neuroglia

Summary

Summary: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells
    Arnold Kriegstein
    The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0525, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 32:149-84. 2009
  2. ncbi The cell biology of neurogenesis
    Magdalena Gotz
    Institute for Stem Cell Research, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, D 85764 Neuherberg Munich, Germany
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:777-88. 2005
  3. ncbi Müller cells in the healthy and diseased retina
    Andreas Bringmann
    Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Clinic, Medical Faculty of the University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Prog Retin Eye Res 25:397-424. 2006
  4. ncbi Biology of oligodendrocyte and myelin in the mammalian central nervous system
    N Baumann
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 495, Biology of Neuron Glia Interactions, Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France
    Physiol Rev 81:871-927. 2001
  5. ncbi Neurogenic radial glia in the outer subventricular zone of human neocortex
    David V Hansen
    Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nature 464:554-561. 2010
  6. pmc Pathological and protective roles of glia in chronic pain
    Erin D Milligan
    Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 0001, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:23-36. 2009
  7. ncbi The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and disease
    Ben A Barres
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 60:430-40. 2008
  8. ncbi The neuropathic pain triad: neurons, immune cells and glia
    Joachim Scholz
    Neural Plasticity Research Group, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:1361-8. 2007
  9. pmc Local generation of glia is a major astrocyte source in postnatal cortex
    Woo Ping Ge
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology, University of California at San Francisco, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 484:376-80. 2012
  10. ncbi Oblique radial glial divisions in the developing mouse neocortex induce self-renewing progenitors outside the germinal zone that resemble primate outer subventricular zone progenitors
    Atsunori Shitamukai
    RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Chuo Ku, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
    J Neurosci 31:3683-95. 2011

Detail Information

Publications375 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells
    Arnold Kriegstein
    The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0525, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 32:149-84. 2009
    ..Identification of NSCs and IPCs is critical to understand brain development and adult neurogenesis and to develop new strategies for brain repair...
  2. ncbi The cell biology of neurogenesis
    Magdalena Gotz
    Institute for Stem Cell Research, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, D 85764 Neuherberg Munich, Germany
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:777-88. 2005
    ..Here, we discuss how these features change during development from neuroepithelial to radial glial cells, and how this transition affects cell fate and neurogenesis...
  3. ncbi Müller cells in the healthy and diseased retina
    Andreas Bringmann
    Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Clinic, Medical Faculty of the University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Prog Retin Eye Res 25:397-424. 2006
    ..detrimental effects, is essential for the development of efficient therapeutic strategies that use and stimulate the neuron-supportive/protective-and prevent the destructive-mechanisms of gliosis...
  4. ncbi Biology of oligodendrocyte and myelin in the mammalian central nervous system
    N Baumann
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 495, Biology of Neuron Glia Interactions, Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France
    Physiol Rev 81:871-927. 2001
    ..There is also a remarkable plasticity of the oligodendrocyte lineage, even in the adult with a certain potentiality for myelin repair after experimental demyelination or human diseases...
  5. ncbi Neurogenic radial glia in the outer subventricular zone of human neocortex
    David V Hansen
    Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nature 464:554-561. 2010
    ..The establishment of non-ventricular radial glia-like cells may have been a critical evolutionary advance underlying increased cortical size and complexity in the human brain...
  6. pmc Pathological and protective roles of glia in chronic pain
    Erin D Milligan
    Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 0001, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:23-36. 2009
    ..Given the prevalence of chronic pain and the partial efficacy of current drugs, which exclusively target neuronal mechanisms, new strategies to manipulate neuron-glia interactions in pain processing hold considerable promise...
  7. ncbi The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and disease
    Ben A Barres
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 60:430-40. 2008
    ..I argue that until the roles of nonneuronal cells are more fully understood and considered, neurobiology as a whole will progress only slowly...
  8. ncbi The neuropathic pain triad: neurons, immune cells and glia
    Joachim Scholz
    Neural Plasticity Research Group, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:1361-8. 2007
    ....
  9. pmc Local generation of glia is a major astrocyte source in postnatal cortex
    Woo Ping Ge
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology, University of California at San Francisco, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 484:376-80. 2012
    ....
  10. ncbi Oblique radial glial divisions in the developing mouse neocortex induce self-renewing progenitors outside the germinal zone that resemble primate outer subventricular zone progenitors
    Atsunori Shitamukai
    RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Chuo Ku, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
    J Neurosci 31:3683-95. 2011
    ..We propose that mouse outer VZ progenitors, induced by oblique cleavages, provide a model to study both progenitor self-renewal and OSVZ progenitors...
