growth cones

Summary

Summary: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Retinal axon growth at the optic chiasm: to cross or not to cross
    Timothy J Petros
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:295-315. 2008
  2. pmc The trip of the tip: understanding the growth cone machinery
    Laura Anne Lowery
    Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10:332-43. 2009
  3. ncbi Anterior-posterior guidance of commissural axons by Wnt-frizzled signaling
    Anna I Lyuksyutova
    Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Science 302:1984-8. 2003
  4. ncbi Actin cytoskeleton regulation in neuronal morphogenesis and structural plasticity
    Liqun Luo
    Department of Biological Sciences, Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 18:601-35. 2002
  5. pmc Smn, the spinal muscular atrophy-determining gene product, modulates axon growth and localization of beta-actin mRNA in growth cones of motoneurons
    Wilfried Rossoll
    Institute for Clinical Neurobiology, University of Wuerzburg, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
    J Cell Biol 163:801-12. 2003
  6. ncbi Filopodial calcium transients promote substrate-dependent growth cone turning
    T M Gomez
    Department of Biology and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 291:1983-7. 2001
  7. ncbi An essential role for beta-actin mRNA localization and translation in Ca2+-dependent growth cone guidance
    Jiaqi Yao
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:1265-73. 2006
  8. ncbi Activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for axon formation
    Anthony A Oliva
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 26:9462-70. 2006
  9. pmc Rho and Ras GTPases in axon growth, guidance, and branching
    Alan Hall
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Cell Biology Program, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a001818. 2010
  10. ncbi Disorganized microtubules underlie the formation of retraction bulbs and the failure of axonal regeneration
    Ali Erturk
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Axonal Growth and Regeneration, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurosci 27:9169-80. 2007

Detail Information

Publications300 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Retinal axon growth at the optic chiasm: to cross or not to cross
    Timothy J Petros
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:295-315. 2008
    ..Throughout this review, we compare guidance mechanisms at the optic chiasm with those in other midline models and highlight unanswered questions both for retinal axon growth and axon guidance in general...
  2. pmc The trip of the tip: understanding the growth cone machinery
    Laura Anne Lowery
    Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10:332-43. 2009
    ..The understanding of the functions and regulation of the vehicle and navigator provides new insights into the cell biology of growth cone guidance...
  3. ncbi Anterior-posterior guidance of commissural axons by Wnt-frizzled signaling
    Anna I Lyuksyutova
    Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Science 302:1984-8. 2003
    ..Thus, Wnt-Frizzled signaling guides commissural axons along the anterior-posterior axis of the spinal cord...
  4. ncbi Actin cytoskeleton regulation in neuronal morphogenesis and structural plasticity
    Liqun Luo
    Department of Biological Sciences, Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 18:601-35. 2002
    ..These studies support an emerging theme: Different aspects of neuronal morphogenesis may involve regulation of common core signaling pathways, in particular the Rho GTPases...
  5. pmc Smn, the spinal muscular atrophy-determining gene product, modulates axon growth and localization of beta-actin mRNA in growth cones of motoneurons
    Wilfried Rossoll
    Institute for Clinical Neurobiology, University of Wuerzburg, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
    J Cell Biol 163:801-12. 2003
    ..in Smn-deficient motoneurons correlates with reduced beta-actin protein and mRNA staining in distal axons and growth cones. We also show that hnRNP R associates with the 3' UTR of beta-actin mRNA...
  6. ncbi Filopodial calcium transients promote substrate-dependent growth cone turning
    T M Gomez
    Department of Biology and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 291:1983-7. 2001
    Filopodia that extend from neuronal growth cones sample the environment for extracellular guidance cues, but the signals they transmit to growth cones are unknown...
  7. ncbi An essential role for beta-actin mRNA localization and translation in Ca2+-dependent growth cone guidance
    Jiaqi Yao
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:1265-73. 2006
    Axon pathfinding requires directional responses of growth cones to extracellular cues, which have been shown to involve local synthesis of protein. The identity and functions of the locally produced proteins remain, however, unclear...
  8. ncbi Activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for axon formation
    Anthony A Oliva
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 26:9462-70. 2006
    ..These results demonstrate that activated JNK is required for axonogenesis but not formation of minor processes or development of dendrites...
  9. pmc Rho and Ras GTPases in axon growth, guidance, and branching
    Alan Hall
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Cell Biology Program, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a001818. 2010
    ..This article highlights the contribution of Rho and Ras GTPases to axonogenesis...
  10. ncbi Disorganized microtubules underlie the formation of retraction bulbs and the failure of axonal regeneration
    Ali Erturk
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Axonal Growth and Regeneration, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurosci 27:9169-80. 2007
    ..form characteristic swellings at their tips known as retraction bulbs, which are the nongrowing counterparts of growth cones. Although much progress has been made in identifying intracellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate ..
  11. pmc Second messengers and membrane trafficking direct and organize growth cone steering
    Takuro Tojima
    Laboratory for Neuronal Growth Mechanisms, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Nat Rev Neurosci 12:191-203. 2011
    ..and cyclic nucleotides - shapes cue-derived information into either attractive or repulsive signals that steer growth cones bidirectionally...
  12. pmc Topography, cell response, and nerve regeneration
    Diane Hoffman-Kim
    Center for Biomedical Engineering and Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    Annu Rev Biomed Eng 12:203-31. 2010
    ..How neurons and other cell types sense and interpret topography remains to be fully elucidated. Studies reviewed here include those of topography on cellular organization and function as well as potential cellular mechanisms of response...
  13. ncbi An alternatively spliced form of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is targeted to growing neurites and growth cones
    Alison Wood-Kaczmar
    The MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, New Hunts House, Guy s Campus, King s College London, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Mol Cell Neurosci 42:184-94. 2009
    ..fractionation of neonatal rat brain showed that GSK-3beta2 is present in fractions enriched in neurites and growth cones. Furthermore, we found that when we separated neuronal cell bodies from neurites by culturing embryonic ..
  14. pmc Arp2/3 complex is important for filopodia formation, growth cone motility, and neuritogenesis in neuronal cells
    Farida Korobova
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 19:1561-74. 2008
    ..on filopodia, and we found that Arp2/3 complex is involved in generation of both lamellipodia and filopodia in growth cones, and in neuritogenesis, the processes thought to occur largely in Arp2/3 complex-independent manner...
