathrin scaffolds or ..
  77. pmc Soluble oligomers of the amyloid beta-protein impair synaptic plasticity and behavior
    Dennis J Selkoe
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Behav Brain Res 192:106-13. 2008
    ..A new diagnostic-therapeutic paradigm to successfully address AD and its harbinger, mild cognitive impairment-amnestic type, is emerging...
  78. ncbi Network motifs: simple building blocks of complex networks
    R Milo
    Departments of Physics of Complex Systems and Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 76100
    Science 298:824-7. 2002
    ..Motifs may thus define universal classes of networks. This approach may uncover the basic building blocks of most networks...
  79. pmc Highly nonrandom features of synaptic connectivity in local cortical circuits
    Sen Song
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e68. 2005
    ..Therefore, the local cortical network structure can be viewed as a skeleton of stronger connections in a sea of weaker ones. Such a skeleton is likely to play an important role in network dynamics and should be investigated further...
  80. doi Clusters of hyperactive neurons near amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    Marc Aurel Busche
    Institut für Neurowissenschaften, Technische Universität München TUM, 80802 Munchen, Germany
    Science 321:1686-9. 2008
    ..Thus, we suggest that a redistribution of synaptic drive between silent and hyperactive neurons, rather than an overall decrease in synaptic activity, provides a mechanism for the disturbed cortical function in Alzheimer's disease...
  81. pmc The asynchronous state in cortical circuits
    Alfonso Renart
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Science 327:587-90. 2010
    ..Our results suggest a reexamination of the sources underlying observed correlations and their functional consequences for information processing...
  82. doi Astrocytes are endogenous regulators of basal transmission at central synapses
    Aude Panatier
    Departement de Physiologie, Universite de Montreal, PO Box 6128, Station Centre Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
    Cell 146:785-98. 2011
    Basal synaptic transmission involves the release of neurotransmitters at individual synapses in response to a single action potential...
  83. pmc Neurexins induce differentiation of GABA and glutamate postsynaptic specializations via neuroligins
    Ethan R Graf
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Cell 119:1013-26. 2004
    ..beta-neurexins and neuroligins form a trans-synaptic link at glutamate synapses. We show here that neurexin alone is sufficient to induce glutamate postsynaptic differentiation in contacting ..
  84. ncbi Heterogeneity in the pyramidal network of the medial prefrontal cortex
    Yun Wang
    Division of Neurology Research, Caritas St Elizabeth s Medical Center, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02135, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:534-42. 2006
    ..Multineuron patch-clamp recordings in the ferret medial prefrontal cortex showed a heterogeneity of synapses interconnecting distinct subnetworks of different pyramidal cells...
  85. ncbi Soluble protein oligomers in neurodegeneration: lessons from the Alzheimer's amyloid beta-peptide
    Christian Haass
    Adolf Butenandt Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory for Alzheimer s and Parkinson s Disease Research, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:101-12. 2007
    ..Findings in other neurodegenerative diseases indicate that a broadly similar process of neuronal dysfunction is induced by diffusible oligomers of misfolded proteins...
  86. pmc Oligomeric amyloid beta associates with postsynaptic densities and correlates with excitatory synapse loss near senile plaques
    Robert M Koffie
    Neurology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4012-7. 2009
    ..sectioning of tissue with immunofluorescence, allowing precise quantification of small structures, such as synapses, we have tested the hypothesis that oligomeric Abeta surrounding plaques contributes to synapse loss in a mouse ..
  87. pmc A critical period for enhanced synaptic plasticity in newly generated neurons of the adult brain
    Shaoyu Ge
    Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Neuron 54:559-66. 2007
    ....
  88. doi Dendritic organization of sensory input to cortical neurons in vivo
    Hongbo Jia
    Institute of Neuroscience and Center for Integrated Protein Science, Technical University Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802 Munich, Germany
    Nature 464:1307-12. 2010
    ..Thus, orientation-tuned neurons can compute their characteristic firing pattern by integrating spatially distributed synaptic inputs coding for multiple stimulus orientations...
