astrocytes

Summary

Summary: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Astrocytes: biology and pathology
    Michael V Sofroniew
    Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1763, USA
    Acta Neuropathol 119:7-35. 2010
  2. pmc Genomic analysis of reactive astrogliosis
    Jennifer L Zamanian
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5125, USA
    J Neurosci 32:6391-410. 2012
  3. pmc Glutamate-dependent neuroglial calcium signaling differs between young and adult brain
    Wei Sun
    Division of Glial Disease and Therapeutics, Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Science 339:197-200. 2013
  4. ncbi Sulforhodamine 101 as a specific marker of astroglia in the neocortex in vivo
    Axel Nimmerjahn
    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstr 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Methods 1:31-7. 2004
  5. pmc IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel
    Vanda A Lennon
    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Exp Med 202:473-7. 2005
  6. pmc Non-cell autonomous toxicity in neurodegenerative disorders: ALS and beyond
    Hristelina Ilieva
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Cell Biol 187:761-72. 2009
  7. ncbi Protoplasmic astrocytes in CA1 stratum radiatum occupy separate anatomical domains
    Eric A Bushong
    National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0608, USA
    J Neurosci 22:183-92. 2002
  8. ncbi Astrocytes are active players in cerebral innate immunity
    Cinthia Farina
    Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Disorders Unit, National Neurological Institute Carlo Besta, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Trends Immunol 28:138-45. 2007
  9. pmc Intravascular AAV9 preferentially targets neonatal neurons and adult astrocytes
    Kevin D Foust
    Center for Gene Therapy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children s Hospital, 700 Children s Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 27:59-65. 2009
  10. ncbi Astrocyte-endothelial interactions at the blood-brain barrier
    N Joan Abbott
    Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King s College London, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:41-53. 2006

Research Grants

  1. Paul E Micevych; Fiscal Year: 2016
  2. Tat and CDK9 on gene expression alterations coupled to HIV-1 Associated Dementia
    Xavier Grana; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. Inderjit Singh; Fiscal Year: 2014
  4. Petr Tvrdik; Fiscal Year: 2014
  5. DANIEL J CARR; Fiscal Year: 2015
  6. ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2016
  7. Edward P Feener; Fiscal Year: 2016
  8. Tumor Microenvironment Interactions in Brain Tumors
    Eric C Holland; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2015
  10. Regulation of Astrocyte TIMP-1 in HIV-Associated Dementia
    JEREL ADAM FIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2011

Detail Information

Publications439 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Astrocytes: biology and pathology
    Michael V Sofroniew
    Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1763, USA
    Acta Neuropathol 119:7-35. 2010
    b>Astrocytes are specialized glial cells that outnumber neurons by over fivefold. They contiguously tile the entire central nervous system (CNS) and exert many essential complex functions in the healthy CNS...
  2. pmc Genomic analysis of reactive astrogliosis
    Jennifer L Zamanian
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5125, USA
    J Neurosci 32:6391-410. 2012
    ..astrocyte state, we used Affymetrix GeneChip arrays to profile gene expression in populations of reactive astrocytes isolated at various time points after induction using two mouse injury models, ischemic stroke and ..
  3. pmc Glutamate-dependent neuroglial calcium signaling differs between young and adult brain
    Wei Sun
    Division of Glial Disease and Therapeutics, Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Science 339:197-200. 2013
    An extensive literature shows that astrocytes exhibit metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent increases in cytosolic calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in response to glutamatergic transmission and, in turn, modulate neuronal activity by ..
  4. ncbi Sulforhodamine 101 as a specific marker of astroglia in the neocortex in vivo
    Axel Nimmerjahn
    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstr 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Methods 1:31-7. 2004
    ..Here, we describe a new, highly selective approach for labeling astrocytes in intact rodent neocortex that allows in vivo imaging using two-photon microscopy...
  5. pmc IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel
    Vanda A Lennon
    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Exp Med 202:473-7. 2005
    ..NMO may represent the first example of a novel class of autoimmune channelopathy...
  6. pmc Non-cell autonomous toxicity in neurodegenerative disorders: ALS and beyond
    Hristelina Ilieva
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Cell Biol 187:761-72. 2009
    ....
  7. ncbi Protoplasmic astrocytes in CA1 stratum radiatum occupy separate anatomical domains
    Eric A Bushong
    National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0608, USA
    J Neurosci 22:183-92. 2002
    Protoplasmic astrocytes are increasingly thought to interact extensively with neuronal elements in the brain and to influence their activity...
  8. ncbi Astrocytes are active players in cerebral innate immunity
    Cinthia Farina
    Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Disorders Unit, National Neurological Institute Carlo Besta, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Trends Immunol 28:138-45. 2007
    ..b>Astrocytes display an array of receptors involved in innate immunity, including Toll-like receptors, nucleotide-binding ..
  9. pmc Intravascular AAV9 preferentially targets neonatal neurons and adult astrocytes
    Kevin D Foust
    Center for Gene Therapy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children s Hospital, 700 Children s Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 27:59-65. 2009
    ..In adult mice, tail vein injection of AAV9-GFP leads to robust transduction of astrocytes throughout the entire CNS, with limited neuronal transduction...
  10. ncbi Astrocyte-endothelial interactions at the blood-brain barrier
    N Joan Abbott
    Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King s College London, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:41-53. 2006
    ..At present, there is great interest in the association of brain microvessels, astrocytes and neurons to form functional 'neurovascular units', and recent studies have highlighted the importance of ..
  11. ncbi Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis
    Milos Pekny
    The Arvid Carlsson Institute for Neuroscience, Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Glia 50:427-34. 2005
    b>Astrocytes become activated (reactive) in response to many CNS pathologies, such as stroke, trauma, growth of a tumor, or neurodegenerative disease...
  12. doi Brain energy metabolism: focus on astrocyte-neuron metabolic cooperation
    Mireille Belanger
    Laboratory of Neuroenergetics and Cellular Dynamics, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH 1015, Switzerland
    Cell Metab 14:724-38. 2011
    ..b>Astrocytes-a type of glial cell-have emerged as active players in brain energy delivery, production, utilization, and ..
  13. ncbi Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia
    M Kaul
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging Research, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 410:988-94. 2001
    ..Recent advances in understanding the signalling pathways mediating these events offer hope for therapeutic intervention...