  15. ncbi Multiprotein complexes of the survival of motor neuron protein SMN with Gemins traffic to neuronal processes and growth cones of motor neurons
    Honglai Zhang
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Neurosci 26:8622-32. 2006
    ..We have shown that SMN is localized in granules that are actively transported into neuronal processes and growth cones. In cultured motor neurons, SMN granules colocalized with ribonucleoprotein Gemin proteins but not spliceosomal ..
  16. pmc Filopodia and actin arcs guide the assembly and transport of two populations of microtubules with unique dynamic parameters in neuronal growth cones
    Andrew W Schaefer
    Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Cell Biol 158:139-52. 2002
    ..Actin arcs interact with MTs and transport them into the C-domain. Interestingly, although the MTs associated with arcs are less dynamic than P-domain MTs, they elongate efficiently as a result of markedly lower catastrophe frequencies...
  17. ncbi The ubiquitin ligase Phr1 regulates axon outgrowth through modulation of microtubule dynamics
    Joseph W Lewcock
    Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuron 56:604-20. 2007
    ..with the microtubule cytoskeleton within neurons and selectively localizes to axons but is excluded from growth cones. Motor and sensory neurons from Magellan mutants display abnormal morphologies due to a breakdown in the ..
  18. pmc Subcellular profiling reveals distinct and developmentally regulated repertoire of growth cone mRNAs
    Krishna H Zivraj
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    J Neurosci 30:15464-78. 2010
    Cue-directed axon guidance depends partly on local translation in growth cones. Many mRNA transcripts are known to reside in developing axons, yet little is known about their subcellular distribution or, specifically, which transcripts ..
  19. pmc Coordination of actin filament and microtubule dynamics during neurite outgrowth
    Andrew W Schaefer
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Dev Cell 15:146-62. 2008
    ..These results reveal a role for Rho Kinase and myosin II contractility in regulation of microtubule behavior during neuronal growth...
  20. ncbi Axonal mitochondrial transport and potential are correlated
    Kyle E Miller
    Department of Biological Sciences, Room 713 Fairchild Building, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
    J Cell Sci 117:2791-804. 2004
    ..These results have implications for axonal clogging, autophagy, apoptosis and Alzheimer's disease...
  21. pmc Guiding neuronal growth cones using Ca2+ signals
    John Henley
    Division of Neurobiology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Trends Cell Biol 14:320-30. 2004
    ..Modulating Ca2+ levels in the growth cone might overcome inhibitory signals that normally prevent regeneration in the central nervous system...
  22. ncbi Adaptation in the chemotactic guidance of nerve growth cones
    Guo li Ming
    Division of Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nature 417:411-8. 2002
    ..Analogous to the process of chemotaxis in microorganisms, we found that axonal growth cones of cultured Xenopus spinal neurons exhibit adaptation during chemotactic migration, undergoing consecutive ..
  23. ncbi In vivo regulation of axon extension and pathfinding by growth-cone calcium transients
    T M Gomez
    Department of Biology and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0357, USA
    Nature 397:350-5. 1999
    b>Growth cones at the tips of extending neurites migrate through complex environments in the developing nervous system and guide axons to appropriate target regions using local cues...
  24. ncbi Regulation of growth cone actin filaments by guidance cues
    Gianluca Gallo
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129, USA
    J Neurobiol 58:92-102. 2004
    The motile behaviors of growth cones at the ends of elongating axons determine pathways of axonal connections in developing nervous systems...
  25. pmc Regulation of chemotropic guidance of nerve growth cones by microRNA
    Liang Han
    Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Brain 4:40. 2011
    ..Here, we investigated the role of microRNA-134 (miR-134) in chemotropic guidance of nerve growth cones.
  26. pmc Topography and nanomechanics of live neuronal growth cones analyzed by atomic force microscopy
    Ying Xiong
    School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA
    Biophys J 96:5060-72. 2009
    Neuronal growth cones are motile structures located at the end of axons that translate extracellular guidance information into directional movements...
  27. pmc Netrin-1-induced local β-actin synthesis and growth cone guidance requires zipcode binding protein 1
    Kristy Welshhans
    Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Neurosci 31:9800-13. 2011
    Local β-actin synthesis in growth cones of developing axons plays an important role in growth cone steering; however, the mRNA binding proteins required for this process are unknown...
  28. ncbi Using fly genetics to dissect the cytoskeletal machinery of neurons during axonal growth and maintenance
    Andreas Prokop
    Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    J Cell Sci 126:2331-41. 2013
    ..For this, growth cones at the tips of axons are guided towards their correct target cells by signals...
  29. ncbi A role for BMP heterodimers in roof plate-mediated repulsion of commissural axons
    Samantha J Butler
    Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 38:389-401. 2003
    ..Our findings suggest that a GDF7:BMP7 heterodimer functions as a roof plate-derived repellent that establishes the initial ventral trajectory of commissural axons...
  30. ncbi The netrin receptor UNC-40/DCC stimulates axon attraction and outgrowth through enabled and, in parallel, Rac and UNC-115/AbLIM
    Zemer Gitai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neuron 37:53-65. 2003
    ..Thus, UNC-40 might act as a scaffold to deliver several independent signals to the actin cytoskeleton...
  31. pmc miR-124 acts through CoREST to control onset of Sema3A sensitivity in navigating retinal growth cones
    Marie Laure Baudet
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Neurosci 15:29-38. 2012
    During axon pathfinding, growth cones commonly show changes in sensitivity to guidance cues that follow a cell-intrinsic timetable. The cellular timer mechanisms that regulate such changes are, however, poorly understood...
  32. ncbi Axonal protein synthesis provides a mechanism for localized regulation at an intermediate target
    Perry A Brittis
    Department of Cell Biology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 110:223-35. 2002
    ..Individual severed axons and growth cones can translate proteins and also export them to the cell surface...
  33. ncbi EphA receptors regulate growth cone dynamics through the novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor ephexin
    S M Shamah
    Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital and the Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 105:233-44. 2001
    Eph receptors transduce short-range repulsive signals for axon guidance by modulating actin dynamics within growth cones. We report the cloning and characterization of ephexin, a novel Eph receptor-interacting protein that is a member of ..
  34. pmc GSK3 controls axon growth via CLASP-mediated regulation of growth cone microtubules
    Eun Mi Hur
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Genes Dev 25:1968-81. 2011
    ..as a MT plus end-binding protein, displays both plus end-binding and lattice-binding activities in nerve growth cones, and reveal that the two MT-binding activities regulate axon growth in an opposing manner: The lattice-binding ..
