Summary: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors
    Kazutoshi Takahashi
    Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Cell 131:861-72. 2007
  2. ncbi Suppression of basal autophagy in neural cells causes neurodegenerative disease in mice
    Taichi Hara
    Department of Bioregulation and Metabolism, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nature 441:885-9. 2006
  3. pmc A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain
    Linda Madisen
    Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:133-40. 2010
  4. pmc Imaging neural activity in worms, flies and mice with improved GCaMP calcium indicators
    Lin Tian
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia, USA
    Nat Methods 6:875-81. 2009
  5. ncbi A neural substrate of prediction and reward
    W Schultz
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 275:1593-9. 1997
  6. ncbi The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics
    John Hardy
    Laboratories of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:353-6. 2002
  7. ncbi An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function
    E K Miller
    Center for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:167-202. 2001
  8. doi TDP-43 mutations in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Jemeen Sreedharan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, King s College London, Medical Research Council MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, and Institute of Psychiatry, London, SE5 8AF, UK
    Science 319:1668-72. 2008
  9. pmc Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging
    Jasper Akerboom
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA
    J Neurosci 32:13819-40. 2012
  10. ncbi Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity
    Edward S Boyden
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive West, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:1263-8. 2005

Detail Information

Publications339 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors
    Kazutoshi Takahashi
    Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Cell 131:861-72. 2007
    ..Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts...
  2. ncbi Suppression of basal autophagy in neural cells causes neurodegenerative disease in mice
    Taichi Hara
    Department of Bioregulation and Metabolism, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nature 441:885-9. 2006
    ..also thought to be important for normal turnover of cytoplasmic contents, particularly in quiescent cells such as neurons. Autophagy may have a protective role against the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases...
  3. pmc A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain
    Linda Madisen
    Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:133-40. 2010
    ..these reporters enables direct visualization of fine dendritic structures and axonal projections of the labeled neurons, which is useful in mapping neuronal circuitry, imaging and tracking specific cell populations in vivo...
  4. pmc Imaging neural activity in worms, flies and mice with improved GCaMP calcium indicators
    Lin Tian
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia, USA
    Nat Methods 6:875-81. 2009
    ..In Caenorhabditis elegans chemosensory neurons and the Drosophila melanogaster antennal lobe, sensory stimulation-evoked fluorescence responses were ..
  5. ncbi A neural substrate of prediction and reward
    W Schultz
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 275:1593-9. 1997
    ..Physiological work has recently complemented these studies by identifying dopaminergic neurons in the primate whose fluctuating output apparently signals changes or errors in the predictions of future salient ..
  6. ncbi The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics
    John Hardy
    Laboratories of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:353-6. 2002
    ..The rest of the disease process, including formation of neurofibrillary tangles containing tau protein, is proposed to result from an imbalance between Abeta production and Abeta clearance...
  7. ncbi An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function
    E K Miller
    Center for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:167-202. 2001
    ..We review neurophysiological, neurobiological, neuroimaging, and computational studies that support this theory and discuss its implications as well as further issues to be addressed..
  8. doi TDP-43 mutations in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Jemeen Sreedharan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, King s College London, Medical Research Council MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, and Institute of Psychiatry, London, SE5 8AF, UK
    Science 319:1668-72. 2008
    ..Mutant forms of TDP-43 fragmented in vitro more readily than wild type and, in vivo, caused neural apoptosis and developmental delay in the chick embryo. Our evidence suggests a pathophysiological link between TDP-43 and ALS...
  9. pmc Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging
    Jasper Akerboom
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA
    J Neurosci 32:13819-40. 2012
    ..We tested GCaMP5s in several systems: cultured neurons and astrocytes, mouse retina, and in vivo in Caenorhabditis chemosensory neurons, Drosophila larval neuromuscular ..
  10. ncbi Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity
    Edward S Boyden
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive West, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:1263-8. 2005 using lentiviral gene delivery in combination with high-speed optical switching to photostimulate mammalian neurons. We demonstrate reliable, millisecond-timescale control of neuronal spiking, as well as control of excitatory and ..
  11. doi Mutations in the FUS/TLS gene on chromosome 16 cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    T J Kwiatkowski
    Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 114 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Science 323:1205-8. 2009
    ..In contrast, the mutant forms of FUS/TLS accumulated in the cytoplasm of neurons, a pathology that is similar to that of the gene TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43), whose mutations also cause ..
  12. ncbi Isolation and characterization of tumorigenic, stem-like neural precursors from human glioblastoma
    Rossella Galli
    Stem Cell Research Institute and Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics, H S Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Cancer Res 64:7011-21. 2004
    ..Thus, cells possessing all of the characteristics expected from tumor neural stem cells seem to be involved in the growth and recurrence of adult human glioblastomas multiforme...
  13. pmc New neurons and new memories: how does adult hippocampal neurogenesis affect learning and memory?
    Wei Deng
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:339-50. 2010
    The integration of adult-born neurons into the circuitry of the adult hippocampus suggests an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, but its specific function in these processes has remained elusive...
  14. pmc Molecular dissection of reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation
    Michael V Sofroniew
    Department of Neurobiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1763, USA
    Trends Neurosci 32:638-47. 2009
    ..This article reviews developments in the signaling mechanisms that regulate specific aspects of reactive astrogliosis and highlights the potential to identify novel therapeutic molecular targets for diverse neurological disorders...
  15. ncbi Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal
    N K Logothetis
    Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen, Germany
    Nature 412:150-7. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that the BOLD contrast mechanism reflects the input and intracortical processing of a given area rather than its spiking output...
  16. pmc Glial and neuronal control of brain blood flow
    David Attwell
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 468:232-43. 2010
    Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes...
  17. ncbi Homeostatic levels of p62 control cytoplasmic inclusion body formation in autophagy-deficient mice
    Masaaki Komatsu
    Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Cell 131:1149-63. 2007
    ..genetic ablation of p62 suppressed the appearance of ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates in hepatocytes and neurons, indicating that p62 plays an important role in inclusion body formation...