  14. ncbi Astrocyte control of synaptic transmission and neurovascular coupling
    Philip G Haydon
    Silvio Conte Center for Integration at the Tripartite Synapse, Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, PA 19104, USA
    Physiol Rev 86:1009-31. 2006
    ..The application of subcellular imaging of Ca2+ signaling to astrocytes now provides functional data to support this structural notion...
  15. pmc Astrocytes as determinants of disease progression in inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Koji Yamanaka
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Medicine and Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0670, USA
    Nat Neurosci 11:251-3. 2008
    ..Using mice carrying a deletable mutant gene, diminished mutant expression in astrocytes did not affect onset, but delayed microglial activation and sharply slowed later disease progression...
  16. ncbi Regeneration beyond the glial scar
    Jerry Silver
    Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:146-56. 2004
  17. ncbi Thrombospondins are astrocyte-secreted proteins that promote CNS synaptogenesis
    Karen S Christopherson
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Cell 120:421-33. 2005
    ..Here we report that immature but not mature astrocytes express thrombospondins (TSPs)-1 and -2 and that these TSPs promote CNS synaptogenesis in vitro and in vivo...
  18. ncbi Astrocytes, from brain glue to communication elements: the revolution continues
    Andrea Volterra
    Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 9, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:626-40. 2005
    For decades, astrocytes have been considered to be non-excitable support cells of the brain. However, this view has changed radically during the past twenty years...
  19. ncbi Rho GTPases and the control of cell behaviour
    A Hall
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cancer Research UK Oncogene and Signal Transduction Group, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Biochem Soc Trans 33:891-5. 2005
    ..We have been analysing the biochemical contributions of Rho GTPases in cell movement and have found that Rac controls cell protrusion, while Cdc42 controls cell polarity...
  20. pmc Astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation
    Akinobu Suzuki
    Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Cell 144:810-23. 2011
    ..increase in extracellular lactate levels that derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory ..
  21. doi A transcriptome database for astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes: a new resource for understanding brain development and function
    John D Cahoy
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 28:264-78. 2008
    ..Here we describe methods for the prospective isolation and purification of astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes from developing and mature mouse forebrain...
  22. ncbi Control of synaptic strength by glial TNFalpha
    Eric C Beattie
    Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Science 295:2282-5. 2002
    ..Through its effects on AMPA receptor trafficking, TNFalpha may play roles in synaptic plasticity and modulating responses to neural injury...
  23. doi Local Ca2+ detection and modulation of synaptic release by astrocytes
    Maria Amalia Di Castro
    Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 14:1276-84. 2011
    b>Astrocytes communicate with synapses by means of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) elevations, but local calcium dynamics in astrocytic processes have never been thoroughly investigated...
  24. ncbi Astrocytic purinergic signaling coordinates synaptic networks
    Olivier Pascual
    Department of Neuroscience, Conte Center for Integration at the Tripartite Synapse, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 310:113-6. 2005
    To investigate the role of astrocytes in regulating synaptic transmission, we generated inducible transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative SNARE domain selectively in astrocytes to block the release of transmitters from these ..
  25. pmc Interaction between lung cancer cells and astrocytes via specific inflammatory cytokines in the microenvironment of brain metastasis
    Toshihiro Seike
    Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Clin Exp Metastasis 28:13-25. 2011
    ..The brain sections showed significant increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes around metastatic lesions...
  26. pmc Astrocytes expressing ALS-linked mutated SOD1 release factors selectively toxic to motor neurons
    Makiko Nagai
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University, 710 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:615-22. 2007
    ..Conversely, rodent astrocytes expressing mutated SOD1 kill spinal primary and embryonic mouse stem cell-derived motor neurons...
  27. doi The Hedgehog pathway promotes blood-brain barrier integrity and CNS immune quiescence
    Jorge Ivan Alvarez
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Center of Excellence in Neuromics, Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite de Montreal, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Science 334:1727-31. 2011
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of tightly bound endothelial cells (ECs) and perivascular astrocytes that regulate central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis...
  28. doi Astrocyte-neuron metabolic relationships: for better and for worse
    Igor Allaman
    Laboratory of Neuroenergetics and Cellular Dynamics, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, CH 1015, Switzerland
    Trends Neurosci 34:76-87. 2011
    In recent years, previously unsuspected roles of astrocytes have been revealed, largely owing to the development of new tools enabling their selective study in situ...
  29. pmc In vivo fate analysis reveals the multipotent and self-renewal capacities of Sox2+ neural stem cells in the adult hippocampus
    Hoonkyo Suh
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell Stem Cell 1:515-28. 2007
    ..fate-tracing studies showed that Sox2+ cells in the SGZ have potential to give rise to neurons and astrocytes, revealing their multipotency at the population as well as at a single-cell level...
  30. ncbi Astrocytic Ca2+ signaling evoked by sensory stimulation in vivo
    Xiaohai Wang
    Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:816-23. 2006
    Although astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain, evidence for their activation during physiological sensory activity is lacking...
  31. pmc Emerging roles of astrocytes in neural circuit development
    Laura E Clarke
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 14:311-21. 2013
    b>Astrocytes are now emerging as key participants in many aspects of brain development, function and disease...
  32. ncbi Matrix metalloproteinase-mediated disruption of tight junction proteins in cerebral vessels is reversed by synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor in focal ischemia in rat
    Yi Yang
    Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 0001, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:697-709. 2007
    ..Disrupted TJPs previously seen in endothelial cells appeared in the surrounding astrocytes. Our results provide direct evidence that MMPs open the BBB by degrading TJPs and that an MMP inhibitor prevents ..
  33. ncbi Pattern-specific loss of aquaporin-4 immunoreactivity distinguishes neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis
    Shanu F Roemer
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Brain 130:1194-205. 2007
    ..These findings strongly support a role for a complement activating AQP4-specific autoantibody as the initiator of the NMO lesion, and further distinguish NMO from MS...
  34. pmc miR-181 targets multiple Bcl-2 family members and influences apoptosis and mitochondrial function in astrocytes
    Yi Bing Ouyang
    Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Mitochondrion 12:213-9. 2012
    ..Decreased miR-181a levels reduced glucose deprivation induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in astrocytes.