  35. ncbi Orientation of chemotactic cells and growth cones: models and mechanisms
    H Meinhardt
    Max Planck Institut fur Entwicklungsbiologie, Spemannstr 35, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Cell Sci 112:2867-74. 1999
    A model is proposed for an amplification step in chemotactically sensitive cells or growth cones that accounts for their extraordinary directional sensitivity...
  36. ncbi Myosin IIB is required for growth cone motility
    P C Bridgman
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 21:6159-69. 2001
    b>Growth cones are required for the forward advancement and navigation of growing axons. Modulation of growth cone shape and reorientation of the neurite are responsible for the change of outgrowth direction that underlies navigation...
  37. pmc The emerging role of forces in axonal elongation
    Daniel M Suter
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2054, United States
    Prog Neurobiol 94:91-101. 2011
    ..However, recent work suggests that axons and growth cones also generate forces (through cytoskeletal dynamics, kinesin, dynein, and myosin), forces induce axonal ..
  38. pmc Axonal protein synthesis and degradation are necessary for efficient growth cone regeneration
    Poonam Verma
    Cambridge University Centre for Brain Repair, Cambridge CB2 2PY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 25:331-42. 2005
    ..and N-acetyl-Nor-Leu-Leu-Al) all result in a reduction in the proportion of transected axons able to reform growth cones. Similar inhibition of growth cone formation was observed on addition of target of rapamycin (TOR), p38 MAPK (..
  39. pmc RhoA-kinase coordinates F-actin organization and myosin II activity during semaphorin-3A-induced axon retraction
    Gianluca Gallo
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
    J Cell Sci 119:3413-23. 2006
    Axon guidance is mediated by the effects of attractant and repellent guidance cues on the cytoskeleton of growth cones and axons...
  40. ncbi Hierarchical organization of guidance receptors: silencing of netrin attraction by slit through a Robo/DCC receptor complex
    E Stein
    Department of Anatomy and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Science 291:1928-38. 2001
    Axonal growth cones that cross the nervous system midline change their responsiveness to midline guidance cues: They become repelled by the repellent Slit and simultaneously lose responsiveness to the attractant netrin...
  41. ncbi Local functions for FMRP in axon growth cone motility and activity-dependent regulation of filopodia and spine synapses
    Laura N Antar
    Department of Neuroscience, Rose F Kennedy Center for Mental Retardation, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1410 Pelham Parkway, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 32:37-48. 2006
    ..FMRP was distributed within granules that extended into developing axons and growth cones, detectable at distances over 300 microm from the cell body...
  42. ncbi The molecular basis for calcium-dependent axon pathfinding
    Timothy M Gomez
    Department of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:115-25. 2006
    ..precise molecular mechanisms that underlie distinct Ca(2+)-mediated effects on growth cone behaviours remain unclear, recent studies have identified important players in both the regulation and targets of Ca(2+) signals in growth cones.
  43. ncbi Distinct roles for secreted semaphorin signaling in spinal motor axon guidance
    Andrea B Huber
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Neuron 48:949-64. 2005
    ..Thus, Sema3A-Npn-1 and Sema3F-Npn-2 signaling control distinct steps of motor axon growth and guidance during the formation of spinal motor connections...
  44. pmc The Arp2/3 complex, UNC-115/abLIM, and UNC-34/Enabled regulate axon guidance and growth cone filopodia formation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Adam D Norris
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
    Neural Dev 4:38. 2009
    ..The role of the Arp2/3 complex in growth cone filopodia formation has been controversial, and other mechanisms of growth cone filopodia formation remain to be described...
  45. pmc Intra-axonal translation and retrograde trafficking of CREB promotes neuronal survival
    Llewellyn J Cox
    Department of Pharmacology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 10:149-59. 2008
    During development of the nervous system, axons and growth cones contain mRNAs such as beta-actin, cofilin and RhoA, which are locally translated in response to guidance cues...
  46. pmc BMP gradients steer nerve growth cones by a balancing act of LIM kinase and Slingshot phosphatase on ADF/cofilin
    Zhexing Wen
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    J Cell Biol 178:107-19. 2007
    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are involved in axon pathfinding, but how they guide growth cones remains elusive...
  47. ncbi Netrin-1 and semaphorin 3A promote or inhibit cortical axon branching, respectively, by reorganization of the cytoskeleton
    Erik W Dent
    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Neurosci 24:3002-12. 2004
    ..FGF-2 increased actin polymerization and formation of microtubule loops in growth cones over many hours, whereas Sema3A depolymerized actin filaments, attenuated microtubule dynamics, and collapsed ..
  48. ncbi Axon branching requires interactions between dynamic microtubules and actin filaments
    E W Dent
    Neuroscience Training Program and Department of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Neurosci 21:9757-69. 2001
    ..time-lapse imaging to analyze interactions between microtubules and actin filaments (F-actin) in cortical growth cones and axons undergoing branching...
  49. ncbi Focal adhesion kinase signaling at sites of integrin-mediated adhesion controls axon pathfinding
    Estuardo Robles
    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin, 257 Bardeen Labs SMI, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:1274-83. 2006
    ..Live imaging of phosphotyrosine (PY) signals revealed that Xenopus laevis growth cones extending on permissive ECM substrata assemble adhesive point contacts containing enriched levels of tyrosine-..
  50. ncbi A morphological analysis of growth cones of DRG neurons combining atomic force and confocal microscopy
    Jummi Laishram
    International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    J Struct Biol 168:366-77. 2009
    We have analyzed the morphology of growth cones of differentiating neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) with conventional Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)...
  51. ncbi Kinesin superfamily protein 2A (KIF2A) functions in suppression of collateral branch extension
    Noriko Homma
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Cell 114:229-39. 2003
    ..In kif2a(-/-) growth cones, microtubule-depolymerizing activity decreased...
  52. ncbi Extreme stretch growth of integrated axons
    Bryan J Pfister
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 24:7978-83. 2004
    ..Because integrated axons have no growth cones to extend from, it has been postulated that mechanical forces may stimulate axon elongation matching the growth ..
  53. ncbi Shared receptors in axon guidance: SAX-3/Robo signals via UNC-34/Enabled and a Netrin-independent UNC-40/DCC function
    Timothy W Yu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Program in Neuroscience, Department of Anatomy and of Biochemistry and Biophysics, The University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nat Neurosci 5:1147-54. 2002
    ..A combinatorial logic dictates alternative functions for UNC-40/DCC, which can act in attraction to UNC-6/Netrin, repulsion from Netrin (with UNC-5), or repulsion from Slit (with SAX-3)...