  18. ncbi Interneurons of the neocortical inhibitory system
    Henry Markram
    Laboratory of Neural Microcircuitry, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:793-807. 2004
    ..The largest obstacle is the daunting variety of inhibitory interneurons that are found in the circuit. This review focuses on the organizing principles that govern the diversity of inhibitory interneurons and their circuits...
  19. pmc Direct conversion of fibroblasts to functional neurons by defined factors
    Thomas Vierbuchen
    Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1050 Arastradero Road, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Nature 463:1035-41. 2010
    ..combinatorial expression of neural-lineage-specific transcription factors could directly convert fibroblasts into neurons. Starting from a pool of nineteen candidate genes, we identified a combination of only three factors, Ascl1, Brn2 ..
  20. ncbi The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control
    K Richard Ridderinkhof
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Science 306:443-7. 2004
  21. pmc Parkinson's disease patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells free of viral reprogramming factors
    Frank Soldner
    The Whitehead Institute, Cambridge Center, MA 02142, USA
    Cell 136:964-77. 2009
    ..idiopathic Parkinson's disease can be efficiently reprogrammed and subsequently differentiated into dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, we derived hiPSCs free of reprogramming factors using Cre-recombinase excisable viruses...
  22. ncbi The mirror-neuron system
    Giacomo Rizzolatti
    Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Fisiologia, Via Volturno, 3, Universita di Parma 43100, Parma, Italy
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:169-92. 2004
    ..We describe first the functional properties of mirror neurons in monkeys. We review next the characteristics of the mirror-neuron system in humans...
  23. ncbi Network motifs: simple building blocks of complex networks
    R Milo
    Departments of Physics of Complex Systems and Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 76100
    Science 298:824-7. 2002
    ..even though they describe elements as different as biomolecules within a cell and synaptic connections between neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Motifs may thus define universal classes of networks...
  24. pmc The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells
    Arnold Kriegstein
    The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0525, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 32:149-84. 2009
    ..end products of neural differentiation, specialized supportive cells with an origin very different from that of neurons. New studies have shown that some glial cells--radial glia (RG) in development and specific subpopulations of ..
  25. pmc Lysosomal proteolysis and autophagy require presenilin 1 and are disrupted by Alzheimer-related PS1 mutations
    Ju Hyun Lee
    Center for Dementia Research, Nathan S Kline Institute, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
    Cell 141:1146-58. 2010
    ..In PS1 null blastocysts, neurons from mice hypomorphic for PS1 or conditionally depleted of PS1, substrate proteolysis and autophagosome clearance ..
  26. ncbi A mechanism for cognitive dynamics: neuronal communication through neuronal coherence
    Pascal Fries
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Trends Cogn Sci 9:474-80. 2005
    ..Microelectrode recordings have characterized the activation of single neurons and fMRI has unveiled brain-wide activation patterns...
  27. doi Optogenetics in neural systems
    Ofer Yizhar
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 71:9-34. 2011
    ..Here we provide a primer on the application of optogenetics in neuroscience, focusing on the single-component tools and highlighting important problems, challenges, and technical considerations...
  28. ncbi Variations on an inhibitory theme: phasic and tonic activation of GABA(A) receptors
    Mark Farrant
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:215-29. 2005
    ..orchestrated regulation of neural activity by a diverse population of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-releasing neurons. Until recently, our appreciation of GABA-mediated inhibition focused predominantly on the GABA(A) (GABA type A) ..
  29. pmc Dedifferentiation of neurons and astrocytes by oncogenes can induce gliomas in mice
    Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 338:1080-4. 2012 that gliomas can originate from differentiated cells in the central nervous system (CNS), including cortical neurons. Transduction by oncogenic lentiviral vectors of neural stem cells (NSCs), astrocytes, or even mature neurons in ..
  30. pmc Pathways towards and away from Alzheimer's disease
    Mark P Mattson
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Nature 430:631-9. 2004
    ..But rapid progress towards understanding the cellular and molecular alterations that are responsible for the neuron's demise may soon help in developing effective preventative and therapeutic strategies...
  31. ncbi The molecular biology of memory storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses
    E R Kandel
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 294:1030-8. 2001
  32. doi Mammalian Rho GTPases: new insights into their functions from in vivo studies
    Sarah J Heasman
    Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King s College London, Guy s Campus, London, UK
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9:690-701. 2008
    ..The recent availability of knockout mice for several members of the Rho family reveals new information about their roles in signalling to the cytoskeleton and in development...
  33. pmc Autophagy gone awry in neurodegenerative diseases
    Esther Wong
    Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center and Institute for Aging Studies, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:805-11. 2010
    ..The reasons behind autophagic failure in degenerating neurons can be very diverse because of the different steps required for autophagy and the characterization of the ..
  34. ncbi Cortical inhibitory neurons and schizophrenia
    David A Lewis
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:312-24. 2005
    ..reduced GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) synthesis in the parvalbumin-containing subpopulation of inhibitory GABA neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia...
  35. doi Resting microglia directly monitor the functional state of synapses in vivo and determine the fate of ischemic terminals
    Hiroaki Wake
    Division of Homeostatic Development, National Institute of Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Neurosci 29:3974-80. 2009
    ..Using in vivo two-photon imaging of fluorescent-labeled neurons and microglia, we demonstrate that the resting microglial processes make brief (approximately 5 min) and direct ..
  36. pmc Network anatomy and in vivo physiology of visual cortical neurons
    Davi D Bock
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 471:177-82. 2011
    In the cerebral cortex, local circuits consist of tens of thousands of neurons, each of which makes thousands of synaptic connections...
  37. pmc HDAC2 negatively regulates memory formation and synaptic plasticity
    Ji Song Guan
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences
    Nature 459:55-60. 2009
    ..These observations encourage the development and testing of HDAC2-selective inhibitors for human diseases associated with memory impairment...
