sympathetic nervous system

Summary

Summary: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Haematopoietic stem cell release is regulated by circadian oscillations
    Simon Mendez-Ferrer
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Department of Gene and Cell Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Nature 452:442-7. 2008
  2. ncbi Signals from the sympathetic nervous system regulate hematopoietic stem cell egress from bone marrow
    Yoshio Katayama
    Department of Medicine, Immunobiology Center and Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Cell 124:407-21. 2006
  3. ncbi Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART
    Florent Elefteriou
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Nature 434:514-20. 2005
  4. ncbi Salivary alpha-amylase as a non-invasive biomarker for the sympathetic nervous system: current state of research
    U M Nater
    University of Zurich, Institute of Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Zurich, Switzerland
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:486-96. 2009
  5. pmc Receptor-mediated regional sympathetic nerve activation by leptin
    W G Haynes
    Hypertension Genetics Specialized Center of Research, University of Iowa College of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Invest 100:270-8. 1997
  6. ncbi Sympathetic nervous system activation in human heart failure: clinical implications of an updated model
    John S Floras
    Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network Division of Cardiology, and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Am Coll Cardiol 54:375-85. 2009
  7. pmc Inhibition of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity by baroreceptor and vagal afferent inputs in chronic heart failure
    Xian bing Gan
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e25784. 2011
  8. pmc Sequential requirement of Sox4 and Sox11 during development of the sympathetic nervous system
    Michaela R Potzner
    Institut fur Biochemie, Emil Fischer Zentrum, Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Development 137:775-84. 2010
  9. ncbi The sympathetic control of blood pressure
    Patrice G Guyenet
    Department of Pharmacology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0735, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:335-46. 2006
  10. pmc Endothelin-1 regulates cardiac sympathetic innervation in the rodent heart by controlling nerve growth factor expression
    Masaki Ieda
    Cardiopulmonary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tookyo, Japan
    J Clin Invest 113:876-84. 2004

Detail Information

Publications299 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Haematopoietic stem cell release is regulated by circadian oscillations
    Simon Mendez-Ferrer
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Department of Gene and Cell Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Nature 452:442-7. 2008
    ..are regulated by core genes of the molecular clock through circadian noradrenaline secretion by the sympathetic nervous system. These adrenergic signals are locally delivered by nerves in the bone marrow, transmitted to stromal ..
  2. ncbi Signals from the sympathetic nervous system regulate hematopoietic stem cell egress from bone marrow
    Yoshio Katayama
    Department of Medicine, Immunobiology Center and Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Cell 124:407-21. 2006
    ..Further, administration of a beta(2) adrenergic agonist enhances mobilization in both control and NE-deficient mice. Thus, these results indicate that the sympathetic nervous system regulates the attraction of stem cells to their niche.
  3. ncbi Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART
    Florent Elefteriou
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Nature 434:514-20. 2005
    ..Here we show, by analysing Adrb2-deficient mice, that the sympathetic nervous system favours bone resorption by increasing expression in osteoblast progenitor cells of the osteoclast ..
  4. ncbi Salivary alpha-amylase as a non-invasive biomarker for the sympathetic nervous system: current state of research
    U M Nater
    University of Zurich, Institute of Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Zurich, Switzerland
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:486-96. 2009
    ..as a sensitive biomarker for stress-related changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and a growing body of research is accumulating to support the validity and reliability of this ..
  5. pmc Receptor-mediated regional sympathetic nerve activation by leptin
    W G Haynes
    Hypertension Genetics Specialized Center of Research, University of Iowa College of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Invest 100:270-8. 1997
    ..These data demonstrate that leptin increases thermogenic sympathetic nerve activity and reveal an unexpected stimulatory effect of leptin on overall sympathetic nerve traffic...
  6. ncbi Sympathetic nervous system activation in human heart failure: clinical implications of an updated model
    John S Floras
    Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network Division of Cardiology, and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Am Coll Cardiol 54:375-85. 2009
    ....
  7. pmc Inhibition of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity by baroreceptor and vagal afferent inputs in chronic heart failure
    Xian bing Gan
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e25784. 2011
    ..This study was designed to determine whether it is true in intact (INT) rats with CHF and to determine the effects of cardiac and baroreceptor afferents on the CSAR and sympathetic activity in CHF...
  8. pmc Sequential requirement of Sox4 and Sox11 during development of the sympathetic nervous system
    Michaela R Potzner
    Institut fur Biochemie, Emil Fischer Zentrum, Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Development 137:775-84. 2010
    The highly related transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 are expressed in the developing sympathetic nervous system. In the mouse, Sox11 appears first, whereas Sox4 is prevalent later...
  9. ncbi The sympathetic control of blood pressure
    Patrice G Guyenet
    Department of Pharmacology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0735, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:335-46. 2006
    ..This review examines how the sympathetic tone to cardiovascular organs is generated, and discusses how elevated sympathetic tone can contribute to hypertension...
  10. pmc Endothelin-1 regulates cardiac sympathetic innervation in the rodent heart by controlling nerve growth factor expression
    Masaki Ieda
    Cardiopulmonary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tookyo, Japan
    J Clin Invest 113:876-84. 2004
    ..These findings indicate that endothelin-1 regulates NGF expression in cardiomyocytes and plays a critical role in sympathetic innervation of the heart...
  11. ncbi Gata3 loss leads to embryonic lethality due to noradrenaline deficiency of the sympathetic nervous system
    K C Lim
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA
    Nat Genet 25:209-12. 2000
    ..3) in Gata3-/- mice, we hypothesized that a neuroendocrine deficiency in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might cause embryonic lethality in these mutants...
  12. ncbi Essential role of Gata transcription factors in sympathetic neuron development
    Konstantina Tsarovina
    Max Planck Institut für Hirnforschung, Abteilung Neurochemie, Deutschordenstr 46, 60528 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Development 131:4775-86. 2004
    ..The present data establish Gata2 and Gata3 in the chick and mouse, respectively, as essential members of the transcription factor network controlling sympathetic neuron development...
  13. ncbi Hypothalamic orexin stimulates feeding-associated glucose utilization in skeletal muscle via sympathetic nervous system
    Tetsuya Shiuchi
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Developmental Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444 8585, Japan
    Cell Metab 10:466-80. 2009
    ..uptake and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, but not in white adipose tissue, by activating the sympathetic nervous system. These effects of orexin were blunted in mice lacking beta-adrenergic receptors but were restored by ..
  14. pmc The sympathetic nervous system induces a metastatic switch in primary breast cancer
    Erica K Sloan
    UCLA Norman Cousins Center, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Medical Plaza 300, Room 3129, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Cancer Res 70:7042-52. 2010
    ..These findings identify activation of the sympathetic nervous system as a novel neural regulator of breast cancer metastasis and suggest new strategies for antimetastatic ..
  15. pmc Obesity-induced hypertension: role of sympathetic nervous system, leptin, and melanocortins
    John E Hall
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216 4505, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:17271-6. 2010
    ..contribute to altered kidney function and hypertension in obesity, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which appears to be mediated in part by increased levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, ..