  54. ncbi The cell biology of neuronal navigation
    H Song
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 3:E81-8. 2001
    ..migration of postmitotic neurons to designated locations in the nervous system and the guidance of axon growth cones to their synaptic targets...
  55. ncbi MAX-1, a novel PH/MyTH4/FERM domain cytoplasmic protein implicated in netrin-mediated axon repulsion
    Xun Huang
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Neuron 34:563-76. 2002
    ..Human MAX-1 and UNC5H2 colocalize in discrete subcellular regions of transfected cells. Our results suggest a possible role for MAX-1 in netrin-induced axon repulsion by modulating the UNC-5 receptor signaling pathway...
  56. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of axon guidance
    Barry J Dickson
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Science 298:1959-64. 2002
    ..With such regulatory mechanisms in place, a relatively small number of guidance factors can be used to generate intricate patterns of neuronal wiring...
  57. ncbi Silencing of EphA3 through a cis interaction with ephrinA5
    Ricardo F Carvalho
    Medical Research Council, Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Nat Neurosci 9:322-30. 2006
    ..Our data suggest that formation of this complex transforms the uniform expression of EphAs in the nasal part of the retina into a gradient of functional EphAs and has a key role in controlling retinotectal mapping...
  58. ncbi Kinetic-structural analysis of neuronal growth cone veil motility
    Anne K Mongiu
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Marine Biological Laboratory, 303 E Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Cell Sci 120:1113-25. 2007
    ..nucleation and/or array-treadmilling mechanism of protrusive motility is conserved in veil protrusion of growth cones as in the motility of fibroblasts; second, retracting veils lack dendritic organization but contain a sparse ..
  59. pmc Properties of the force exerted by filopodia and lamellipodia and the involvement of cytoskeletal components
    Dan Cojoc
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Laboratorio Nazionale Tecnologie Avanzate E Nanoscienza, AREA Science Park Basovizza, Trieste, Italy
    PLoS ONE 2:e1072. 2007
    ..These results show that actin polymerization is necessary for force production and demonstrate that not only do neurons process information, but they also act on their environment exerting forces varying from tenths pN to tens of pN...
  60. pmc Stochastic actin polymerization and steady retrograde flow determine growth cone advancement
    Timo Betz
    Division of Soft Matter Physics, Department of Physics, Universitat Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Biophys J 96:5130-8. 2009
    ..This hints at a possible role of noise intensity in determining signal detection sensitivity...
  61. ncbi alpha2-Chimaerin is an essential EphA4 effector in the assembly of neuronal locomotor circuits
    Asim A Beg
    Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Department of Neuroscience, Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 55:768-78. 2007
    ..These findings identify alpha2-chimaerin as an indispensable effector for EphA4 in cortical and spinal motor circuits...
  62. ncbi Afferent growth cone interactions control synaptic specificity in the Drosophila visual system
    T R Clandinin
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA
    Neuron 28:427-36. 2000
    ..the lamina but their selection of appropriate postsynaptic targets requires specific interactions among R cell growth cones. The orientation of the projections is controlled both by the spatial arrangement of R cells in the retina and ..
  63. pmc Engineering neuronal growth cones to promote axon regeneration over inhibitory molecules
    Eun Mi Hur
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5057-62. 2011
    ..Together, our study proposes NMII and growth cone cytoskeletal components as effective targets for promoting axon regeneration...
  64. ncbi Plexin-neuropilin-1 complexes form functional semaphorin-3A receptors
    T Takahashi
    Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Cell 99:59-69. 1999
    ..Sema3A treatment leads to the redistribution of growth cone NP-1 and plexin into clusters. Thus, physiologic Sema3A receptors consist of NP-1/plexin complexes...
  65. ncbi The SH2/SH3 adaptor protein dock interacts with the Ste20-like kinase misshapen in controlling growth cone motility
    W Ruan
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Centre for Research in Neuroscience, McGill University and The Montreal General Hospital, Quebec, Canada
    Neuron 24:595-605. 1999
    ..that Dock interacts with the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen (Msn) in the Drosophila photoreceptor (R cell) growth cones. Loss of msn causes a failure of growth cones to stop at the target, a phenotype similar to loss of dock, ..
  66. pmc Protein kinase C activation promotes microtubule advance in neuronal growth cones by increasing average microtubule growth lifetimes
    N Kabir
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8103, USA
    J Cell Biol 152:1033-44. 2001
    We describe a novel mechanism for protein kinase C regulation of axonal microtubule invasion of growth cones. Activation of PKC by phorbol esters resulted in a rapid, robust advance of distal microtubules (MTs) into the F-actin rich ..
  67. pmc Asymmetric PI(3,4,5)P3 and Akt signaling mediates chemotaxis of axonal growth cones
    Steven J Henle
    Mayo Graduate School, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Neurosci 31:7016-27. 2011
    ..Furthermore, patch-clamp recording from growth cones revealed that exogenous PI(3,4,5)P3 rapidly activated TRP (transient receptor potential) channels, and ..
  68. pmc The tripartite motif protein MADD-2 functions with the receptor UNC-40 (DCC) in Netrin-mediated axon attraction and branching
    Joe C Hao
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Anatomy, Program in Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Dev Cell 18:950-60. 2010
    ....
  69. pmc Growth cones as soft and weak force generators
    Timo Betz
    Division of Soft Matter Physics, Department of Physics, Universitat Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13420-5. 2011
    ..We found that, at timescales longer than the viscoelastic relaxation time of τ = 8.5 ± 0.5 sec, growth cones show liquid-like characteristics, whereas at shorter time scales they behaved elastically with a surprisingly ..
  70. pmc Concentration-dependent requirement for local protein synthesis in motor neuron subtype-specific response to axon guidance cues
    Stephane Nedelec
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, College of Physicians and Surgeons, PS 14 434, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 32:1496-506. 2012
    ....
  71. ncbi The clutch hypothesis revisited: ascribing the roles of actin-associated proteins in filopodial protrusion in the nerve growth cone
    D G Jay
    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Neurobiol 44:114-25. 2000
    ....
  72. ncbi Growth cone guidance: first steps towards a deeper understanding
    B K Mueller
    Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology I, Tuebingen, Germany
    Annu Rev Neurosci 22:351-88. 1999
    b>Growth cones, the hand-like structures at the tip of growing neurites, possess remarkable abilities to detect directional cues...