  38. pmc Highly nonrandom features of synaptic connectivity in local cortical circuits
    Sen Song
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e68. 2005
    ..synaptic connections with several hundred simultaneous quadruple whole-cell recordings from layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the rat visual cortex. Analysis of this dataset revealed several nonrandom features in synaptic connectivity...
  39. pmc Dopamine in motivational control: rewarding, aversive, and alerting
    Ethan S Bromberg-Martin
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Neuron 68:815-34. 2010
    Midbrain dopamine neurons are well known for their strong responses to rewards and their critical role in positive motivation...
  40. pmc Neurotrophins: roles in neuronal development and function
    E J Huang
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:677-736. 2001
    ..limiting amounts of neurotrophins function as survival factors to ensure a match between the number of surviving neurons and the requirement for appropriate target innervation...
  41. pmc The hypocretins: hypothalamus-specific peptides with neuroexcitatory activity
    L de Lecea
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:322-7. 1998
    ..The fibers of these neurons are widespread throughout the posterior hypothalamus and project to multiple targets in other areas, including ..
  42. pmc Dysfunction in GABA signalling mediates autism-like stereotypies and Rett syndrome phenotypes
    Hsiao Tuan Chao
    Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Nature 468:263-9. 2010
    ..Here we show that mice lacking Mecp2 from GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing neurons recapitulate numerous Rett syndrome and autistic features, including repetitive behaviours...
  43. pmc A functional role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in spatial pattern separation
    C D Clelland
    Laboratory of Genetics, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 325:210-3. 2009
    ..Thus, newborn neurons may be necessary for normal pattern separation function in the DG of adult mice.
  44. pmc Neuronal diversity and temporal dynamics: the unity of hippocampal circuit operations
    Thomas Klausberger
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK
    Science 321:53-7. 2008
    In the cerebral cortex, diverse types of neurons form intricate circuits and cooperate in time for the processing and storage of information...
  45. pmc Inclusion formation and neuronal cell death through neuron-to-neuron transmission of alpha-synuclein
    Paula Desplats
    Department of Neurosciences and Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13010-5. 2009
    ..Furthermore, recent studies showed the occurrence of Lewy pathology in neurons grafted into the brains of PD patients, suggesting the spread of pathology from the host tissues to the grafts...
  46. pmc Cell-produced alpha-synuclein is secreted in a calcium-dependent manner by exosomes and impacts neuronal survival
    Evangelia Emmanouilidou
    Division of Basic Neurosciences, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece
    J Neurosci 30:6838-51. 2010
  47. pmc A MicroRNA feedback circuit in midbrain dopamine neurons
    Jongpil Kim
    Departments of Pathology and Neurology, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, and Taub Institute, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons 15 403, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 317:1220-4. 2007
    ..miRNAs also occur in postmitotic cells, such as neurons in the mammalian central nervous system, but their function is less well characterized...
  48. pmc The self-tuning neuron: synaptic scaling of excitatory synapses
    Gina G Turrigiano
    Department of Biology, Volen Center for Complex Systems, and National Center for Behavioral Genomics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA
    Cell 135:422-35. 2008
    ..Current evidence suggests that neurons detect changes in their own firing rates through a set of calcium-dependent sensors that then regulate receptor ..
  49. ncbi Stress-dependent regulation of FOXO transcription factors by the SIRT1 deacetylase
    Anne Brunet
    Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital, and Department of Neurobiology, Center for Blood Research CBR Institute for Biomedical Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 303:2011-5. 2004
    ..Thus, one way in which members of the Sir2 family of proteins may increase organismal longevity is by tipping FOXO-dependent responses away from apoptosis and toward stress resistance...
  50. pmc Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry
    Alexxai V Kravitz
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, 1650 Owens St, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 466:622-6. 2010
    ..ganglia circuitry in vivo, using optogenetic control of direct- and indirect-pathway medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs), achieved through Cre-dependent viral expression of channelrhodopsin-2 in the striatum of bacterial ..
  51. pmc Cellular prion protein mediates impairment of synaptic plasticity by amyloid-beta oligomers
    Juha Lauren
    Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration and Repair Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06536, USA
    Nature 457:1128-32. 2009
    ..Together, these data imply a high-affinity cell-surface receptor for soluble amyloid-beta oligomers on neurons-one that is central to the pathophysiological process in Alzheimer's disease...
  52. ncbi Dynamic predictions: oscillations and synchrony in top-down processing
    A K Engel
    Cellular Neurobiology Group, Institute for Medicine, Research Centre Julich, 52425 Julich, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 2:704-16. 2001
  53. pmc Long pre-mRNA depletion and RNA missplicing contribute to neuronal vulnerability from loss of TDP-43
    Magdalini Polymenidou
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:459-68. 2011
    ..Lastly, we found that TDP-43 autoregulates its synthesis, in part by directly binding and enhancing splicing of an intron in the 3' untranslated region of its own transcript, thereby triggering nonsense-mediated RNA degradation...
  54. pmc Parkin is recruited selectively to impaired mitochondria and promotes their autophagy
    Derek Narendra
    Biochemistry Section, Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 183:795-803. 2008
    ..These results show that Parkin promotes autophagy of damaged mitochondria and implicate a failure to eliminate dysfunctional mitochondria in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease...
  55. ncbi Neuronal replacement from endogenous precursors in the adult brain after stroke
    Andreas Arvidsson
    Section of Restorative Neurology, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
    Nat Med 8:963-70. 2002
    In the adult brain, new neurons are continuously generated in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, but it is unknown whether these neurons can replace those lost following damage or disease...
  56. ncbi Impaired degradation of mutant alpha-synuclein by chaperone-mediated autophagy
    Ana Maria Cuervo
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Science 305:1292-5. 2004
    ..These findings may underlie the toxic gain-of-function by the mutants...
  57. ncbi Loss of autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration in mice
    Masaaki Komatsu
    Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nature 441:880-4. 2006
    ..However, little is known about the precise roles of autophagy in neurons. Here we report that loss of Atg7 (autophagy-related 7), a gene essential for autophagy, leads to ..
