axons

Summary

Summary: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker for studies of gene function in neuronal morphogenesis
    T Lee
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Neuron 22:451-61. 1999
  2. ncbi Imaging neuronal subsets in transgenic mice expressing multiple spectral variants of GFP
    G Feng
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Neuron 28:41-51. 2000
  3. pmc Identification of two distinct macrophage subsets with divergent effects causing either neurotoxicity or regeneration in the injured mouse spinal cord
    Kristina A Kigerl
    Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13435-44. 2009
  4. ncbi Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system
    Jean Livet
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 450:56-62. 2007
  5. pmc Oligodendroglia metabolically support axons and contribute to neurodegeneration
    Youngjin Lee
    Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 487:443-8. 2012
  6. pmc Neuronal diversity and temporal dynamics: the unity of hippocampal circuit operations
    Thomas Klausberger
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK
    Science 321:53-7. 2008
  7. pmc APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases
    Anatoly Nikolaev
    Division of Research, Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Nature 457:981-9. 2009
  8. ncbi A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes
    Shiaoching Gong
    GENSAT Project, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 260, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 425:917-25. 2003
  9. ncbi The molecular motor toolbox for intracellular transport
    Ronald D Vale
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell 112:467-80. 2003
  10. pmc The subcellular organization of neocortical excitatory connections
    Leopoldo Petreanu
    Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA
    Nature 457:1142-5. 2009

Research Grants

  1. Multi-targeted Countermeasures against Acute and Delayed Effects of OP Exposure
    John A Butera; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. CRF-Oxytocin Interaction in the Regulation of Stress and Affect
    Joanna Dabrowska; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. Agrin/alpha 3 Na,K-ATPase signaling at the neuromuscular junction
    Martin A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
  4. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
    Christie D Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. Samuel D Crish; Fiscal Year: 2016
  6. Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasis
    Anthony N van den Pol; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. Glutamate receptor recruitment to new synapses in vivo
    PHILIP ERIC WASHBOURNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Robert W Burgess; Fiscal Year: 2016
  9. Identification of Compounds to treat Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2E neuropathy
    RONALD K LIEM; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. Neuropilin and semaphorin, anti-angiogenesis activities and mechanisms
    Michael Klagsbrun; Fiscal Year: 2009

Detail Information

Publications366 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker for studies of gene function in neuronal morphogenesis
    T Lee
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Neuron 22:451-61. 1999
    ..As an example, we show that the short stop gene is required in mushroom body neurons for the extension and guidance of their axons.
  2. ncbi Imaging neuronal subsets in transgenic mice expressing multiple spectral variants of GFP
    G Feng
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Neuron 28:41-51. 2000
    ..All four XFPs labeled neurons in their entirety, including axons, nerve terminals, dendrites, and dendritic spines...
  3. pmc Identification of two distinct macrophage subsets with divergent effects causing either neurotoxicity or regeneration in the injured mouse spinal cord
    Kristina A Kigerl
    Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13435-44. 2009
    ..that only M1 macrophages are neurotoxic and M2 macrophages promote a regenerative growth response in adult sensory axons, even in the context of inhibitory substrates that dominate sites of CNS injury (e.g., proteoglycans and myelin)...
  4. ncbi Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system
    Jean Livet
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 450:56-62. 2007
    ..As a demonstration, we reconstructed hundreds of neighbouring axons and multiple synaptic contacts in one small volume of a cerebellar lobe exhibiting approximately 90 colours...
  5. pmc Oligodendroglia metabolically support axons and contribute to neurodegeneration
    Youngjin Lee
    Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 487:443-8. 2012
    ..The role of oligodendroglia in axon function and neuron survival has been elusive; this study defines a new fundamental mechanism by which oligodendroglia support neurons and axons.
  6. pmc Neuronal diversity and temporal dynamics: the unity of hippocampal circuit operations
    Thomas Klausberger
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK
    Science 321:53-7. 2008
    ..The spatiotemporal specializations in cortical circuits reveal that cellular diversity and temporal dynamics coemerged during evolution, providing a basis for cognitive behavior...
  7. pmc APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases
    Anatoly Nikolaev
    Division of Research, Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Nature 457:981-9. 2009
    ..Our results indicate that APP and DR6 are components of a neuronal self-destruction pathway, and suggest that an extracellular fragment of APP, acting via DR6 and caspase 6, contributes to Alzheimer's disease...
  8. ncbi A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes
    Shiaoching Gong
    GENSAT Project, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 260, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 425:917-25. 2003
    ..The atlas, library of BAC vectors and BAC transgenic mice generated in this screen provide a rich resource that allows a broad array of investigations not previously available to the neuroscience community...
  9. ncbi The molecular motor toolbox for intracellular transport
    Ronald D Vale
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell 112:467-80. 2003
    ..Remarkably, fungi, parasites, plants, and animals have distinct subsets of Toolbox motors in their genomes, suggesting an underlying diversity of strategies for intracellular transport...
  10. pmc The subcellular organization of neocortical excitatory connections
    Leopoldo Petreanu
    Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA
    Nature 457:1142-5. 2009
    ..The dendrites of individual cortical neurons overlap with numerous types of local and long-range excitatory axons, but axodendritic overlap is not always a good predictor of actual connection strength...
  11. ncbi Demyelination increases radial diffusivity in corpus callosum of mouse brain
    Sheng Kwei Song
    Department of Radiology, Biomedical MR Laboratory, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuroimage 26:132-40. 2005
    ..Radial diffusivity offers a specific assessment of demyelination and remyelination, as distinct from acute axonal damage...
  12. ncbi A quantitative map of the circuit of cat primary visual cortex
    Tom Binzegger
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich, and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 24:8441-53. 2004
    ..The map of the whole cortical circuit shows that there are very few "strong" but many "weak" excitatory projections, each of which may involve only a few percentage of the total complement of excitatory synapses of a single neuron...
  13. pmc Promoting axon regeneration in the adult CNS by modulation of the PTEN/mTOR pathway
    Kevin Kyungsuk Park
    F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, and Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 322:963-6. 2008
    The failure of axons to regenerate is a major obstacle for functional recovery after central nervous system (CNS) injury. Removing extracellular inhibitory molecules results in limited axon regeneration in vivo...