  16. ncbi The sympathetic nervous system in heart failure physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical implications
    Filippos Triposkiadis
    Department of Cardiology, Larissa University Hospital, Larissa, Greece
    J Am Coll Cardiol 54:1747-62. 2009
    ..Among these responses is the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that provides inotropic support to the failing heart increasing stroke volume, and peripheral ..
  17. ncbi Sema3a maintains normal heart rhythm through sympathetic innervation patterning
    Masaki Ieda
    Department of Regenerative Medicine and Advanced Cardiac Therapeutics, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Nat Med 13:604-12. 2007
    ..We conclude that appropriate cardiac Sema3a expression is needed for sympathetic innervation patterning and is critical for heart rate control...
  18. pmc NF-κB in the paraventricular nucleus modulates neurotransmitters and contributes to sympathoexcitation in heart failure
    Yu Ming Kang
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi an 710061, China
    Basic Res Cardiol 106:1087-97. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN modulates neurotransmitters and contributes to sympathoexcitation in rats with ischemia-induced heart failure...
  19. pmc Importance of rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons in determining efferent sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure
    Hiroo Kumagai
    Department of Nephrology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan
    Hypertens Res 35:132-41. 2012
    ..We expect renal nerve ablation to be an effective treatment for congestive heart failure and chronic kidney disease, such as diabetic nephropathy...
  20. pmc NRP1 and NRP2 cooperate to regulate gangliogenesis, axon guidance and target innervation in the sympathetic nervous system
    Charlotte H Maden
    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, UK
    Dev Biol 369:277-85. 2012
    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arises from neural crest (NC) cells during embryonic development and innervates the internal organs of vertebrates to modulate their stress response...
  21. ncbi The sympathetic nervous system and blood pressure in humans: implications for hypertension
    J P Fisher
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Hum Hypertens 26:463-75. 2012
    ..Along with raised vasomotor tone and increased cardiac output, the chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension has a diverse range of pathophysiological consequences independent of any increase in ..
  22. ncbi Development, maturation, and transdifferentiation of cardiac sympathetic nerves
    Kensuke Kimura
    Division of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Circ Res 110:325-36. 2012
    ..In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms involved in sympathetic development, maturation, and transdifferentiation, and propose their investigation as new therapeutic targets for heart disease...
  23. ncbi The effect of gender on the sympathetic nerve hyperactivity of essential hypertension
    A J Hogarth
    The Department of Cardiology, St James s University Hospital, Leeds, UK
    J Hum Hypertens 21:239-45. 2007
    ..It is suggested that this may at least partly explain the observed lower hypertension-related cardiovascular events in women than in men. In addition, the findings may have implications for gender-specific management of hypertension...
  24. ncbi Heterogeneous requirement of NGF for sympathetic target innervation in vivo
    Natalia O Glebova
    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurosci 24:743-51. 2004
    The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role in the development of the sympathetic nervous system. In addition to being required for sympathetic neuron survival in vivo and in vitro, NGF has been shown to mediate axon ..
  25. ncbi Chemoreflexes--physiology and clinical implications
    T Kara
    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Acta Physiol Scand 177:377-84. 2003
    ....
  26. ncbi Cervical mobilisation: concurrent effects on pain, sympathetic nervous system activity and motor activity
    M Sterling
    Department of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia
    Man Ther 6:72-81. 2001
    ..The combination of all findings would support the proposal that SMT may, at least initially, exert part of its influence via activation of the PAG...
  27. ncbi Early sympathetic activation in the initial clinical stages of chronic renal failure
    Guido Grassi
    Clinica Medica, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Prevenzione, Universita Milano Bicocca, Ospedale San Gerardo, Via Pergolesi 33, 20052 Monza, Italy
    Hypertension 57:846-51. 2011
    ..The sympathetic overdrive parallels the severity of the renal failure, state and, thus, it might participate, in conjunction with other factors, at the disease progression...
  28. pmc Short-chain fatty acids and ketones directly regulate sympathetic nervous system via G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41)
    Ikuo Kimura
    Department of Genomic Drug Discovery Science, Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:8030-5. 2011
    ..trigger an increase or a decrease in energy expenditure, respectively, by regulating the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)...
  29. ncbi Mechanisms of cardiac nerve sprouting after myocardial infarction in dogs
    Shengmei Zhou
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif, USA
    Circ Res 95:76-83. 2004
    ..A rapid and persistent upregulation of NGF and GAP43 expression at the infarcted site underlies the mechanisms of cardiac nerve sprouting after MI...
  30. ncbi BAX is required for neuronal death after trophic factor deprivation and during development
    T L Deckwerth
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Neuron 17:401-11. 1996
    ..Bax-deficient superior cervical ganglia and facial nuclei possessed increased numbers of neurons. Our observations demonstrate that trophic factor deprivation-induced death of sympathetic and motor neurons depends on Bax...
  31. ncbi Heart rate variability and autonomic activity at rest and during exercise in various physiological conditions
    Renza Perini
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie Sezione di Fisiologia Umana, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123 Brescia, Italy
    Eur J Appl Physiol 90:317-25. 2003
    ..The finding of opposite trends for LF rhythm in supine and sitting exercises suggests that different readjustments might have occurred in relation to different muscular inputs in the two positions...
  32. ncbi Obesity and cortisol
    P Bjorntorp
    Department of Heart and Lung Diseases, Sahlgren s Hospital, University of Goteborg, Goteborg, Sweden
    Nutrition 16:924-36. 2000
    ..Other neuroendocrine pathways are also involved, including the central sympathetic nervous system, the gonadal and growth hormone axes, and the leptin system...
  33. pmc Intracerebroventricular administration of neuropeptide Y induces hepatic insulin resistance via sympathetic innervation
    Anita M van den Hoek
    TNO Quality of Life, Gaubius Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Diabetes 57:2304-10. 2008
    ..Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish whether intracerebroventricular NPY administration modulates the suppressive action of insulin on EGP via hepatic sympathetic or parasympathetic innervation...
  34. ncbi Paraventricular nucleus is involved in the central pathway of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats
    Ming Kui Zhong
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
    Exp Physiol 93:746-53. 2008
    ..These results indicate that inhibition or lesion of the PVN abolishes the CSAR, but excitation of the neurons in the PVN enhances the CSAR, suggesting that the PVN is an important component of the central neurocircuitry of the CSAR...
  35. ncbi Sympathetic activation in chronic renal failure
    Markus P Schlaich
    Neurovascular Hypertension and Kidney Disease Laboratory, Baker Heart Research Institute, P O Box 6492 St Kilda Road Central, Melbourne VIC 8008, Australia
    J Am Soc Nephrol 20:933-9. 2009
    ....
  36. ncbi Superoxide anions in the paraventricular nucleus mediate the enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats
    Ying Han
    Dept of Physiology, Nanjing Medical Univ, Nanjing 210029, China
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 110:646-52. 2011
    ..These results indicate that superoxide anions in the PVN mediate the CSAR and the effects of ANG II in the PVN. Increased superoxide anions in the PVN contribute to the enhanced CSAR and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertension...
