carotid body

Summary

Summary: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Contribution of endothelin-1 to the enhanced carotid body chemosensory responses induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia
    Sergio Rey
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, P Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago Casilla 114 D, Chile
    Brain Res 1086:152-9. 2006
  2. ncbi Arginine-vasopressin mediates central and peripheral glucose regulation in response to carotid body receptor stimulation with Na-cyanide
    Sergio Montero
    CUIB, Universidad de Colima, Ave 25 de Julio s n, Colima, Col 28045, Mexico
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 100:1902-9. 2006
  3. ncbi Differential expressions and roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, -2alpha and -3alpha in the rat carotid body during chronic and intermittent hypoxia
    Siu Yin Lam
    Department of Physiology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China
    Histol Histopathol 23:271-80. 2008
  4. ncbi Mortality after carotid body denervation in rats
    A Serra
    Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin and Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226-0509, USA
    J Appl Physiol 91:1298-306. 2001
  5. ncbi Mutations in SDHD, a mitochondrial complex II gene, in hereditary paraganglioma
    B E Baysal
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 2593, USA
    Science 287:848-51. 2000
  6. pmc Hypertension is critically dependent on the carotid body input in the spontaneously hypertensive rat
    Ana P Abdala
    School of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bristol Heart Institute, Medical Science Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    J Physiol 590:4269-77. 2012
  7. pmc Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces local inflammation of the rat carotid body via functional upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine pathways
    Siu Yin Lam
    Department of Physiology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China
    Histochem Cell Biol 137:303-17. 2012
  8. ncbi Carotid body inflammation and cardiorespiratory alterations in intermittent hypoxia
    Rodrigo Del Rio
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Eur Respir J 39:1492-500. 2012
  9. ncbi Differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide synthases in the rat carotid body exposed to intermittent hypoxia
    Rodrigo Del Rio
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile
    Brain Res 1395:74-85. 2011
  10. pmc Effects of mitochondrial uncouplers on intracellular calcium, pH and membrane potential in rat carotid body type I cells
    K J Buckler
    University Laboratory of Physiology, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK
    J Physiol 513:819-33. 1998

Detail Information

Publications308 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Contribution of endothelin-1 to the enhanced carotid body chemosensory responses induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia
    Sergio Rey
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, P Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago Casilla 114 D, Chile
    Brain Res 1086:152-9. 2006
    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) enhances carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia...
  2. ncbi Arginine-vasopressin mediates central and peripheral glucose regulation in response to carotid body receptor stimulation with Na-cyanide
    Sergio Montero
    CUIB, Universidad de Colima, Ave 25 de Julio s n, Colima, Col 28045, Mexico
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 100:1902-9. 2006
    Hypoxic stimulation of the carotid body receptors (CBR) results in a rapid hyperglycemia with an increase in brain glucose retention. Previous work indicates that neurohypophysectomy inhibits this hyperglycemic response...
  3. ncbi Differential expressions and roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, -2alpha and -3alpha in the rat carotid body during chronic and intermittent hypoxia
    Siu Yin Lam
    Department of Physiology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China
    Histol Histopathol 23:271-80. 2008
    The HIF-1alpha expression in the carotid body (CB) is central to the transcriptional regulation of the CB structural and functional changes in chronic hypoxia (CH)...
  4. ncbi Mortality after carotid body denervation in rats
    A Serra
    Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin and Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226-0509, USA
    J Appl Physiol 91:1298-306. 2001
    b>Carotid body denervation (CBD) in neonatal goats and piglets results in minimal irregular breathing and no fatalities...
  5. ncbi Mutations in SDHD, a mitochondrial complex II gene, in hereditary paraganglioma
    B E Baysal
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 2593, USA
    Science 287:848-51. 2000
    ..The most common tumor site is the carotid body (CB), a chemoreceptive organ that senses oxygen levels in the blood...
  6. pmc Hypertension is critically dependent on the carotid body input in the spontaneously hypertensive rat
    Ana P Abdala
    School of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bristol Heart Institute, Medical Science Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    J Physiol 590:4269-77. 2012
    ..In pre-hypertensive (PH) and adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) carotid body type I (glomus) cells exhibit hypersensitivity to chemosensory stimuli and elevated sympathoexcitatory ..
  7. pmc Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces local inflammation of the rat carotid body via functional upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine pathways
    Siu Yin Lam
    Department of Physiology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China
    Histochem Cell Biol 137:303-17. 2012
    Maladaptive changes in the carotid body (CB) induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) account for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular morbidity in patients with sleep-disordered breathing...
  8. ncbi Carotid body inflammation and cardiorespiratory alterations in intermittent hypoxia
    Rodrigo Del Rio
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Eur Respir J 39:1492-500. 2012
    ..OSA), increases hypoxic ventilatory responses and elicits hypertension, partially attributed to an enhance carotid body (CB) responsiveness to hypoxia...
  9. ncbi Differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide synthases in the rat carotid body exposed to intermittent hypoxia
    Rodrigo Del Rio
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile
    Brain Res 1395:74-85. 2011
    The enhanced carotid body (CB) chemosensory response to hypoxia induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been attributed to oxidative stress, which is expected to increase the expression of chemosensory modulators including ..
  10. pmc Effects of mitochondrial uncouplers on intracellular calcium, pH and membrane potential in rat carotid body type I cells
    K J Buckler
    University Laboratory of Physiology, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK
    J Physiol 513:819-33. 1998
    1. Mitochondrial uncouplers are potent stimulants of the carotid body. We have therefore investigated their effects upon isolated type I cells...
  11. pmc Defective carotid body function and impaired ventilatory responses to chronic hypoxia in mice partially deficient for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha
    David D Kline
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:821-6. 2002
    ..in Hif1a(+/-) mice, the response was primarily mediated via vagal afferents, whereas in wild-type mice, carotid body chemoreceptors played a predominant role...
  12. pmc Chronic intermittent hypoxia enhances cat chemosensory and ventilatory responses to hypoxia
    Sergio Rey
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, P Universidad Católica of Chile, Santiago, Chile
    J Physiol 560:577-86. 2004
    The carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors may play an important role in the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)...
  13. ncbi Enhanced GDNF expression in dopaminergic cells of monkeys grafted with carotid body cell aggregates
    M R Luquin
    Laboratory of Regenerative Therapy, Centre for Applied Medical Research CIMA, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
    Brain Res 1375:120-7. 2011
    Striatal carotid body cell aggregates (CBCA) grafts improve parkinsonism in animals and patients with Parkinson's disease...