  35. pmc ATP signaling is deficient in cultured Pannexin1-null mouse astrocytes
    Sylvia O Suadicani
    Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Glia 60:1106-16. 2012
    ..Here, we describe, for the first time, conductance and permeability properties of Panx1-null astrocytes. The electrophysiological and fluorescence imaging analyses performed on these cells fully support our previous ..
  36. doi TNFα controls glutamatergic gliotransmission in the hippocampal dentate gyrus
    Mirko Santello
    Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Neuron 69:988-1001. 2011
    ..In preparations lacking TNFα, astrocytes respond with identical [Ca(2+)](i) elevations but fail to induce neuromodulation...
  37. ncbi ERK is sequentially activated in neurons, microglia, and astrocytes by spinal nerve ligation and contributes to mechanical allodynia in this neuropathic pain model
    Zhi Ye Zhuang
    Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pain 114:149-59. 2005
    ..On Day 10, pERK is expressed both in astrocytes and microglia, but by Day 21 predominantly in astrocytes in the dorsal horn...
  38. pmc Brain metabolism dictates the polarity of astrocyte control over arterioles
    Grant R J Gordon
    Brain Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, British Columbia T2N 2B5, Canada
    Nature 456:745-9. 2008
    Calcium signalling in astrocytes couples changes in neural activity to alterations in cerebral blood flow by eliciting vasoconstriction or vasodilation of arterioles...
  39. pmc Loss of IP3 receptor-dependent Ca2+ increases in hippocampal astrocytes does not affect baseline CA1 pyramidal neuron synaptic activity
    Jeremy Petravicz
    Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Neurosci 28:4967-73. 2008
    b>Astrocytes in the hippocampus release calcium (Ca(2+)) from intracellular stores intrinsically and in response to activation of G(q)-linked G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) through the binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) to ..
  40. pmc The pannexin 1 channel activates the inflammasome in neurons and astrocytes
    William R Silverman
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:18143-51. 2009
    ..that high extracellular potassium opens pannexin channels leading to caspase-1 activation in primary neurons and astrocytes. The effect of K(+) on pannexin 1 channels was independent of membrane potential, suggesting that stimulation of ..
  41. pmc PDGF autocrine stimulation dedifferentiates cultured astrocytes and induces oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas from neural progenitors and astrocytes in vivo
    C Dai
    Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Genes Dev 15:1913-25. 2001
    ..signaling induces proliferation of glial precursors and blocks their differentiation into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. In addition, coexpression of PDGF and PDGF receptors has been demonstrated in human gliomas, implying that ..
  42. ncbi Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain
    R Dringen
    Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Prog Neurobiol 62:649-71. 2000
    ..Recent results confirm the prominent role of astrocytes in glutathione metabolism and the defense against reactive oxygen species in brain...
  43. doi Tripartite synapses: astrocytes process and control synaptic information
    Gertrudis Perea
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 28002, Spain
    Trends Neurosci 32:421-31. 2009
    ..in synaptic physiology based on the demonstration of the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons...
  44. ncbi Reactive astrocytes protect tissue and preserve function after spinal cord injury
    Jill R Faulkner
    Department of Neurobiology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1763, USA
    J Neurosci 24:2143-55. 2004
    Reactive astrocytes are prominent in the cellular response to spinal cord injury (SCI), but their roles are not well understood...
  45. ncbi Astrocyte-mediated control of cerebral blood flow
    Takahiro Takano
    Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical School, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:260-7. 2006
    ..Here we show that cortical astrocytes in vivo possess a powerful mechanism for rapid vasodilation...
  46. pmc A role for glia in the progression of Rett's syndrome
    Daniel T Lioy
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Nature 475:497-500. 2011
    ..Here we show that in globally MeCP2-deficient mice, re-expression of Mecp2 preferentially in astrocytes significantly improved locomotion and anxiety levels, restored respiratory abnormalities to a normal pattern, ..
  47. pmc Dystroglycan is selectively cleaved at the parenchymal basement membrane at sites of leukocyte extravasation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Smriti Agrawal
    Experimental Pathology, 2Immunology, and 3Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund 22185, Sweden
    J Exp Med 203:1007-19. 2006
    ..This is the first description of selective in situ proteolytic damage of a BBB-specific molecule at sites of leukocyte infiltration...
  48. pmc Origin and progeny of reactive gliosis: A source of multipotent cells in the injured brain
    Annalisa Buffo
    Institute for Stem Cell Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3581-6. 2008
    ..b>Astrocytes react to injury by hypertrophy and up-regulation of the glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
  49. doi TREK-1 and Best1 channels mediate fast and slow glutamate release in astrocytes upon GPCR activation
    Dong Ho Woo
    Center for Neural Science, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Cell 151:25-40. 2012
    b>Astrocytes release glutamate upon activation of various GPCRs to exert important roles in synaptic functions. However, the molecular mechanism of release has been controversial...
  50. ncbi Neuron-to-astrocyte signaling is central to the dynamic control of brain microcirculation
    Micaela Zonta
    Istituto CNR di Neuroscienze and Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali, Universita di Padova, Viale G Colombo 3, 35121 Padova, Italy
    Nat Neurosci 6:43-50. 2003
    ..of arterioles triggered by neuronal activity is dependent on glutamate-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in astrocytes. Inhibition of these Ca(2+) responses resulted in the impairment of activity-dependent vasodilation, whereas ..
  51. ncbi Glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes controls synaptic strength
    Pascal Jourdain
    Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 9, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 10:331-9. 2007
    ..Here we show that glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes of the rat hippocampal dentate molecular layer enhances synaptic strength at excitatory synapses between ..
  52. pmc The astrocyte odyssey
    Doris D Wang
    Institute for Regeneration Medicine and Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Prog Neurobiol 86:342-67. 2008
    ..the spotlight as the central players of the nervous system, but we must remember that we have equal numbers of astrocytes and neurons in the brain...
  53. doi A new blood-brain barrier model using primary rat brain endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes
    Shinsuke Nakagawa
    Department of Pharmacology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Sakamoto, Japan
    Neurochem Int 54:253-63. 2009
    ..The co-culture of endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes mimick the anatomical situation in vivo...
  54. pmc Reactive astrocytes protect melanoma cells from chemotherapy by sequestering intracellular calcium through gap junction communication channels
    Qingtang Lin
    Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neoplasia 12:748-54. 2010
    ..We report here that melanoma brain metastases are surrounded and infiltrated by activated astrocytes, and we hypothesized that these astrocytes can play a role similar to their established ability to protect ..