  37. ncbi Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus mediates the sympathetic and arterial pressure responses to leptin
    Kamal Rahmouni
    Center on Functional Genomics of Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Hypertension 49:647-52. 2007
    ..These results also suggest that the cardiovascular effects of leptin might be evoked by the action of this hormone in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus...
  38. ncbi Aliskiren reduces sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in chronic kidney disease patients
    Laima Siddiqi
    Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 26:2930-4. 2011
    ..Hypertensive chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients often have sympathetic hyperactivity. In this pilot study, we evaluated the effect of 6 weeks treatment with aliskiren on sympathetic activity in hypertensive Stages 2-4 CKD patients...
  39. ncbi Cardiac sympathetic denervation assessed with 123-iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging predicts ventricular arrhythmias in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients
    Mark J Boogers
    Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Am Coll Cardiol 55:2769-77. 2010
    ....
  40. pmc Hand2 determines the noradrenergic phenotype in the mouse sympathetic nervous system
    Yuka Morikawa
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, 2000 Percival Stern Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Dev Biol 307:114-26. 2007
    ..bHLH) transcription factor Hand2 has been shown to play a role in the development of the mammalian sympathetic nervous system (SNS); however, its precise role could not be uncovered because Hand2 is required for early embryonic ..
  41. ncbi Artemin is a vascular-derived neurotropic factor for developing sympathetic neurons
    Yutaka Honma
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuron 35:267-82. 2002
    ..mice revealed similar abnormalities in the migration and axonal projection pattern of the entire sympathetic nervous system. This resulted in abnormal innervation of target tissues and consequent cell death due to deficiencies ..
  42. ncbi Autonomic modulation of electrical restitution, alternans and ventricular fibrillation initiation in the isolated heart
    G Andre Ng
    Cardiology Group, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
    Cardiovasc Res 73:750-60. 2007
    ..We examined the effects of direct sympathetic (SS) and vagus (VS) nerve stimulation on electrical restitution, alternans and VF threshold (VFT) in a novel isolated rabbit heart preparation with intact dual autonomic innervation...
  43. ncbi Increased reactive oxygen species in rostral ventrolateral medulla contribute to neural mechanisms of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Takuya Kishi
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
    Circulation 109:2357-62. 2004
    ....
  44. ncbi Morning blood pressure surge and hypertensive cerebrovascular disease: role of the alpha adrenergic sympathetic nervous system
    Kazuomi Kario
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi, Japan
    Am J Hypertens 17:668-75. 2004
    ..The morning surge of blood pressure (BP) is associated with alpha-adrenergic activity. We studied the association between the alpha-adrenergic morning surge in BP and silent cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients with hypertension...
  45. pmc Increased sympathetic outflow in juvenile rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia correlates with enhanced expiratory activity
    Daniel B Zoccal
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049 900, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
    J Physiol 586:3253-65. 2008
    ..Thus, CIH alters the coupling between the central respiratory generator and sympathetic networks that may contribute to the induced hypertension in this experimental model...
  46. ncbi Chronic sympathetic activation: consequence and cause of age-associated obesity?
    Douglas R Seals
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
    Diabetes 53:276-84. 2004
    Primary aging in adult humans is associated with a progressive, tonic activation of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The purpose of this SNS activation and its physiological impact are, however, unknown...
  47. pmc The sympathetic nervous system modulates CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells via a TGF-beta-dependent mechanism
    Sourojit Bhowmick
    Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 86:1275-83. 2009
    ..Because the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) interacts chemically and physically with the central and peripheral immune system and exerts a ..
  48. ncbi Psychological vulnerability and stress: the effects of self-affirmation on sympathetic nervous system responses to naturalistic stressors
    David K Sherman
    Department of Psychology, UCSB, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 9660, USA
    Health Psychol 28:554-62. 2009
    ..The present study examined whether self-affirmation would buffer cumulative stress responses to an ongoing academic stressor...
  49. pmc BMP signaling regulates sympathetic nervous system development through Smad4-dependent and -independent pathways
    Yuka Morikawa
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Development 136:3575-84. 2009
    Induction of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) from its neural crest (NC) precursors is dependent on BMP signaling from the dorsal aorta...
  50. pmc A major role for perifornical orexin neurons in the control of glucose metabolism in rats
    Chun Xia Yi
    Department of Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Diabetes 58:1998-2005. 2009
    ..In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous hypothalamic orexin release in glucose homeostasis in rats...
  51. pmc Sympathetic hyperinnervation and inflammatory cell NGF synthesis following myocardial infarction in rats
    Wohaib Hasan
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas 66160, USA
    Brain Res 1124:142-54. 2006
    ..These findings provide evidence that inflammatory cell NGF synthesis plays a causal role in sympathetic hyperinnervation following myocardial infarction...
  52. pmc Long-acting dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers and sympathetic nervous system activity in hypertension: a literature review comparing amlodipine and nifedipine GITS
    Corey B Toal
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Blood Press 21:3-10. 2012
    ..durations of action and their effects on blood pressure, heart rate, end organs and the sympathetic nervous system. Amlodipine and nifedipine in the gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) formulation are the most ..
  53. ncbi Sympathetic nervous system overactivity and its role in the development of cardiovascular disease
    Simon C Malpas
    Department of Physiology and the Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland and Telemetry Research Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand
    Physiol Rev 90:513-57. 2010
    This review examines how the sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in the regulation of cardiovascular function over multiple time scales...
  54. ncbi The sympathetic nervous system through the ages: from Thomas Willis to resistant hypertension
    Murray Esler
    Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Exp Physiol 96:611-22. 2011
    ..neuroanatomical school headed by Thomas Willis provided us with the first identifiable images of the sympathetic nervous system. Nineteenth century giants of European physiology (Bernard, Waller and Brown-Sequard) identified these ..
  55. ncbi The sympathetic nervous system and the metabolic syndrome
    Giuseppe Mancia
    Ospedale San Gerardo dei Tintori, Universita Milano Bicocca, Monza, Milan, Italy
    J Hypertens 25:909-20. 2007
    ..and the cardiovascular risk profile of the disease, this paper will examine the behaviour of the sympathetic nervous system in the metabolic syndrome as well as the mechanisms potentially responsible for this neurogenic ..
  56. ncbi Sympathetic nervous system activity is associated with obesity-induced subclinical organ damage in young adults
    Elisabeth Lambert
    Human Neurotransmitters Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, PO Box 6492, St Kilda Road Central, Melbourne, Victoria 8008, Australia
    Hypertension 56:351-8. 2010
    ..Sympathetic activity is closely associated with cardiovascular and renal alterations observed in these subjects...
  57. ncbi Poor sleep quality, stress status, and sympathetic nervous system activation in nondipping hypertension
    Yuli Huang
    Department of Cardiology, the Affiliated Hospital at Shunde the First People s Hospital of Shunde, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, PR China
    Blood Press Monit 16:117-23. 2011
    ..This study was carried out to evaluate whether poor sleep quality is associated with stress status and sympathetic nervous system activation in nondippers.