  14. ncbi Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen sensing in the cardiovascular system
    Kenneth R Olson
    Indiana University School of Medicine, South Bend Center, South Bend, Indiana 46617, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1219-34. 2010
    ..These studies also indicate that, under normoxic conditions, it is doubtful that free H(2)S has longer than a transient existence in tissue or extracellular fluid...
  15. ncbi ROS signaling in systemic and cellular responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia
    Nanduri R Prabhakar
    Center for Systems Biology, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 9:1397-403. 2007
    ..activates ROS signaling that contributes to several systemic and cellular responses that include (a) altered carotid body function, the primary chemoreceptor for sensing changes in arterial blood O2; (b) elevated blood pressures; (c) ..
  16. ncbi Hemoxygenase-2 is an oxygen sensor for a calcium-sensitive potassium channel
    Sandile E J Williams
    School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Science 306:2093-7. 2004
    ..of calcium-sensitive potassium (BK) channels by oxygen is important in several mammalian tissues, and in the carotid body it is crucial to respiratory control. However, the identity of the oxygen sensor remains unknown...
  17. pmc Hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) heterozygous-null mice exhibit exaggerated carotid body sensitivity to hypoxia, breathing instability, and hypertension
    Ying Jie Peng
    Biological Sciences Division, Institute for Integrated Physiology and Center for Systems Biology of O2 Sensing, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3065-70. 2011
    ..We demonstrate that haploinsufficiency for the O(2)-regulated HIF-2α subunit results in augmented carotid body sensitivity to hypoxia, irregular breathing, apneas, hypertension, and elevated plasma norepinephrine levels in ..
  18. ncbi Cardiovascular adjustments induced by hypertonic saline in hemorrhagic rats: Involvement of carotid body chemoreceptors
    Gustavo R Pedrino
    Departament of Physiological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania, GO, Brazil
    Auton Neurosci 160:37-41. 2011
    ..In experimental rats (n = 8), the carotid body arteries were tied, 30 min after the beginning of the hypotensive phase, leaving the carotid chemoreceptors ..
  19. pmc Carotid chemoreceptor modulation of blood flow during exercise in healthy humans
    Michael K Stickland
    Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    J Physiol 589:6219-30. 2011
    ..These findings indicate that the carotid chemoreceptor contributes to skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during normoxic exercise in healthy humans, but that the influence of the CC on blood flow regulation in hypoxia is limited...
  20. ncbi The carotid body of the spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetic rat
    J A Clarke
    Department of Physiology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Braz J Med Biol Res 32:85-91. 1999
    ..cut, stained, and using an interactive image analysis system, were analysed to determine the volumes of the carotid body and its vascular and extravascular compartments...
  21. pmc Attenuated outward potassium currents in carotid body glomus cells of heart failure rabbit: involvement of nitric oxide
    Yu Long Li
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    J Physiol 555:219-29. 2004
    ..the cellular mechanisms associated with the alterations of chemoreceptor function and the actions of NO in the carotid body (CB), we compared the outward K+ currents (IK) of glomus cells in sham rabbits with that in HF rabbits and ..
  22. ncbi Immunosensory signalling by carotid body chemoreceptors
    Patricio Zapata
    Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana Universidad Del Desarrollo, Avda Las Condes 12 438, Santiago, Chile
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 178:370-4. 2011
    ..In carotid bodies perfused in vitro, TNF-α reduces chemosensory discharges induced by hypoxia. The rat carotid body and its sensory ganglion constitutively express LPS canonical receptor, TLR4, as well as TNF-α and its ..
  23. pmc Hemodynamic and ventilatory response to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid body-denervated rats
    João Paulo J Sabino
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Clinics (Sao Paulo) 68:395-9. 2013
    ..Our aim was to evaluate hemodynamic and respiratory responses to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in conscious intact or carotid body-denervated rats.
  24. pmc The human carotid body transcriptome with focus on oxygen sensing and inflammation--a comparative analysis
    Souren Mkrtchian
    Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Physiol 590:3807-19. 2012
    The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well studied in animals, corresponding data for the human CB are missing...
  25. pmc Plasticity of central chemoreceptors: effect of bilateral carotid body resection on central CO2 sensitivity
    Albert Dahan
    Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    PLoS Med 4:e239. 2007
    ..We assessed the acute and chronic effect of carotid body resection in three humans who underwent bilateral carotid body resection (bCBR) after developing carotid body ..
  26. pmc Carotid body function in heart failure
    Harold D Schultz
    Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska College of Medicine, 985850 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 157:171-85. 2007
    In this review, we summarize the present state of knowledge of the functional characteristics of the carotid body (CB) chemoreflex with respect to control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in chronic heart failure (CHF)...
  27. pmc Contribution of the carotid body chemoreceptors to eupneic ventilation in the intact, unanesthetized dog
    Gregory M Blain
    The John Rankin Laboratory of Pulmonary Medicine, 1300 Univ Ave, 4245 MSC, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 106:1564-73. 2009
    ..extracorporeal perfusion of the reversibly isolated carotid sinus region to determine the effects of specific carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor inhibition on eupneic ventilation (Vi) in the resting, awake, intact dog...
  28. pmc NADPH oxidase is required for the sensory plasticity of the carotid body by chronic intermittent hypoxia
    Y J Peng
    Center for Systems Biology of Oxygen Sensing, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Neurosci 29:4903-10. 2009
    Respiratory motoneuron response to hypoxia is reflex in nature and carotid body sensory receptor constitutes the afferent limb of this reflex...
  29. pmc Modulation of TASK-like background potassium channels in rat arterial chemoreceptor cells by intracellular ATP and other nucleotides
    Rodrigo Varas
    Department of Physiology Anatomy and Genetics, Sherrington Building, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK
    J Physiol 583:521-36. 2007
    The carotid body's physiological role is to sense arterial oxygen, CO(2) and pH. It is however, also powerfully excited by inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation...
  30. ncbi Carotid body and cardiorespiratory alterations in intermittent hypoxia: the oxidative link
    R del Rio
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114 D Santiago, Chile
    Eur Respir J 36:143-50. 2010
    ..hypoxic responses, alters heart rate variability and produces hypertension, partially owing to an enhanced carotid body responsiveness to hypoxia...
  31. ncbi Blunted respiratory responses to hypoxia in mutant mice deficient in nitric oxide synthase-3
    D D Kline
    Department, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 88:1496-508. 2000
    ..These results support the idea that NO generated by NOS-3 is an important physiological modulator of respiration during hypoxia...