  11. ncbi Glial activation: a driving force for pathological pain
    L R Watkins
    Dept of Psychology and the Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at, Boulder, CO, USA
    Trends Neurosci 24:450-5. 2001
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest a new, dramatically different approach to pain control, as all clinical therapies are focused exclusively on altering neuronal, rather than glial, function...
  12. ncbi OSVZ progenitors of human and ferret neocortex are epithelial-like and expand by integrin signaling
    Simone A Fietz
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 13:690-9. 2010
    ..Our findings suggest that maintenance of this epithelial property allows integrin-mediated, repeated asymmetric divisions of OSVZ progenitors, providing a basis for neocortical expansion...
  13. pmc Mammalian Par3 regulates progenitor cell asymmetric division via notch signaling in the developing neocortex
    Ronald S Bultje
    Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Neuron 63:189-202. 2009
    ..These results reveal a critical molecular pathway underlying asymmetric cell division of radial glial progenitors in the mammalian neocortex...
  14. ncbi Cellular signaling and factors involved in Müller cell gliosis: neuroprotective and detrimental effects
    Andreas Bringmann
    Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 10 14, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Prog Retin Eye Res 28:423-51. 2009
    ....
  15. ncbi The bright side of the glial scar in CNS repair
    Asya Rolls
    Asya Rolls, Ravid Shechter and Michal Schwartz are at the Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:235-41. 2009
    ..However, increasing evidence suggests a beneficial role for this scar tissue as part of the endogenous local immune regulation and repair process. How can these opposing effects be reconciled? Perhaps it is all a matter of timing...
  16. ncbi Regeneration of the adult zebrafish brain from neurogenic radial glia-type progenitors
    Volker Kroehne
    Biotechnology Center and DFG Research Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Technische Universitat Dresden, Tatzberg 47 49, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Development 138:4831-41. 2011
    ..Thus, regeneration after traumatic lesion of the adult zebrafish brain occurs efficiently from radial glia-type stem/progenitor cells...
  17. ncbi Myelination and support of axonal integrity by glia
    Klaus Armin Nave
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hermann Rein Strasse 3, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 468:244-52. 2010
    ..This function may be independent of myelin itself. Myelin abnormalities cause a number of neurological diseases, and may also contribute to complex neuropsychiatric disorders...
  18. pmc The transcription factor Sox10 is a key regulator of peripheral glial development
    S Britsch
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, D 13122 Berlin, Germany
    Genes Dev 15:66-78. 2001
    ..Haploinsufficiency of Sox10 can thus cause pigmentation and megacolon defects, which are also observed in Sox10(Dom)/+ mice and in patients with Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease caused by heterozygous SOX10 mutations...
  19. ncbi Glutamate uptake
    N C Danbolt
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1105, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway
    Prog Neurobiol 65:1-105. 2001
    ..g. osteoporosis) can be properly understood unless more is learned about these transporter proteins. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity...
  20. ncbi hGFAP-cre transgenic mice for manipulation of glial and neuronal function in vivo
    L Zhuo
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 2280, USA
    Genesis 31:85-94. 2001
    ..Onset of Cre expression began in the forebrain by e13.5, suggesting that the hGFAP promoter is active in a multi-potential neural stem cell...
  21. pmc Distinct behaviors of neural stem and progenitor cells underlie cortical neurogenesis
    Stephen C Noctor
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Comp Neurol 508:28-44. 2008
    ..We propose a model for predicting daughter cell fate that considers precursor cell type, stage of development, and the planar segregation of fate determinants...
  22. pmc Tbr2 directs conversion of radial glia into basal precursors and guides neuronal amplification by indirect neurogenesis in the developing neocortex
    Alessandro Sessa
    Molecular Neuropathology Laboratory, SCRI, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
    Neuron 60:56-69. 2008
    ..Together, these findings identify Tbr2 as a critical factor for the specification of IPCs during corticogenesis...
  23. ncbi Mosaic organization of neural stem cells in the adult brain
    Florian T Merkle
    Department of Neurosurgery and Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0525, USA
    Science 317:381-4. 2007
    ..This suggests that rather than being plastic and homogeneous, neural stem cells are a restricted and diverse population of progenitors...
  24. ncbi Morphology and dynamics of perisynaptic glia
    Andreas Reichenbach
    Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Universitat Leipzig, Faculty of Medicine, D 04109 Leipzig, Germany
    Brain Res Rev 63:11-25. 2010
    ..This review will summarize our current knowledge and highlight some open questions...