  58. pmc Distinct subclasses of medium spiny neurons differentially regulate striatal motor behaviors
    Helen S Bateup
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14845-50. 2010
    ..of each pathway to behavior has been a challenge, however, due to the difficulty of selectively investigating the neurons comprising the two pathways using conventional techniques...
  59. pmc Highly efficient neural conversion of human ES and iPS cells by dual inhibition of SMAD signaling
    Stuart M Chambers
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Ave, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 27:275-80. 2009
    ..Noggin/SB431542-based neural induction should facilitate the use of hES and hiPS cells in regenerative medicine and disease modeling and obviate the need for protocols based on stromal feeders or embryoid bodies...
  60. ncbi Multimodal fast optical interrogation of neural circuitry
    Feng Zhang
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 446:633-9. 2007
    ..Likewise, NpHR and ChR2 can be targeted together to Caenorhabditis elegans muscle and cholinergic motor neurons to control locomotion bidirectionally...
  61. ncbi Microglia as a source and target of cytokines
    Uwe Karsten Hanisch
    Department of Cellular Neurosciences, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Buch, Germany
    Glia 40:140-55. 2002
    ..can also receive cyto- and chemokine signals as part of auto- and paracrine communications with astrocytes, neurons, the endothelium, and leukocyte infiltrates...
  62. ncbi Imaging neuronal subsets in transgenic mice expressing multiple spectral variants of GFP
    G Feng
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Neuron 28:41-51. 2000 which red, green, yellow, or cyan fluorescent proteins (together termed XFPs) were selectively expressed in neurons. All four XFPs labeled neurons in their entirety, including axons, nerve terminals, dendrites, and dendritic ..
  63. ncbi Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker for studies of gene function in neuronal morphogenesis
    T Lee
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Neuron 22:451-61. 1999
    ..As an example, we show that the short stop gene is required in mushroom body neurons for the extension and guidance of their axons.
  64. ncbi Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors
    Sheila K Singh
    The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Cancer Res 63:5821-8. 2003
    ..The identification of a BTSC provides a powerful tool to investigate the tumorigenic process in the central nervous system and to develop therapies targeted to the BTSC...
  65. ncbi Modulation of oscillatory neuronal synchronization by selective visual attention
    P Fries
    Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Building 49, Room 1B80, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 4415, USA
    Science 291:1560-3. 2001
    ..To study the underlying mechanisms, we recorded neurons in cortical area V4 while macaque monkeys attended to behaviorally relevant stimuli and ignored distracters...
  66. pmc The origin of extracellular fields and currents--EEG, ECoG, LFP and spikes
    Gyorgy Buzsaki
    Center for Molecular and Behavioural Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 197 University Avenue, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:407-20. 2012 processing tools and computational modelling, can provide insight into the cooperative behaviour of neurons, their average synaptic input and their spiking output, and can increase our understanding of how these processes ..
  67. ncbi A quantitative map of the circuit of cat primary visual cortex
    Tom Binzegger
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich, and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 24:8441-53. 2004
    ..To achieve this, we made three-dimensional reconstructions of 39 single neurons and thalamic afferents labeled with horseradish peroxidase during intracellular recordings in vivo...
  68. pmc Genome-scale DNA methylation maps of pluripotent and differentiated cells
    Alexander Meissner
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 454:766-70. 2008
    ..More generally, the results establish reduced representation bisulphite sequencing as a powerful technology for epigenetic profiling of cell populations relevant to developmental biology, cancer and regenerative medicine...
  69. ncbi Molecular physiology of P2X receptors
    R Alan North
    Institute of Molecular Physiology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, United Kingdom
    Physiol Rev 82:1013-67. 2002
    ..P2X receptors are abundantly distributed, and functional responses are seen in neurons, glia, epithelia, endothelia, bone, muscle, and hemopoietic tissues...
  70. ncbi Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex
    Torkel Hafting
    Centre for the Biology of Memory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Nature 436:801-6. 2005
    ..The map is anchored to external landmarks, but persists in their absence, suggesting that grid cells may be part of a generalized, path-integration-based map of the spatial environment...
  71. pmc A resource of Cre driver lines for genetic targeting of GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex
    Hiroki Taniguchi
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Neuron 71:995-1013. 2011
    ..20 Cre and inducible CreER knockin driver lines that reliably target major classes and lineages of GABAergic neurons. More select populations are captured by intersection of Cre and Flp drivers...
  72. pmc Neurophysiological and computational principles of cortical rhythms in cognition
    Xiao Jing Wang
    Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Physiol Rev 90:1195-268. 2010
    ..notion of regular oscillation seems to contradict the common observation that spiking discharges of individual neurons in the cortex are highly stochastic and far from being clocklike...
  73. pmc The human connectome: A structural description of the human brain
    Olaf Sporns
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 1:e42. 2005
    ..We propose a research strategy to achieve this goal, and discuss its potential impact...
  74. ncbi Genome-wide mapping of in vivo protein-DNA interactions
    David S Johnson
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305 5120, USA
    Science 316:1497-502. 2007
    ..96] and statistical confidence (P <10(-4)), properties that were important for inferring new candidate interactions. These include key transcription factors in the gene network that regulates pancreatic islet cell development...
  75. pmc Neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in information processing and social dysfunction
    Ofer Yizhar
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    Nature 477:171-8. 2011
    ..These results provide support for the elevated cellular E/I balance hypothesis of severe neuropsychiatric disease-related symptoms...
  76. ncbi Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Manuela Neumann
    Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 314:130-3. 2006
    ..TDP-43 represents the common pathologic substrate linking these neurodegenerative disorders...
  77. doi A transcriptome database for astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes: a new resource for understanding brain development and function
    John D Cahoy
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 28:264-78. 2008
    ..Here we describe methods for the prospective isolation and purification of astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes from developing and mature mouse forebrain...