  55. pmc Control of excitatory CNS synaptogenesis by astrocyte-secreted proteins Hevin and SPARC
    Hakan Kucukdereli
    Cell Biology Department, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E440-9. 2011
    b>Astrocytes regulate synaptic connectivity in the CNS through secreted signals. Here we identified two astrocyte-secreted proteins, hevin and SPARC, as regulators of excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro and in vivo...
  56. pmc Astrocyte-endothelial interactions and blood-brain barrier permeability
    N Joan Abbott
    Centre for Neuroscience Research, King s College London, UK
    J Anat 200:629-38. 2002
    ..g. P-glycoprotein). In addition to a role in long-term barrier induction and maintenance, astrocytes and other cells can release chemical factors that modulate endothelial permeability over a time-scale of seconds ..
  57. pmc Local generation of glia is a major astrocyte source in postnatal cortex
    Woo Ping Ge
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology, University of California at San Francisco, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 484:376-80. 2012
    Glial cells constitute nearly 50% of the cells in the human brain. Astrocytes, which make up the largest glial population, are crucial to the regulation of synaptic connectivity during postnatal development...
  58. ncbi Functional engraftment of human ES cell-derived dopaminergic neurons enriched by coculture with telomerase-immortalized midbrain astrocytes
    Neeta S Roy
    Department of Neurology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Med 12:1259-68. 2006
    ..exposed to both sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor 8 with telomerase-immortalized human fetal midbrain astrocytes. These astrocytes substantially potentiated dopaminergic neurogenesis by both WA09 and WA01 HES cells, biasing ..
  59. pmc Imaging large-scale neural activity with cellular resolution in awake, mobile mice
    Daniel A Dombeck
    Department of Molecular Biology, Carl Icahn Labs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Neuron 56:43-57. 2007
    ..Behaviorally correlated calcium transients from large neuronal and astrocytic populations were routinely measured, with an estimated motion-induced false positive error rate of <5%...
  60. pmc Direct transfer of alpha-synuclein from neuron to astroglia causes inflammatory responses in synucleinopathies
    He Jin Lee
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143 701, Korea
    J Biol Chem 285:9262-72. 2010
    ..Here, we show that alpha-synuclein proteins released from neuronal cells are taken up by astrocytes through endocytosis and form inclusion bodies...
  61. pmc Integrated brain circuits: astrocytic networks modulate neuronal activity and behavior
    Michael M Halassa
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 72:335-55. 2010
    ..b>Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity and neurotransmitters, through the activation of metabotropic receptors, and can ..
  62. doi Channel-mediated tonic GABA release from glia
    Soojung Lee
    Center for Neural Science, Korea Institute of Science and Technology KIST, Seoul, Korea
    Science 330:790-6. 2010
    ..Our results identify a molecular mechanism for tonic inhibition and establish a role for interactions between glia and neurons in mediating tonic inhibition...
  63. doi GFAP in health and disease
    J Middeldorp
    Department of Astrocyte Biology and Neurodegeneration, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Prog Neurobiol 93:421-43. 2011
    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main intermediate filament protein in mature astrocytes, but also an important component of the cytoskeleton in astrocytes during development...
  64. ncbi Properties of synaptically evoked astrocyte calcium signal reveal synaptic information processing by astrocytes
    Gertrudis Perea
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 28002, Spain
    J Neurosci 25:2192-203. 2005
    ..Schaffer collaterals and by acetylcholine, but not glutamate, released by alveus stimulation, indicating that astrocytes discriminate the activity of different synapses belonging to different axon pathways...
  65. doi Astroglial metabolic networks sustain hippocampal synaptic transmission
    Nathalie Rouach
    Inserm U840, College de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France
    Science 322:1551-5. 2008
    b>Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear...
  66. doi Astroglial networks: a step further in neuroglial and gliovascular interactions
    Christian Giaume
    Inserm U840, College de France, 75005 Paris, France
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:87-99. 2010
    Dynamic aspects of interactions between astrocytes, neurons and the vasculature have recently been in the neuroscience spotlight. It has emerged that not only neurons but also astrocytes are organized into networks...
  67. pmc Dedifferentiation of neurons and astrocytes by oncogenes can induce gliomas in mice
    Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 338:1080-4. 2012
    ..Transduction by oncogenic lentiviral vectors of neural stem cells (NSCs), astrocytes, or even mature neurons in the brains of mice can give rise to malignant gliomas...
  68. ncbi Glia-derived D-serine controls NMDA receptor activity and synaptic memory
    Aude Panatier
    INSERM, U378, Bordeaux, F 33077, France
    Cell 125:775-84. 2006
    ..As D-serine is released exclusively by astrocytes, we studied the physiological impact of the glial environment on NMDA receptor-dependent activity and plasticity...
  69. ncbi The tripartite synapse: roles for gliotransmission in health and disease
    Michael M Halassa
    Silvio Conte Center for Integration at the Tripartite Synapse, Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Mol Med 13:54-63. 2007
    In addition to being essential supporters of neuronal function, astrocytes are now recognized as active elements in the brain...
  70. doi Heterogeneity in astrocyte morphology and physiology
    Vitali Matyash
    Cellular Neurosciences, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine MDC, 13092 Berlin, Germany
    Brain Res Rev 63:2-10. 2010
    b>Astrocytes as a cell population are not well defined and comprise a heterogeneous population of cells. There are at least 9 different morphological variants which can coexist within one given brain region...
  71. ncbi Adult mouse astrocytes degrade amyloid-beta in vitro and in situ
    Tony Wyss-Coray
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, USA
    Nat Med 9:453-7. 2003
    ..One of the earliest neuropathological changes in AD is the accumulation of astrocytes at sites of Abeta deposition, but the cause or significance of this cellular response is unclear...
  72. pmc Gliotransmission: Exocytotic release from astrocytes
    Vladimir Parpura
    Department of Neurobiology, Center for Glial Biology in Medicine, Civitan International Research Center, Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanotechnology Laboratories, and Evelyn F McKnight Brain Institute, University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA
    Brain Res Rev 63:83-92. 2010
    ..b>Astrocytes can release a variety of gliotransmitters into the extracellular space using several different mechanisms...