  58. ncbi Brain AT1 receptor activates the sympathetic nervous system through toll-like receptor 4 in mice with heart failure
    Kiyohiro Ogawa
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 58:543-9. 2011
    ..These results suggest that activation of the TLR4 via AT1R in the brainstem contributes to the sympathoexcitation probably due to the inflammation in the brain of the myocardial infarction-induced HF...
  59. pmc Conditional deletion of Hand2 reveals critical functions in neurogenesis and cell type-specific gene expression for development of neural crest-derived noradrenergic sympathetic ganglion neurons
    Tyler J Hendershot
    Department of Neurosciences, Program in Neurosciences and Degenerative Disease, University of Toledo Health Sciences Center, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
    Dev Biol 319:179-91. 2008
    ..Hand2 has a pivotal function in a non-linear cross-regulatory network of DNA binding proteins that affect cell autonomous control of differentiation and cell type-specific gene expression...
  60. pmc Centrally administered lipopolysaccharide elicits sympathetic excitation via NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling
    Zhi Hua Zhang
    Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa52242, USA
    J Hypertens 28:806-16. 2010
    ....
  61. pmc Brain cytokines as neuromodulators in cardiovascular control
    Peng Shi
    Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 0274, USA
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 37:e52-7. 2010
    ..Furthermore, we propose a hypothesis for a neuromodulatory role of cytokines in the neural control of cardiovascular function...
  62. pmc Brain perivascular macrophages and the sympathetic response to inflammation in rats after myocardial infarction
    Yang Yu
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Hypertension 55:652-9. 2010
    ..The results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines stimulate sympathetic excitation after MI by inducing COX-2 activity and prostaglandin E(2) production in perivascular macrophages of the blood-brain barrier...
  63. pmc Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata
    Nephtali Marina
    Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Cardiovasc Res 91:703-10. 2011
    ....
  64. pmc Regulation of central angiotensin type 1 receptors and sympathetic outflow in heart failure
    Irving H Zucker
    Dept of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, 985850 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297:H1557-66. 2009
    ..Finally, exercise training reduces both central oxidative stress and AT(1)R expression in animals with CHF. These data strongly suggest that multiple central and peripheral influences dynamically alter AT(1)R expression in CHF...
  65. ncbi The chromaffin cell and its development
    Klaus Unsicker
    Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences IZN and Neuroanatomy, University of Heidelberg, INF 307, D 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
    Neurochem Res 30:921-5. 2005
    ..These cells are derivatives of the neural crest and are intimately associated with the sympathetic nervous system. Although a common sympathoadrenal (SA) progenitor cell for chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons has ..
  66. ncbi Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla contribute to obesity-induced hypertension in rats
    Sean D Stocker
    Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Hypertension 49:640-6. 2007
    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension...
  67. pmc Processing cardiovascular information in the vlPAG during electroacupuncture in rats: roles of endocannabinoids and GABA
    Stephanie C Tjen-A-Looi
    School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 4075, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 106:1793-9. 2009
    ..Reduction of GABA release disinhibits vlPAG cells, which, in turn, modulate the activity of rVLM neurons to attenuate the sympathoexcitatory reflex responses...
  68. pmc Ablation of the leptin receptor in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus abrogates leptin-induced sympathetic activation
    Shannon M Harlan
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Circ Res 108:808-12. 2011
    ..The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) is considered a major site for leptin signaling that regulates several physiological processes...
  69. pmc Central TNF inhibition results in attenuated neurohumoral excitation in heart failure: a role for superoxide and nitric oxide
    Anuradha Guggilam
    Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, 1909 Skip Bertman Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 106:273-86. 2011
    ..These results indicate that elevated TNF in these autonomic regulatory regions of the brain alter the production of superoxide and nitric oxide, contributing to fluid imbalance and sympathoexcitation in CHF...
  70. pmc Sex differences in sympathetic neural-hemodynamic balance: implications for human blood pressure regulation
    Emma C Hart
    Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Hypertension 53:571-6. 2009
    ..These findings may have important implications for understanding how hypertension and other disorders of blood pressure regulation occur in men and women...
  71. ncbi Sympathoexcitation by oxidative stress in the brain mediates arterial pressure elevation in salt-sensitive hypertension
    Megumi Fujita
    Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1, Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, 113 8655, Japan
    Hypertension 50:360-7. 2007
    ....
  72. ncbi Emerging excitatory role of cardiovascular sympathetic afferents in pathophysiological conditions
    Alberto Malliani
    Istituto di Scienze Biomediche, DiSP LITA di Vialba, Ospedale L Sacco, Universita di Milano, Milano, Italy
    Hypertension 39:63-8. 2002
    ....
  73. ncbi Growth and survival signals controlling sympathetic nervous system development
    Natalia O Glebova
    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:191-222. 2005
    ..This knowledge allows us to integrate the various intricate processes involved in the formation of a functional sympathetic nervous system and thereby create a paradigm for understanding neuronal development in general.
  74. ncbi Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system
    Shu Takeda
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cell 111:305-17. 2002
    ..None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis...
  75. ncbi Evidence for sympathetic origins of hypertension in juvenile offspring of obese rats
    Anne Maj Samuelsson
    Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King s College London, 10th Floor North Wing, St Thomas Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
    Hypertension 55:76-82. 2010
    ..The exaggerated pressor response to leptin in OffOb rats was maintained. Hypertension in the offspring of obese rats may arise from persistent sympathoexcitatory hyperresponsiveness acquired in early stages of development...
  76. ncbi Brain angiotensin peptides regulate sympathetic tone and blood pressure
    Alain G Dupont
    Department of Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    J Hypertens 28:1599-610. 2010
    ....
  77. ncbi Hypothalamic melanocortin system regulates sympathetic nerve activity in brown adipose tissue
    Tohru Yasuda
    Department of Internal Medicine I, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 229:235-9. 2004
    ..05). In conclusion, the hypothalamic melanocortin system may regulate peripheral energy expenditure, as well as thermogenesis, through its influence on BAT sympathetic nerve activity...
  78. ncbi Relationship between central sympathetic activity and stages of human hypertension
    Paul A Smith
    Department of Cardiology, Cardio Respiratory Unit, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, St James s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdom
    Am J Hypertens 17:217-22. 2004
    ..We planned to determine the magnitude of sympathetic nerve activity in patients with BHT and WHT in relation to normality and various stages of sustained EHT...
  79. ncbi Relationship between spectral components of cardiovascular variabilities and direct measures of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans
    M Pagani
    Centro Ricerche Cardiovascolari, CNR, Medicina Interna II, Ospedale L Sacco, Universita di Milano, Italy
    Circulation 95:1441-8. 1997
    ..Spectral analysis of RR interval and systolic arterial pressure variabilities may provide indirect markers of the balance between sympathetic and vagal cardiovascular control...
  80. ncbi Migraine: a chronic sympathetic nervous system disorder
    Stephen J Peroutka
    Headache 44:53-64. 2004
    To determine the degree of diagnostic and clinical similarity between chronic sympathetic nervous system disorders and migraine.
  81. ncbi The yin and yang of cardiac autonomic control: vago-sympathetic interactions revisited
    J F R Paton
    Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 49:555-65. 2005
    ..This may be important when pumping blood into a constricted vascular tree such as is the case during the diving response. We discuss that in some instances, high drive to the heart from both autonomic limbs may also be arrhythmogenic...