  78. doi How do you feel--now? The anterior insula and human awareness
    A D Bud Craig
    Atkinson Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:59-70. 2009
    ..New findings suggest a fundamental role for the AIC (and the von Economo neurons it contains) in awareness, and thus it needs to be considered as a potential neural correlate of consciousness.
  79. ncbi Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis
    Michelle L Monje
    Stanford University, Department of Neurosurgery, MSLS P309, Mail Code 5487, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305 5487, USA
    Science 302:1760-5. 2003
  80. pmc Probing sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease using induced pluripotent stem cells
    Mason A Israel
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nature 482:216-20. 2012
    Our understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is currently limited by difficulties in obtaining live neurons from patients and the inability to model the sporadic form of the disease...
  81. ncbi Caspase-12 mediates endoplasmic-reticulum-specific apoptosis and cytotoxicity by amyloid-beta
    T Nakagawa
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 403:98-103. 2000
    ..Furthermore, we show that caspase-12-deficient cortical neurons are defective in apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein but not by staurosporine or trophic factor deprivation...
  82. ncbi D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons
    C R Gerfen
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Science 250:1429-32. 1990
    ..Striatopallidal neurons show a 6-OHDA-induced elevation in their specific expression of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding the D2 dopamine ..
  83. ncbi Intraneuronal beta-amyloid aggregates, neurodegeneration, and neuron loss in transgenic mice with five familial Alzheimer's disease mutations: potential factors in amyloid plaque formation
    Holly Oakley
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Neurosci 26:10129-40. 2006
    ..synaptophysin, syntaxin, and postsynaptic density-95 decrease with age in 5XFAD brain, and large pyramidal neurons in cortical layer 5 and subiculum are lost...
  84. ncbi Orexins and orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior
    T Sakurai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235 9050, USA
    Cell 92:573-85. 1998
    ..prepro-orexin mRNA and immunoreactive orexin-A are localized in neurons within and around the lateral and posterior hypothalamus in the adult rat brain...
  85. ncbi Mammalian neural stem cells
    F H Gage
    The Salk Institute, Laboratory of Genetics, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 287:1433-8. 2000
    ..Before the full potential of neural stem cells can be realized, we need to learn what controls their proliferation, as well as the various pathways of differentiation available to their daughter cells...
  86. ncbi Culturing hippocampal neurons
    Stefanie Kaech
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Science University, L606, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Nat Protoc 1:2406-15. 2006
    We provide protocols for preparing low-density dissociated-cell cultures of hippocampal neurons from embryonic rats or mice...
  87. pmc Propagation of tau pathology in a model of early Alzheimer's disease
    Alix de Calignon
    MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer s Disease Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Neuron 73:685-97. 2012
    ..Tau pathology progresses from EC transgene-expressing neurons to neurons without detectable transgene expression, first to EC neighboring cells, followed by propagation to ..
  88. doi Roles of continuous neurogenesis in the structural and functional integrity of the adult forebrain
    Itaru Imayoshi
    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Shogoin Kawahara, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Nat Neurosci 11:1153-61. 2008
    ..method in adult mice, we found that continuous neurogenesis results in the replacement of the majority of granule neurons in the olfactory bulb and a substantial addition of granule neurons to the hippocampal dentate gyrus...
  89. pmc Distinct α-synuclein strains differentially promote tau inclusions in neurons
    Jing L Guo
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Institute on Aging and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Cell 154:103-17. 2013
    ..tau fibrillization, we administered preformed α-synuclein fibrils assembled from recombinant protein to primary neurons and transgenic mice...
  90. ncbi Parkinson's disease: mechanisms and models
    William Dauer
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 39:889-909. 2003
    Parkinson's disease (PD) results primarily from the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current PD medications treat symptoms; none halt or retard dopaminergic neuron degeneration...
  91. ncbi A genome-wide transgenic RNAi library for conditional gene inactivation in Drosophila
    Georg Dietzl
    Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences IMBA, Dr Bohr Gasse 3 5, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Nature 448:151-6. 2007
    ..Our transgenic RNAi library thus opens up the prospect of systematically analysing gene functions in any tissue and at any stage of the Drosophila lifespan...
  92. doi Molecular motors in neurons: transport mechanisms and roles in brain function, development, and disease
    Nobutaka Hirokawa
    Departments of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Molecular Structure and Dynamics, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Neuron 68:610-38. 2010
    ..Finally, it is also evident that molecular motors are critically involved in neuronal disease pathogenesis. Thus, molecular motor research is becoming an exciting frontier of neuroscience...
  93. pmc Gaucher disease glucocerebrosidase and α-synuclein form a bidirectional pathogenic loop in synucleinopathies
    Joseph R Mazzulli
    Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Cell 146:37-52. 2011
    ..Here, we show that functional loss of GD-linked glucocerebrosidase (GCase) in primary cultures or human iPS neurons compromises lysosomal protein degradation, causes accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn), and results in ..
  94. doi The development and application of optogenetics
    Lief Fenno
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 34:389-412. 2011
    ..In this review, we outline the development of currently available single-component optogenetic tools and summarize the application of various optogenetic tools in diverse model organisms...
  95. pmc Induction of human neuronal cells by defined transcription factors
    Zhiping P Pang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 265 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 476:220-3. 2011
    ..Here we show that the same three factors can generate functional neurons from human pluripotent stem cells as early as 6 days after transgene activation...
  96. pmc Trans-synaptic spread of tau pathology in vivo
    Li Liu
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Taub Institute for Alzheimer s Disease Research, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e31302. 2012
    ..In old mice (>22 months old), intense human tau immunoreactivity was readily detected not only in neurons in the superficial layers of the EC, but also in the subiculum, a substantial number of hippocampal pyramidal ..
  97. pmc Amyloid-beta protein dimers isolated directly from Alzheimer's brains impair synaptic plasticity and memory
    Ganesh M Shankar
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Med 14:837-42. 2008
    ..We conclude that soluble Abeta oligomers extracted from Alzheimer's disease brains potently impair synapse structure and function and that dimers are the smallest synaptotoxic species...