  73. doi Astrocyte TLR4 activation induces a proinflammatory environment through the interplay between MyD88-dependent NFκB signaling, MAPK, and Jak1/Stat1 pathways
    Roser Gorina
    Department of Brain Ischemia and Neurodegeneration, Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona IIBB Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain
    Glia 59:242-55. 2011
    There is increasing evidence that astrocytes play important roles in immune regulation in the brain. Astrocytes express toll-like receptors (TLR) and build up responses to innate immune triggers by releasing proinflammatory molecules...
  74. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human astrocytes disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity by a gap junction-dependent mechanism
    Eliseo A Eugenin
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Neurosci 31:9456-65. 2011
    ..The main cells infected with HIV within the CNS are macrophages/microglia and a small fraction of astrocytes. The role of these few infected astrocytes in the pathogenesis of neuroAIDS has not been examined extensively...
  75. doi Astrocytes in the damaged brain: molecular and cellular insights into their reactive response and healing potential
    Annalisa Buffo
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Neuroscience Institute of Turin, Italy
    Biochem Pharmacol 79:77-89. 2010
    Long considered merely a trophic and mechanical support to neurons, astrocytes have progressively taken the center stage as their ability to react to acute and chronic neurodegenerative situations became increasingly clear...
  76. doi Hippocampal short- and long-term plasticity are not modulated by astrocyte Ca2+ signaling
    Cendra Agulhon
    Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Genetic Medicine Building, CB 7365, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Science 327:1250-4. 2010
    The concept that astrocytes release neuroactive molecules (gliotransmitters) to affect synaptic transmission has been a paradigm shift in neuroscience research over the past decade...
  77. ncbi Astrocytes and brain injury
    Yongmei Chen
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23:137-49. 2003
    b>Astrocytes are the most numerous cell type in the central nervous system. They provide structural, trophic, and metabolic support to neurons and modulate synaptic activity...
  78. ncbi Role for glia in synaptogenesis
    Erik M Ullian
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5125, USA
    Glia 47:209-16. 2004
    Nearly one-half of the cells in a human brain are astrocytes, but the function of these little cells remains a great mystery...
  79. ncbi TLR signaling tailors innate immune responses in human microglia and astrocytes
    Carolyn S Jack
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Immunol 175:4320-30. 2005
    The specific signals mediating the activation of microglia and astrocytes as a prelude to, or consequence of, CNS inflammation continue to be defined...
  80. ncbi Synaptic islands defined by the territory of a single astrocyte
    Michael M Halassa
    Silvio Conte Center for Integration at the Tripartite Synapse, Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 27:6473-7. 2007
    In the mammalian brain, astrocytes modulate neuronal function, in part, by synchronizing neuronal firing and coordinating synaptic networks. Little, however, is known about how this is accomplished from a structural standpoint...
  81. ncbi Astrocytes potentiate transmitter release at single hippocampal synapses
    Gertrudis Perea
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Science 317:1083-6. 2007
    b>Astrocytes play active roles in brain physiology. They respond to neurotransmitters and modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic function...
  82. doi MicroRNA profiling of multiple sclerosis lesions identifies modulators of the regulatory protein CD47
    Andreas Junker
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Brain 132:3342-52. 2009
    ..b>Astrocytes contained all 10 microRNA that were most strongly upregulated in active multiple sclerosis lesions, including ..
  83. doi Do astrocytes really exocytose neurotransmitters?
    Nicola B Hamilton
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:227-38. 2010
    ..Neuronally evoked increases of the intracellular calcium concentration in astrocytes have been suggested to trigger exocytotic release of the 'gliotransmitters' glutamate, ATP and D-serine...
  84. doi Astrocytes are endogenous regulators of basal transmission at central synapses
    Aude Panatier
    Departement de Physiologie, Universite de Montreal, PO Box 6128, Station Centre Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
    Cell 146:785-98. 2011
    ..Recent discoveries show that astrocytes modulate the activity of neuronal networks upon sustained and intense synaptic activity...
  85. pmc Up-regulation of BDNF in astrocytes by TNF-alpha: a case for the neuroprotective role of cytokine
    Ramendra N Saha
    Section of Neuroscience, Department of Oral Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 40th and Holdrege, Lincoln, NE 68583 0740, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 1:212-22. 2006
    ..that TNF-alpha up-regulates exon-IV-bdnf mRNA and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein in primary astrocytes. The BDNF protein was detectable both in cellular lysate and in the extracellular medium...
  86. ncbi Depleting neuronal PrP in prion infection prevents disease and reverses spongiosis
    Giovanna Mallucci
    Medical Research Council Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1, UK
    Science 302:871-4. 2003
    ..Thus, the propagation of nonneuronal PrPSc is not pathogenic, but arresting the continued conversion of PrPc to PrPSc within neurons during scrapie infection prevents prion neurotoxicity...
  87. pmc Astrocytes control breathing through pH-dependent release of ATP
    Alexander V Gourine
    Neuroscience, Physiology, and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Science 329:571-5. 2010
    b>Astrocytes provide structural and metabolic support for neuronal networks, but direct evidence demonstrating their active role in complex behaviors is limited...
  88. pmc Astrocyte-specific expression of hamster prion protein (PrP) renders PrP knockout mice susceptible to hamster scrapie
    A J Raeber
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie, Abteilung I, University of Zurich, H onggerberg, 8093 Z urich, Switzerland
    EMBO J 16:6057-65. 1997
    ..To determine the possible role of astrocytes, we generated mice devoid of murine PrP but expressing hamster PrP transgenes driven by the astrocyte-specific ..
  89. ncbi Glial fibrillary acidic protein: GFAP-thirty-one years (1969-2000)
    L F Eng
    Department of Pathology, VAPA Health Care System, Palo Alto 94304, USA
    Neurochem Res 25:1439-51. 2000
    ..that the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the principal 8-9 nm intermediate filament in mature astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  90. pmc Molecular dissection of reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation
    Michael V Sofroniew
    Department of Neurobiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1763, USA
    Trends Neurosci 32:638-47. 2009
    Reactive astrogliosis, whereby astrocytes undergo varying molecular and morphological changes, is a ubiquitous but poorly understood hallmark of all central nervous system pathologies...
  91. pmc Astrocytes and disease: a neurodevelopmental perspective
    Anna V Molofsky
    Department of Pediatrics, Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Genes Dev 26:891-907. 2012
    b>Astrocytes are no longer seen as a homogenous population of cells...