  73. ncbi Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth
    Mariola R Chacón
    Instituto de Neurociencias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03550 Sant Joan d Alacant, Alicante, Spain
    Development 139:3200-10. 2012
    The establishment of neural circuits depends on the ability of axonal growth cones to sense their surrounding environment en route to their target...
  74. pmc Functional complexity of the axonal growth cone: a proteomic analysis
    Adriana Estrada-Bernal
    Department of Pediatrics and Colorado Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e31858. 2012
    ..We performed an extensive proteomic analysis of axonal growth cones isolated from the brains of fetal Sprague-Dawley rats...
  75. ncbi Eph-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of ephexin1 modulates growth cone collapse
    Mustafa Sahin
    Neurobiology Program, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Neuron 46:191-204. 2005
    ..These findings reveal that ephexin1 plays a role in axon guidance and is regulated by a switch mechanism that is specifically tailored to control Eph-mediated growth cone collapse...
  76. pmc Translational regulation in growth cones
    Hosung Jung
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 21:458-64. 2011
    Axonal growth cones (GCs) steer in response to extrinsic cues using mechanisms that include local protein synthesis. This adaptive form of gene regulation occurs with spatial precision and depends on subcellular mRNA localisation...
  77. pmc E3 ligase Nedd4 promotes axon branching by downregulating PTEN
    Jovana Drinjakovic
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Neuron 65:341-57. 2010
    ..We identify Nedd4 as a prominently expressed E3 ligase in RGC axon growth cones and show that disrupting its function severely inhibits terminal branching...
  78. ncbi Citron kinase regulates axon growth through a pathway that converges on cofilin downstream of RhoA
    Zubair Ahmed
    Neuropharmacology and Neurobiology Section, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Neurobiol Dis 41:421-9. 2011
    ..We conclude that Citron-K regulates actin polymerisation downstream of RhoA and may offer a potentially novel therapeutic approach for promoting CNS axon regeneration...
  79. ncbi Analysis of the growth cone turning assay for studying axon guidance
    Zac Pujic
    The Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Queensland, Australia
    J Neurosci Methods 170:220-8. 2008
    ..These results suggest that direct observation of the gradient of the particular guidance factor under consideration may be necessary to quantitatively determine the signal to which the growth cone is responding...
  80. pmc DCX, a new mediator of the JNK pathway
    Amos Gdalyahu
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    EMBO J 23:823-32. 2004
    ..DCX is phosphorylated by JNK in growth cones. DCX mutated in sites phosphorylated by JNK affected neurite outgrowth, and the velocity and relative pause ..
  81. ncbi A common mechanism of action for three mood-stabilizing drugs
    Robin S B Williams
    Intracellular Signalling Group, MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 417:292-5. 2002
    ..We show here that all three drugs inhibit the collapse of sensory neuron growth cones and increase growth cone area. These effects do not depend on GSK3 or HDAC inhibition...
  82. pmc Dorsal root ganglion neurons react to semaphorin 3A application through a biphasic response that requires multiple myosin II isoforms
    Jacquelyn A Brown
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 20:1167-79. 2009
    ....
  83. pmc Unc5B associates with LARG to mediate the action of repulsive guidance molecule
    Katsuhiko Hata
    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Cell Biol 184:737-50. 2009
    ..Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is involved in RGMa-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of LARG as well as RhoA activation. These findings uncover the molecular basis for diverse functions mediated by RGMa...
  84. ncbi Rho inhibition recruits DCC to the neuronal plasma membrane and enhances axon chemoattraction to netrin 1
    Simon W Moore
    Centre for Neuronal Survival, Montreal Neurological Institute, Program in NeuroEngineering, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada
    Development 135:2855-64. 2008
    ..By contrast, we demonstrate that axon chemoattraction to netrin 1 is not only maintained but enhanced, suggesting that this might facilitate directing regenerating axons to appropriate targets...
  85. ncbi Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation at the tips of growth cone filopodia promotes extension
    Estuardo Robles
    Department of Anatomy, Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Neurosci 25:7669-81. 2005
    ..Live imaging of tyrosine phosphorylation in growth cones revealed dynamic phospho-tyrosine (PY) signals in filopodia that directly correlate with filopodial behavior...
  86. pmc Ephrin-B3 reverse signaling through Grb4 and cytoskeletal regulators mediates axon pruning
    Nan Jie Xu
    Department of Developmental Biology, Kent Waldrep Center for Basic Research on Nerve Growth and Regeneration, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9133, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:268-76. 2009
    ..Our results reveal a previously unknown pathway that controls axon pruning and elucidate the biochemical mechanism by which ephrin-B reverse signals regulate actin dynamics to bring about the retraction of growth cones.
  87. pmc Asymmetric endocytosis and remodeling of beta1-integrin adhesions during growth cone chemorepulsion by MAG
    Jacob H Hines
    Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:829-37. 2010
    ..We found that, analogously to the process of chemotaxis in invasive tumor cells, axonal growth cones of Xenopus spinal neurons modulate the functional distribution of integrin receptors during chemorepulsion ..
  88. pmc Tsc2-Rheb signaling regulates EphA-mediated axon guidance
    Duyu Nie
    The F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Department of Neurology, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:163-72. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that TSC2-Rheb-mTOR signaling cooperates with the ephrin-Eph receptor system to control axon guidance in the visual system...
  89. ncbi Directional guidance of nerve growth cones
    Zhexing Wen
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 16:52-8. 2006
    ....
  90. ncbi Targeting of the F-actin-binding protein drebrin by the microtubule plus-tip protein EB3 is required for neuritogenesis
    Sara Geraldo
    The MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, New Hunt s House, Guy s Campus, King s College London, London SE11UL, UK
    Nat Cell Biol 10:1181-9. 2008
    ..In growth cones, dynamic microtubules are continually extending into selected filopodia, aligning alongside the proximal ends ..
  91. pmc Limited availability of ZBP1 restricts axonal mRNA localization and nerve regeneration capacity
    Christopher J Donnelly
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, USA
    EMBO J 30:4665-77. 2011
    ..These data support a direct role for ZBP1 in transport and translation of mRNA cargos in axonal regeneration in vitro and in vivo...