  98. doi Mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis
    Chunmei Zhao
    Laboratory of Genetics, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 132:645-60. 2008
    The generation of new neurons is sustained throughout adulthood in the mammalian brain due to the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells...
  99. pmc PARIS (ZNF746) repression of PGC-1α contributes to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease
    Joo Ho Shin
    Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Programs, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Cell 144:689-702. 2011
    A hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the preferential loss of substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Here, we identify a new parkin interacting substrate, PARIS (ZNF746), whose levels are regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system via ..
  100. ncbi Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories
    T J Shors
    Department of Psychology and Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Nature 410:372-6. 2001
    The vertebrate brain continues to produce new neurons throughout life. In the rat hippocampus, several thousand are produced each day, many of which die within weeks...
  101. doi Tripartite synapses: astrocytes process and control synaptic information
    Gertrudis Perea
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 28002, Spain
    Trends Neurosci 32:421-31. 2009
    ..physiology based on the demonstration of the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Consistent with this concept, in addition to the classic 'bipartite' information flow between the pre- and ..

Research Grants72

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    Junying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..No Abstract provided ..
  3. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    ERICH JARVIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..several genetic differences that control the connection of forebrain motor learning pathways onto brainstem motor neurons that normally control the production of innate vocalizations1...
  4. Transcription factors regulating sensory gene expression and pain pathways
    Eric E Turner; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ABSTRACT This application is for years 10-13 of a MERIT research program focused on gene regulation in sensory neurons of the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, which are the gatekeepers for the reception of position, touch, and pain ..
  5. Regulation of HSV-1 Gene Expression and Replication by Nuclear Hormone Receptors
    SHAOCHUNG VICTOR HSIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The virus establishes a life-long latent infection within neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG)...
  6. Serpin Modulation of Inflammatory Vasculitis; Potential for Immunomodulatory Ther
    ALEXANDRA ROSE LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..NSP is expressed by neurons, monocytes, and multiple organs, and is reported to reduce stroke volume in rodent models and in recent work from ..
  7. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells and Hirschsprung disea
    Sean J Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..possibility, we and others have shown that NCSCs isolated from the fetal rodent gut can engraft and form enteric neurons after transplantation into the aganglionic region of the gut from rodent models of Hirschsprung disease ADDIN EN...
  8. Exercise training and blood pressure in hypertension: integrated mechanisms
    Noreen F Rossi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..exercise training influences RSNA by enhancing nitritergic signaling within the paraventricular nucleus whose neurons project to brainstem cardiovascular centers as well as directly to the kidney;and (3) We will determine the ..
  9. Brain mast cells and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    Theoharis C Theoharides; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are abundant in the median eminence where they are juxtaposed to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-positive neurons and CRH is secreted under stress and we showed that CRH activates mast cells through CRHR-1 leading to release of ..
  10. Regulation of thyroid hormone levels by central and peripheral pathways
    KRISTEN RACHEL VELLA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As I transition from postdoctoral fellow to Instructor, I look to target the specific neurons responsible for fasting-induced suppression of TH levels and use the results of this research to apply for ..
    Patrice G Guyenet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An important component of this network consists of modified catecholaminergic neurons called the C1 neurons that innervate the spinal cord and regulate sympathetic tone to the heart and blood vessels...
  12. CRF-Oxytocin Interaction in the Regulation of Stress and Affect
    Joanna Dabrowska; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have recently shown that an intimate neuroanatomical circuit exists between neurons expressing these neurotransmitters in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), a central hub of the ..
  13. Gamma-Synuclein-Mediated Regulation of Norepinephrine Transporter
    Anita Sidhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..synuclein [-Syn], a member of the synuclein family of proteins, is expressed in monoaminergic neurons, but its function in the brain is not known. We have shown that ...
  14. Agrin/alpha 3 Na,K-ATPase signaling at the neuromuscular junction
    Martin A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..such as locomotion, breathing, and swallowing, depend on the rapid transfer of information between motor neurons and the skeletal muscle fibers they innervate that takes place at a specialized contact called the neuromuscular ..
  15. Roles of Nitric Oxide and Superoxide in Cystitis
    ANTHONY JOHN KANAI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1 and vanilloid 1 (TRPA1-/- and TRPV1-/-) knockout mice using optical mapping of UC, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and afferent nerve terminals in the bladder wall and spinal cord...
  16. Epigenetic mechanisms relevant to the pathogenesis of ALS
    Neil W Kowall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transfected SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells suggesting that LSD1 expression can regulate transcriptional activity in neurons. We also found that LSD1 enzyme activity is increased the spinal cords of G93A mice and that levels of ..
  17. Chronic nicotine and synaptic transmission in brainstem respiratory neurons
    RALPH FRANK FREGOSI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..desensitization of nAChRs;b) reduced excitatory synaptic input;c) increased input resistance, suggesting that the neurons are smaller;d) altered neuronal responses to inhibitory and excitatory agonists, including nicotine;e) altered ..
  18. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
    Christie D Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..0) will be injected into select brain regions to permit transfection of cholinergic neurons/axons in BAC transgenic choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)::Cre mice...
  19. Patient-Derived Stem Cells for Phosphoproteomic Profiling Neuropsychopathology
    Dieter A Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..2003 #162}, decreases CREB phosphorylation &activity of CaM kinase IV {Tardito, 2007 #163} in rat hippocampal neurons. Lithium &valproate may reduce phosphorylation of rat GluR1 {Du, 2008 #164}...
  20. Physiology of Hypothalamic Neurosteroidal Progesterone
    Paul E Micevych; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The resulting rise in free cytoplasmic calcium is sufficient to stimulate neuroP synthesis. Since GnRH neurons that control the LH surge do not have steroid receptors, other neurons are required to transmit steroid ..