  32. pmc Contributions of central and peripheral chemoreceptors to the ventilatory response to CO2/H+
    H V Forster
    Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 4801, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 108:989-94. 2010
    ....
  33. ncbi The carotid body as a putative therapeutic target for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension
    Fiona D McBryde
    School of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bristol Heart Institute, Medical Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, England
    Nat Commun 4:2395. 2013
    In the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat, hyperoxic inactivation of the carotid body (CB) produces a rapid and pronounced fall in both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSA)...
  34. ncbi NO and CO as second messengers in oxygen sensing in the carotid body
    N R Prabhakar
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 4970, USA
    Respir Physiol 115:161-8. 1999
    ..The purpose of this article is to highlight the current information on NO and CO in the carotid body and discuss their significance in oxygen chemoreception...
  35. pmc Peripheral chemoreceptors: function and plasticity of the carotid body
    Prem Kumar
    School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Compr Physiol 2:141-219. 2012
    The discovery of the sensory nature of the carotid body dates back to the beginning of the 20th century...
  36. pmc Carotid body hyperplasia and enhanced ventilatory responses to hypoxia in mice with heterozygous deficiency of PHD2
    Tammie Bishop
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
    J Physiol 591:3565-77. 2013
    ..4 ± 0.7 versus 5.0 ± 0.8 ml min(-1) g(-1); P < 0.01). Carotid body volume increased (0.0025 ± 0.00017 in PHD2(+/-) animals versus 0.0015 ± 0.00019 mm(3) in controls; P < 0...
  37. ncbi Contribution of inflammation on carotid body chemosensory potentiation induced by intermittent hypoxia
    Rodrigo Del Rio
    Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Adv Exp Med Biol 758:199-205. 2012
    ..A critical process involved in the CIH-induced hypertension is the potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia...
  38. ncbi Selective glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor production in adult dopaminergic carotid body cells in situ and after intrastriatal transplantation
    Javier Villadiego
    Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Departamento de Fisiología and Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
    J Neurosci 25:4091-8. 2005
    ..Intrastriatal carotid body (CB) autografting is a neuroprotective therapy potentially useful in PD...
  39. pmc Effects of exogenous hydrogen sulphide on calcium signalling, background (TASK) K channel activity and mitochondrial function in chemoreceptor cells
    Keith J Buckler
    Department of Physiology Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PT, UK
    Pflugers Arch 463:743-54. 2012
    ..H(2)S mediates oxygen sensing in chemoreceptors; this study investigates the mechanisms by which H(2)S excites carotid body type 1 cells. H(2)S caused a rapid reversible increase in intracellular calcium with EC(50) ≈ 6 μM...
  40. pmc KISS1 and KISS1R expression in the human and rat carotid body and superior cervical ganglion
    A Porzionato
    Section of Anatomy, Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padova, Italy
    Eur J Histochem 55:e14. 2011
    ..Moreover, local changes in blood flow have been considered to be involved in carotid body chemoreceptor discharge and kisspeptins and kisspeptin receptors have also been found in the endothelial cells...
  41. pmc The mitochondrial SDHD gene is required for early embryogenesis, and its partial deficiency results in persistent carotid body glomus cell activation with full responsiveness to hypoxia
    José I Piruat
    Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Edificio de Laboratorios, 2 planta, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s n, E 41013 Seville, Spain
    Mol Cell Biol 24:10933-40. 2004
    ..because mutations that cause loss of its function produce hereditary familiar paraganglioma, a tumor of the carotid body (CB), the main arterial chemoreceptor that senses oxygen levels in the blood...
  42. ncbi Strong expression of interleukin-1 receptor type I in the rat carotid body
    Xi Wang
    Department of Neuroimmunomodulation, Institute of Neurosciences, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, China
    J Histochem Cytochem 50:1677-84. 2002
    ..On the basis of these studies, a hypothesis is raised that the carotid body, as the largest paraganglion, might play a similar role to that of its abdominal partner...
  43. ncbi Tonic activity of carotid body chemoreceptors contributes to the increased sympathetic drive in essential hypertension
    Maciej Sinski
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
    Hypertens Res 35:487-91. 2012
    ..HR decreased and Sat% increased in both the study groups. These results confirm the role of tonic chemoreceptor drive in the development of sympathetic overactivity in hypertension...
  44. ncbi Mechanism of inhibition by hydrogen sulfide of native and recombinant BKCa channels
    Vsevolod Telezhkin
    Division of Pathophysiology and Repair, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 172:169-78. 2010
    Recent evidence suggests that H(2)S contributes to activation of the carotid body by hypoxia by inhibiting K(+) channels...
  45. pmc Acute and chronic effects of carotid body denervation on ventilation and chemoreflexes in three rat strains
    Gary C Mouradian
    Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Physiol 590:3335-47. 2012
    ..This deficit could be due to an abnormally weak carotid body contribution to CO2 sensitivity...
  46. ncbi Fifty years of progress in carotid body physiology--invited article
    R S Fitzgerald
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Physiology, Av Las Condes 12438, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 648:19-28. 2009
    Research on arterial chemoreceptors, particularly on the carotid body, has been fruitful in the last fifty years, to which this review is addressed. The functional anatomy of the organ appears to be well established...
  47. pmc Role of blood flow in carotid body chemoreflex function in heart failure
    Yanfeng Ding
    Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    J Physiol 589:245-58. 2011
    ..This work highlights the effect of chronically reduced blood flow to the carotid body (CB) on peripheral chemoreflex function in rabbits...
  48. pmc A role for TASK-1 (KCNK3) channels in the chemosensory control of breathing
    Stefan Trapp
    Department of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Imperial College London, London SW109NH, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:8844-50. 2008
    ..Here, we have used knock-out animals to determine whether TASK-1 and TASK-3 channels play a role in the carotid body function and chemosensory control of breathing exerted by the carotid body chemoreceptors...
  49. ncbi Expression of inwardly rectifying K+ channels in the carotid body of rat
    Y Yamamoto
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Japan
    Histol Histopathol 23:799-806. 2008
    ..Here, we determined the mRNA expression and immunohistochemical localization of these channels in the carotid body (CB) and petrosal ganglion (PG) of the rat. RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression of Kir4.1 and Kir5...
  50. pmc H2S mediates O2 sensing in the carotid body
    Ying Jie Peng
    Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10719-24. 2010
    Gaseousmessengers, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, have been implicated in O2 sensing by the carotid body, a sensory organ that monitors arterial blood O2 levels and stimulates breathing in response to hypoxia...