  82. ncbi Reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus mediate the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in chronic heart failure rats
    Ying Han
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
    Eur J Heart Fail 9:967-73. 2007
    ..These results indicate that ROS in the PVN mediates the CSAR and the effect of angiotensin II in the PVN on the CSAR in both CHF and sham-operated rats. Increased ROS in the PVN are involved in the enhanced CSAR in CHF...
  83. ncbi Direct control of peripheral lipid deposition by CNS GLP-1 receptor signaling is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and blunted in diet-induced obesity
    Ruben Nogueiras
    Department of Psychiatry, Obesity Research Centre, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA
    J Neurosci 29:5916-25. 2009
    ..To test the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system may be responsible for informing adipocytes about changes in CNS GLP-1 tone, we have performed direct ..
  84. ncbi Effect of renal sympathetic denervation on glucose metabolism in patients with resistant hypertension: a pilot study
    Felix Mahfoud
    Klinik fur Innere Medizin III, Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg Saar, Germany
    Circulation 123:1940-6. 2011
    ..Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system may contribute to either condition...
  85. ncbi Assessment of sympathetic cardiovascular drive in human hypertension: achievements and perspectives
    Guido Grassi
    Clinica Medica, Ospedale S Gerardo dei Tintori, Via Pergolesi 33, Monza, Italy
    Hypertension 54:690-7. 2009
    ..sympathetic cardiovascular drive have allowed throughout the years to better define the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of hypertension...
  86. ncbi Oxidative stress in the sympathetic premotor neurons contributes to sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension
    Elizabeth B Oliveira-Sales
    Cardiovascular Division, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Am J Hypertens 22:484-92. 2009
    ....
  87. ncbi Sympathetic neural activation in visceral obesity
    Guy E Alvarez
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson 39216, USA
    Circulation 106:2533-6. 2002
    ..6+/-2.1 versus 20.8+/-2.4 kg, P>0.05) and abdominal subcutaneous fat-matched (230.6+/-24.9 versus 261.4+/-34.8 cm(2), P>0.05) peers with lower abdominal visceral fat levels (LAVF; n=13, visceral fat= 73.0+/-6.0 cm2)...
  88. ncbi Aging and forearm postjunctional alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction in healthy men
    Frank A Dinenno
    Department of Anesthesiology and General Clinical Research Center, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minn 55905, USA
    Circulation 106:1349-54. 2002
    ..We tested the hypothesis that this is due to a reduction in postjunctional alpha-adrenergic responsiveness to endogenous norepinephrine (NE) release and determined whether this was specific to alpha1- or alpha2-adrenergic receptors...
  89. pmc Age-related differences in the sympathetic-hemodynamic balance in men
    Emma C Hart
    Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Hypertension 54:127-33. 2009
    ....
  90. ncbi Precipitating and aggravating factors of migraine versus tension-type headache
    E L Spierings
    Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA
    Headache 41:554-8. 2001
    ..It is interesting that three of the migraine-specific precipitating factors (ie, weather, smell, and smoke) involve the nose/sinus system, suggesting a greater significance of this system in headache than is generally considered...
  91. ncbi Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in mice
    Patricia C Brum
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 283:H1838-45. 2002
    alpha(2A)-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) in the midbrain regulate sympathetic nervous system activity, and both alpha(2A)-ARs and alpha(2C)-ARs regulate catecholamine release from sympathetic nerve terminals in cardiac tissue...
  92. ncbi The sympathetic nervous system and hypertension: recent developments
    Gerald F DiBona
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine and Veterans Administration Medical Center, 200 Hawkins Drive Iowa City, IA 52252, USA
    Hypertension 43:147-50. 2004
  93. ncbi Carotid baroreceptor stimulation, sympathetic activity, baroreflex function, and blood pressure in hypertensive patients
    Karsten Heusser
    Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    Hypertension 55:619-26. 2010
    ..The depressor response was mediated through sympathetic inhibition...
  94. ncbi Low-frequency electroacupuncture and physical exercise decrease high muscle sympathetic nerve activity in polycystic ovary syndrome
    Elisabet Stener-Victorin
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Dept of Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Univ of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297:R387-95. 2009
    ..via stimulation of ergoreceptors and somatic afferents in the muscles, may modulate the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of these interventions on sympathetic nerve ..
  95. ncbi Angiotensin-mediated increase in renal sympathetic nerve discharge within the PVN: role of nitric oxide
    Yi Fan Li
    Division of Basic Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R1035-43. 2006
    ..This negative-feedback mechanism within the PVN may play an important role in maintaining the overall balance and tone of sympathetic outflow...
  96. ncbi Prolonged inhibition of rostral ventral lateral medullary premotor sympathetic neurons by electroacupuncture in cats
    Stephanie C Tjen-A-Looi
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 4075, USA
    Auton Neurosci 106:119-31. 2003
    ..Through an opioid mechanism, EA inhibits splanchnic nerve-induced excitatory responses of these rVLM neurons. Many of these neurons receiving convergent visceral and somatic input exhibit long-lasting inhibition by EA...
  97. ncbi What drives the tonic activity of presympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla?
    R A Dampney
    Department of Physiology and Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 27:1049-53. 2000
    ..4. These neurons are also chemosensitive and this may contribute to their tonic activation under conditions of hypoxia or hypercapnia...
  98. ncbi c-Src in paraventricular nucleus modulates sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in renovascular hypertensive rats
    Ying Han
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    Pflugers Arch 461:437-46. 2011
    ....
  99. ncbi The induction of splenic suppressor T cells through an immune-privileged site requires an intact sympathetic nervous system
    Xingya Li
    Department of Pathology, Connecticut Lions Vision Immunology Center University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030 3105, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 153:40-9. 2004
    ..We suggest that an intact sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is required to maintain cellular immunoregulation.
  100. ncbi A "love triangle" elicited by electrochemistry: complex interactions among cardiac sympathetic afferent, chemo-, and baroreflexes
    Yan hua Du
    J Appl Physiol 102:9-10. 2007
  101. ncbi Central osmotic regulation of sympathetic nerve activity
    G M Toney
    Department of Physiology MC 7756, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Acta Physiol Scand 177:43-55. 2003
    ....

Research Grants95

  1. Cardiovascular Responses to Sleep Apnea in Tetraplegia: A Pilot Study
    Jill M Wecht; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..felt to underlie the association between OSA and adverse cardiovascular sequellae is heightened sympathetic nervous system activity stemming from repetitive apneic events, although falls in cardiac output that accompany large ..
  2. Chronic Sleep Restriction Increases Immunity to Autoantigen: Role of the SNS
    Arnold E Postlethwaite; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Studies in animals and humans suggest that sleep deprivation leads to changes in hormones and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) function amongst other effects...
  3. Conference on Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular Function in Health and Disea
    Martin Frank; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Current therapy for hypertension and heart failure, in large part, target the sympathetic nervous system and the renin- angiotensin II system (RAS)...