  89. pmc Soluble Aβ oligomers inhibit long-term potentiation through a mechanism involving excessive activation of extrasynaptic NR2B-containing NMDA receptors
    Shaomin Li
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 31:6627-38. 2011
    ..Thus, soluble Aβ oligomers at low nanomolar levels present in AD brain increase activation of extrasynaptic NR2B-containing receptors, thereby impairing synaptic plasticity...
  90. pmc Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, defective axonal transport of mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    Marcus J Calkins
    Neurogenetics Laboratory, Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 20:4515-29. 2011
    Increasing evidence suggests that the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in synapses and synaptic mitochondria causes synaptic mitochondrial failure and synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  91. pmc Decreased expression of synapse-related genes and loss of synapses in major depressive disorder
    Hyo Jung Kang
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Nat Med 18:1413-7. 2012
    ..genes (CALM2, SYN1, RAB3A, RAB4B and TUBB4) in the dlPFC of subjects with MDD and a corresponding lower number of synapses. We also identify a transcriptional repressor, GATA1, expression of which is higher in MDD and that, when ..
  92. pmc LRRTMs and neuroligins bind neurexins with a differential code to cooperate in glutamate synapse development
    Tabrez J Siddiqui
    Brain Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Neurosci 30:7495-506. 2010
    ..but distinct code from the code for binding neuroligin-1 (the predominant form of neuroligin-1 at glutamate synapses, containing the B splice site insert)...
  93. pmc Pyramidal cell communication within local networks in layer 2/3 of rat neocortex
    Carl Holmgren
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Retzius vag 8, B2 2, S 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Physiol 551:139-53. 2003
    ..With such a high degree of connectivity with surrounding pyramidal cells, local interneurons are ideally poised to both coordinate and expand the local pyramidal cell network via pyramidal-interneuron-pyramidal communication...
  94. pmc Amyloid beta-protein dimers rapidly form stable synaptotoxic protofibrils
    BRIAN O'NUALLAIN
    Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Research, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Republic of Ireland
    J Neurosci 30:14411-9. 2010
    ....
  95. ncbi A review of the integrate-and-fire neuron model: I. Homogeneous synaptic input
    A N Burkitt
    The Bionic Ear Institute, 384 388 Albert Street, East Melbourne, Vic, 3002, Australia
    Biol Cybern 95:1-19. 2006
    ..Methods and results for both current synapses and conductance synapses are examined in the diffusion approximation, where the individual contributions to the ..
  96. ncbi Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system
    Jean Livet
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 450:56-62. 2007
    ..The ability of the Brainbow system to label uniquely many individual cells within a population may facilitate the analysis of neuronal circuitry on a large scale...
  97. ncbi A quantitative analysis of the local connectivity between pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 of the rat visual cortex
    B Hellwig
    Max Planck Institut für biologische Kybernetik, Spemannstr 38, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Biol Cybern 82:111-21. 2000
    ..It is argued that the results can be used as a detailed blueprint for building artificial neural networks with a cortex-like architecture...
  98. doi Actin in action: the interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and synaptic efficacy
    Lorenzo A Cingolani
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and MRC Cell Biology Unit, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:344-56. 2008
    ..The aim of this Review is to highlight some of the recent progress in elucidating the role of the actin cytoskeleton in synaptic function...
  99. pmc The immediate early gene arc/arg3.1: regulation, mechanisms, and function
    Clive R Bramham
    Department of Biomedicine and Bergen Mental Health Research Center, University of Bergen, 5009 Bergen, Norway
    J Neurosci 28:11760-7. 2008
    ..trafficking endosome that selectively modifies the expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptors at the excitatory synapses. Both LTD and homeostatic plasticity in the hippocampus are critically dependent on Arc-mediated endocytosis of ..
  100. ncbi Glutamate uptake
    N C Danbolt
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1105, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway
    Prog Neurobiol 65:1-105. 2001
    ..extent and pattern of activation and desensitization of receptors outside the synaptic cleft and at neighboring synapses (intersynaptic cross-talk). Further, the glutamate transporters provide glutamate for synthesis of e.g...