  92. ncbi Activity-dependent regulation of energy metabolism by astrocytes: an update
    Luc Pellerin
    Departement de Physiologie, Universite de Lausanne, Switzerland
    Glia 55:1251-62. 2007
    b>Astrocytes play a critical role in the regulation of brain metabolic responses to activity...
  93. doi Morphological evidence for vesicular glutamate release from astrocytes
    L H Bergersen
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, POB 1105 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Neuroscience 158:260-5. 2009
    There is now growing evidence that astrocytes, like neurons, can release transmitters. One transmitter that in a vast number of studies has been shown to be released from astrocytes is glutamate...
  94. pmc Induction of blood brain barrier tight junction protein alterations by CD8 T cells
    Georgette L Suidan
    Neuroscience Department, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e3037. 2008
    ..These novel findings are highly relevant to the development of therapies designed to control immune mediated CNS vascular permeability...
  95. pmc Nrf2 activation in astrocytes protects against neurodegeneration in mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Marcelo R Vargas
    Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 2222, USA
    J Neurosci 28:13574-81. 2008
    Activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 in astrocytes coordinates the upregulation of antioxidant defenses and confers protection to neighboring neurons...
  96. pmc Resveratrol differentially modulates inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes
    Xiaofeng Lu
    Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    J Neuroinflammation 7:46. 2010
    ..We investigated the capacity of resveratrol to protect microglia and astrocyte from inflammatory insults and explored mechanisms underlying different inhibitory effects of resveratrol on microglia and astrocytes.
  97. pmc Reactive astrocytes as therapeutic targets for CNS disorders
    Mary E Hamby
    Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Neurotherapeutics 7:494-506. 2010
    ..Dysfunction of either astrocytes or the process of reactive astrogliosis is emerging as an important potential source of mechanisms that might ..
  98. doi A Gradient of neuronal loss and meningeal inflammation in multiple sclerosis
    Roberta Magliozzi
    Centre for Neuroscience, Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Ann Neurol 68:477-93. 2010
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the cellular substrates of the cortical damage to understand the role of meningeal inflammation in MS pathology...
  99. doi The stem cell potential of glia: lessons from reactive gliosis
    Stefanie Robel
    Physiological Genomics, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 12:88-104. 2011
    ..This new view on reactive glia therefore suggests a widespread endogenous source of cells with stem cell potential, which might potentially be harnessed for local repair strategies...
  100. ncbi Mosaic organization of neural stem cells in the adult brain
    Florian T Merkle
    Department of Neurosurgery and Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0525, USA
    Science 317:381-4. 2007
    ..This suggests that rather than being plastic and homogeneous, neural stem cells are a restricted and diverse population of progenitors...
  101. ncbi Relationship of microglial and astrocytic activation to disease onset and progression in a transgenic model of familial ALS
    E D Hall
    Central Nervous System Diseases Research, Pharmacia and Upjohn, Inc, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA
    Glia 23:249-56. 1998
    ..to non-transgenic littermates, the TgN(SOD1-G93A)G1H mice showed significantly increased numbers of activated astrocytes (P < 0.01) at 100 days of age in both the cervical and lumbar spinal cord regions...

Research Grants74

  1. Paul E Micevych; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Within the hypothalamus, astrocytes respond to E2 stimulation by increasing neuroP synthesis...
  2. Tat and CDK9 on gene expression alterations coupled to HIV-1 Associated Dementia
    Xavier Grana; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..least in part from changes in cellular gene expression induced by HIV-1 Tat in a variety of cell types including astrocytes and neurons...
  3. Inderjit Singh; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..These anti-inflammatory activities of AMPK were also evident in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated astrocytes in vitro as well as in endotoxemia model...
  4. Petr Tvrdik; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Serious conditions arise when these functions become defective. Astrocytes, for example, have been implicated in neurodevelopmental diseases such as Rett syndrome, fragile X mental ..
  5. DANIEL J CARR; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..However, the contribution of resident cells (including astrocytes and microglia) versus infiltrating leukocyte populations within the nervous system or the organized lymphoid ..
  6. ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..The chemical signaling that controls the capillaries'diameter primarily originates from astrocytes, glial cells that surround the blood vessels and also surround synapses...
  7. Edward P Feener; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Using cultured retinal microvessel endothelial cells and astrocytes, we have identified both bradykinin-dependent and -independent mechanisms of kallikrein action...
  8. Tumor Microenvironment Interactions in Brain Tumors
    Eric C Holland; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..number of unique features, including a distinct extracellular matrix and several specialized host cells such as astrocytes, neurons, oligodendrocytes and the microglia...
  9. Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Gliosis (activation of microglia and astrocytes) is a hallmark of neuroinflammation...
  10. Regulation of Astrocyte TIMP-1 in HIV-Associated Dementia
    JEREL ADAM FIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..central nervous system, which secrete cytokines, infectious virions and viral proteins that activate surrounding astrocytes leading to astrogliosis and altered gene expression...
  11. The Role of Astrocytes in Cortical Interneuron Development
    KAREN MULLER SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in Fgfr1 mutants occurs postnatally, when Fgfr1 is expressed in glial cells of the cortex, particularly astrocytes. Dr...
  12. A fully validated assay to identify activators of ERSR in human glioma cells: ide
    Maurizio Grimaldi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..higher levels of GRP78, the key architect of ERSR and a chaperone involved in protein folding in the ER than astrocytes. This latter finding indicates the failure to manage protein unfolding in glioma cells...
  13. Role of Potent Trophic Factors on Glia and Motor Neurons in ALS
    Brian K Kaspar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent studies have surprisingly demonstrated that astrocytes and microglia expressing a mutation in the enzyme superoxide dismutase can exacerbate motor neuron death, ..
  14. Marcus Kaul; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..3) To investigate whether the interaction of IFN? with neurons and astrocytes suffices to protect the cells against HIV/gp120-induced neurotoxicity of microglia...
  15. Mechanisms of ethanol-induced neurodevelopmental effects
    Marina Guizzetti; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..phospholipase D in ethanol-induced upregulation of cholesterol efflux and cholesterol transporter induction in astrocytes and, possibly, in neurons will be examined by selectively removing these proteins form astrocyte and neuron ..