    Terence S Dermody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the first, membrane preparations from JAM-A-null cortical neurons will be screened for candidate reovirus receptors using virus-overlay-protein- binding assays...
  22. Epigenetics of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior
    BRIDGET NUGENT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..typical of the neonatal male) will result in masculinized dendritic spine density and patterning in cultured POA neurons. Our second goal (Specific Aim 2) is to associate sex differences in neonatal DNMT activity with sex-specific ..
  23. Tat and CDK9 on gene expression alterations coupled to HIV-1 Associated Dementia
    Xavier Grana; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..from changes in cellular gene expression induced by HIV-1 Tat in a variety of cell types including astrocytes and neurons. Tat is an essential viral transactivator that requires association with a cellular kinase composed of a ..
  24. Novel PET imaging agents for early diagnosis of plaque deposition in Alzheimer's
    Padmakar Kulkarni; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Amyloid is the dangerous brain plaque and tau protein tangles with in the brain cells tend to prevent neurons from communicating each other leading to loss of memory...
  25. Neuroprotection and Myelin Repair Mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis
    Inderjit Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In line with this, AMPK has previously been implicated in the protection and differentiation of neurons against various inflammatory insults...
  26. Combination drug treatment to inhibit multiple cell death pathways after TBI
    ALAN IRA FADEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our preliminary data show that TBI causes up-regulation of HSP70 in many neurons within the injury zone;those neurons expressing HSP 70 show neither caspase-3 activation nor AIF translocation...
  27. Systemic Inflammation and Central Nervous System Dysfunction
    Laura L Dugan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have further shown that Nox2 is induced and activated in neurons in the aging brain, and that Nox2 is in fact the major source of neuronal and synaptic superoxide production in ..
  28. Enzymatic Regulation of S-Glutathionylation : Role in Apoptosis and Disease
    John J Mieyal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..More than 15,000 U.S. Veteran's suffer from this disease which is characterized by progressive loss of neurons that control movement via the action of the neurotransmitter dopamine...
  29. Cre, Dre Dual Lineage Model for Calcium Imaging and Optogenetic Manipulations
    Petr Tvrdik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will enable experiments investigating the relationship between two distinct cell populations, such as specific neurons and glia, without any confounding issues of dye loading efficiency, viral injections, etc...
  30. Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation of Drug Reinforcement
    Diane Lebesgue; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..My preliminary immunohistochemistry studies show that GPR30 is highly expressed in midbrain dopamine neurons. Surprisingly little is known about the influence of ovarian steroids on the mesolimbic drug reward circuits, ..
  31. Central Action of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Male and Female Rats
    Haifei Shi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..BDNF neurons are downstream mediators of the melanocortinergic system, and they directly receive input from the ..
  32. Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasis
    Anthony N van den Pol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..focus for many years in this field has been the neuropeptides involved in energy regulation, and the hypothalamic neurons that secrete them...
  33. Regulation of AKAP79 Postsynaptic Membrane Targeting
    MARK L DELL'ACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2012 dendritic spines through NMDAR activation during induction of long term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal neurons through pathways that also increase spine size and actin polymerization...
  34. Chronic Stress and Abdominal Pain: Novel Mechanisms
    John W Wiley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..regulation of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors in a region- and cel- specific manner in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating pelvic organs but not the somatosensory distribution to the lower extremities...
  35. Adenosine and the Basal Forebrain in the Control of Behavioral State
    Robert E Strecker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..short periods of sleep loss, a role in which its inhibitory action on the basal forebrain wakefulness-promoting neurons appears especially important...
  36. Tissue-specific delivery of probes by control of membrane trafficking of endoprot
    Blake Peterson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Probe delivery into six easily identified tissues (neurons, muscle, hypodermis, gonad, intestine, execretory cell) of C...
  37. Gonadal Steroid Receptors and the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
    Robert J Handa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These responses are regulated by neurons residing in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) that synthesize and secrete corticotropin-..
  38. DNA Methylation in Ethanol Drinking Behavior
    David P Gavin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies suggest active DNA demethylation in neurons results from GADD45 proteins (GADD45a, b, g) recruiting cytidine deaminases (CDs) and thymidine glycosylases (TGs)..
    ..TRPV4 is expressed by pancreatic sensory neurons and our preliminary results show that it mediates nociception since either injection of TRPV4 agonists into the ..
  40. The Neuroimmunology of Viral Infection
    DANIEL J CARR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Alternatively, mediators of neuropathogenesis can be targeted to alleviate collateral damage and thus, preservation of neurons in patients that suffer from acute or recurrent HSV-1 CNS or peripheral nerve infection.
  41. Glutamate receptor recruitment to new synapses in vivo
    PHILIP ERIC WASHBOURNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also propose to use various neuronal preparations for our experiments including cultured hippocampal neurons, cultured cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and spinal cord neurons in zebrafish embryos in vivo...
  42. Epigenomic Events in Development of the Locus Coeruleus Noradrenergic Neurons
    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the development and maturation of a defined population of brain cells known as the locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons (LCNN)...
  43. Chemical modulators of Tet-family proteins
    Anjana Rao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..iii) In the CNS, hmC is present at high levels in cerebellar Purkinje neurons;moreover, TET1 and TET2 mRNA are expressed in the brain, with TET1 mRNA being particularly high in Purkinje cells ..
  44. Ceramide Metabolism and Photoreceptor Homeostasis
    Usha R Acharya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..biosynthetic pathway leads to Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy, a common degenerative disorder of peripheral sensory neurons. Several studies have recently identified mutations in a ceramide kinase like gene leading to autosomal recessive ..
  45. Role of Peroxidasin in Glomerular Matrix Homeostasis
    Gautam Bhave; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..His graduate work examined sensitization of sensory neurons with tissue injury and inflammation and garnered high-profile, first author publications in Nature Neuroscience, ..
  46. Estrogen Modulation of Auditory Processing
    Raphael Pinaud; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..modulates the tuning and effectiveness with which auditory signals are processed and encoded by central auditory neurons. Here we address this gap by studying the auditory system of songbirds, a unique model for the study of auditory ..