  14. ncbi Interneurons of the neocortical inhibitory system
    Henry Markram
    Laboratory of Neural Microcircuitry, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:793-807. 2004
    ..The largest obstacle is the daunting variety of inhibitory interneurons that are found in the circuit. This review focuses on the organizing principles that govern the diversity of inhibitory interneurons and their circuits...
  15. doi Microtubule assembly, organization and dynamics in axons and dendrites
    Cecilia Conde
    Laboratorio de Neurobiología Celular y Molecular, Instituto Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra INIMEC CONICET, Friuli 2434, 5016 Cordoba, Argentina
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:319-32. 2009
    ..Here we review the current understanding of the regulation of microtubule assembly, organization and dynamics in axons and dendrites...
  16. ncbi Requirement for the homeobox gene Hb9 in the consolidation of motor neuron identity
    S Arber
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Neuron 23:659-74. 1999
    ..associated with defects in the migration of MNs, the emergence of the subtype identities of MNs, and the projection of motor axons. These findings show that HB9 has an essential function in consolidating the identity of postmitotic MNs.
  17. ncbi Axonopathy and transport deficits early in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
    Gorazd B Stokin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego UCSD, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 307:1282-8. 2005
    ..Reductions in microtubule-dependent transport may stimulate proteolytic processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein, resulting in the development of senile plaques and Alzheimer's disease...
  18. doi Myelination and support of axonal integrity by glia
    Klaus Armin Nave
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hermann Rein Strasse 3, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 468:244-52. 2010
    The myelination of axons by glial cells was the last major step in the evolution of cells in the vertebrate nervous system, and white-matter tracts are key to the architecture of the mammalian brain...
  19. doi TRAK/Milton motor-adaptor proteins steer mitochondrial trafficking to axons and dendrites
    Myrrhe van Spronsen
    Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neuron 77:485-502. 2013
    In neurons, the distinct molecular composition of axons and dendrites is established through polarized targeting mechanisms, but it is currently unclear how nonpolarized cargoes, such as mitochondria, become uniformly distributed over ..
  20. pmc Identification and quantitative analyses of microRNAs located in the distal axons of sympathetic neurons
    Orlangie Natera-Naranjo
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1381, USA
    RNA 16:1516-29. 2010
    ..The data revealed stable expression of a number of mature miRNAs that were enriched in the axons and presynaptic nerve terminals...
  21. ncbi Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a distal axonopathy: evidence in mice and man
    Lindsey R Fischer
    Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Exp Neurol 185:232-40. 2004
    ..At 80 days, 60% of ventral root axons were lost but there was no loss of motor neurons. Motor neuron loss was well underway by 100 days...
  22. ncbi Axon retraction and degeneration in development and disease
    Liqun Luo
    Department of Biological Sciences, Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:127-56. 2005
    The selective elimination of axons, dendrites, axon and dendrite branches, and synapses, without loss of the parent neurons, occurs during normal development of the nervous system as well as in response to injury or disease in the adult...
  23. pmc Glial inhibition of CNS axon regeneration
    Glenn Yiu
    Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:617-27. 2006
    Damage to the adult CNS often leads to persistent deficits due to the inability of mature axons to regenerate after injury...
  24. pmc A caspase cascade regulating developmental axon degeneration
    David J Simon
    Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    J Neurosci 32:17540-53. 2012
    ..In vivo, Caspase-3 and Caspase-6-knockout mice show a delay in developmental pruning of retinocollicular axons, thereby implicating both Caspase-3 and Caspase-6 in axon degeneration that occurs as a part of normal development.
  25. pmc Actin, spectrin, and associated proteins form a periodic cytoskeletal structure in axons
    Ke Xu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 339:452-6. 2013
    Actin and spectrin play important roles in neurons, but their organization in axons and dendrites remains unclear...
  26. pmc SOCS3 deletion promotes optic nerve regeneration in vivo
    Patrice D Smith
    F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, and Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 64:617-23. 2009
    ..signaling 3 (SOCS3) in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes robust regeneration of injured optic nerve axons. This regeneration-promoting effect is efficiently blocked in SOCS3-gp130 double-knockout mice, suggesting that ..
  27. pmc Assessing spinal axon regeneration and sprouting in Nogo-, MAG-, and OMgp-deficient mice
    Jae K Lee
    Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuron 66:663-70. 2010
    A central hypothesis for the limited capacity for adult central nervous system (CNS) axons to regenerate is the presence of myelin-derived axon growth inhibitors, the role of which, however, remains poorly understood...
  28. ncbi Neuronal alpha-synucleinopathy with severe movement disorder in mice expressing A53T human alpha-synuclein
    Benoit I Giasson
    Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 3600 Spruce Street, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Neuron 34:521-33. 2002
    ..These mice demonstrate that A53T alpha-synuclein leads to the formation of toxic filamentous alpha-synuclein neuronal inclusions that cause neurodegeneration...
  29. doi Multiple sclerosis: an immune or neurodegenerative disorder?
    Bruce D Trapp
    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:247-69. 2008
    ....
  30. ncbi The action potential in mammalian central neurons
    Bruce P Bean
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurobiology, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:451-65. 2007
    ..Recent work offers an increasingly detailed understanding of how the expression of particular channel types underlies the remarkably diverse firing behaviour of various types of neurons...
  31. doi Role of axonal transport in neurodegenerative diseases
    Kurt J De Vos
    MRC Center for Neurodegeneration Research, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:151-73. 2008
    ..damage to the axon as part of the pathogenic process and, in particular, damage to transport of cargoes through axons. Indeed, we now know that disruption of axonal transport is an early and perhaps causative event in many of these ..
  32. pmc Wallerian degeneration, wld(s), and nmnat
    Michael P Coleman
    Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB223AT, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Neurosci 33:245-67. 2010
    Traditionally, researchers have believed that axons are highly dependent on their cell bodies for long-term survival...
  33. ncbi Increased nuclear NAD biosynthesis and SIRT1 activation prevent axonal degeneration
    Toshiyuki Araki
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Science 305:1010-3. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that novel therapeutic strategies directed at increasing the supply of NAD and/or Sir2 activation may be effective for treatment of diseases characterized by axonopathy and neurodegeneration...