  92. pmc Phosphorylation of zipcode binding protein 1 is required for brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling of local beta-actin synthesis and growth cone turning
    Yukio Sasaki
    Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Neurosci 30:9349-58. 2010
    The localization of specific mRNAs and their local translation in growth cones of developing axons has been shown to play an important mechanism to regulate growth cone turning responses to attractive or repulsive cues...
  93. ncbi Apoptotic pathway and MAPKs differentially regulate chemotropic responses of retinal growth cones
    Douglas S Campbell
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3DY United Kingdom
    Neuron 37:939-52. 2003
    Previous work has shown that guidance cues trigger rapid changes in protein dynamics in retinal growth cones: netrin-1 stimulates both protein synthesis and degradation, while Sema3A elicits synthesis, and LPA induces degradation...
  94. ncbi Microtubule-associated protein 1B controls directionality of growth cone migration and axonal branching in regeneration of adult dorsal root ganglia neurons
    Celine Bouquet
    Unité Mixte de Recherche 7101, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratory Neurobiologie des Signaux Intercellulaires, Institut Fédératif de Recherche Biologie Intégrative, Paris, France
    J Neurosci 24:7204-13. 2004
    ..microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) is one of the earliest MAPs, preferentially localized in axons and growth cones, and plays a role in axonal outgrowth...
  95. ncbi LIM kinase and slingshot are critical for neurite extension
    Mitsuharu Endo
    Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8578, Japan
    J Biol Chem 282:13692-702. 2007
    ..These results suggest that proper regulation of cofilin/ADF activities through control of phosphorylation by LIMKs and SSHs is critical for neurite extension and that LIMKs regulate actin filament assembly at the tip of the growth cone...
  96. ncbi Evidence for the involvement of Tiam1 in axon formation
    P Kunda
    Instituto Mercedes y Martin Ferreyra (INIMEC-CONICET, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina
    J Neurosci 21:2361-72. 2001
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that by regulating growth cone actin organization and allowing microtubule invasion within selected growth cones, Tiam1 promotes axon formation and hence participates in neuronal polarization.
  97. ncbi Regulation of nerve growth mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in growth cones
    K Takei
    Calciosignal Net Project, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation JST, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0021, Japan
    Science 282:1705-8. 1998
    ..Type 1 IP3R (IP3R1) is enriched in growth cones of neurons in chick dorsal root ganglia...
  98. ncbi Morphogens as conserved axon guidance cues
    Yimin Zou
    Biological Sciences Division Neurobiology Section, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Pacific Hall Room 1220, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 17:22-8. 2007
    ..Recent studies suggest that morphogens are important in shaping topographic projections in chick and Drosophila visual systems, a process that occurs even later in development...
  99. ncbi The homeobox transcription factor even-skipped regulates netrin-receptor expression to control dorsal motor-axon projections in Drosophila
    Juan Pablo Labrador
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Curr Biol 15:1413-9. 2005
    ..Our results support a functional link between the expression of distinct Netrin receptor combinations and the transcriptional control of dorsal motor-axon guidance...
  100. ncbi Impaired axonal regeneration in alpha7 integrin-deficient mice
    A Werner
    Department of Neuromorphology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurosci 20:1822-30. 2000
    ..alpha7 and beta1 subunits were present on the axons and their growth cones in the regenerating facial nerve...
  101. ncbi Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in sensory neurons in culture alters filopodia dynamics and microtubule distribution in growth cones
    Rebecca Owen
    The MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King s College London, Room 4 26B, New Hunts House, Guy s Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Mol Cell Neurosci 23:626-37. 2003
    MAP1B is a major microtubule-associated phospho-protein in growing axons and growth cones. Recent findings suggest that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) phosphorylation of MAP1B may act as a molecular switch to regulate ..

Research Grants63

  1. Neuropilin and semaphorin, anti-angiogenesis activities and mechanisms
    Michael Klagsbrun; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..SEMA3F was initially shown to repel axons and collapse growth cones but it also induces morphological changes in endothelial cells (EC) and tumor cells characterized by ..
  2. Neuron-Targeted Caveolin-1 as a Therapy for Age-Related Neurodegeneration
    Brian P Head; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MLR facilitate coordinated, precise and rapid regulation of cell function. MLR are also concentrated within growth cones and are essential for axonal growth and guidance and are essential for the development and stabilization of ..
  3. Function of Microtubule Plus-End-Tracking Proteins in the Neuronal Growth Cone
    Laura Anne Lowery; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..immediate goal is to gain new expertise in quantitative cytoskeletal imaging and analysis using Xenopus growth cones, in order to investigate the roles of specific microtubule regulators during axon guidance...
  4. Cytoskeletal Regulation During Growth Cone Migration and Axon Guidance
    Frank B Gertler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Both initial formation of growth cone-tipped neurites, and subsequent guided locomotion of axonal growth cones, require F-actin and microtubule (MT) dynamics...
  5. Regulation of Axon Guidance by Second Messengers
    Timothy M Gomez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For this we must understand how nerve growth cones detect, integrate and respond to soluble, as well as cell- and substratum-associated guidance molecules in ..
  6. Role of msps and tacc during axon guidance
    LAURA A LOWERY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..3) define the cellular mechanisms of action of Msps and TACC, using highresolution live imaging in Xenopus growth cones. In particular, I will determine if Msps and TACC play a functionally antagonistic role to Orbit, by promoting ..
  7. Bioengineered scaffolds for peripheral nerve repair
    Ravi V Bellamkonda; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We successfully designed and fabricated isotropic and anisotropic 3D hydrogels, demonstrated that indeed growth cones extend processes significantly faster in immobilized ECM gradients in vitro and that anisotropic scaffolds with ..
  8. Profiling and characterizing axonal precursor micro RNAs in regenerating nerve
    Soonmoon Yoo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..processes could confer a unique advantage for coordinately altering the population of proteins generated in growth cones by targeting mRNA cohorts...
  9. Regulation of axonal outgrowth in the developing spinal cord
    Samantha J Butler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..for axons have been extensively described, it remains unresolved how either the growth rate or competence of growth cones is regulated...
  10. DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES ON THE MOTOR SYSTEM
    Katherine Kalil; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the nervous system growing axons (nerve fibers) are guided to their targets by responses of their motile tips (growth cones) to molecular cues in the environment...
  11. MECHANISMS OF NERVE GROWTH CONE TURNING AND BRANCHING
    Paul C Letourneau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..guidance cues, nerve growth factor (NGF) and Semaphorin3A (Sema3A), regulate the migration of the growing tips (growth cones) of sensory (DRG) axons. NGF is produced in targets of sensory neurons, like skin...