  101. ncbi Vesicular glutamate transporters in the spinal cord, with special reference to sensory primary afferent synapses
    Francisco J Alvarez
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435, USA
    J Comp Neurol 472:257-80. 2004
    Spinal cord sensory synapses are glutamatergic, but previous studies have found a great diversity in synaptic vesicle structure and have suggested additional neurotransmitters...

Research Grants81

  1. SPINE AND SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IN MATURE HIPPOCAMPUS
    Kristen Harris; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..They are the primary sites of excitatory synapses, the sites of communication between neurons...
  2. Loss of synapses in physiological and pathological aging
    Pascale Lacor; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Alzheimer's Disease Drug Discovery. Title: Loss of synapses in physiological and pathological aging...
  3. Distance-Dependent Structure and Function of Neuronal Dendrites
    Kristen M Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neuronal dendrites and synapses are structurally distorted in individuals with mental retardation and other neurological disorders...
  4. Dopamine's Role in the Rapid Estradiol Enhancement of Excitatory Synapses
    CAROLINE COFER SMITH HAMILTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, in Aims 2 and 3 I will pursue whether E2 recruits the dopaminergic system through an increase in dopamine release from noradrenergic terminals or through an increase in post-synaptic D1R activation. ..
  5. RALPH FRANK FREGOSI; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..function, motoneuron morphology, including estimates of the distribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses upon motoneurons, and control of the tongue musculature in vivo...
  6. Epigenetics of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior
    BRIDGET NUGENT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The density of dendritic spine synapses within the POA is 2-3 times higher in males and hormonally masculinized females compared to control females, and ..
  7. MARK L DELL'ACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2016
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): At the postsynaptic density (PSD) of neuronal excitatory synapses, AMPA (AMPAR) and NMDA (NMDAR) glutamate receptors are linked to signaling proteins and the actin cytoskeleton in dendritic spines ..
  8. Glutamate receptor recruitment to new synapses in vivo
    PHILIP ERIC WASHBOURNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Chemical synapses are the primary means for transmitting information from one neuron to the next...
  9. ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..primarily originates from astrocytes, glial cells that surround the blood vessels and also surround synapses. Neural activity activates astrocytes, which, in turn, secrete substances that trigger local vasodilation of ..
  10. David E Clapham; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..b>Synapses are endowed with a dense array of proteins that enable a panoply of modulatory influences...
  11. Mechanism of Age-Related Change in Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in Rat Brain
    JENNE MITCHELL WESTBERRY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..such as protection against brain injury, involvement in learning and memory as well as promoting the formation of synapses. Additionally, a growing body of literature has shown that E2 treatment may alleviate neuronal dysfunctions from ..
  12. Epigenetic Analysis of iPS Cell Models of Aging and Alzheimer's Disease
    Bruce A Yankner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Of particular interest will be the ability of iPS neurons to form functional synapses and survive under stress-related conditions associated with aging and AD, such as oxidative stress and exposure ..
  13. Marcus Kaul; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..synthase kinase (GSK) 32 and hyperphosphorylation of tau, and thus protects neurons and their dendrites and synapses from HIV/gp120-induced damage...
  14. KINETICS OF DRUG MACROMOLECULE COMPLEX FORMATION
    PALMER WILLIAM TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since these proteins are found at synapses in the nervous system and mediate signaling events and synaptic architecture, they are important potential drug ..
  15. Optimization of EphA4 antagonists for CNS disorders
    ELENA B contact PASQUALE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the adult central nervous system (CNS), EphA4 regulates the structure and plasticity of neuronal connections (synapses) and plays an important role in the communication between glial cells and neurons...
  16. Connexins in Neuronal and Glial Gap Junctions in the Central Nervous System
    John E Rash; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..throughout the brain suggests that "mini" gap junctions, particularly those at "mixed" (chemical plus electrical) synapses, may provide the structural basis for the detection of tiny sub-threshold electrical "spikelets" or "partial ..
  17. Basic and Clinical Studies of Noise-Induced and Age-Related Hearing Loss
    Sharon G Kujawa; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Confocal immunohistochemistry suggests that many SGC peripheral terminals, and their synapses on inner hair cells, disappear within the first days or hours, consistent with acute excitotoxic effects of ..