  34. ncbi Visualizing an olfactory sensory map
    P Mombaerts
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 87:675-86. 1996
    We have developed a genetic approach to visualize axons from olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor, as they project to the olfactory bulb...
  35. pmc Dual leucine zipper kinase is required for retrograde injury signaling and axonal regeneration
    Jung Eun Shin
    Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuron 74:1015-22. 2012
    Here we demonstrate that the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) promotes robust regeneration of peripheral axons after nerve injury in mice...
  36. pmc The Highwire ubiquitin ligase promotes axonal degeneration by tuning levels of Nmnat protein
    Xin Xiong
    Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001440. 2012
    ..Ectopically expressed mouse Nmnat2 is also subject to regulation by Hiw in distal axons and synapses...
  37. ncbi The glial scar and central nervous system repair
    J W Fawcett
    Department of Physiology and MRC Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, UK
    Brain Res Bull 49:377-91. 1999
    ..Demyelinated plaques in multiple sclerosis consists mostly of scar-type astrocytes and naked axons. The extent to which the astrocytosis is responsible for blocking remyelination is not established, but astrocytes ..
  38. pmc Neuronal polarity
    Sabina Tahirovic
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Axonal Growth and Regeneration, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 1:a001644. 2009
    ..e., to regenerate their axons after central nervous system (CNS) injury.
  39. ncbi Common mechanisms of nerve and blood vessel wiring
    Peter Carmeliet
    The Center for Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy CTG, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Nature 436:193-200. 2005
    ..The discovery of key axon guidance molecules over the past decade has shown that axons are guided to their targets by finely tuned codes of attractive and repulsive cues, and recent studies reveal that ..
  40. ncbi Both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity require active mechanisms: critical roles of GSK-3beta and its upstream regulators
    Hui Jiang
    Institute of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, The Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China
    Cell 120:123-35. 2005
    ..A constitutively active GSK-3beta mutant inhibited axon formation, whereas multiple axons formed from a single neuron when GSK-3beta activity was reduced by pharmacological inhibitors, a peptide inhibitor,..
  41. ncbi Neuronal death in glaucoma
    H A Quigley
    Glaucoma Service and the Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Inst, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-9205, USA
    Prog Retin Eye Res 18:39-57. 1999
    ..Neurotrophin deprivation is one possible cause of cell death and replacement therapy is a potential approach to treatment...
  42. ncbi Flies without centrioles
    Renata Basto
    The Gurdon Institute, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Cell 125:1375-86. 2006
    ..Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development...
  43. doi Axon-glial signaling and the glial support of axon function
    Klaus Armin Nave
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:535-61. 2008
    Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are highly specialized glial cells that wrap axons with a multilayered myelin membrane for rapid impulse conduction...
  44. pmc Branching out: mechanisms of dendritic arborization
    Yuh Nung Jan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology, University of California, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco 94158, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:316-28. 2010
    ..Further insight into these mechanisms will improve our understanding of how the nervous system functions and might help to identify the underlying causes of some neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders...
  45. doi Axon physiology
    Dominique Debanne
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 641 and Université de la Méditerranée, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, Marseille, France
    Physiol Rev 91:555-602. 2011
    b>Axons are generally considered as reliable transmission cables in which stable propagation occurs once an action potential is generated...
  46. doi HDAC6 inhibitors reverse axonal loss in a mouse model of mutant HSPB1-induced Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
    Constantin d'Ydewalle
    Vesalius Research Center, VIB and K U Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium
    Nat Med 17:968-74. 2011
    ..Our findings demonstrate the pathogenic role of α-tubulin deacetylation in mutant HSPB1-induced neuropathies and offer perspectives for using HDAC6 inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for hereditary axonopathies...
  47. ncbi Anterior-posterior guidance of commissural axons by Wnt-frizzled signaling
    Anna I Lyuksyutova
    Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Science 302:1984-8. 2003
    Commissural neurons in the mammalian dorsal spinal cord send axons ventrally toward the floor plate, where they cross the midline and turn anteriorly toward the brain; a gradient of chemoattractant(s) inside the spinal cord controls this ..
  48. pmc Pathway-specific feedforward circuits between thalamus and neocortex revealed by selective optical stimulation of axons
    Scott J Cruikshank
    Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Neuron 65:230-45. 2010
    ..Infection occurred only locally, but efferent axons and their terminals expressed ChR2 strongly, allowing selective optical activation of each pathway...
  49. ncbi Lens injury stimulates axon regeneration in the mature rat optic nerve
    S Leon
    Department of Neurosurgery, Children s Hospital, Department of Surgery, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 20:4615-26. 2000
    In mature mammals, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are unable to regenerate their axons after optic nerve injury, and they soon undergo apoptotic cell death...
  50. ncbi Channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping of long-range callosal projections
    Leopoldo Petreanu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:663-8. 2007
    ..We show that the light-gated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is delivered to axons in pyramidal neurons in vivo...
  51. pmc Human TUBB3 mutations perturb microtubule dynamics, kinesin interactions, and axon guidance
    Max A Tischfield
    Department of Neurology, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 140:74-87. 2010
    ..These findings demonstrate that normal TUBB3 is required for axon guidance and maintenance in mammals...
  52. pmc Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and causes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury
    Farida Hellal
    Axonal Growth and Regeneration Group, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Science 331:928-31. 2011
    ..Microtubule stabilization also promoted growth of central nervous system axons of the Raphe-spinal tract and led to functional improvement...
  53. doi A reversible form of axon damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis
    Ivana Nikic
    Research Unit Therapy Development, Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Nat Med 17:495-9. 2011
    ..Notably, most swollen axons persist unchanged for several days, and some recover spontaneously...
  54. pmc Neuropilin-1 conveys semaphorin and VEGF signaling during neural and cardiovascular development
    Chenghua Gu
    Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Dev Cell 5:45-57. 2003
    ..Therefore, Npn-1 is a multifunctional receptor that mediates the activities of structurally distinct ligands during development of the heart, vasculature, and nervous system...