  12. Functional Genomics of Axonal and Synapse Regeneration
    Stephen M Strittmatter; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We also propose to extend our preliminary analysis of the phosphatome in regeneration by imaging growth cones and categorizing their morphology...
  13. Directed growth cone migration by calcium signals
    James Q Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The proposed study will use nerve growth cones as the model to study the spatiotemporal Ca2+ signaling mechanisms underlying directional motility in response ..
  14. Exercise, neurotrophins, and axon regeneration in the PNS
    Arthur W English; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, trkB, in motoneurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and growth cones of regenerating axons will be studied both in systemic and neuron-specific knockouts...
  15. Deconvoluting microRNA expression in brain
    Richard H Goodman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in inhibitory SST interneurons, and the consequent palmitoylation of Ras, controls Ras trafficking to axonal growth cones and, consequently, axon morphology in SST interneurons...
  16. Calcium signaling in neuronal navigation
    Guo li Ming; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that TRPC, STIM1 and Orai proteins co-operate to set the basal and induced Ca2+ levels for directed motility of growth cones and neurons, using a combination of in vitro growth cone turning assay, immunocytochemistry, multi-photon ..
  17. PROTEOGLYCANS IN GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING AND DEVELOPMENT
    Scott B Selleck; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..assembly by controlling endocytosis and growth factor signaling, and 3) determine if HSPGs govern responses of growth cones to guidance cues, or the distributions of guidance cues in the extracellular matrix of the brain...
  18. Neuronal-targeted caveolin-1 as a therapy for traumatic brain injury
    Brian P Head; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MLR are essential for the development and stabilization of synapses and are also concentrated within neuronal growth cones. A key component of MLR is caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a cholesterol binding protein that organizes and scaffolds a ..
  19. Roles of Ryk and EphB Signaling in Branch Morphogenesis and Topographic Mapping
    ALISHA RICHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal will examine the interaction of Ryk and EphB receptors in RGC growth cones through live imaging of electroporated receptor constructs and immunohistochemistry in retinal explant culture, ..
  20. Functional Genomics of Axonal and Synapse Regeneration
    Stephen M Strittmatter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also propose to extend our preliminary analysis of the phosphatome in regeneration by imaging growth cones and categorizing their morphology...
  21. Uncovering polyadenylation pathways in neuronal signaling
    Samie R Jaffrey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proposed research is to identify and characterize signaling mechanisms that lead to local mRNA translation in growth cones and developing axons...
  22. The Olfactory Nerve
    Charles A Greer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to the olfactory ensheathing cells along the course of the olfactory nerve and olfactory nerve layer? How are growth cones distributed and organized in the fascicles both during early development when the pathway is established and in ..
  23. Physiologic Mechanisms of Action of APP and APLP2 in Axon Targeting
    Mark W Albers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both of these proteoglycans contribute to the environmental cues that repel or attract growth cones and are present in tissue embedding the olfactory neural circuit...
  24. Mechanisms of mechanical force evoked Ca2+ influx in developing neurons
    Patrick C Kerstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For this we must understand how nerve growth cones detect, integrate and respond to soluble, as well as cell- and substratum- associated guidance molecules in ..
  25. AXONAL PATHWAY SELECTION IN THE ZEBRAFISH EMBRYO
    Michael Granato; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..binds wnt11r to initiate this process through a dishevelled dependent signaling cascade, thereby restricting growth cones and synaptic prepattern to the muscle center through a mechanism reminiscent of planar cell polarity (PCP)...
  26. Regulation of Synaptic Specificity in the Visual System by Intracellular Traffick
    Peter Robin Hiesinger; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These receptors are expressed on the surface of growth cones and mediate attraction or repulsion...
  27. The effects of anesthetics on brain development
    CYRUS DAVID MINTZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..some commonly used anesthetics presented at clinically relevant doses may interfere with the response of axonal growth cones to the cues that guide them to the correct dendritic targets, thus potentially disrupting the formation of brai ..
  28. Single molecule analysis of cytoskeletal cross-linking proteins
    Stephen Rogers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The cytoskeletal network of actin filaments and microtubules acts as a scaffolding to allow navigating growth cones to alter their trajectories in response to attractive and repulsive guidance cues, to define the morphology of ..
  29. Cellular regulation by protein ubiquitination/deubiquitination
    Changwei Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of spliceosomal nuclear ribonucleoproteins and it is involved in translocation of beta-actin to axonal growth cones. Currently, it is unclear how loss of SMN function leads to selective motor-neuron cell death...
  30. Regulation of growth cone guidance by localized microRNA
    Gary J Bassell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The objectives of this application are to explore the new concept that microRNAs (miRNAs) localized to growth cones provide a regulated molecular mechanism to influence local protein synthesis underlying cue mediated and local ..
  31. Control of neuronal cAMP by light
    Lynn T Landmesser; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cultures of embryonic chick and mouse motoneurons electroporated with PAC will be characterized in somas and growth cones and compared to those produced by endogenous spontaneous electrical bursts in the same cells...
  32. Intra-axonal signaling pathways triggered by attractive guidance cues.
    Ulrich Hengst; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..synaptic targets by guidance factors that exert either a repulsive or an attractive effect onto axons and growth cones. Disturbances in the intricately regulated process of axonal pathfinding interfere with the establishment of ..
  33. Positive Feedback Loops in Growth Cone Symmetry Breaking and Guidance Signaling
    Thomas R Cheever; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..How these guidance cue signals are locally amplified within growth cones at the tip of elongating nerves remains a critical question...
  34. Super-Resolution Structured Illumination Microscope (SIM)
    Derek K Toomre; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our consortium's projects focus on three research areas: 1) imaging of neurons, synapses and growth cones;2) imaging of membranes and membrane traffic;3) imaging of the cell cytoskeleton...
  35. GROWTH AND GUIDANCE OF RETINAL AXONS
    Carol A Mason; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ligand-receptor pair, EphB1-ephrinB2 that directs repulsion of ventrotemporal (VT) retinal ganglion cell (RGC) growth cones at the optic chiasm midline...
  36. AXON GUIDANCE MECHANISMS IN DROSOPHILA
    John B Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    To find and synapse with their appropriate target cells, the growth cones of developing neurons recognize guidance cues in their environment and transduce them into changes in direction of growth...