  16. Ephrin-A3 in Neuron-Glia Communication
    Elena B Pasquale; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..a new form of neuron-glia communication that involves the ephrin-A3 ligand expressed on the surface of astrocytes in the hippocampus and the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on dendritic spines...
  17. Mechanisms of Astrocyte Development
    Teri L Belecky Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..provided by applicant): The central nervous system contains a specialized group of glial cells, known as astrocytes. Mature optic nerve and retinal astrocytes play a metabolically supportive role for retinal ganglion cells, as ..
  18. Astrocytic Ca2+ Signaling in the Ischemic Penumbra
    Maiken Nedergaard; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The fate of astrocytes in the penumbra has received little attention, in part, because the activity of these non-excitable cells only ..
  19. Genomic adaptation to HIV infection of the CNS in opioid-abusers
    Rajnish S Dave; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..analyses to characterize miRNA expression profiles in human fetal brain derived cultures of microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, endothelial cells, and neurons infected with HIV and/or treated with morphine...
  20. Glutathione in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease progression in ALS-models
    Marcelo R Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and hSOD1WTmice;2: To determine the role of hSOD1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the toxicity of astrocytes expressing ALS-linked mutant SOD1s toward co-cultured motor neurons;and 3...
  21. GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTERS IN THE CNS
    MICHAEL BYRNE ROBINSON; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The expression (mRNA and protein) of GLT-1/EAAT2 increases during synaptogenesis in vivo and is induced in astrocytes in vitro by the presence of neurons...
  22. Subbiah Pugazhenthi; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..in cultured human neuroprogenitor cell-derived neurons exposed to A[unreadable]-activated microglia and astrocytes. Aim 2...
  23. Immune Regulation of Viral Recrudescence
    Cornelia Bergmann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The results will further reveal a central role of astrocytes in regulating ASC recruitment...
  24. Kamel Khalili; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..shown here) point to the ability of Tat in the induction of Rad51 expression in primary microglia and astrocytes, the two cell types that play an important role in neuropathogenesis of AIDS...
  25. David J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..via bystander mechanisms that involve altered homeostatic and neuroprotective functions of microglial cells or astrocytes. Thus, we hypothesize that combination therapy that directly targets virus replication and enhances ..
  26. Interactions Between Depression, Neuroinflammation and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3
    Eleonore Beurel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..showing that GSK3 inhibitors reduce by >90% the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in astrocytes and microglia...
  27. Astrocyte Development and Reactive Gliosis
    Teri L Belecky-Adams; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..glia arise from the region that becomes the optic nerve, and in the normal uninjured or non-diseased eye, the astrocytes perform essential supportive functions for the ganglion cell neurons of the retina...
  28. Astrocytes Play a Critical Role in the Pathology of EAE
    JOHN ROLAND BETHEA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the contribution of various cell populations within the central nervous system (CNS), such as microglia and astrocytes, to the development and progression of the disease...
  29. Xiaoxia Li; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..However, targeted Act1 deficiency in neuroectoderm derived CNS resident cells (including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons) resulted in significantly reduced EAE severity whether EAE was induced by active ..
  30. Glutamate-Glutamine Metabolism in Primary Human Brain Tumors
    Anne Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is that it allows us to study both glutamate metabolism but also glutamate efflux in a system that has neurons, astrocytes as well as glioma cells...
  31. TOMASZ K KORDULA; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..S1P suppresses nuclear translocation of IRF-1 and induction of RANTES and IP-10 expression via S1P2 in astrocytes. Thus, we hypothesize that "S1P modulates brain inflammation by novel intracellular and extracellular mechanisms ..
  32. Targeted investigation of tissue specific oxidative stress in the etiology of ALS
    Holly Van Remmen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., motor neurons, skeletal muscle, microglia and astrocytes) in the Gpx4flfl conditional knockout ALS mutant mice, we will generate tissue-specific deletion of Gpx4, a key ..
  33. BRAINSTEM MATURATION IN THE SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME
    Hannah C Kinney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will determine if there is an abnormal number of neurons and reactive astrocytes (gliosis) in selected rhombic lip-derived nuclei in SIDS victims...
  34. METABOLIC CONTROL OF SUGAR TRANSPORT
    Anthony Carruthers; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Abstract Glucose uptake in astrocytes, basal cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, erythrocytes and smooth muscle is mediated by GLUT1...
  35. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan and Myelination in Intraventricular Hemorrhage
    Praveen Ballabh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..They are primarily produced by reactive astrocytes and are regulated by transforming growth factor-2 (TGF-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF)...
  36. NFkB in the Astrocyte Swelling/Brain Edema with Acute Liver Failure
    MICHAEL DAVID NORENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have generated preliminary data indicating that NF-kB is indeed activated by ammonia and cytokines in cultured astrocytes, and that BAY 11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-kB, markedly diminished astrocyte swelling by ammonia and cytokines...
  37. Dysfunction of neurofilaments in disease: an iPS model of Giant Axonal Neuropathy
    BETHANY LESLIE JOHNSON-KERNER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..proteins (NFs) in neurons and intermediate filaments (IFs) in a variety of other cell types, including astrocytes and Schwann cells...
  38. Opioidergic System: Its Role(s) in Glaucoma
    Shahid Husain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The activation of astrocytes appears to have a central role in progressive optic neuropathy, serving as the cellular source of ..
  39. Rescuing Niemann-Pick C Disease: Pathways of Liver and Brain Degeneration
    Matthew P Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..portable two-photon microscope in combination with organelle dyes to characterize vesicular movements in living astrocytes and PNs of wild-type and Npc1-/- mice...
  40. Agnoprotein in JC virus virion biogenesis and replication
    Mahmut Safak; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..it enters the brain;and lytically and abortively infects oligodendrocytes (myelin producing cells) and astrocytes respectively...
  41. Susan O McGuire; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..NFkB activation mediates inflammatory activation in microglia and astrocytes;this aim will allow us to determine NFkB involvement in blueberry neuroprotection...
  42. STEVEN SIMON SCHERER; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..K+ clearance is modestly decreased in acute brain slices from mice in which astrocytes lack both Cx43 and Cx30...
  43. Protective Effects of Cannabinoids in HIV Neuropathogenesis
    ROBERT BRYAN ROCK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition, marked depletion of dopaminergic neurons, activated microglia, reactive astrocytes, and oxidative damage within this brain region are salient features of HAD...