  55. pmc Akt suppresses retrograde degeneration of dopaminergic axons by inhibition of macroautophagy
    Hsiao Chun Cheng
    Departments of Neurology and Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 31:2125-35. 2011
    ..we show in both neurotoxin and physical injury (axotomy) models that Myr-Akt is also able to preserve dopaminergic axons due to suppression of acute retrograde axon degeneration...
  56. pmc The parkinsonian mimetic, MPP+, specifically impairs mitochondrial transport in dopamine axons
    Jeong Sook Kim-Han
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 31:7212-21. 2011
    ..To test this notion, a microchamber system was adapted to segregate axons from cell bodies using green fluorescent protein-labeled mouse dopamine (DA) neurons...
  57. ncbi LINGO-1 is a component of the Nogo-66 receptor/p75 signaling complex
    Sha Mi
    Department of Discovery Biology, Biogen Idec, Inc, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nat Neurosci 7:221-8. 2004
    ..This effect on neurons was mimicked using an exogenously added human LINGO-1-Fc fusion protein. Together these observations suggest that LINGO-1 has an important role in CNS biology...
  58. ncbi Control of peripheral nerve myelination by the beta-secretase BACE1
    Michael Willem
    Adolf Butenandt Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory for Alzheimer s and Parkinson s Disease Research, Schillerstrasse 44, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Science 314:664-6. 2006
    ..Thus, BACE1 is required for myelination and correct bundling of axons by Schwann cells, probably through processing of type III NRG1.
  59. pmc Axons of retinal ganglion cells are insulted in the optic nerve early in DBA/2J glaucoma
    Gareth R Howell
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA
    J Cell Biol 179:1523-37. 2007
    ..In this region, a network of astrocytes associates intimately with RGC axons. Using BAX-deficient DBA/2J mice, which retain all of their RGCs, we provide experimental evidence for an insult ..
  60. pmc Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity
    S Hattar
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 2185, USA
    Science 295:1065-70. 2002
    ..In mice heterozygous for tau-lacZ targeted to the melanopsin gene locus, beta-galactosidase-positive RGC axons projected to the SCN and other brain nuclei involved in circadian photoentrainment or the pupillary light reflex...
  61. ncbi GSK-3beta regulates phosphorylation of CRMP-2 and neuronal polarity
    Takeshi Yoshimura
    Department of Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466 8550, Japan
    Cell 120:137-49. 2005
    ..Knockdown of CRMP-2 inhibited NT-3-induced axon outgrowth. These results suggest that NT-3 decreases phosphorylated CRMP-2 and increases nonphosphorylated active CRMP-2, thereby promoting axon outgrowth...
  62. pmc Intracellular control of developmental and regenerative axon growth
    Feng Quan Zhou
    UNC Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 8109 Neuroscience Research Building, 103 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7250, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361:1575-92. 2006
    ..Finally, evidence is emerging that developmental versus regenerative axon growth may be mediated by distinct signalling pathways, both at the level of gene transcription and at the level of local axon assembly...
  63. ncbi Ectopic and increased expression of Fasciclin II alters motoneuron growth cone guidance
    D M Lin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720
    Neuron 13:507-23. 1994
    ..system in Drosophila to direct increased levels of Fasciclin II (Fas II) expression on motoneuron growth cones and axons and to direct ectopic Fas II expression on other cells they encounter...
  64. ncbi Slit proteins bind Robo receptors and have an evolutionarily conserved role in repulsive axon guidance
    K Brose
    Department of Anatomy, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0452, USA
    Cell 96:795-806. 1999
    Extending axons in the developing nervous system are guided in part by repulsive cues...
  65. ncbi Chondroitinase ABC promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury
    Elizabeth J Bradbury
    Sensory Function Group, Centre for Neuroscience Research, Hodgkin Building, Kings College London, Guy s Campus, London Bridge, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Nature 416:636-40. 2002
    The inability of axons to regenerate after a spinal cord injury in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) can lead to permanent paralysis...
  66. ncbi Acute axonal damage in multiple sclerosis is most extensive in early disease stages and decreases over time
    Tanja Kuhlmann
    Department of Neuropathology, Charite, Humboldt Universitat, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Brain 125:2202-12. 2002
    ..The numbers of APP-positive axons in multiple sclerosis lesions were correlated with the disease duration and course...
  67. ncbi Neural recognition molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily: signaling transducers of axon guidance and neuronal migration
    Patricia F Maness
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Neuroscience Research Center, University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7260, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:19-26. 2007
    ..Their downstream signal transduction events specify whether a cell changes its place of residence or projects axons and dendrites to targets in the brain, allowing the construction of a dynamic neural network...
  68. ncbi Peripheral regeneration
    Zu Lin Chen
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 30:209-33. 2007
    ..Functional regeneration requires axon regrowth and remyelination of the regenerated axons by Schwann cells...
  69. doi Retinal ganglion cells downregulate gene expression and lose their axons within the optic nerve head in a mouse glaucoma model
    Ileana Soto
    Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurosci 28:548-61. 2008
    ..have large numbers of RGCs that maintain the intraocular portion while losing the optic nerve portion of their axons, and these disconnected axons terminate within the optic nerve head...
  70. doi Distinct contributions of Na(v)1.6 and Na(v)1.2 in action potential initiation and backpropagation
    Wenqin Hu
    Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    Nat Neurosci 12:996-1002. 2009
    ..Further modeling studies and simultaneous somatic and axonal recordings showed that distal Na(v)1.6 promotes action potential initiation, whereas proximal Na(v)1.2 promotes its backpropagation to the soma...
  71. pmc Axon guidance molecules in vascular patterning
    Ralf H Adams
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Tissue Morphogenesis, and University of Münster, Faculty of Medicine, Munster, Germany
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a001875. 2010
    ..Here we summarize fundamental principles of angiogenic growth, the selection and function of tip cells and the underlying regulation by guidance cues, the Notch pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling...
  72. doi Neuronal intrinsic mechanisms of axon regeneration
    Kai Liu
    FM Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, and Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 34:131-52. 2011
    ..suggested that blocking extracellular inhibitory influences alone is insufficient to allow the majority of injured axons to regenerate, pointing to the importance of revisiting the hypothesis that diminished intrinsic regenerative ..