  18. In vivo analysis of the mechanisms of axon transport.
    Catherine M Drerup; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In neurons, axonal transport of proteins and organelles to and from synapses is essential for formation and maintenance of neural connectivity...
  19. Ralph A Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..term revealed new fundamental properties of NF and suggested a novel function for NF as a scaffold in axons and synapses, which reversibly docks vesicular organelles and proteins, including neurotransmitter receptors, and thereby may ..
  20. Human Decidual Leukocytes and Their Placental Ligands
    JACK STROMINGER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..initially using an HLA-G+ transfected cell line) with decidual Natural Killer cells and macrophages, to describe synapses that occur between these cells, and to characterize the second most populous set of decidual leukocytes, the ..
  21. Dissecting the role of one neuronal RhoGEF amongst many: the Kalirin-7 null mouse
    Richard E Mains; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..At the ultrastructural level, Kal7KO mice have a reduced number of normal excitatory synapses, plus many aberrant synaptic profiles not seen in normal mice...
  22. Pat Levitt; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..neocortex provides direct evidence that Met signaling is involved in the structural and biochemical maturation of synapses. Moreover, we discovered that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1858830) in the 52 transcriptional ..
  23. Development and Regulation of Cholinergic Synapses
    Andres Villu Maricq; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..localization and density of a7 AChRs;however, how these receptors or any AChRs are delivered to and localized at synapses is still not well understood...
  24. Synaptic autoimmunity in disorders of memory, behavior, cognition and psychosis
    Josep Dalmau; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cell surface/synaptic antigens;and 2) Determine how patients'antibodies modify the structure and function of synapses in rodent neurons in vitro and in vivo, focusing on how the density and synaptic localization of antigens is ..
  25. GERARDO ANDRES MORFINI; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..affected in HSP degenerate following a "dying back" pattern, which is characterized by early abnormalities in synapses and distal axons and progressive degeneration of axons...
  26. Mriganka Sur; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..null mutation of MeCP2, to examine at multiple levels of analysis the hypothesis that a MeCP2 deficit causes synapses and circuits to remain in an immature state...
  27. GABA chaperoning of epilepsy-associated GABAA receptor mutants.
    Nancy J Leidenheimer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Approximately 30% of synapses in the brain contain GABAA receptors (Nutt, 2006), a subtype of GABA receptor that mediates fast inhibitory ..
  28. DANIEL HIGGINS EBERT; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..phosphorylation of MeCP2 in Bdnf expression and development of functional inhibitory and excitatory synapses. We anticipate that the proposed experiments will provide a better understanding of mechanisms by which MeCP2 ..
  29. Guojun Bu; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..have decreased brain cholesterol, sulfatide and cerebroside;reduced dendritic spine density and branching; fewer synapses;and diminished synaptic functions...
  30. SK channels: Roles and mechanisms for dendritic excitability and plasticity
    James G Maylie; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In Shaffer collateral CA3 to CA1 synapses, long term potentiation (LTP), an activity-dependent increase in synaptic strength, has largely been attributed ..
  31. Kristen M Harris; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..by applicant): "Distance-Dependent Structure and Function of Neuronal Dendrites" Neuronal dendrites, axons and synapses are structurally distorted in individuals with mental retardation and other neurological disorders...
  32. Jackie D Wood; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Identification of the neurotransmitters released by intramural spinal afferents at their synapses with individually identified ENS neurons and the transmitters that evoke release of histamine and mast cell ..
  33. ISABELLE CATHERINA ROUX; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..For efferent inputs to function adequately, efferent synapses need to be set up properly during development...
  34. Stephen J Lippard; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..the evaluation by OI of hypotheses concerning the roles of mobile zinc in neurotransmission at mossy fiber synapses in the hippocampus and at glomeruli in the OB and the visualization by MRI of mobile zinc activity in the ..
  35. Brian P Head; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Learning, memory and the development of neurons are dependent upon synapses. Receptors and associated proteins aggregate to mold and shape postsynaptic densities in order to permit high ..
  36. Maria Medalla; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..will address the cholinergic modulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic responses and the structure of synapses onto these projection neurons, and the interaction EC and PMC pathways within ACC using dual patch-clamp ..