  44. Farida Sohrabji; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..This age difference in cortical cell loss is also paralleled by functional changes in astrocytes, a specific brain support cell. Astrocytes play a key role in normal and pathological conditions...
  45. Guojun Bu; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Brain apoE/lipoprotein particles, produced primarily by astrocytes, deliver cholesterol and other lipids to neurons via apoE receptors, which belong to the low-density lipoprotein ..
  46. HANS CHRISTIAN VON BUEDINGEN; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..AQP4 is a water channel protein, which is expressed in astrocytes of the CNS...
  47. Lori A Birder; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..We will characterize the chemistry/morphology and function of cultured spinal cord astrocytes as well as glial-neuronal interactions in normal and FIC...
  48. Rona G Giffard; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We also found that GRP78 translocates to the mitochondrial inner membrane after stress in astrocytes, CNS glial cells that are known to be integral to neuronal survival...
  49. Eleonore Beurel; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..showing that GSK3 inhibitors reduce by >90% the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in astrocytes and microglia...
  50. Microanalytical methods for the detection of reactive nitrogen species
    Susan M Lunte; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..death can be caused by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are generated by endothelial cells as well as astrocytes and glia, reacting with nearby neurons...
  51. Andreas Friedl; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..In glioma cells and astrocytes, GPC1 overexpression also induces DNA re-replication resulting in DNA damage...
  52. Cell Cycle Pathways and Spinal Cord Injury
    ALAN IRA FADEN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..SCI up-regulates key cell cycle constituents at both the mRNA and protein levels in neurons, oligodendroglia, astrocytes, and microglia and induces activation of the cell cycle pathways;(2) such upregulation and activation promotes ..
  53. Lucio G Costa; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..bulb, hippocampus, and striatum neurons from mice of both genders will be exposed to DE-PM either alone or in the presence of microglia and/or astrocytes to investigate cellular mechanisms of DE neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation.
  54. Kathleen M Egan; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..the toxic effects of MeHg since the compound is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in neural astrocytes, the cells in the brain which give rise to glioma...
  55. Jason C O'Connor; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Conversely, endothelial cells and astrocytes produce kynurenic acid, which is a glutamate and 17-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist...
  56. Sabina Berretta; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..that molecular pathways regulating CSPGs may be altered in schizophrenia, causing CSPG accumulation in astrocytes and abnormal CSPG expression in extracellular matrix perineuronal aggregates...
  57. The Role of Kappa Opioid Receptor-induced Activation of Astrocytes in the Reinsta
    Charles Chavkin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..knockout mouse to generate adult mice in which KOR-dependent activation of p38???may be selectively blocked in astrocytes. Using the GFAP-CreERT2/floxed p38?? CKO mice, we propose to determine: 1) whether induction of Cre expression ..
  58. Craig E Crosson; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Activated astrocytes are considered to play an essential role in the development of glaucoma, serving as a cellular source for ..
  59. Imaging retinal astrocytes, ganglion cells and axonal transport in vivo
    Brad Fortune; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Astrocytes are a major class of glia in the vertebrate retina...
  60. ELIZABETH PATRICIA CROWE; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..b>Astrocytes perform a myriad of complex functions in the central nervous system to maintain neuronal homeostasis and are ..
  61. Brahim Chaqour; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In Specific Aim 2, we will define the molecular interactions of CCN1 with astrocytes, the primary proangiogenic cells responsible for retinal vessel formation and patterning during development, and ..
  62. Alcohol, Glial Gene Expression and the Heat Shock Pathway
    Neil L Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Alcohol is known to trigger the release of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) from astrocytes and may have similar effects in microglia (MCG), as well as decreasing the synthesis of myelin by ..
  63. Glial Dysfunction in Ataxia Telangiectasia
    Margot Mayer Proschel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..identifiable target, the progressive degeneration of cerebellar neurons, our studies revealed dysfunction in astrocytes derived from the CNS of a mouse model of AT...
  64. GLIAL B-AMYLOID PEPTIDE RECEPTORS IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    Kurt Brunden; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..These plaques seem to be different from ordinary amyloid plaques in that they have microglia and astrocytes within and around the condensed core of the plaque...
  65. Amyloid Beta-Protein: ApoE and Cholesterol Homeostasis
    WELLINGTON WOOD; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..focuses on mechanisms of amyloid beta-protein perturbation of cholesterol and apoE homeostasis within astrocytes and resulting consequences on neuronal function...
  66. ASTROCYTE-NEURON INTERACTIONS AND GNRH NEURONAL FUNCTION
    Darrell Brann; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our major hypothesis is that astrocytes function to mediate, at least in part, the reproductive and beneficial effects of estrogen on the brain...
  67. CELLULAR MECHANISMS FOR ANGIOTENSIN RESPONSES IN BRAIN
    ELISABETH TALLANT; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Angiotensin (Ang) II receptors are present on neurons, astrocytes and vascular elements and likely cooperate in this regulation...
  68. Ataxia Telangiectasia in the CNS - Cause and Effect
    Margot Mayer Proschel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In an attempt to determine whether and to what extend astrocytes contribute to the pathology observed in AT, we isolated astrocytes from homozygous ATM deficient mouse brains ..
  69. Nicotinic Receptors in Glia-Neuron Interactions
    Sukumar Vijayaraghavan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recently, it has been shown that nAChRs are expressed in astrocytes. This proposal will examine the role of astrocytic nAChRs on synaptic signaling in the CA3 region of the mouse ..
  70. A CRYSTALLIN MUTATION WITH ABNORMAL ASTROCYTES AND RETINAL VESSELS
    Debasish Sinha; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have found that in the retina, [unreadable]A3/A1 is expressed only in astrocytes and that in the Nuc1 homozygotes the astrocytes are morphologically abnormal...
  71. Calcium Signaling in Astrocytes
    KAREN S contact WILCOX; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..First, the work focuses on the putative role of glial support cells (specifically, astrocytes) in TLE...
  72. Environmental Toxicants and Neurodegeneration
    Kim Tieu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal is submitted to investigate the active role of astrocytes in regulating the levels of environmental neurotoxic cations and hence, in modulating neurodegeneration...
  73. Astrocyte Function and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
    JAY ROBERT VARGAS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Essential functions of central nervous system astrocytes include providing structural support to the neuropil and maintenance of extracellular neurotransmitter and ion concentrations...