  25. pmc Chemokines, neuronal-glial interactions, and central processing of neuropathic pain
    Yong Jing Gao
    Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States
    Pharmacol Ther 126:56-68. 2010
    ..Insights into the role of chemokines in neuronal-glial interactions after nerve injury will identify new targets for therapeutic intervention of neuropathic pain...
  26. ncbi Sonic hedgehog regulates the growth and patterning of the cerebellum
    N Dahmane
    The Skirball Institute, Developmental Genetics Program and Department of Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 126:3089-100. 1999
    ..In addition, they provide a cellular context for medulloblastomas, childhood cancers of the cerebellum...
  27. pmc New insights into neuron-glia communication
    R Douglas Fields
    Neurocytology and Physiology Section, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 298:556-62. 2002
    ..By releasing neurotransmitters and other extracellular signaling molecules, glia can affect neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission and perhaps coordinate activity across networks of neurons...
  28. pmc CD36 is involved in astrocyte activation and astroglial scar formation
    Yi Bao
    Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute, White Plains, New York, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 32:1567-77. 2012
    ..These findings identify CD36 as a novel mediator for injury-induced astrogliosis and scar formation. Targeting CD36 may serve as a potential strategy to reduce glial scar formation in stroke...
  29. pmc Toll-like receptors in neurodegeneration
    Eitan Okun
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Brain Res Rev 59:278-92. 2009
    ....
  30. ncbi Glial reactivity and impaired glutamate metabolism in short-term experimental diabetic retinopathy. Penn State Retina Research Group
    E Lieth
    Department of Neuroscience and Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, 17033, USA
    Diabetes 47:815-20. 1998
    ..These findings suggest a novel understanding of the mechanism of neural degeneration in the retina during diabetes, involving early and possibly persistent glutamate excitotoxicity...
  31. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor inhibits neurite outgrowth and branching of hippocampal neurons by a rho-dependent mechanism
    Harald Neumann
    Departments of Neuroimmunology and Neurobiochemistry, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurosci 22:854-62. 2002
    ..These results suggest that glia-derived TNF, as part of an injury or inflammatory process, can inhibit neurite elongation and branching during development and regeneration...
  32. ncbi Complete Freunds adjuvant-induced peripheral inflammation evokes glial activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression in the CNS
    Vasudeva Raghavendra
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:467-73. 2004
    ..These findings further support a unifying theory that glial activation and enhanced cytokine expression at the CNS have a role in eliciting behavioral hypersensitivity...
  33. pmc NG2 cells: Properties, progeny and origin
    Jacqueline Trotter
    Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, 55128 Mainz, Germany
    Brain Res Rev 63:72-82. 2010
    ..The origin, heterogeneity and function of NG2 cells as modulators of the neuronal network are important incompletely resolved questions...
  34. ncbi Glial cells in adult neurogenesis
    Joachim Morrens
    Department of Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium
    Glia 60:159-74. 2012
    ..In any case, however, "neurogenesis" appears to be an essentially glial achievement...
  35. ncbi Synaptic scaling mediated by glial TNF-alpha
    David Stellwagen
    Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94304 5485, USA
    Nature 440:1054-9. 2006
    ..We suggest that by modulating TNF-alpha levels, glia actively participate in the homeostatic activity-dependent regulation of synaptic connectivity...
  36. ncbi Localization of neuronal and glial glutamate transporters
    J D Rothstein
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 7519
    Neuron 13:713-25. 1994
    ..GLT-1 is distributed in astrocytes throughout the brain and spinal cord. GLAST is most abundant in Bergmann glia in the cerebellar molecular layer brain, but is also present in the cortex, hippocampus, and deep cerebellar nuclei...
  37. ncbi Adult bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neural cells in vitro
    J Sanchez-Ramos
    Department of Neurology, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA
    Exp Neurol 164:247-56. 2000
    ..When labeled human or mouse BMSC were cultured with rat fetal mesencephalic or striatal cells, a small proportion of BMSC-derived cells differentiated into neuron-like cells expressing NeuN and glial cells expressing GFAP...
  38. ncbi Neuronal and glial cell abnormality as predictors of progression of diabetic retinopathy
    Erica L Fletcher
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Melbourne, Grattan St Parkville 3010 Victoria, Australia
    Curr Pharm Des 13:2699-712. 2007
    ..This review will examine the evidence that neurons and glia are altered during diabetes and the relationship these changes have with vascular compromise...