  51. pmc NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion mediates angiotensin II-enhanced carotid body chemoreceptor sensitivity in heart failure rabbits
    Yu Long Li
    Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 75:546-54. 2007
    ..of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) and upregulation of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor in the carotid body (CB) are involved in the enhanced peripheral chemoreceptor sensitivity in rabbits with chronic heart failure (..
  52. ncbi MaxiK potassium channels in the function of chemoreceptor cells of the rat carotid body
    Angela Gomez-Niño
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Fisiologia, Universidad de Valladolid, Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 297:C715-22. 2009
    Hypoxia activates chemoreceptor cells of the carotid body (CB) promoting an increase in their normoxic release of neurotransmitters. Catecholamine (CA) release rate parallels the intensity of hypoxia...
  53. ncbi A crucial role for hydrogen sulfide in oxygen sensing via modulating large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels
    Qian Li
    Department of Physiology, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
    Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1179-89. 2010
    ..Here we examined the role of H(2)S in the oxygen-sensing function of the carotid body chemoreceptors, where the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel (BK(Ca)) plays a key role...
  54. ncbi Mechanisms for acute oxygen sensing in the carotid body
    Chris Peers
    Division of Cardiovascular and Neuronal Remodelling, Leeds Institute for Genetics, Health and Therapeutics LIGHT, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Worsley Building Level 10, University of Leeds, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 174:292-8. 2010
    Hypoxic chemotransduction in the carotid body requires release of excitatory transmitters from type I cells that activate afferent sensory neurones...
  55. ncbi Pivotal role of nucleotide P2X2 receptor subunit of the ATP-gated ion channel mediating ventilatory responses to hypoxia
    Weifang Rong
    Autonomic Neuroscience Institute and Department of Physiology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London NW3 2PF, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 23:11315-21. 2003
    ..tension in the arterial blood is initiated by excitation of specialized O2-sensitive chemoreceptor cells in the carotid body that release neurotransmitters to activate endings of the sinus nerve afferent fibers...
  56. pmc Peripheral chemoreceptors determine the respiratory sensitivity of central chemoreceptors to CO(2)
    Gregory M Blain
    The John Rankin Laboratory of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
    J Physiol 588:2455-71. 2010
    We assessed the contribution of carotid body chemoreceptors to the ventilatory response to specific CNS hypercapnia in eight unanaesthetized, awake dogs...
  57. pmc Induction of sensory long-term facilitation in the carotid body by intermittent hypoxia: implications for recurrent apneas
    Ying Jie Peng
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10073-8. 2003
    Reflexes from the carotid body have been implicated in cardiorespiratory disorders associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)...
  58. ncbi Does yawning increase arousal through mechanical stimulation of the carotid body?
    Jorma Matikainen
    Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, PO Box 55, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Med Hypotheses 70:488-92. 2008
    ..in the neck that is known to be intimately involved in the regulation of oxygen homeostasis, namely the carotid body. It senses acute changes in oxygen levels...
  59. ncbi Effect of two paradigms of chronic intermittent hypoxia on carotid body sensory activity
    Ying Jie Peng
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Appl Physiol 96:1236-42; discussion 1196. 2004
    ..4 atm/day) + 20 h of normoxia]. Carotid body sensory response to graded isocapnic hypoxia was examined in both groups of animals under anesthetized ..
  60. ncbi Increased total volume and dopamine β-hydroxylase immunoreactivity of carotid body in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Kouki Kato
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Japan
    Auton Neurosci 169:49-55. 2012
    Under hypertension, it has been reported that the carotid body (CB) is enlarged and noradrenaline (NA) content in CB is increased...
  61. pmc The respiratory response to carbon dioxide in humans with unilateral and bilateral resections of the carotid bodies
    Marzieh Fatemian
    University Laboratory of Physiology, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK
    J Physiol 549:965-73. 2003
    ..by determining whether a single slow component was sufficient to describe AHCVR in patients with bilateral carotid body resections (BR) for glomus cell tumours...
  62. ncbi Autotransplantation of human carotid body cell aggregates for treatment of Parkinson's disease
    Ventura Arjona
    Servicios de Neurocirugía and Neurología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain
    Neurosurgery 53:321-8; discussion 328-30. 2003
    In this study, we assessed the feasibility of autotransplantation of carotid body (CB) cell aggregates into the striatum for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
  63. ncbi Chronic hypoxia-induced morphological and neurochemical changes in the carotid body
    Zun Yi Wang
    Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Microsc Res Tech 59:168-77. 2002
    The carotid body (CB) plays an important role in the control of ventilation. Type I cells in CB are considered to be the chemoreceptive element which detects the levels of PO(2), PCO(2), and [H(+)] in the arterial blood...
  64. ncbi Up-regulation of IL-1 receptor type I and tyrosine hydroxylase in the rat carotid body following intraperitoneal injection of IL-1beta
    Xi Jing Zhang
    Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, 710032, Shaanxi Province, China
    Histochem Cell Biol 128:533-40. 2007
    ..The existence of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) in the vagal paraganglia has been shown. The carotid body, which is the largest peripheral chemoreceptive organ, is also a paraganglion...
  65. ncbi Oxygen sensing by the carotid body chemoreceptors
    N R Prabhakar
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 88:2287-95. 2000
    ..tremendous progress has been made toward understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying oxygen sensing at the carotid body. The purpose of this minireview is to highlight some recent concepts on sensory transduction and transmission ..
  66. pmc Effect of endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan on chronic hypoxia-induced inflammation and chemoafferent neuron adaptation in rat carotid body
    Xuemei Liu
    Department of Physiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA
    High Alt Med Biol 13:209-16. 2012
    Chronic hypoxia (CH) induces an inflammatory response in rat carotid body that is characterized by immune cell invasion and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
  67. pmc EPAC signalling pathways are involved in low PO2 chemoreception in carotid body chemoreceptor cells
    Asuncion Rocher
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina IBGM, Universidad de Valladolid CSIC, C Ramon y Cajal no 7, 47005 Valladolid Spain
    J Physiol 587:4015-27. 2009
    ..5) The Epac inhibitor brefeldin A (100 microm) inhibited (54%) hypoxic induced release. Our findings show for the first time that an Epac-mediated pathway mediates O(2) sensing/transduction in chemoreceptor cells...
  68. ncbi Chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced vascular enlargement and VEGF upregulation in the rat carotid body is not prevented by antioxidant treatment
    Rodrigo Del Rio
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, P Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 301:L702-11. 2011
    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a characteristic of sleep obstructive apnea, enhances carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to hypoxia, but its consequences on CB vascular area and VEGF expression are unknown...