  37. John J Woodward; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..test the hypothesis that exposure to toluene in vivo induces changes in indicators of plasticity in glutamatergic synapses measured in vitro...
  38. Anthony M Zador; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..by applicant): The brain is an extremely complex network consisting of billions of neurons linked by trillions of synapses. Neuronal function depends on how these neurons are connected within this network...
  39. Chris B Schaffer; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Recent work has revealed that microglia play an active role in surveillance and pruning of synapses in development and adulthood...
  40. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    Karl Deisseroth; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. 2012 Fragile X and Autism-Related Disorders: From Basic Neuroscience to Improved
    ELIZABETH MARA BERRY-KRAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..put, FMRP is thought to bind and help transport a crucial subset of messages to the sites of neural action (the synapses)...
  42. Jack L Strominger; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..major sets of decidual leukocytes, the macrophages (~20% of the leukocytes) and T cells (5-20%), to describe synapses that occur between these cells, and to expand our knowledge of the interaction of HLA-G dimer bearing EVT with ..
  43. KATISHA ROSE GOPAUL; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..makes it possible to alter episodic and spatial memory formation by persistently increasing responsiveness of synapses, in long-term potentiation (LTP), or decreasing their strength, in long-term depression (LTD)...
  44. DEPOLARIZATION-SECRETION COUPLING IN NERVE TERMINALS
    Jose R Lemos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It is not known;however, at what specific receptors these effects occur at synapses in the CNS...
  45. Clark A Lindgren; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neurons communicate at chemical synapses. Synapses assemble neurons into networks of neurons and these networks create the remarkable abilities of the nervous system to perceive the world, process ..
  46. Neuroanatomical and functional outcomes of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea
    Robert Joseph Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Disruption of the normal <1 Hz slow cortical neuronal oscillation can alter calcium kinetics in the synapses and perhaps prevent a putative synaptic downscaling function of sleep...
  47. RNA-Seq studies of Gene Expression in Cells and Networks in FI and ACC in Autism
    Barbara J Wold; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..group A, whereas the remaining cases, autism group B, have increased expression in a network of genes related to synapses. We propose to use laser micro-dissection to investigate gene expression in specific neuronal and non-neuronal ..
  48. Frederick R Maxfield; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..These lysosomal synapses play an important role In degradation of extracellular digestion of lipoprotein deposits, and their role in other ..
  49. Albert Edge; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..this proposal we use this system to study what characteristics of the donor cells allow them to form functional synapses with hair cells, and we ask whether the new synapses lead to recovery of hearing in animals with primary neuronal ..
  50. Estrogen and hippocampal plasticity
    LORI LYNN MCMAHON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..At hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, estradiol (E2) increases spine density, NMDAR transmission, and LTP5-8, mechanisms believed to underlie the ..
  51. SK2 Channels as Novel Neuroprotective Targets Against Cerebral Ischemia
    Paco S Herson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition, SK2 channels are removed from synapses following patterned activity, either normally as for the induction of long term potentiation (LTP), or abnormally ..
  52. Investigation of Anaphase Promoting Complex function in synaptic transmission
    Jennifer Kowalski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Less is known about the functions and relevant substrates of these enzymes in neurons and at synapses. The long-term goal is to determine how ubiquitin enzymes regulate synaptic transmission...
  53. Adam C Miller; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Electrical synapses are sites of direct communication between neurons that allow the passage of ions and small molecules...
  54. Michel A Lemay; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..injured rats demonstrates the ability to promote long distance regeneration with formation of functionally active synapses distal to an injury...
  55. Molecular mechanisms of auditory nAChR synapse assembly
    Michele H Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..organization of the OC synapse based on our identification of key components at neuronal [unreadable]3-nAChR synapses and preliminary findings of shared components at hair cell [unreadable]9/10-nAChR synapses...
  56. Regulation of AKAP79 Postsynaptic Targeting and Signaling
    MARK L DELL'ACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) at hippocampal CA1 synapses are widely studied due to their involvement in learning and memory processes that are altered in diseases including post- ..