  4. Ghrelin: Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Components of Obesity
    BRETT JOHN WARREN TEUBNER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Because increases in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are necessary to increase BAT thermogenesis and WAT lipolysis, I will test how centrally-..
  5. Triggers of Abruptio Placentae - A Case Crossover Study of an Ischemic Placental
    Michelle A Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, evidence suggests that transient activation of the sympathetic nervous system might trigger AP...
  6. Respiratory and autonomic plasticity following intermittent hypoxia
    JASON HAROLD MATEIKA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..manifest itself in animals following exposure to IH is long-term facilitation (LTF) of ventilation and sympathetic nervous system activity (SNSA)...
  7. Pharmacologic Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    Barbara J Morgan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The current concept is that sympathetic nervous system overactivity and vascular endothelial dysfunction play important roles...
  8. Serotonin transporter-mediated regulation of neuroendocrine exocytosis
    KEVIN P CURRIE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Chromaffin cells are an important neuroendocrine component of the sympathetic nervous system that release a cocktail of catecholamines, peptides, and others transmitters to ensure coordinated ..
  9. Mechanisms and Consequences of Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Lipolysis
    Jonathan C Jun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..central to this proposal, that (1) lipolysis during IH occurs through carotid body stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, and that (2) chronic IH-induced lipolysis promotes tissue lipid accumulations leading to insulin ..
  10. Mechanisms mediating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell trafficking
    Paul S Frenette; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have characterized in the past funding cycle the mechanisms and biological impact of signals from the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) on HSC / progenitor egress from the BM...
  11. Regulation of Innate Immunity by the Sympathetic Nervous System Druing Sepsis
    Eric J Seeley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, this research proposal aims to identify how the sympathetic nervous system, which leads to the "fight or flight" response, alters survival during infection...
  12. ROLE OF ENHANCERS REGULATING RENIN GENE EXPRESSION
    CURT DANIEL SIGMUND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of angiotensin peptides which have pleiotropic effects on blood pressure, sodium and water homeostasis, sympathetic nervous system and systemic metabolism...
  13. Humoral factors in gender differences in blood pressure control
    Jane F Reckelhoff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Women with PCOS have activated sympathetic nervous system (SNS)...
  14. Pharmacology of Risperidone Effects on Bone Remodeling and Energy Metabolism
    Karen L Houseknecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..uncoupling bone remodeling;[2) via hyper-prolactinemia induced hypogonadism] and 3) by modulating the sympathetic nervous system output to bone...
  15. Mechanisms and consequences of sleep disordered breathing in COPD
    Cynthia D Brown; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..about how disturbed sleep and oxygenation at night may lead to increased inflammation and changes in the sympathetic nervous system. Finally, this research studies a new intervention to determine if it might help to improve sleep ..
  16. Chicago Endothelial Function Study
    Louise C Hawkley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with (a) impaired endothelial function, (b) increased oxidative stress, and altered activity of the (c) sympathetic nervous system and (d) hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical axis...
  17. Risk for Dysfunctional Romantic Relationships for Adults
    Deborah M Capaldi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and that effects of such risk factors are mediated by stress sensitive biological indicators of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning (cortisol and alpha amylase assayed from ..
  18. Mechanisms of airborne particulate matter induced thrombosis
    Gokhan M Mutlu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..suggest that PM-induced alterations in hemostasis resulting from lung inflammation and activation of the sympathetic nervous system play causal roles...
  19. BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION, STRESS AND MATERNAL OXYTOCIN RESPONSE
    Kathleen C Light; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..mothers, but enhanced activity of the "bonding hormone" oxytocin (OT) may decrease blood pressure (BP), sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity and stress behavior, while increasing positive ..
  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Neurohumoral Activation, and Human Heart Failure
    Kevin D Monahan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Methods used to address these aims will include direct measures of efferent sympathetic nervous system outflow using peroneal microneurography, Doppler ultrasound estimates of renal blood flow velocity and ..
  21. Melanocortin-4 Receptor-dependent regulation of energy balance after gastric bypa
    Vincent Aguirre; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..metabolism (which is dysregulated in diabetes), including the vagus nerve and motor neurons of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)...
  22. Ecstasy and the Dorsomedial Hypothalamus
    Daniel E Rusyniak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..effects are dependent on the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid- adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Activation of these systems likewise occurs during stress where it appears to be dependent on the ..
  23. Sleep Apnea and Dysregulation of Lipid Metabolism
    Vsevolod Y Polotsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR[unreadable]), (2) activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) resulting in increased hepatic glucose output and up-regulation of carbohydrate response element-..
  24. Neurovascular Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Renal Failure
    Jeanie Park; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..exercise is mediated by a balance between vasoconstrictive forces induced by reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and vasodilatory forces induced by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilatation...
  25. Mechanisms of Meditation in Hypertension in Blacks
    Robert Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Proposed mechanisms for this effect include excess sympathetic nervous system activation and cardiovascular reactivity...
  26. Adhesion Mechanisms Mediating Sickle Cell Vasooclusion In Vivo
    Paul S Frenette; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preliminary data indicate that circadian adrenergic signals are locally delivered by nerves of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)...
  27. Sympathetic Nervous System and Heart Failure-Role of Primary Afferent Neurons
    Jianhua Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will lay the groundwork for future experiments to examine novel therapeutics to treat exercise intolerance in this disease. ..
  28. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Stable Heart Failure
    Nancy S Redeker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..attention control, on biological indicators of nocturnal and daytime HPA-axis (urinary free cortisol), sympathetic nervous system (urinary epinephrine/norepinephrine, and pineal (urinary melatonin) function...
  29. Molecular and Cellular Determinants of the Exercise Pressor Reflex in CHF
    Irving H Zucker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Even during moderate exercise, extreme activation of the sympathetic nervous system is often seen causing an exaggerated pressor response and hyperventilation, which potentially increases ..
  30. BMP7 and the regulation of central and peripheral energy balance
    Kristy Townsend; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..reduces appetite, and also sends signals to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) which activates sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), leading to increased thermogenesis (energy expenditure)...
  31. Neurohumoral control of veins in hypertension
    Gregory D Fink; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..animal studies to molecular approaches - to test in detail a single integrated hypothesis linking the sympathetic nervous system, ET-1 and reactive oxygen species to the control of venomotor tone and blood pressure...
  32. The Norepinephrine Transporter: A Novel Target for Imaging Brown Adipose Tissue
    ROBERT STANLEY SHERWIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..BAT is strongly innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system. We propose to use a structural feature of the sympathetic nervous system, and image the norepinephrine ..
  33. Regulation of Cardiac Calcium Channels by an Autoinhibitory Signalling Complex
    William A Catterall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system activates [unreadable]-adrenergic receptors, adenylyl cyclase, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)...
  34. RENALASE DEFICIENCY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
    Gary V Desir; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The sympathetic nervous system is activated in CKD and ESRD, and patients have a significant increase in cardiovascular disease...
  35. Cytokines and Sympathetic Activation in Heart Failure
    Robert B Felder; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is a cardinal manifestation of the heart failure syndrome, and a strong predictor of morbidity and ..