  69. pmc The role of hypoxia-inducible factors in oxygen sensing by the carotid body
    Gregg L Semenza
    Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 758:1-5. 2012
    ..IH) associated with sleep-disordered breathing is an important cause of hypertension, which results from carotid body-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system...
  70. ncbi Nitric oxide enhances Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel activity in rat carotid body cells
    Jeane M Silva
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912 2300, USA
    Pflugers Arch 443:671-5. 2002
    ..oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) enhanced Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel activity in rat carotid body chemoreceptor cells...
  71. pmc Antagonism of progesterone receptor suppresses carotid body responses to hypoxia and nicotine in rat pups
    V Joseph
    Department of Pediatrics, Laval University, Centre de Recherche D0 711, Hôpital St François d Assise, 10 rue de l Espinay, QC, G1L 3L5, Canada
    Neuroscience 207:103-9. 2012
    We tested the hypothesis that antagonism of progesterone receptor (PR) in newborn rats alters carotid body and respiratory responses to hypoxia and nicotinic receptor agonists...
  72. ncbi Upregulation of erythropoietin and its receptor expression in the rat carotid body during chronic and intermittent hypoxia
    S Y Lam
    Department of Physiology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China
    Adv Exp Med Biol 648:207-14. 2009
    The carotid body (CB) plays important roles in cardiorespiratory changes in intermittent hypoxia (IH)...
  73. ncbi Functional expression of angiotensin II receptors in type-I cells of the rat carotid body
    M L Fung
    Department of Physiology and Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, SAR
    Pflugers Arch 441:474-80. 2001
    Angiotensin II increases afferent discharge from the carotid body in vitro. We hypothesized that angiotensin II receptors (AT receptors) are expressed functionally in the type-I cell of the carotid body...
  74. ncbi The essential role of carotid body chemoreceptors in sleep apnea
    Curtis A Smith
    The John Rankin Laboratory of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, 504 North Walnut Street, Madison, WI 53726 2368 USA
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 81:774-9. 2003
    ..Specifically, (i) carotid body denervation prevented the apnea and periodic breathing that normally follow transient ventilatory overshoots; (..
  75. ncbi Mitochondrial function and carotid body transduction
    David F Donnelly
    Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    High Alt Med Biol 6:121-32. 2005
    b>Carotid body chemoreceptors respond to a decrease in arterial oxygen tension by increasing spiking activity on the sinus nerve...
  76. ncbi Frequency responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid body-denervated conscious rats
    Sharon K Coles
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota Medical School, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 130:113-20. 2002
    ..London) 497 (1996) 79; Am. J. Physiol. 274 (1998) R1546). The purpose of this study was to determine if carotid body input is required for full manifestation of phfd by quantifying ventilation in intact and carotid sinus ..
  77. ncbi Carotid body denervation in dogs: eupnea and the ventilatory response to hyperoxic hypercapnia
    J R Rodman
    The John Rankin Laboratory of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 91:328-35. 2001
    ....
  78. ncbi Carotid body function and ventilatory responses in intermittent hypoxia. Evidence for anomalous brainstem integration of arterial chemoreceptor input
    M C Gonzalez-Martin
    Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Fisiología e Instituto de Biología y Genética Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid CSIC, Valladolid, Spain
    J Cell Physiol 226:1961-9. 2011
    ..OSAS pathophysiology appears to be linked to the repetitive hypoxia, which would cause a sensitization of carotid body (CB) chemoreflex and chemoreflex-driven hyperreactivity of the sympathetic nervous system...
  79. ncbi Structural and neurochemical changes in the maturation of the carotid body
    Raffaele De Caro
    Section of Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Italy
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 185:9-19. 2013
    Functional maturation of the carotid body in the postnatal period relies partly on structural and neurochemical changes, which are reviewed here...
  80. pmc A novel oxygen-sensitive potassium current in rat carotid body type I cells
    K J Buckler
    University Laboratory of Physiology, Oxford, UK
    J Physiol 498:649-62. 1997
    1. Hypoxic stimuli depolarize carotid body type I cells causing voltage-gated calcium influx. This study investigates the cause of this membrane depolarization...
  81. ncbi Carotid body potentiation induced by intermittent hypoxia: implications for cardiorespiratory changes induced by sleep apnoea
    Rodrigo Iturriaga
    Laboratory of Neurobiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 36:1197-204. 2009
    ..ventilatory, sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia, it has been proposed that enhanced carotid body responsiveness to hypoxia is involved in the autonomic changes induced by OSA and in the development of the ..
  82. pmc P2Y2 receptor activation opens pannexin-1 channels in rat carotid body type II cells: potential role in amplifying the neurotransmitter ATP
    Min Zhang
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada
    J Physiol 590:4335-50. 2012
    Signal processing in the carotid body (CB) is initiated at receptor glomus (or type I) cells which depolarize and release the excitatory neurotransmitter ATP during chemoexcitation by hypoxia and acid hypercapnia...
  83. ncbi K(+) channels in O(2) sensing and postnatal development of carotid body glomus cell response to hypoxia
    Donghee Kim
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, The Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, United States
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 185:44-56. 2013
    The sensitivity of carotid body chemoreceptors to hypoxia is low just after birth and increases over the first few weeks of the postnatal period...
  84. ncbi Intracerebral transplantation of carotid body in rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion
    Guolong Yu
    Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Brain Res 1015:50-6. 2004
    Recent laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate therapeutic efficacy of intracerebral transplantation of carotid body (CB) in Parkinson's disease, possibly through secretion of neurotrophic factors...
  85. ncbi Postnatal hypoxemia increases angiotensin II sensitivity and up-regulates AT1a angiotensin receptors in rat carotid body chemoreceptors
    - M-L Fung
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    J Endocrinol 173:305-13. 2002
    ..study, the effects of postnatal hypoxemia on the AT1 angiotensin receptor-mediated activities in the rat carotid body were studied...
  86. ncbi Benzodiazepines and GABA-GABAA receptor system in the cat carotid body
    A Igarashi
    Division of Physiology Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 648:169-75. 2009
    ..The goals of this study were: (1) to identify GABA(A) receptor subunits in the carotid body (CB) and petrosal ganglion (PG); (2) to test if BZs exert their effects through the GABA(A) receptor in the CB ..
  87. ncbi Key roles for AMP-activated protein kinase in the function of the carotid body?
    Christopher N Wyatt
    University of St Andrews, Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Biology
    Adv Exp Med Biol 605:63-8. 2008
    ..However, the complete mechanism by which hypoxia excites the oxygen-sensing carotid body type 1 cells has not been fully defined...