  39. ncbi Conversion of embryonic stem cells into neuroectodermal precursors in adherent monoculture
    Qi Long Ying
    Institute for Stem Cell Research, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, United Kingdom
    Nat Biotechnol 21:183-6. 2003
    ..This system provides a platform for defining the molecular machinery of neural commitment and optimizing the efficiency of neuronal and glial cell production from pluripotent mammalian stem cells...
  40. ncbi Late-stage neuronal progenitors in the retina are radial Müller glia that function as retinal stem cells
    Rebecca L Bernardos
    Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
    J Neurosci 27:7028-40. 2007
    ..We conclude that zebrafish Müller glia function as multipotent retinal stem cells that generate retinal neurons by homeostatic and regenerative developmental mechanisms...
  41. ncbi Current hypotheses for the underlying biology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Jeffrey D Rothstein
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Brain Science Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Ann Neurol 65:S3-9. 2009
    ..Convergence of these pathways is likely to mediate disease onset and progression...
  42. pmc Preclinical differences of intravascular AAV9 delivery to neurons and glia: a comparative study of adult mice and nonhuman primates
    Steven J Gray
    Gene Therapy Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Mol Ther 19:1058-69. 2011
    ..Our results indicate that high peripheral tropism, limited neuronal transduction in NHPs, and pre-existing NAbs represent significant barriers to human translation of intravascular AAV9 delivery...
  43. pmc Drosophila ebony activity is required in glia for the circadian regulation of locomotor activity
    Joowon Suh
    Department of Neuroscience, Tufts Center for Neuroscience Research and Sackler School of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Neuron 55:435-47. 2007
    ..We thus suggest a model for ebony function wherein Ebony glia participate in the clock control of dopaminergic function and the orchestration of circadian activity rhythms...
  44. ncbi Communication between neurons and astrocytes: relevance to the modulation of synaptic and network activity
    Tommaso Fellin
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy
    J Neurochem 108:533-44. 2009
    ..This review discusses the importance of astrocyte-to-neuron signaling in different aspects of neuronal function from the activity of single synapses to that of neuronal networks...
  45. ncbi Conditional knock-out of Kir4.1 leads to glial membrane depolarization, inhibition of potassium and glutamate uptake, and enhanced short-term synaptic potentiation
    Biljana Djukic
    Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Neurosci 27:11354-65. 2007
    ..1 cKO hippocampus. Our findings implicate a role for glial Kir4.1 channel subunit in the modulation of synaptic strength...
  46. ncbi Mechanisms of axon ensheathment and myelin growth
    Diane L Sherman
    Centre for Neuroscience Research, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:683-90. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi Reduced glial cell density and neuronal size in the anterior cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder
    D Cotter
    Department of Psychological Medicine and Neuropathology, Institute of Psychiatry, DeCrespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:545-53. 2001
    ..In this investigation, we have simultaneously assessed glial cell density and neuronal density and size in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder...
  48. pmc Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate enteric gliogenesis by modulating ErbB3 signaling
    ALCMENE CHALAZONITIS
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Dev Biol 350:64-79. 2011
    ..These observations support the hypotheses that BMPs are required for enteric gliogenesis and act by promoting responsiveness of ENCDC to ErbB3 ligands such as GGF2...
  49. ncbi The origin and development of glial cells in peripheral nerves
    Kristjan R Jessen
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:671-82. 2005
    ..Embryonic nerves therefore offer a particular opportunity to analyse the early steps of gliogenesis from transient multipotent stem cells, and to understand how this process is integrated with organogenesis of peripheral nerves...
  50. pmc Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matter
    Jennifer L Ziskin
    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N Wolfe St, WBSB 813, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:321-30. 2007
    ..This activity-dependent secretion of glutamate was prevalent in the developing and mature mouse corpus callosum, indicating that axons within white matter both conduct action potentials and engage in rapid neuron-glia communication...
  51. pmc Functional organization of the transcriptome in human brain
    Michael C Oldham
    Interdepartmental Program for Neuroscience, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nat Neurosci 11:1271-82. 2008
    ..Our findings provide a new foundation for neurogenetic inquiries by revealing a robust and previously unrecognized organization to the human brain transcriptome...
  52. pmc A new subtype of progenitor cell in the mouse embryonic neocortex
    Xiaoqun Wang
    Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:555-61. 2011
    ..Our finding of oRG cells in the developing rodent brain fills a gap in our understanding of neocortical expansion...