  37. Netrin signaling during neuronal development
    Elke Stein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The central aim of this proposal is to characterize receptor complexes that mediate responses of growth cones to the bifunctional guidance cue Netrin-1 in the developing nervous system...
  38. Transduction Mechanisms Mediating Nerve Growth Cone Guidance
    JOHN RICHARD HENLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the proposed research is to define the transduction mechanisms underlying the chemotactic guidance of axonal growth cones. Specifically, we aim to define the intracellular signals that mediate growth cone detection of extracellular ..
  39. Localized mRNAs in Synaptic Plasticity
    Kelsey C Martin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By spatially restricting gene expression within neurons, local protein synthesis allows growth cones and synapses to autonomously regulate their structure and function...
  40. Characterizing Wnt signaling pathways in axon guidance
    Yimin Zou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They provide directional information for the navigating growth cones and either attract or repel axons by signaling through specific receptors and signaling ways...
  41. EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX AND AXONAL GUIDANCE IN C. ELEGANS
    William Wadsworth; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This specificity depends on the selection of pathways by neuronal growth cones. We focus on the guidance of specific axons in the C. elegans model system...
  42. Genetics of New Synaptic Components and Their Functions
    Thomas L Schwarz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The maturation of presynaptic terminals from growth cones to synaptic boutons is a critical late step in synaptogenesis but poorly understood...
  43. Characterizing Wnt signaling pathways in axon guidance
    Yimin Zou; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..They provide directional information for the navigating growth cones and either attract or repel axons by signaling through specific receptors and signaling ways...
  44. Cytoskeletal Mechanisms of Growth Cone Motility
    Lorene Lanier; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, identification of the proteins that activate Arp2/3 in growth cones will provide insight into how Arp2/3 is regulated by upstream signaling pathways.
  45. Mechanism of growth cone turning in diffusible gradients
    James Q Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed study aims to elucidate the actin mechanisms underlying directional motility of growth cones in response to extracellular cues...
  46. CYTOSKELETAL SIGNALING AND AXON GUIDANCE
    ERIK LUNDQUIST; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Abstract The migrating growth cone at the distal axon tip senses and responds to guidance information. Growth cones display dynamic lamellipodial and filopodial protrusions that are involved in outgrowth and guidance...
  47. Mechanisms of regulation of Arp2/3 complex
    Bradley J Nolen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..complex is involved in a number of processes that occur in healthy cells, such as endocytosis and motility of growth cones, but also plays roles in host cell infection by bacterial pathogens and the metastasis of tumor cells...
  48. REGENERATION IN THE SPINAL CORD-ROLE OF NEUROFILAMENT
    MICHAEL SELZER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The growth cones of these neurons apparently do not contain filopodia or lamellipodia during regeneration, and axon regeneration ..
  49. CRCNS: Activity-dependent growth cone guidance
    Kyonsoo Hong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Investigator (Last, First, Middle): HONG, KYONSOO PROJECT SUMMARY (See instructions): Navigation of growth cones to their targets is essential for the establishment of neural circuits during nervous system development...
  50. EFFECTS OF ORGANOTINS ON HIPPOCAMPAL NEURONAL DEVELOPMEN
    WILLIAM ATCHISON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..and spreading of the neuron from the growth cone is also the result of mechanical tension produced by pulling growth cones. As a first step in attempting to examine the effects of TMT on hippocampal neuron growth, differentiation and ..
  51. Spatiotemporal Control of Cofilin Activity During Growth Cone Migration
    Eric A Vitriol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to determine the effects of instantaneous inactivation of Cofilin on actin distribution and dynamics in growth cones;and (3) to determine the effects of local inactivation of Cofilin on growth cone motility...
  52. Characterization of N-type Ca channels in growth cones
    Maureen McEnery; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  53. Spatial organization of actin polymerizaton during axon guidance.
    Christopher C Quinn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many of the intracellular components that allow neuronal growth cones to interpret and respond to extracellular guidance cues have been identified, but we lack an understanding of how these components ..
  54. Chondroitin Sulfate GAG Inhibition of Growth Cones
    RAVI BELLAMKONDA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..scar, particularly the presence of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), is responsible for inhibition of growth cones and regenerative failure. However, the mechanism by which CSPGs inhibit growth cones is not known...
  55. GUIDANCE OF MOTONEURON GROWTH CONES
    Kathryn Tosney; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..in the chick embryo, have shown that selective pathfinding by the growing of individual neurites (the "growth cones") plays an essential role in the genesis of the precise and orderly connections that are required for the ..
  56. BETA-ACTIN MRNA LOCALIZATION
    GARY BASSELL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..hybridization and digital imaging microscopy methods, we have shown that beta actin mRNAs were localized to growth cones of developing dendritic and axonal processes...
  57. NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE--IDENTIFIED GROWTH CONE ARRAY
    John Jellies; Fiscal Year: 1991
    b>Growth cones navigate along relatively stereotyped pathways both vertebrates and invertebrates, and such stereotyped growth patterns ultimately contribute to the specificity of synaptic connections...
  58. MECHANISMS OF NEURONAL GUIDANCE
    ARTHUR LANDER; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..molecules" act through multiple kinds of receptors to exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on axonal growth cones. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are poorly understood, yet insights into those mechanisms ..
  59. VIDEO ENHANCED MICROSCOPY OF LIVING GROWTH CONES
    Daniel Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..and immunocytochemistry to determine whether there are changes in tyrosine phosphorylation in filopodia of growth cones interacting with important cell-bound cues in culture...
  60. ROLE OF MYOSIN ISOFORMS IN NERVE GROWTH CONE MOTILITY
    Daniel Jay; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..that may be involved in filopodial motility and guidance but establishing their in vivo function in neuronal growth cones has been difficult...
  61. N TYPE CA CHANNELS IN GROWTH CONES
    Maureen McEnery; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..neuronal development, (3) identify N-type VDCC subunits localized to distinct subcellular fractions including growth cones and synaptosomes, and (4) characterize the subunit composition of N-type VDCC complexes expressed throughout ..
  62. AXON GUIDANCE IN THE SPINAL CORD
    Jane Dodd; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..evidence that chemorepellent signalling by the roof plate contributes to the initial pathfinding of commissural growth cones. Furthermore, we have identified a candidate chemorepellent that group neurorepresent the first member of a ..
  63. Role of Semaphorins in axonal guidance
    JOHN KUWADA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Semaphorins are a large family of molecules that repulse growth cones, but in some cases also attract them...