  88. ncbi Regulation of oxygen sensing in peripheral arterial chemoreceptors
    S Lahiri
    Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania, B400 Richards Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6085, USA
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 33:755-74. 2001
    ..b>Carotid body glomus cells are identified as the primary oxygen sensors, which respond to changes in blood P(O(2)) within ..
  89. ncbi Differences in tyrosine hydroxylase expression after short-term hypoxia, hypercapnia or hypercapnic hypoxia in rat carotid body
    Jun Wakai
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Japan
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 173:95-100. 2010
    In the carotid body (CB), it has been reported that the expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and TH protein are enhanced by exposure to hypoxia. However, it is not known whether CO(2) affects the expression of TH in the CB...
  90. pmc Purines, the carotid body and respiration
    S Lahiri
    Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, B400 Richards Building, 3700 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6085, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 157:123-9. 2007
    The carotid body is essential to detecting levels of oxygen in the blood and initiating the compensatory response...
  91. ncbi Morphological evidence for existence of IL-6 receptor alpha in the glomus cells of rat carotid body
    Xi Wang
    Department of Neuroimmunomodulation, Institute of Neurosciences, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, Shaanxi Province, China
    Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 288:292-6. 2006
    The carotid body (CB) senses changes in arterial blood PO2 and modulates respiratory movement. It is generally accepted that the dopaminergic type I cells in the CB are chemoreceptors...
  92. ncbi Multifocal animated imaging of changes in cellular oxygen and calcium concentrations and membrane potential within the intact adult mouse carotid body ex vivo
    Christoph Wotzlaw
    Department of Physiology, University of Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 301:C266-71. 2011
    b>Carotid body (CB) type I cell hypoxia-sensing function is assumed to be based on potassium channel inhibition...
  93. ncbi Effects of systemic PSI administration on catecholaminergic cells in the brain, adrenal medulla and carotid body in Wistar rats
    Alexander Hawlitschka
    Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rostock, POB 100888, 18055 Rostock, Germany
    Brain Res 1173:137-44. 2007
    ..The proteasome inhibitor effect on the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, the adrenal medulla and the carotid body was examined...
  94. ncbi Hypoxia-induced arterial chemoreceptor stimulation and hydrogen sulfide: too much or too little?
    Philippe Haouzi
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, United States
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 179:97-102. 2011
    ..While the effects of the endogenous H(2)S on breathing remains to be established, the effects exogenous sulfide can be accounted for by its long established toxicity on cytochrome C oxidase...
  95. ncbi Hydrogen sulfide is an oxygen sensor in the carotid body
    Kenneth R Olson
    Indiana University School of Medicine South Bend Center, South Bend, IN 46617, United States
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 179:103-10. 2011
    ..Recent studies from other laboratories support this mechanism of O(2) sensing in the carotid body. This review summarizes information that supports the H(2)S metabolic hypothesis in these tissues with emphasis ..
  96. ncbi Immediate effects of bilateral carotid body resection on total respiratory resistance and compliance in humans
    Benjamin Winter
    Garfield Hospital, Monterey Park, California 91754, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 551:15-21. 2004
  97. ncbi Cardiovascular and ventilatory acclimatization induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia: a role for the carotid body in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea
    Rodrigo Iturriaga
    Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Biol Res 38:335-40. 2005
    ..intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on the hypoxic ventilatory response has been attributed to a potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemosensory response to hypoxia...
  98. pmc Angiotensin and carotid body chemoreception in heart failure
    Harold D Schultz
    Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 11:144-9. 2011
    The carotid body (CB) plays an important role in the control of breathing and in autonomic control of cardiovascular function...
  99. pmc Selective expression in carotid body type I cells of a single splice variant of the large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channel confers regulation by AMP-activated protein kinase
    Fiona A Ross
    College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 286:11929-36. 2011
    Inhibition of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels mediates, in part, oxygen sensing by carotid body type I cells. However, BKCa channels remain active in cells that do not serve to monitor oxygen supply...
  100. ncbi Oxygen sensing in the carotid body
    Jose Lopez-Barneo
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla IBiS, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío CSIC Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1177:119-31. 2009
    The carotid body (CB) is a neural crest-derived organ whose function is to elicit hyperventilation in response to hypoxemia. The CB contains clusters of neuron-like glomus cells enveloped by glia-like sustentacular cells...
  101. ncbi Bilateral carotid body tumor: the role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the preoperative diagnosis
    Marilin Rosa
    Cytopathology Section, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Diagn Cytopathol 36:178-80. 2008
    b>Carotid body (CB) is a round to ovoid or flattened structure situated within the adventitia of the common carotid artery bifurcation on both sides of the neck...

Research Grants63

  1. OXYGEN SENSING AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
    H Bunn; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..formation in ischemic tissue and tyrosine hydroxylase which is essential for the control of ventilation by the carotid body. The hypoxic up-regulation of these genes depends upon a common mode of oxygen sensing and signal transduction, ..
  2. Molecular Adaptation of Hypoxia in Oxygen Sensing Cells
    David Millhorn; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the mechanisms that regulate hypoxia tolerance and survival in oxygen-sensing cells (such as those found in the carotid body). We have made extensive use of the oxygen-sensing PC12 cell line as a model system for this purpose...
  3. Pharmacologic Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    Barbara J Morgan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..test our hypothesis that the intermittent hypoxia of OSA activates the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) in the carotid body, resulting in increased production of superoxide ion by NADPH oxidase (NOX) and xanthine oxidase (XO)...
  4. Mechanisms and Consequences of Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Lipolysis
    Jonathan C Jun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This observation inspired the hypotheses central to this proposal, that (1) lipolysis during IH occurs through carotid body stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, and that (2) chronic IH-induced lipolysis promotes tissue lipid ..
  5. Plasticity of nTS output neurons in acute and chronic hypoxia
    DAVID DOUGLAS KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Peripheral carotid body chemoreceptors sense arterial oxygen pressure and send afferent fibers to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius ..
  6. Hybrid atomic force-optical imaging system to investigate prenatal nicotine
    Jeffrey Potts; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Nicotinic receptors are expressed on peripheral (carotid body) and central (brainstem neurons) structures that are involved in mediating the respiratory responses to hypoxia...
  7. Effect of Prenatal Nicotinic Exposure on Control of Hypoxic Ventilatory Response
    Fadi Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Most importantly, local SP release is mediated by hypoxic stimulation of the carotid body and is greatly elevated in SIDS victims...
  8. Pathogenesis of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Spinal Cord Injury Patients
    ABDUL SANKRI-TARBICHI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hypothesis (4b): bilateral carotid body excision aftr cervical SCI improves central breathing instability during sleep in rats. C...