  53. ncbi In vitro characterization of a spontaneously immortalized human Müller cell line (MIO-M1)
    G Astrid Limb
    Division of Cell Biology, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:864-9. 2002
    ..To characterize a spontaneously immortalized human Müller cell line and to determine whether it retains the characteristics of primary isolated cells without undergoing differentiation in vitro...
  54. ncbi Heterogeneity in progenitor cell subtypes in the ventricular zone of the zebrafish adult telencephalon
    Martin März
    Institute for Toxicology and Genetics, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the Helmholtz Association, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Glia 58:870-88. 2010
    ..On the basis of the marker gene expression and distinct cell morphologies, we propose a classification for the dividing cell states at the zebrafish adult telencephalic VZ...
  55. pmc Neural crest stem cells persist in the adult gut but undergo changes in self-renewal, neuronal subtype potential, and factor responsiveness
    Genevieve M Kruger
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Neuron 35:657-69. 2002
    ..The persistence of NCSCs in the adult PNS opens up new possibilities for regeneration after injury or disease...
  56. ncbi Role of retinal glial cells in neurotransmitter uptake and metabolism
    Andreas Bringmann
    Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, University of Leipzig, Germany
    Neurochem Int 54:143-60. 2009
    ....
  57. ncbi Distribution of the immune inhibitory molecules CD200 and CD200R in the normal central nervous system and multiple sclerosis lesions suggests neuron-glia and glia-glia interactions
    Nathalie Koning
    Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands corrected
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68:159-67. 2009
    ....
  58. ncbi Neuroglia in neurodegeneration
    Michael T Heneka
    Klinische Neurowissenschaften, Klinik und Poliklinik fur Neurologie, 53127 Bonn, Germany
    Brain Res Rev 63:189-211. 2010
    ..The complex of recently acquired knowledge allows us to regard the neurodegenerative diseases as primarily gliodegenerative processes, in which glial cells determine the progression and outcome of neuropathological process...
  59. ncbi Glial cells generate neurons: the role of the transcription factor Pax6
    Nico Heins
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18a, 82152, Planegg Martinsreid, Munich, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 5:308-15. 2002
    ..These results demonstrated an important role of Pax6 as intrinsic fate determinant of the neurogenic potential of glial cells...
  60. ncbi Engulfing action of glial cells is required for programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis
    Takeshi Awasaki
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Curr Biol 14:668-77. 2004
    ..Previous studies have revealed intrinsic molecular and cellular mechanisms that trigger this pruning process, but how pruning is accomplished remains essentially unknown...
  61. pmc Non-cell autonomous influence of MeCP2-deficient glia on neuronal dendritic morphology
    Nurit Ballas
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:311-7. 2009
    ..Our studies suggest that astrocytes in the RTT brain carrying MeCP2 mutations have a non-cell autonomous effect on neuronal properties, probably as a result of aberrant secretion of soluble factor(s)...
  62. ncbi Neuroglia and pioneer neurons express UNC-6 to provide global and local netrin cues for guiding migrations in C. elegans
    W G Wadsworth
    Department of Pathology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Neuron 16:35-46. 1996
    ..UNC-6 is expressed in 12 types of neuroglia and neurons, creating a hierarchy of netrin cues in the developing nervous system...
  63. pmc Ascl1a/Dkk/beta-catenin signaling pathway is necessary and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta inhibition is sufficient for zebrafish retina regeneration
    Rajesh Ramachandran
    Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:15858-63. 2011
    ..Importantly, Ascl1a expression was found to contribute to the multipotential character of these progenitors. Our data suggest that Wnt signaling and GSK-3β inhibition, in particular, are crucial for successful retina regeneration...
  64. ncbi Characterization of chemokines and their receptors in the central nervous system: physiopathological implications
    Adriana Bajetto
    Service of Pharmacology and Neuroscience Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa, Italy
    J Neurochem 82:1311-29. 2002
    ....
  65. ncbi Two modes of radial migration in early development of the cerebral cortex
    B Nadarajah
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Neurosci 4:143-50. 2001
    ..The existence of two modes of radial migration may account for the differential effects of certain genetic mutations on cortical development...
  66. ncbi Modes of neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex
    Bagirathy Nadarajah
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:423-32. 2002
    ..They migrate tangentially into the cortex, then seek the ventricular zone before moving radially to take up their positions in the cortical anlage...