  73. ncbi Information coding in the olfactory system: evidence for a stereotyped and highly organized epitope map in the olfactory bulb
    K J Ressler
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Cell 79:1245-55. 1994
    ..In our view, this map is in essence an epitope map, whose approximately 1000 distinct components are used in a multitude of different combinations to discriminate a vast array of different odors...
  74. ncbi A neuronal identity code for the odorant receptor-specific and activity-dependent axon sorting
    Shou Serizawa
    Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Cell 127:1057-69. 2006
    In the mouse, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the same odorant receptor (OR) converge their axons to a specific set of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb...
  75. pmc KLF family members regulate intrinsic axon regeneration ability
    Darcie L Moore
    Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Science 326:298-301. 2009
    ..Thus, coordinated activities of different KLFs regulate the regenerative capacity of CNS neurons...
  76. doi Projection patterns of single mossy fiber axons originating from the dorsal column nuclei mapped on the aldolase C compartments in the rat cerebellar cortex
    Pham Nguyen Quy
    Department of Systems Neurophysiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School, Tokyo, Japan
    J Comp Neurol 519:874-99. 2011
    ..We reconstructed individual dextran-labeled DCN axons completely from serial sections and mapped their terminals on the longitudinal cerebellar compartments that were ..
  77. doi Netrins: versatile extracellular cues with diverse functions
    Karen Lai Wing Sun
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada
    Development 138:2153-69. 2011
    ..Here, we review the mechanisms involved in netrin signalling in vertebrate and invertebrate systems and discuss the functions of netrin signalling during the development of neural and non-neural tissues...
  78. pmc Otic mesenchyme cells regulate spiral ganglion axon fasciculation through a Pou3f4/EphA4 signaling pathway
    Thomas M Coate
    Laboratory of Cochlear Development, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuron 73:49-63. 2012
    Peripheral axons from auditory spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) form an elaborate series of radially and spirally oriented projections that interpret complex aspects of the auditory environment...
  79. ncbi Distinct morphogenetic functions of similar small GTPases: Drosophila Drac1 is involved in axonal outgrowth and myoblast fusion
    L Luo
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology, University of California at San Francisco 94143
    Genes Dev 8:1787-802. 1994
    ..Expressions of analogous mutant Dcdc42 proteins cause qualitatively distinct morphological defects, suggesting that similar GTPases in the same subfamily have unique roles in morphogenesis...
  80. pmc Mitofusin 2 is necessary for transport of axonal mitochondria and interacts with the Miro/Milton complex
    Albert Misko
    Department of Neurology and Hope Center for Neurological Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 30:4232-40. 2010
    ..Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 2A, an inherited disease characterized by degeneration of long peripheral axons, but the nature of this tissue selectivity remains unknown...
  81. pmc Activity-dependent relocation of the axon initial segment fine-tunes neuronal excitability
    Matthew S Grubb
    MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King s College London, 4th Floor, New Hunt s House, Guy s Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Nature 465:1070-4. 2010
    ..This novel form of activity-dependent plasticity may fine-tune neuronal excitability during development...
  82. pmc Transcriptome analysis of embryonic and adult sensory axons reveals changes in mRNA repertoire localization
    Laura F Gumy
    Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Forvie Site, Cambridge CB2 0PY, United Kingdom
    RNA 17:85-98. 2011
    mRNAs are transported, localized, and translated in axons of sensory neurons...
  83. doi The role of Nogo-A in axonal plasticity, regrowth and repair
    Vincent Pernet
    Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich ETH, Department of Health Sciences and Technology ETH Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Room 55J34a, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Cell Tissue Res 349:97-104. 2012
    ..also because of the presence of specific growth inhibitors in the CNS tissue and the environment of the damaged axons. The well-studied myelin-derived protein Nogo-A is involved in various cellular and molecular events contributing ..
  84. pmc The Phr1 ubiquitin ligase promotes injury-induced axon self-destruction
    Elisabetta Babetto
    Department of Developmental Biology, Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Cell Rep 3:1422-9. 2013
    Axon degeneration is an evolutionarily conserved process that drives the loss of damaged axons and is an early event in many neurological disorders, so it is important to identify the molecular constituents of this poorly understood ..
  85. ncbi LKB1 and SAD kinases define a pathway required for the polarization of cortical neurons
    Anthony P Barnes
    Neuroscience Center, Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Cell 129:549-63. 2007
    ..Thus, we provide evidence in vivo and in vitro for a multikinase pathway that links extracellular signals to the intracellular machinery required for axon specification...
  86. doi Chondroitinase ABC treatment opens a window of opportunity for task-specific rehabilitation
    Guillermo Garcia-Alias
    Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Neurosci 12:1145-51. 2009
    ..Chondroitinase treatment enhanced sprouting of corticospinal axons independently of the rehabilitation regime...
  87. doi Myelination and the trophic support of long axons
    Klaus Armin Nave
    Klaus Armin Nave is at the Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Herrmann Rein Strasse 3, D 37075 Goettingen, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:275-83. 2010
    In addition to their role in providing myelin for rapid impulse propagation, the glia that ensheath long axons are required for the maintenance of normal axon transport and long-term survival...
  88. pmc Signaling from axon guidance receptors
    Greg J Bashaw
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a001941. 2010
    ..Here, we review recent insights into how specific receptors for each of these guidance cues engage downstream regulators of the growth cone cytoskeleton to control axon guidance...
  89. ncbi Identification of the Nogo inhibitor of axon regeneration as a Reticulon protein
    T GrandPre
    Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Nature 403:439-44. 2000
    ..However, many classes of CNS axons can extend for long distances in peripheral nerve grafts...
  90. ncbi Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy
    Mehmet Fatih Yanik
    Department of Applied Physics, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 432:822. 2004
    ..so far been limited to complex organisms (mouse and zebrafish) in the absence of precision techniques for severing axons (axotomy)...
  91. pmc Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked SOD1 mutants perturb fast axonal transport to reduce axonal mitochondria content
    Kurt J De Vos
    MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 16:2720-8. 2007
    ..inhibition of anterograde mitochondrial FAT enhanced their net retrograde movement to deplete mitochondria in axons. Mitochondria in mutant SOD1 expressing cells also displayed features of damage...