  9. Role of Carotid Bodies in Glucose Regulation and Counter Regulation in Humans
    Michael J Joyner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The carotid bodies sense arterial oxygen tension and regulate ventilation. However, studies in isolated carotid body cells and animal models indicate these receptors also sense changes in blood glucose and that changes in the ..
  10. Carotid afferent and parafacial neuronal excitatory effects on breathing
    Hubert V Forster; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, severe hypoventilation and reduced central CO2-H+ chemosensitivity after carotid body denervation (CBD) suggest a major excitatory drive is provided by carotid chemoreceptor afferents...
  11. Transmitters in Altered Carotid Body Function
    Nanduri R Prabhakar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..recruitment of certain transmitter/modulators by CIH, which otherwise play either a minor or no role in normal carotid body function...
  12. Chronic intermittent hyperoxia and development of respiratory control
    Ryan W Bavis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hyperoxia have profound effects on respiratory control in developing mammals (smaller carotid bodies, reduced carotid body chemosensitivity, and attenuated hypoxic ventilatory responses (HVR)), but it is not known whether clinically ..
  13. Peripheral chemoreflex hypersensitivity and periodic breathing in heart failure
    NOAH JUSTIN MARCUS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found that increases in carotid body (CB) chemoreflex function occur early in the development of CHF, but it is not known if this CB chemoreflex ..
  14. Integrative Consequences of Hypoxia
    Nanduri R Prabhakar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PROJECT 1 will test the hypothesis that the effects of CIH on the carotid body are due to ROS-mediated imbalance between inhibitory (carbon monoxide;CO) and excitatory (hydrogen sulfide;H2S) ..
  15. Cellular S-nitrosothiol signaling in respiratory biology
    Lisa Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..regulation, will examine the effects of S-nitrosothiols as respiratory stimulants at the level of the carotid body. This program will make extensive use of intramural and extramural collaborations, as well as Program Core ..
  16. Roles of peripheral and central respiratory chemoreceptors in inbred rat strains
    MATTHEW ROBERT HODGES; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in the regulation of eupneic PC02 and pH will be tested in the second aim by characterizing the effects of carotid body denervation in these strains...
  17. Functional Analysis of Carotid Body Responses to Hypoxia in Mice"
    Luis E Pichard; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The carotid body's role in sensing hypoxia is well established...
  18. Stimulation Induced Modulation of Sleep
    MATTHEW TARLER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Narrative The carotid body in the neck is critical for regulating the normal amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood in health ..
  19. Adaptation of Brainstem Circuits to Chronic Hypoxia
    DAVID DOUGLAS KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This proposal will determine the role and mechanisms of 5-HT in the CIH-induced augmentation of carotid body chemoreflex...
  20. Mechanism of oxygen sensing by chemoreceptor cells
    Donghee Kim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chemoreceptor cells in the carotid body (CB cells), in response to hypoxia, initiate homeostatic mechanisms to regulate breathing and autonomic nerve system activity...
  21. Peripheral and Central Interactions in Ventilatory Control
    Curtis A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we will test the effect on the gain of the central chemoreceptors of: a) acute stimulation and inhibition of carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors during wakefulness and sleep;b) chronic hypoxic stimulation of carotid body (CB) ..
  22. TASK Potassium Channel Antagonists to Treat Opioid Depression of Breathing
    Joseph F Cotten; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we will test the hypothesis that inhibition of TASK-1 and TASK-3 tandem pore potassium channel function in the carotid body stimulates breathing and prevents morphine-induced ventilatory depression...
  23. Thiol/Disulfide Redox Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-2
    STEPHEN WILEY RAGSDALE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Regulation of K+ flux across the membrane by the BK channel enables the O2 sensing function of the carotid body, which controls respiratory system ventilation in response to changes in the blood oxygen concentration...
  24. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Oxygen Sensing
    Christopher N Wyatt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, a deficit in blood oxygen (hypoxia) is 'sensed'by the carotid body, resulting in an increased firing frequency of the carotid sinus nerve and ultimately a change in the pattern ..
  25. Neuro-Circulatory Function in Chronic Heart Failure
    Irving H Zucker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project now focuses on the role of altered carotid body blood flow as a mediator of chemoreflex sensitivity...
  26. NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND VENTILATORY CONTROL
    EARL OLSON; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Aim 2 is to determine the relationships between carotid body influenced CNS neurochemical activity and eupneic ventilation...
  27. Neuro-immune mechanisms in carotid body chemoreceptor response to chronic hypoxia
    SALVATORE J FIDONE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..stimulation in the form of chronic hypoxia (CH) elicits increased chemoafferent excitability from the mammalian carotid body. Previous studies which focused on functional changes in oxygen-sensitive type I cells in this organ have ..
  28. TACHYKININS & ARTERIAL CHEMORECEPTOR EXCITATION
    Nanduri Prabhakar; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..from data by ourselves and others showing that substance P and other related tachykinins stimulate the carotid body, and that substance P antagonists block the carotid body response to hypoxia...
  29. CHEMORECEPTOR ACTIVITY OF THE CAROTID BODY
    Carlos Eyzaguirre; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The objective is to study the chemosensory synapses of the carotid body (CB), formed by glomus cells and by the apposed terminals of the carotid body nerve (CBN), because: 1) Functionally, the glomus cells are probably presynaptic to the ..
  30. Airway sensory nerves and dyspnea in human subjects
    Nausherwan Burki; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Adenosine is known to increase ventilation by stimulating the carotid body chemoreceptors; such reflex stimulation would increase central motor command and could lead to the development ..
  31. SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE BRONCHIAL CIRCULATION
    MICHAEL MAGNO; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..observing the responses to ventilation with hypoxic gas mixtures before and after denervation of the aortic and carotid body chemoreceptors...
  32. Elucidation of the Role of the Heme Regulatory Motif in Heme Oxygenase-2
    STEPHEN RAGSDALE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..potassium channel (the BK or Slopoke channel) has been strongly implicated in the control of ventilation by the carotid body in response to changes in the blood oxygen concentration...
  33. Hyperpnea in Orthostatic Intolerance
    Julian Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptor activity due to sympathetically induced reductions in blood flow to the carotid body. Increased chemoreceptor activity leads to hyperpnea...
  34. NEUROPEPTIDASES AND CAROTID BODY FUNCTIONS
    Ganesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..NEP), a soluble endopeptidase (sNEP), and endothelin converting enzyme (ECE)-like activity occur in the carotid body and they involve in the metabolism of neuropeptides in the chemoreceptor tissue...