  67. ncbi The role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of epilepsy
    Annamaria Vezzani
    Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Department of Neuroscience, Via G La Masa, 19 Milano, Italy
    Brain Behav Immun 22:797-803. 2008
    ..These findings point out at novel glio-neuronal communications in diseased conditions and highlight potential new targets for therapeutic intervention...
  68. ncbi Glial progenitors in adult white matter are driven to form malignant gliomas by platelet-derived growth factor-expressing retroviruses
    Marcela Assanah
    Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6781-90. 2006
    ....
  69. ncbi Expression of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor, CX3CR1, during acute and chronic inflammation in the rodent CNS
    Paula Marie Hughes
    Nurin Ltd, CNS Inflammation Group, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    Glia 37:314-27. 2002
    ..The expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 by glial cells during inflammation in the CNS may be influenced by the surrounding cytokine milieu, which has been shown to differ in acute and chronic neuroinflammation...
  70. pmc Glial-cytokine-neuronal interactions underlying the mechanisms of persistent pain
    Wei Guo
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Program in Neuroscience, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 27:6006-18. 2007
    ..These findings provide evidence of astroglial activation by tissue injury, concomitant IL-1beta induction, and the coupling of NMDA receptor phosphorylation through IL-1 receptor signaling...
  71. pmc Dynamic contribution of nestin-expressing stem cells to adult neurogenesis
    Diane C Lagace
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9070, USA
    J Neurosci 27:12623-9. 2007
    ....
  72. ncbi Glia: a novel drug discovery target for clinical pain
    Linda R Watkins
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 0345, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 2:973-85. 2003
  73. ncbi Immune and inflammatory mechanisms in neuropathic pain
    Gila Moalem
    School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Brain Res Rev 51:240-64. 2006
    ....
  74. ncbi Broad expression of Toll-like receptors in the human central nervous system
    Malika Bsibsi
    Division of Immunological and Infectious Diseases, TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:1013-21. 2002
    ..Together, our data reveal broad and regulated expression of TLRs both in vitro and in vivo by human glia cells...
  75. ncbi Developmental genetics of vertebrate glial-cell specification
    David H Rowitch
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Nature 468:214-22. 2010
    ..Gaining insight into the developmental genetics of macroglia has great potential to improve our understanding of a variety of neurological disorders in humans...
  76. ncbi Glial reactivity, an early feature of diabetic retinopathy
    E Rungger-Brandle
    Cell Biology Laboratory, University Eye Clinic, Geneva, Switzerland
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:1971-80. 2000
    ..To characterize early structural gliotic reactions in retinal Müller cells, astrocytes, and microglia in experimentally induced diabetes...
  77. pmc NG2 cells are distinct from neurogenic cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone
    Mila Komitova
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 3156, USA
    J Comp Neurol 512:702-16. 2009
    ..Our findings indicate that NG2 cells do not represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal SVZ but are likely to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells...
  78. ncbi Regeneration of axons in the visual system
    Martin Berry
    Molecular Neuroscience Group, School of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Restor Neurol Neurosci 26:147-74. 2008
    ....
  79. ncbi A role for the polyol pathway in the early neuroretinal apoptosis and glial changes induced by diabetes in the rat
    Veronica Asnaghi
    Schepens Eye Research Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Diabetes 52:506-11. 2003
    ..These findings have implications for how to evaluate the role of the polyol pathway in diabetic retinopathy...
  80. ncbi A role for alpha1 tubulin-expressing Müller glia in regeneration of the injured zebrafish retina
    Blake V Fausett
    The Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6303-13. 2006
    ..These data strongly suggest alpha1T-expressing Müller glia dedifferentiate and mediate regeneration of the injured zebrafish retina...
  81. pmc Wnt signaling regulates neuronal differentiation of cortical intermediate progenitors
    Roeben N Munji
    Program in Developmental Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Neurosci 31:1676-87. 2011
    ..Moreover, our findings suggest that dysregulation of Wnt signaling can lead to developmental defects similar to human cortical malformation disorders...
  82. ncbi Microglia-Müller glia cell interactions control neurotrophic factor production during light-induced retinal degeneration
    Takayuki Harada
    Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187 8502
    J Neurosci 22:9228-36. 2002
    ..These observations suggest that microglia regulate the microglia-Müller glia-photoreceptor network that serves as a trophic factor-controlling system during retinal degeneration...
  83. ncbi CD44 expression identifies astrocyte-restricted precursor cells
    Ying Liu
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Dev Biol 276:31-46. 2004
    ..Misexpression of CD44 in culture inhibits oligodendrocytes and arrests cells at the precursor state. In summary, our data provide strong evidence for the existence of a CD44+ ARP in the developing nervous system...