  36. Central Nervous System Mechanisms of Obesity Hypertension
    Sean D Stocker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Despite the important relationship between body weight or adiposity and activation of the sympathetic nervous system, little is known regarding the neural pathways and cellular mechanisms that underlie the sustained ..
  37. Intervention for Menstrual Mood Disorders &Early Life Abuse: Biopsych Mechanisms
    Susan S Girdler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..biological mediators of MBSR efficacy will be assessed at rest and in response to mental stress: 1) sympathetic nervous system (blood pressure, heart rate, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine);2) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (..
  38. Excitability of afferents evoking the exercise pressor reflex
    Victor Ruiz-Velasco; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..lifting) exercise is well known to stimulate thin fiber sensory nerves, which in turn activate the sympathetic nervous system, an effect which in turn causes vasoconstriction in the heart, kidneys and the skeletal muscles...
  39. The Role of the Central Melanocortin System in the Muscle Wasting of Cachexia
    THEODORE PAUL BRAUN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathway by which melanocortin signaling influences muscle is likely to be mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, via the signaling mediators AMPK and the FOXO family of transcription factors...
  40. Neurotrophins and Post-infarct Plasicity in Cardiac Sympathetic Neurons
    Beth A Habecker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mice offers a new opportunity to test the role of TrkA function in adult animals that have an intact sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, we will use genetic models to manipulate neurotrophin signaling in vivo and dissect the ..
  41. Vascular Function, Cognition, and Brain MRI in Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease
    David J Moser; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of vasoconstriction (endothelin levels, indicators of renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system activation), vascular function, and cognition;4) Determine the relationship between vascular function ..
  42. Sex Hormones and Cardiac Arrhythmia in Transgenic LQT2 Rabbits
    Gideon Koren; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Because gender and the sympathetic nervous system plays a key role in triggering SCD in LQT2, the influence of sex hormones and the autonomic factors on ..
  43. Angiotensin-II, Hypothalamic Inflammation and Neurogenic Hypertension
    ANNETTE DIANE DE KLOET; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the specific hypothesis that PVN AT1a are necessary for Ang-II-induced increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity...
  44. CNS circuitry and receptors mediating the effects of MDMA
    Daniel E Rusyniak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These complications result in part from simultaneous activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis (HPA) and somatic motor systems...
  45. Mechanisms mediating circadian oscillations of leukocyte migration
    Paul S Frenette; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..through circadian regulation by rhythmic signals delivered locally in the BM microenvironment by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) via the [unreadable]3 adrenergic receptor (Mendez-Ferrer et al. Nature, 2008)...
  46. Radiation Combined Injury: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches
    Ping Wang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ghrelin inhibits the sympathetic nervous system, as evidenced by the reduction of norepinephrine (NE) release and inactivation of sympathostimulatory ..
  47. Detection of Brown Adipose Tissue Using Contrast Ultrasound
    Marielle Scherrer-Crosbie; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..When activated by cold and sympathetic nervous system stimulation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases energy expenditure by using fatty acids and glucose to ..
  48. AgRP neurons regulate bone remodeling in aging
    KARL LEONARD INSOGNA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2001) leading to the suppression of the POMC effect on many outputs including the sympathetic nervous system. While not all hormones that affect skeletal metabolims act by modulating the melanocortin system and ..
  49. Energy Balance-Related Hormones &Prostate Cancer Incidence &Progression
    Edward Giovannucci; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the complexity of how energy balance influences, and is influenced, by various metabolic hormones and sympathetic nervous system activity (SNS) adds considerable complexity to the role of energy balance for this cancer...
  50. Transcriptional regulation of neuronal differentiation
    Bennett G Novitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we have shown that Foxp1 is essential for the formation of the MN subtypes that innervate the limbs and sympathetic nervous system, raising the question of what role(s) do the other Foxp proteins play in neural development? In Aim 1 of ..
  51. Paraventricular nucleus regulatory mechanisms in stress and hypertension
    Colin Sumners; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in baseline and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and sympathetic nervous system function are implicated in the etiology of hypertension in humans and in related animal models including ..
  52. Neurohumoral adaptations to chronic intermittent hypoxia
    Steven W Mifflin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..address mechanisms within the central nervous system that mediate CIH-induced hypertension and elevated sympathetic nervous system activity and to provide insights into potential therapeutic targets and strategies...
  53. Role of mesenchymal stem cells in the blood stem cell niche
    Paul S Frenette; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..recently found that the trafficking, both enforced and homeostatic, is regulated by signals from the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)...
  54. Vasomotor Sympathetic Activity during Early Pregnancy in Humans
    Qi Fu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results obtained will provide novel insights into how blood pressure is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system during normal pregnancy, particularly during early pregnancy in humans.
  55. INTEGRATIVE NEUROBIOLOGY OF CARDIOVASCULAR REGULATION
    Francois M Abboud; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the coupling of the two major components of neurohumoral drive to the cardiovascular system, namely the sympathetic nervous system and the renal-angiotension-aldosterone system in as determinants of hypertension in obese humans...
  56. The Role of Leptin in the Maintenance of a Reduced Body Weight
    Christos S Mantzoros; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..could be responsible for defending baseline body weight by reducing thyroid hormone levels, reducing sympathetic nervous system activity and reducing metabolic rate...
  57. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC REGULATION OF CV FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE
    Frank A Treiber; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Particularly informative will be addition of new indices of sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation (i.e...
  58. Brain MAP Kinases - Substrate for Sympathetic Excitation in Heart Failure
    Robert B Felder; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a cardinal manifestation of the heart failure syndrome, and a strong predictor of morbidity and ..
  59. Mechanisms of Altered Glucose Metabolism in Sleep-Disordered Breathing
    Naresh Punjabi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation can trigger a cascade of pathophysiologic events including sympathetic nervous system activation, alterations in neuroendocrine function, and release of inflammatory cytokines...
  60. Electric Studies of Excitation, Secretion &Contraction
    Bertil Hille; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gland is an endocrine organ in the brain that is primarily regulated by noradrenaline released by the sympathetic nervous system. It is the part of our circadian clock system that broadcasts the night hormone, melatonin, to all of ..
  61. Restoration of Immune Tolerance in Type 1 Diabetes
    Daniel J Moore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mobilization of the bone marrow is dependent upon signals from the sympathetic nervous system that are activated by tolerogenic therapy with monoclonal antibody anti-CD45RB...
  62. Stress Responses, Psychosocial Stress and Pain Perception in African Americans
    Susan S Girdler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..our prior work found that AAs show blunted responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system axes (SNS), and also lower oxytocin (OT) and allopregnanolone (AP), and the absence of relationship to ..
  63. Neurobiological Mechanisms of Sympathetic Regulation in Sleep Apnea
    Anne M Fink; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..altered PPT-SMR function in OSA represents a mechanistic link between OSA and aberrant activation of the sympathetic nervous system. I have a strong foundation of knowledge/competency relevant to studying CV pathophysiology, and in this ..