  47. Aldosterone Action In The Brain, Hypertension and Inflammation
    ELISE PEERY GOMEZ-SANCHEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..MR are abundantly expressed in neurons in specific brain areas and in the heart, however the enzymes that confer MR selectivity for aldo over the more ..
  48. Overcoming Temozolomide Resistance using MGMT-targeting Spherical Nucleic Acids
    TIMOTHY L SITA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..independent of auxiliary transfection agents or lipoplexes, (2) rapid internalization by all cell types including neurons, (3) superior stability i physiological environments including resistance to nuclease degradation, (4) minimal ..
  49. The Role of Interleukin-10 During Fatal Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis
    KIRSTEN KULCSAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IL-10 can also directly protect neurons from apoptosis in models of glutamate excitotoxicity and other stress conditions...
  50. Electrochemical tools to measure local cerebral blood flow and metabolism
    ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This region contains the dendrites of dopamine neurons and is involved in the regulation of locomotor activity...
  51. Cellular and Animal Models of FUS Mutations in ALS
    Eric J Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our recent data, however, indicated that the spinal motor neurons in patients with P525L mutation show mislocalization of mutant FUS proteins in neuronal cytoplasm with abnormal ..
  52. Mechanims of CNS Autonomic Regulation by EA
    John C Longhurst; Fiscal Year: 2013 P5-P6 and St36-St37, since these sets of acupoints provide significant input to premotor sympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM)...
  53. Prevention of Inherited Retinal Diseases by Therapeutic Rare Earth Nanoparticles
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..test the hypothesis that the nanoceria particles will destroy ROS and, by decreasing oxidative damage in retinal neurons, will inhibit retinal degeneration induced by the tubby mutation...
  54. Tumor Microenvironment Interactions in Brain Tumors
    Eric C Holland; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..unique features, including a distinct extracellular matrix and several specialized host cells such as astrocytes, neurons, oligodendrocytes and the microglia...
  55. Protection of Brain Injury from Cyanide Poisoning by Carnosic Acid
    Stuart A Lipton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Particularly harmful to neurons is dysfunctional glutamate transport and ionic pump failure, contributing to excitotoxic neuronal cell death by ..
  56. Role of leptin-mediated PI3 Kinase signaling on reproductive control
    Carol Fuzeti Elias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways as mediator of leptin effects in hypothalamic neurons Therefore, we hypothesize that PI3K signaling in the PMV is required for the leptin effect on puberty and ..
  57. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential (TRPC) subfamily function in Hippocampus.
    David E Clapham; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..behavioral studies, acute brain slice recordings of hippocampus, and recordings of isolated hippocampal neurons. The results of these studies should clarify receptor-mediated alteration of hippocampal-mediated spatial and ..
  58. Mechanisms of virus-induced injury in the brain and spinal cord
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Viruses induce disease in the central nervous system (CNS) by either killing or disrupting essential functions of neurons within the brain and spinal cord...
  59. Identification of Compounds to treat Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2E neuropathy
    RONALD K LIEM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Neuronal intermediate filaments form the intermediate filament network in neurons and are the predominant cytoskeletal structure in the axon...
  60. Role of TPH2 and 5HT Neuronal Loss in Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's
    Donald M Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The progressive loss of nigrostriatal DA neurons gradually leads to a severe movement disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and impaired ..
  61. Obesity: neural control of body weight and metabolism
    Barry E Levin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Critical neural circuits within the hypothalamus contain specialized neurons which respond to metabolic and hormonal signals from the periphery to monitor peripheral metabolic function and ..
  62. The Role of Astrocytes in Cortical Interneuron Development
    KAREN MULLER SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..regulate excitatory neuron output and are important for coordinating brain rhythms so that excitatory neurons can fire in synchrony- properties deemed to be critical for their function in cognition and behavioral control...
  63. A fully validated assay to identify activators of ERSR in human glioma cells: ide
    Maurizio Grimaldi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..On the other hand, normal glial cells and neurons seem to be resistant to ERSR-mediated cell death...
  64. Therapeutic Approaches for Extinction of Conditioned Drug Reward
    Gary B Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013 hypothesized to involve increases in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurons such as prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
  65. Neuropeptide regulation of neurohypophyseal function
    Francis W Flynn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have a very unique relationship to VP because NKB and NK3R are co expressed by a majority of magnocellular VP neurons. Magnocellular NK3R are activated in response to physiological challenges because pretreatment with NK3R ..
  66. Androgen Modulation of Neurodegeneration in Dopamine Neurons
    Rebecca L Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2010 that androgens increase cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: The first specific aim of this proposal is to determine the apoptotic signaling pathways ..
  67. Astrocytic Ca2+ Signaling in the Ischemic Penumbra
    Maiken Nedergaard; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We have observed that astrocytes, as opposed to neurons, are activated and display spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations, as well as propagating Ca2+ waves in the ischemic ..
    Curt Freed; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION: (modified from abstract) This is a two-center study of transplantation of fetal mesencephalic neurons in patients with Parkinsonism...
  69. Molecular biology of mesocortical and mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons
    JEFFREY EELLS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The mesocortical and mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons have distinct afferent innervation, pharmacology, neurochemistry and electrophysiology properties;however, there ..
  70. Regulation of neurotrophin expression in the periphery
    LORI ISAACSON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The underlying hypothesis of the present study is that neurotrophins regulate the survival of peripheral neurons. Unraveling the complex mechanisms regulating neurotrophin expression is critical to the understanding of ..
  71. Innate Immune Mechanisms of Motor Neuron Injury
    Timothy Vartanian; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..applicant): Health Relatedness: A central question in neurodegenerative diseases is how specific populations of neurons undergo cell death...
    Rami Burstein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..other forms of somatosensory stimulation of the face and intraoral cavity can affect the activity of hypothalamic neurons associated with autonomic, neuroendocrine and affective functions...