  35. NEUROACTIVE AGENTS AND HYPOXIC EXCITATION OF BREATHING
    David Katz; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..and catecholamines (especially dopamine) seem to be critically involved at several levels of the neuraxis (the carotid body, the petrosal ganglion, and the medulla) in mediating the hypoxic response...
  36. Cartoid Mediators of Sympathoexcitation in Sleep Apnea
    James Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..pharmacological agonists and antagonists to assess functional changes in endothelin and NOS activity in the carotid body and we will use in situ hybridization to quantify and localize changes in expression of the mRNA for these ..
  37. REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION BY OXYGEN
    MARIA CZYZYK KRZESKA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract): Hypoxia induces complex pattern or gene expression in the O2-sensitive type Icells of the carotid body, and in the PC12 cells which are used as an experimental model for type I cells...
  38. CHEMOSENSORY MECHANISMS IN CULTURED CAROTID BODY CELLS
    Colin Nurse; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..proposal is to elucidate the physiological, neurotransmitter and cellular mechanisms that operate in the rat carotid body in response to chemosensory stimuli, i.e...
  39. DISCHARGE PATTERNS OF CAROTID BODY CHEMORECEPTORS
    STEVEN HEMPLEMAN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The discharge patterns of carotid body chemoreceptors will be studied...
  40. MECHANISM OF CHEMORECEPTOR DISCHARGE
    PANKAJAM NAIR; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Measurements of the PO2 in the carotid body of the cat with our micro O2 electrode suggest that hypoxia in the classical sense is not responsible for the ..
  41. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND PROCESSING IN CHEMORECEPTORS
    Salvatore Fidone; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..adaptations in rat petrosal ganglion chemoafferent neurons which innervate arterial chemoreceptors of the carotid body. This project will characterize altered phenotypic expression in these neurons, the mechanisms which control ..
  42. SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME
    HAKAN SUNDELL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The response to LCR stimulation will be studied in carotid body denervated and in lambs with chemically inhibited peripheral and/or central chemoreceptors...
  43. CONTROL OF RESPIRATORY SKELETAL AND SMOOTH MUSCLE
    Nanduri Prabhakar; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..focus of the Project 17 is to define by what mechanisms intermittent hypoxia affects 02 sensing ability of the carotid body and its consequences on respiratory motor output...
  44. CAROTID BODY CHEMORECEPTION--MECHANISMS AND DEVELOPMENT
    DAVID DONNELLY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Adapted from the applicant's abstract): The primary hypoxia sensor of the cardio-respiratory system is the carotid body which is relatively insensitive at birth and matures over the first 1-2 weeks of life...
  45. OXIDANT STRESS AND COCAINE-INDUCED BRAIN INJURY IN UTERO
    Jack Lipton; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..demonstrated that prenatal exposure to cocaine produced reductions in CNS (striatal) and peripheral (carotid body) dopamine (DA) as well as the important DA developmental growth factor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic ..
  46. CHOLINERGIC ASPECTS OF THE CAROTID BODY IN SLEEP APNEA
    CHRISTOPHER O DONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The primary consequence of airway obstruction during sleep is to cause hypoxemia which stimulates the carotid body, leading to increased respiratory drive until arousal from sleep restores upper airway patency...
  47. MEDULLARY MECHANISMS OF HYPOXIC RESPIRATORY EXCITATION
    Irene C Solomon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..during severe brain hypoxia in some CNS regions, may play a role in the hypoxia-sensing function of the carotid body. Although neurokinin-1 (SP) receptors and NO synthase (i.e...
  48. BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT
    Erkki Ruoslahti; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Second, changes in calcium, pH, membrane potential and potassium in variable hypoxic carotid body cells will be examined (Dr. Weil). Third, Dr...
  49. Hypoxia: Molecular Mechanisms of Oxygen Sensing and Response Pathways
    Andrew Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These include neurotransmitter release from the carotid body to increase respiration;pulmonary vascular constriction to redirect blood flow from poorly to well oxygenated ..
  50. GENE REGULATION DURING INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA
    Nanduri Prabhakar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  51. Consequences of Neonatal Hypoxia
    Nanduri Prabhakar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..bodies, which in turn improves ventilatory response to hypoxia, and b) IH-induced maturational changes in the carotid body involve increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to alterations in excitability and/or [..
  52. Hypoxic Sensing Transcription Factor EPAS1 in Mice
    Joseph Garcia; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..second hypoxic-responsive member of the PAS family, is expressed at high levels in vascular endothelial cells, carotid body glomus cells, and pulmonary pneumocytes...
  53. DEVELOPMENT OF CAROTID BODY CHEMOTRANSDUCTION
    Estelle Gauda; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  54. EPISODIC HYPOXIA, HYPOTHALAMUS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Leszek Kubin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Specific Aim 2, we will determine whether, similar to its effect on the development of arterial hypertension, carotid body denervation prevents the development of diabetes-like changes...
  55. Carotid Body Chemoreception: Mechanism & Development
    DAVID DONNELLY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The primary hypoxia sensor of the cardio-respiratory system is the carotid body, which is relatively insensitive at birth and matures over the first 1-2 weeks of life...
  56. CHEMOTRANSDUCTION IN THE CAROTID BODY
    Robert Fitzgerald; Fiscal Year: 2007
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The carotid body (CB), located near the internal carotid artery, is the only structure which detects too little O2 (hypoxia) or too much CO2 (hypercapnia) or hydrogen ion in the arterial blood, and ..
  57. PERIPHERAL CHEMORECEPTORS: MECHANISMS & MODULATIONS
    Sukhamay Lahiri; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The aim of this proposal is to understand how the processes are initiated in the chemosensory cells. ..
  58. Time-Dependent Changes in Respiratory Control After Perinatal Hyperoxia
    RYAN BAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..response is attenuated in adult rats exposed to perinatal hyperoxia due to abnormal development of the carotid body and its afferent neurons, but little is known about respiratory control in these rats during the neonatal ..
  59. Nicotine induced neuroplasticity in the carotid body
    Estelle Gauda; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  60. DUAL ENZYME-BASED MICROBIOSENSOR TO MEASURE ATP RELEASE FROM THE CAROTID BODY
    Estelle Gauda; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body are critical in regulating ventilation and circulatory responses to changes in oxygen tension, and they provide ..
  61. Modulation of Voltage-gated K Channels in Glomus Cells
    Machiko Shirahata; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..To protect major organs from irreversible damage, the carotid body, a primary arterial chemosensory organ, sends a message to the brain and induces various systemic responses...