  64. Impact of Aging on Skeletal Muscle Blood Flow Kinetics During Exercise
    DARREN PATRICK CASEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..maintaining it over time in young adults involves a complex interaction between mechanical factors, the sympathetic nervous system and local metabolic and endothelial derived substances that influence vascular tone...
  65. Transcriptional Regulation of Motor Neuron Subtype Development
    MADALYNN LEA ERB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Motor neuron circuits control respiration, coordinated movement and sympathetic nervous system activity in vertebrates...
  66. Central Regulation of Hepatic Energy Stores
    Allison W Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have previously shown that leptin acts centrally to suppress hepatic lipid content via activation of the sympathetic nervous system;we have further shown that central leptin resistance in the PI3K signaling pathway leads to decreased ..
  67. Formulation of Fenretinide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Bioavailability
    LEVON BOSTANIAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neuroblastoma, a neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system, is the second most common malignant tumor in childhood...
  68. Central Renin-Angiotensin System: Metabolism, Fluid Balance, and Hypertension
    Justin L Grobe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..First, via activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the brain RAS stimulates thermogenesis within brown adipose tissue...
  69. Neurovascular Control and Blood Pressure Regulation in Humans
    Michael J Joyner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of observations made over the last 5 years our renewal application is focused on novel ideas about the sympathetic nervous system and the rise in BP in postmenopausal women...
  70. Plasticity of Mammary Adipose and Breast Cancer Development
    Laundette P Jones; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that adults retain metabolically active BAT depots in WAT that can be induced in response to cold and sympathetic nervous system activation...
  71. Enhanced Sympathoexcitation and Inactivity: Role of NMDA Neuroplasticity in RVLM
    NICHOLAS ARA MISCHEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..such as obesity and hypertension are characterized by increased blood pressure and activity of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is primarily controlled by an important brain region known as the ..
  72. Neurotrophin mechanisms in neural development and disease
    Rejji Kuruvilla; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NT-3), employ the same TrkA receptor to promote sequential stages of axonal growth during sympathetic nervous system development...
  73. Pathogenic Roles of SHP2 &PTPRD Tyrosine Phosphatases in High-Risk Neuroblastoma
    Shizhen Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Neuroblastoma, a highly malignant tumor that arises in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, accounts for ~10% of all cancer-related deaths in children...
  74. Social Environment, Sympathetic Nervous System &Atherosclerosis in WHHL Rabbits
    Philip M McCabe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One of the most likely mediators linking social environment to disease is the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and in preliminary work, we have observed that there is SNS hyperinnervation in atherosclerotic ..
  75. Adenosine in Renal Sympathetic Neurotransmission
    EDWIN KERRY JACKSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because the renal sympathetic nervous system is involved in most renal physiological and pathophysiological processes, this discover would enlighten ..
  76. Models of Risk for PTSD
    Matthew C Morris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, he requires additional training, mentoring and experience in five key areas: (1) diurnal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity;(2) SNS and HPA reactivity to stress;(3) ..
  77. In vitro and in vivo functional analysis of Ikbkap in Familial Dysautonomia
    MARISA ZOE TATIANA JACKSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormalities have been implicated in a wide variety of congenital, neurodegenerative and neoplastic diseases...
  78. Sympathetic Neural Regulation and Aging: Medullary Mechanisms and Strategies
    Michael J Kenney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..function is altered with advancing age, including profound changes in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), supporting the concept that normal aging alters the regulation of sympathetic nerve outflow...
  79. PHOTOPERIODIC CONTROL OF OBESITY
    TIMOTHY JON BARTNESS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, the pseudorabies virus (PRV), the origins of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow from brain to white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) have been defined...
  80. The ALK receptor tyrosine kinase as a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma
    Rani E George; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the last few decades, the long-term cure rate in children with advanced neuroblastoma, a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, is still far from satisfactory...
  81. LIPID & PROTEIN PO4 TURNOVER IN IRIS OF THE EYE
    ATA ABDEL LATIF; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..goal of this research continues to be to define the biochemical and functional cross talk between the sympathetic nervous system, which governs the formation of cAMP and muscle relaxation, and the parasympathetic nervous system, ..
  82. Impact of PTSD on Bone Formation
    Subburaman Mohan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, it is well established that PTSD leads to the activation of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
  83. Evaluation of yoga as a treatment for insomnia in posttraumatic stress disorder
    JESSICA JOY NOGGLE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both PTSD and insomnia are associated with chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system or hyperarousal...
  84. HYPERTENSION TRAINING GRANT
    Roland C Blantz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., sympathetic nervous system, metabolic and endocrine factors, and, critically influenced by the response of the kidney...
  85. Neuroblastoma Tumor Suppressor Genes in Zebrafish
    A Look; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..elusive tumor suppressor genes whose alteration leads to disruption of the developing peripheral sympathetic nervous system (PSNS) and ultimately to overt neuroblastoma (NB), a biologically enigmatic, often fatal tumor in young ..
  86. "Innate intestinal responses in murine toxoplasmosis"
    Fernando Monroy; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Stress activates the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system leading to the release of glucocorticoids (corticosterone) from the adrenal cortex, and release of ..
  87. The Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Major Depression and Inflammation
    ANDREA INES LIATIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..possible mechanisms linking inflammation to MD and will help identify molecular targets related to the sympathetic nervous system contributions to the relationship among stress, depression and disease...
  88. Aging and Heart Failure are not Similar Syndromes of Sympathetic Dysregulation
    MICHAEL KENNEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The sympathetic nervous system plays a crucial role in the regulation of physiological homeostasis under basal conditions and in ..
  89. ENDOCRINE AND NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN OBESITY
    LARYSSA KAUFMAN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..One hypothesis is that insulin-induced increases in sympathetic nervous system activity and thermogenesis limit fat deposition, while anabolic effects of insulin on muscle and/or bone ..
  90. Radiation Combined Injury: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches
    Ping Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Ghrelin inhibits the sympathetic nervous system, as evidenced by the reduction of norepinephrine (NE) release and inactivation of sympathostimulatory ..
  91. LV DYSFUNCTION WITH MASSIVE SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY
    CHARLES PILATI; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Trauma to the central nervous system (CNS) often intensely activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) frequently results...
  92. TRH in mediating the bradycardia of caloric restriction
    Steven Swoap; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..roles of thyrotropin releasing hormone, thyroid hormones, the parasympathetic nervous system, and the sympathetic nervous system in the bradycardia of caloric restriction in mice...
  93. INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT AND CARDIOVASCULAR REACTIVITY
    Elizabeth Brondolo; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..These traits may be linked to cardiovascular d ease through hyper-reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), with bloo pressure or heart rate responses to stress serving as a frequently used ind of SNS ..
  94. CLINICAL PET AND LABORATORY STUDIES OF ADRENERGIC TUMORS
    Barry Shulkin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..the Applicant's Abstract): Neuroblastomas and pheochromocytomas are tumors derived from tissues of the sympathetic nervous system. Neuroblastomas are common and highly lethal malignancies of children...
  95. Angiotensin/Sympathetic Interactions and Blood Pressure
    Lisa Cassis; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (Verbatim from the application): The sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system regulate arterial blood pressure and fluid balance in a highly interdependent way...