  92. doi Virtual hypoxia and chronic necrosis of demyelinated axons in multiple sclerosis
    Bruce D Trapp
    Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Lancet Neurol 8:280-91. 2009
    ..Accumulating evidence suggests that the increased energy demand of impulse conduction along excitable demyelinated axons and reduced axonal ATP production induce a chronic state of virtual hypoxia in chronically demyelinated axons...
  93. doi Optical coherence tomography in clinically isolated syndrome: no evidence of subclinical retinal axonal loss
    Olivier Outteryck
    Department of Neurology, Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille, France
    Arch Neurol 66:1373-7. 2009
    ..A reduction in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness is correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score and brain atrophy...
  94. doi Local and long-range reciprocal regulation of cAMP and cGMP in axon/dendrite formation
    Maya Shelly
    Division of Neurobiology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Science 327:547-52. 2010
    ..Thus, local and long-range reciprocal regulation of cAMP and cGMP together ensures coordinated development of one axon and multiple dendrites...
  95. pmc Neuronal intrinsic barriers for axon regeneration in the adult CNS
    Fang Sun
    F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, and Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 20:510-8. 2010
    ..devastating and permanent disabilities after spinal cord and other types of CNS injury is the failure of injured axons to regenerate and to re-build the functional circuits...
  96. doi PTEN inhibition to facilitate intrinsic regenerative outgrowth of adult peripheral axons
    Kimberly J Christie
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Neurosci 30:9306-15. 2010
    ..PTEN was expressed in neuron perikaryal cytoplasm, nuclei, regenerating axons, and Schwann cells...
  97. doi Regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination
    Ben Emery
    Centre for Neuroscience and Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Level 2, Alan Gilbert Building, The University of Melbourne, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia
    Science 330:779-82. 2010
    ..Studies have also demonstrated an unexpected level of plasticity of myelin in the adult CNS. These recent advances provide new insight into how remyelination may be stimulated in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis...
  98. pmc Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling controls the anterior-posterior organization of monoaminergic axons in the brainstem
    Ali G Fenstermaker
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Neurosci 30:16053-64. 2010
    Monoaminergic neurons [serotonergic (5-HT) and dopaminergic (mdDA)] in the brainstem project axons along the anterior-posterior axis...
  99. pmc Axonal degeneration is mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore
    Sebastian A Barrientos
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Catholic University of Chile, Santiago 8331150, Chile
    J Neurosci 31:966-78. 2011
    ..Both pharmacological and genetic targeting of cyclophilin D, a functional component of the mPTP, protects severed axons and vincristine-treated neurons from axonal degeneration in ex vivo and in vitro mouse and rat model systems...
  100. ncbi Astrocyte-associated axonal damage in pre-onset stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Dongwei Wang
    Department of Biochemistry, Neuroimmunology Laboratory, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
    Glia 51:235-40. 2005
    ..This marks a change in the understanding of the role of astrocytes in MS pathogenesis and has important implications for the development of neuroprotective strategies...
  101. pmc A microfluidic culture platform for CNS axonal injury, regeneration and transport
    Anne M Taylor
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, 204 Rockwell Engineering, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Nat Methods 2:599-605. 2005
    ..biology in the central nervous system (CNS) is hindered by a lack of an appropriate in vitro method to probe axons independently from cell bodies...

Research Grants75

  1. Multi-targeted Countermeasures against Acute and Delayed Effects of OP Exposure
    John A Butera; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..excitotoxicity at other receptors and transporters and progressive demyelination and degradation of nerve axons. Cases of exposure to OP agents, whether intentional (warfare or terrorism) or accidental (pesticide mishandling), ..
  2. CRF-Oxytocin Interaction in the Regulation of Stress and Affect
    Joanna Dabrowska; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in the PVN selectively express CRF type 2 receptors (CRFR2) and send oxytocinergic input to the BNST, where OT axons and terminals also express CRFR2...
  3. Agrin/alpha 3 Na,K-ATPase signaling at the neuromuscular junction
    Martin A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..studies have suggested these "inactive" agrin species play a role regulating growth and differentiation of motor axons and axon terminals...
  4. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
    Christie D Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..0) will be injected into select brain regions to permit transfection of cholinergic neurons/axons in BAC transgenic choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)::Cre mice...
  5. Samuel D Crish; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..This proposal intends to examine the structural and functional defects in retinal ganglion cell axons in early glaucoma with the intention of identifying new targets for intervention in this debilitating disease...
  6. Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasis
    Anthony N van den Pol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..while stimulating local glutamate cells with the excitatory microdrop method to activate cell bodies but not axons of passage...
  7. Glutamate receptor recruitment to new synapses in vivo
    PHILIP ERIC WASHBOURNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that an interaction between SynCAM1 or 2 and CASK in axons can directly tether SV precursors to the site of SynCAM/SynCAM interaction...
  8. Robert W Burgess; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..1 that contributes to the preservation of sensory axons. We will use mouse genetics to identify the modifying gene on Chr. 1...
  9. Identification of Compounds to treat Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2E neuropathy
    RONALD K LIEM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Neurofilamentous aggregates both in the neuronal cell bodies and axons are seen in patients with mutations in NEFL, as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic ..
  10. Neuropilin and semaphorin, anti-angiogenesis activities and mechanisms
    Michael Klagsbrun; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..SEMA3F was initially shown to repel axons and collapse growth cones but it also induces morphological changes in endothelial cells (EC) and tumor cells ..
  11. Olfactory Circuits for Reproduction and Reward
    James A Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in Lhx6- expressing neurons in the Me, BNST and VMH of male mice, and determine whether these neurons send axons to the ventral tegmental area, the location of dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesolimbic system...
  12. Ephrin-A3 in Neuron-Glia Communication
    Elena B Pasquale; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..notion that ephrins and Eph receptors play an important role in the interactions between glial cells and neuronal axons as well as dendrites in different parts of the central and peripheral nervous system...
  13. Mechanisms of Astrocyte Development
    Teri L Belecky Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..First, astrocyte precursors act as an attractant for ganglion cell axons as they leave the eye to grow towards other target cells in the rest of the central nervous system...