  57. Henryk F Urbanski; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..This integrative systems approach should help to identify plasticity in neurotransmitter systems and synapses and shed light on potential regulatory mechanisms...
  58. Axon Guidance in the Olfactory System
    DIEGO JAVIER RODRIGUEZ-GIL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Similarly, the molecules involved in establishing the synapses between the OSNs and the projection neurons in the OB are not well understood...
  59. Cellular and Molecular Analysis of Defects at Aging Neuromuscular Synapses
    Joshua R Sanes; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of known developmentally important molecules (laminins and agrin) at aging neuromuscular junction (NMJs), the synapses made by motoneurons on muscle fibers...
  60. KIRSTEEN NAIRN BROWNING; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Even transient modulation in the strength of key synapses within autonomic circuits has the potential to induce short-term plasticity...
  61. Imaging and Function of the Immunological Synapse
    David C Parker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It will also investigate structural difference between synapses formed by type 1 and type 2 helper T cells, and test the hypothesis that the function of the ring of adhesion ..
  62. Piyush M Patel; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..neurotrophin BDNF contributes to neuronal survival and synaptogenesis, and to the consolidation and maturation of synapses [16]. BDNF can, however, also result in neuronal apoptosis [17,18]...
  63. Astrocyte dysfunction in EAE
    David N Irani; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and just beginning to recover, significantly delays both clinical improvement and the reestablishment of motor synapses in lumbar spinal grey matter...
  64. Iryna M Ethell; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..This project will investigate a role of EphB receptor signaling in the maintenance of mature dendritic spines and synapses. Dendritic spines are small protrusions on the surface of the dendrite that receive the majority of excitatory ..
  65. Neuroligin Regulation of Central GABAergic Synapses
    Zhanyan Fu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..transmission, and, therefore, serve to further our understanding of the functional role of neuroligins at synapses. Because of their complicated etiologies and various clinical symptoms, treatments of neurodevelopmental ..
  66. MECHANISMS OF SYNAPSE LOSS IN AD NEURONS
    Linda Callahan; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Although it has been established that a loss of synapses occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the neurons responsible for synaptic loss have not been determined...
  67. PSYCHOSTIMULANT ACTION AT MESOACCUMBENS SYNAPSES
    Stephen Rayport; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..These dopamine neurons connect mainly to medium-spiny GABA neurons, which give rise to most intrinsic synapses as well as to the efferent projections of the nucleus accumbens...
  68. LONG-TERM DEPRESSION IN THE ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS
    THOMAS O DELL; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..hippocampus, a region of the brain important for some types of learning and memory, the strength of excitatory synapses onto CA1 pyramidal cells is persistently altered following certain patterns of synaptic activity...
  69. Array Tomographic Single-Synapse Analysis of Normal and Disordered Cortex
    Stephen Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Single-Synapse Analysis (AT/SSA), will be developed for the purpose of quantifying and classifying individual synapses in tissues of mouse and human cerebral and hippocampal cortex...
  70. Ethanol and Plasticity of Tripartite Synapses
    L Judson Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The plasticity of learning and memory formation involve changes in dendritic spines at glutamatergic synapses on neurons, and astrocytes form tripartite synaptic structures at a majority of mature spines...
  71. NMDA EFFECTS ON DEVELOPING VISUAL SYNAPSES
    Martha Constantine Paton; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The data suggest that NMDA receptor activation increases the lifetime of retinal synapses carrying correlated activity and simultaneously decreases the probability of new sprouts from retinal terminals ..
  72. Conditional Inactivation of Synaptic proteins in transgenic mice
    Craig C Garner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Synapses are the basic components of information storage and plasticity in our brains...
  73. LOCALIZATION OF MRNAS AT SYNAPTIC SITES ON DENDRITES
    Oswald Steward; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Local synthesis of critical proteins at synapses is necessary for long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term ..
  74. FUNCTIONAL PLASTICITY IN THE SPINAL CORD
    Harry Goshgarian; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Although the unmasking of functionally ineffective synapses has been demonstrated physiologically throughout the CNS, the morphological basis for the synaptic conversion has not been elucidated. In previous work, the P.I...