  84. ncbi Deletion of aquaporin-4 changes the perivascular glial protein scaffold without disrupting the brain endothelial barrier
    Martine Eilert-Olsen
    Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway, Nordic EMBL Partnership, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway
    Glia 60:432-40. 2012
    ..Our data also indicate that AQP4 and α-syntrophin are mutually dependent upon each other for proper perivascular expression...
  85. ncbi Neurodegeneration in the Niemann-Pick C mouse: glial involvement
    D C German
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9070, USA
    Neuroscience 109:437-50. 2002
    ..The activation of astrocytes in regions that undergo neurodegeneration is also consistent with a role for these glial cells in the neurodegenerative process...
  86. ncbi GFAP transgenic zebrafish
    Rebecca L Bernardos
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, 4402 Kresge III, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0520, USA
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:1007-13. 2006
    ..GFP expression in glia co-localized with anti-GFAP antibodies, but did not co-localize with the neuronal antibodies HuC/D or calretinin in mature neurons...
  87. ncbi Current challenges in glia-pain biology
    Stephen B McMahon
    Wolfson CARD, Hodgkin Building, King s College London, London Bridge, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Neuron 64:46-54. 2009
    ..This idea has taken root, resulting in an explosion of research interest, and here we look critically at what has been reported in order to assess where knowledge is missing or uncertain...
  88. ncbi Subtypes of glial cells in the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord as related to lineage and gene expression
    Ruth M Beckervordersandforth
    Institute of Genetics, University of Mainz, Saarstrasse 21, D 55122 Mainz, Germany
    Mech Dev 125:542-57. 2008
    ..We demonstrate this by the analysis of a castor loss of function mutation, which affects the number and migration of specific glial cells...
  89. ncbi Turning Müller glia into neural progenitors in the retina
    Andy J Fischer
    Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, 3020 Graves Hall, 333 West 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 1239, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 42:199-209. 2010
    ..We review findings regarding the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase and notch signaling in the proliferation and generation of Müller glia-derived retinal progenitors...
  90. pmc Glial inhibition of CNS axon regeneration
    Glenn Yiu
    Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:617-27. 2006
    ..Greater insight into glial inhibition is crucial for developing therapies to promote functional recovery after neural injury...
  91. ncbi The role of spinal neuroimmune activation in morphine tolerance/hyperalgesia in neuropathic and sham-operated rats
    Vasudeva Raghavendra
    Department of Anesthesiology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    J Neurosci 22:9980-9. 2002
    ..Targeting central cytokine production and glial activation may improve the effectiveness of morphine and reduce the incidence of morphine withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia in neuropathic pain conditions...
  92. pmc Characterization of Wnt signaling during photoreceptor degeneration
    Hyun Yi
    Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:5733-41. 2007
    ..In this study, the authors investigated the role of Wnt signaling in retinal degeneration...
  93. ncbi Molecular mechanisms controlling cortical gliogenesis
    Claire M Sauvageot
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:244-9. 2002
    ..In the developing neural tube, combinatorial interactions between the proneural transcription factor Ngn2 and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig2 specify the formation of motor neurons or oligodendrocytes...
  94. pmc Heterogeneity in ventricular zone neural precursors contributes to neuronal fate diversity in the postnatal neocortex
    Elizabeth K Stancik
    Center for Neuroscience Research, Children s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
    J Neurosci 30:7028-36. 2010
    ....
  95. pmc Glia and muscle sculpt neuromuscular arbors by engulfing destabilized synaptic boutons and shed presynaptic debris
    Yuly Fuentes-Medel
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS Biol 7:e1000184. 2009
    ....
  96. pmc Glial ephrin-A3 regulates hippocampal dendritic spine morphology and glutamate transport
    Maria A Carmona
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12524-9. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that the interaction between neuronal EphA4 and glial ephrin-A3 bidirectionally controls synapse morphology and glial glutamate transport, ultimately regulating hippocampal function...
  97. pmc In vivo development of outer retinal synapses in the absence of glial contact
    Philip R Williams
    Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 30:11951-61. 2010
    ..Thus, in contrast to other CNS circuits, contact from glia is not necessary for the formation or immediate stabilization of outer retinal synapses...
  98. ncbi Control of Müller glial cell proliferation and activation following retinal injury
    M A Dyer
    Department of Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Neurosci 3:873-80. 2000
    ..We conclude that p27Kip1 regulates Müller glial cell proliferation during reactive gliosis...