  14. Optimization of EphA4 antagonists for CNS disorders
    ELENA B contact PASQUALE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..nerve regeneration and functional recovery by promoting glial scar formation and inhibiting sprouting of injured axons. Consistent with this, recent studies suggest that inhibiting EphA4-ephrin interaction could be useful for the ..
  15. Multiple Mechanisms of Nasal Chemoreception
    Diego Restrepo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..C (PLC) pathway, is expressed in a subset of olfactory sensory neurons in the main olfactory epithelium whose axons project to semiochemical-responsive glomeruli (Lin et al., 2007). We propose three specific aims: Aim 1...
  16. Microfluidic-microtiter interface for rapid large-scale screenings of C. elegans
    Adela Ben Yakar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): After injury, unlike the axons of the central nervous system where the regeneration process is poor or absent, axons of the peripheral nervous system are able to regenerate, though inefficiently...
  17. Ralph A Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neurofilaments (NF) enable axons to achieve the large calibers required for normal nerve impulse conduction and play other critical roles in neuronal function only now being appreciated...
  18. In vivo analysis of the mechanisms of axon transport.
    Catherine M Drerup; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..e. nerve truncation, nerve thinning and distal axonal swellings in long sensory axons. Live imaging revealed that rogue has reduced density and altered transport parameters of some actively ..
  19. Novel Mitochondrial Targeted Neuroprotectants for Glaucoma
    Leonard Levin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that convey visual information from the retina to the brain via their axons in the optic nerve...
  20. Effects of nerve demyelination on auditory synaptic functions
    Jun Hee Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Myelinated axons in the mammalian CNS are uniquely designed to support rapid and efficient saltatory impulse propagation...
  21. ERNESTO ROQUE BONGARZONE; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..a proven ability to reduce sodium channel firing and NCX1 activity, improves NCX1-mediated influx of calcium in axons;and 3) determine whether these neuroprotective strategies combined with metabolic correction after BMT in newborn ..
  22. Onanong Chivatakarn; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..cell bodies migrate to specific positions along the medio-lateral and dorso-ventral axes of the CNS and their axons exit the CNS to established precise and stereotypic innervation of muscle targets...
  23. TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN CONTROL OF BRAIN DEVELOPMENT
    Eric E Turner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the CNS projections of Brn3a-expressing retinal ganglion cells, and determine whether the targeting of these axons to specific thalamic structures is dependent on early spontaneous depolarizations in the retina...
  24. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan and Myelination in Intraventricular Hemorrhage
    Praveen Ballabh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The most common white matter injury in premature infants is 'gliosis and hypomyelination with intact axons'...
  25. Dysfunction of neurofilaments in disease: an iPS model of Giant Axonal Neuropathy
    BETHANY LESLIE JOHNSON-KERNER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..GAN knock-out mice do not have an overt neurological phenotype and do not develop giant axons as seen in the human disease;moreover, human MNs are not accessible to biopsy and subsequent culture...
  26. DANIEL S MUCIDA; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Our preliminary characterization shows that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are in close proximity to neuronal axons within the intestinal lamina propria...
  27. GERARDO ANDRES MORFINI; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..degenerate following a "dying back" pattern, which is characterized by early abnormalities in synapses and distal axons and progressive degeneration of axons...
  28. PAUL GREGORY DONLIN-ASP; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..SMN localizes to axons and dendrites in spinal motor neurons...
  29. Victor L Arvanian; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..These physiological findings were supported by the observation of increased regeneration and branching of axons near the injury and better functional recovery...
  30. STEVEN SIMON SCHERER; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We reasoned that O: O coupling might serve a similar purpose for myelinated axons, and propose an experimental analysis of this possibility in this Aim...
  31. Margaret E Rice; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Pilot data suggest that insulin-enhanced evoked [DA]o is mediated by insulin receptors (InsRs), not on DA axons, but on cholinergic interneurons, and show a pivotal role for DA release regulation by nicotinic acetylcholine (..
  32. PAUL STEVEN BERNSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Are the macular pigment carotenoids primarily localized to photoreceptor axons or to foveal M[unreadable]ller cells? Are lutein and zeaxanthin differentially distributed in the macula, and if ..
  33. Kristen M Harris; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..provided by applicant): "Distance-Dependent Structure and Function of Neuronal Dendrites" Neuronal dendrites, axons and synapses are structurally distorted in individuals with mental retardation and other neurological disorders...
  34. Junying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..OGs, the myelin producing cells that play a critical role in the maintenance of activity and integrity of neuronal axons. Preventing the death of OGs might be able to inhibit demyelination and axonal degeneration, the major cause of ..
  35. Kenneth S Shindler; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Axonal damage and neuronal loss in optic neuritis and MS patients, including loss of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons, correlates with permanent neurological dysfunction...
  36. Christopher D Kroenke; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..post-mortem ferret brains at five ages spanning postnatal day (P)6 to P45, to measurements of FAN of dendrites and axons labeled in the same tissue by the application of Golgi and anatomical tracing procedures...
  37. Thao D Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..This causes deformation of the RGC axons, glia, and nourishing capillaries...
  38. Distance-Dependent Structure and Function of Neuronal Dendrites
    Kristen M Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Connectivity relationships among dendrites, axons and perisynaptic astroglia will also be discerned...
  39. Imaging retinal astrocytes, ganglion cells and axonal transport in vivo
    Brad Fortune; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..are located primarily within the innermost retinal layers;their processes surround retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons and axon bundles as well as all blood vessels...
  40. Benjamin M Segal; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..of the disease occur when inflammatory foci form in the CNS resulting in demyelination and damage to neighboring axons. The vast majority of patients ultimately enter a progressive phase during which they gradually, but inexorably, ..
  41. BRETT CAMERON LANGLEY; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..functional deficits and paralysis because of neural damage, but also because of a limited capacity of CNS axons to regenerate and restore lost neuronal connectivity...
  42. Pamela L Mellon; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..migrate past the cribriform plate, through the olfactory bulb and into the hypothalamus, finally extending their axons to the median eminence...
  43. Michel A Lemay; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) provide an excellent substratum for axonal regrowth;they can direct regenerating axons towards a specific target and they facilitate electrophysiological experimentation to detect synaptic connectivity ..
  44. Lee A Niswander; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..We will test the hypothesis that alterations in peroxisomal function in the embryo inhibit termination of axons at the synapse which disrupts the connectivity of the locomotor circuit...
  45. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of gp120 neurotoxicity
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and the site of initial injury to the neuron are unknown;in particular it is unclear if the process starts in the axons itself or in the neuronal cell body...
  46. Sex Hormones and Visceral Hypersensitivity
    Elie D Al-Chaer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..pain is processed in the central nervous system (CNS) by a relatively specific visceral pain pathway formed by the axons of postsynaptic dorsal column (PSDC) neurons that ascend in the dorsal column (DC) to the dorsal column nuclei (..
  47. Lipoic Acid Therapy for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
    DENNIS NEIL BOURDETTE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..EP4 receptors and thereby prevents microglial activation and release of soluble inflammatory mediators that damage axons. This will be accomplished in the work described in the three Specific Aims...
  48. Axon Guidance in the Olfactory System
    DIEGO JAVIER RODRIGUEZ-GIL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It requires that newly generated axons successfully navigate through the lamina propria and the cribiform plate, into the central nervous system...
  49. ANTON J REINER; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Accordingly, the molecular and cellular events by which a concussive event impairs cells and axons within specific brain regions to cause persistent symptoms or as a delayed effect are ill-defined...
  50. Cellular and Molecular Analysis of Defects at Aging Neuromuscular Synapses
    Joshua R Sanes; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2) Preterminal portions of motor axons exhibit regions of abnormal thinning, distension and sprouting...
  51. Mary Bartlett Bunge; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..If these interfaces are not permissive for the regenerating axons, then the cell therapy will not be suitably efficacious...
  52. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF VASOPRESSIN RELEASE
    William E Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..hypothalamus, where neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei synthesizing VP and oxytocin (OT) send axons to the posterior pituitary gland to terminate in the neurohemal contact zone...
  53. Judith A Steen; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..and/or function of SMN or other members of the SMN complex and 2) the putative HuD-SMN-associated mRNAs in axons are important for the growth and survival of motor neurons...
  54. Regulation of Sensory-Motor Connectivity by Semaphorin-Plexin Signaling
    Yutaka Yoshida; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cell bodies in the ventral gray matter are grouped into "motor neuron pools", which project axons to specific muscles...
  55. Judith M Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..I will then examine the spread across synapses, release of virus from neuronal cell bodies and axons in compartmented cultures, and membrane fusion of infected neurons of JHM, A59, rA59/SJHM (a chimeric A59 virus ..
  56. John Guy; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..ND4 in murine mitochondria induced visual loss with a progressive demise of ganglion cells in the retina and their axons comprising the optic nerve, thus recapitulating the hallmarks of the human LHON disorder...
  57. Beth A Habecker; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Second, axons degenerate in the viable peri-infarct myocardium soon after the initial injury and then re-grow heterogeneously ..
  58. Elior Peles; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In the underlying axons Na+ channels are clustered at the nodes of Ranvier, separated by a specialized axoglial paranodal junction (PNJ) ..
  59. Biomimetic scaffolds for targeted peripheral nerve regeneration
    DAVID SHREIBER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Peripheral neurons can regenerate their axons after nerve injury and reinnervate peripheral targets...
  60. Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Neuronal Dendrites
    Erik W Dent; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because dendritic spines are the primary sites of contact with presynaptic axons in excitatory neurons of hippocampus and cortex, their structure and function have been studied in great detail...
  61. A zebrafish model for neural regeneration
    ALLISON F ROSENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..How to coax injured axons to re-grow to their appropriate synaptic targets remains an important unsolved problem, whether applied to damaged ..
  62. PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY IN LENTIVIRUS INFECTIONS: EARLY VIRAL AND HOST DETERMINANTS
    Christopher Power; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..feline model developed by our laboratories in which lentivirus infections cause damage to DRG sensory neurons and axons. We will define the early events leading to DSP in these models using viruses or cloned genes derived from ..
  63. Pain and Endometriosis: Effects on Ectopic Cyst Innervation and Axons
    Geoffrey M Bove; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..There has been no investigation to functionally characterize the effect of endometrial lesions on nerves or on axons. Our laboratory has focused on the effects of inflammation on axons...
  64. HISTAMINE CONTAINING CENTRIFUGAL AXONS IN THE RETINA
    David Marshak; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand the role of histamine released from centrifugal axons in the etiology of small vessel damage to the retina of diabetic patients...
  65. Eph/Ephrin signaling in Taste Nerve Targeting
    MICHAEL WILLIAM ROCHLIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Taste axons innervate taste buds but not adjacent epithelium, and somatosensory axons that penetrate non-taste epithelium do ..
  66. GENE THERAPY FOR SPINAL CORD REGENERATION
    George Smith; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These axons regenerate into and throughout these transplants, but fail to grow significant distances back into the adult ..
  67. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY PROBES FOR NEUROFILAMENT PROCESSING
    LUDWIG STERNBERGER; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Immunocytochemically, 5 of these antibodies stained long fiber tracts and terminal axons but not cell bodies, dendrites or proximal axons (group II), 4 stained cell bodies, dendrites and proximal axons ..
  68. Guidance of Taste Nerve During Development
    MICHAEL ROCHLIN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It is necessary and sufficient for repulsion of axons by a variety of tissue explants in vitro and, in Sema3A -/mice, many of these axons improperly invade areas that ..
  69. Role of endothelins in SCG axon guidance
    Takako Makita; Fiscal Year: 2009
    A key process in developmental neurobiology is the manner by which axons projecting from newly born neurons choose paths to reach and innervate target organs...
  70. DRUG ADDICTION: DUAL 5-HT INNERVATION OF LIMBIC SYSTEM
    MARK MOLLIVER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..analyze the origin of 5-HT projections to the NAc and to other limbic structures with attention to sets of 5-HT axons that differ in transporter expression...
  71. BETA-ACTIN MRNA LOCALIZATION
    GARY BASSELL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..quintessential asymmetric cell and differentiate two morphologically and functionally distinct types of processes: axons and dendrites...