  99. pmc Contribution of astrocytes to hippocampal long-term potentiation through release of D-serine
    Yunlei Yang
    Institute of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15194-9. 2003
    ..By providing extracellular D-serine that facilitates activation of NMDA receptors, astrocytes thus play a key role in long-term synaptic plasticity...
  100. ncbi Functional recovery of paraplegic rats and motor axon regeneration in their spinal cords by olfactory ensheathing glia
    A Ramon-Cueto
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa CSIC UAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Spain
    Neuron 25:425-35. 2000
    ..Therefore, OEG transplantation provides a useful repair strategy in adult mammals with traumatic spinal cord injuries. Our results with these cells could lead to new therapies for the treatment of spinal cord lesions in humans...
  101. pmc Genetic evidence for shared mechanisms of epimorphic regeneration in zebrafish
    Zhao Qin
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 830 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1048, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9310-5. 2009
    ..Comparison of gene expression profiles from regenerating zebrafish retina, caudal fin, and heart muscle revealed additional candidate genes potentially implicated in injury-induced epimorphic regeneration in diverse zebrafish tissues...

Research Grants71

  1. Electrochemical tools to measure local cerebral blood flow and metabolism
    ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will make chemical measurements of O2 and 5-HT and electrophysiological measurements of GABAergic neurons in this region with the same electrode during ICSS. ..
  2. A fully validated assay to identify activators of ERSR in human glioma cells: ide
    Maurizio Grimaldi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. The Role of Astrocytes in Cortical Interneuron Development
    KAREN MULLER SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The ultimate goal of this research is to identify mechanisms that contribute to interneuron maturation and survival, possibly leading to novel therapies aimed at preventing or reversing interneuron disruption in psychiatric illnesses. ..
  4. Role of Potent Trophic Factors on Glia and Motor Neurons in ALS
    Brian K Kaspar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will subsequently test the optimal combination of these factors using gene delivery in a rodent model of this devastating disease in order to define an optimal therapy for this debilitating disorder. ..
  5. Ephrin-A3 in Neuron-Glia Communication
    Elena B Pasquale; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Strategies to manipulate ephrin function in glial cells could help treatment of neurological disorders involving aberrant neuron-glia interactions in the hippocampus and other regions of the nervous system. ..
  6. Mechanisms of Astrocyte Development
    Teri L Belecky Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  7. Glutathione in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease progression in ALS-models
    Marcelo R Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..One will also investigate possible ways to restore normal mitochondrial function as a therapy for ALS. ..
  8. Optimization of EphA4 antagonists for CNS disorders
    ELENA B contact PASQUALE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The optimized antagonists will be useful to further study the physiological and pathological functions of EphA4 and may serve as starting points for drug development to treat disorders of the nervous system. ..
  9. Implantation of physiologically functional bioengineered innervated IAS construct
    Khalil N Bitar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This has potential to provide enhanced quality of life to persons with fecal incontinence. Furthermore it would have positive implication for people suffering from urinary incontinence. ..
  10. Human cytomegalovirus entry into epithelial and endothelial cells
    David C Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our studies will provide a better picture of how HCMV gains entry into biologically relevant epithelial and endothelial cells to facilitate the design of better anti-HCMV drugs and vaccines. ..
  11. Glial-neuronal interactions underlying the molecular feedback between HIV viral p
    Sulie L Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, the proposed studies have high clinical relevance and will contribute significantly to the understanding and treatment of neurological complications associated with substance abuse, HIV infection, and AIDS. ..
  12. Role of lipoxygenase pathway in early microvascular dysfunction during diabetic r
    MOHAMED AL SAYED AL-SHABRAWEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  13. Glutamate-Glutamine Metabolism in Primary Human Brain Tumors
    Anne Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, as part of this proposal, we will identify metabolic biomarkers for those tumors that might respond to dietary therapy. ..
  14. Role of microRNAs in Coronavirus-induced lethal encephalitis
    Sonia Navas-Martin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Overall, there is significant translational potential in the proposed investigations since they will facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches to prevent and/or treat neuro-inflammatory diseases of viral etiology. ..
  15. HIV/NeuroAIDS Patient Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells
    Rodney J Nash; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Successful completion of this work will support a Phase II application, with the goals of including a larger cohort for iPS cell development, toxicology screening and the product leading to FDA 510(k) approval. ..
  16. Murine coronavirus neurovirulence: role of type I interferon response
    Susan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, understanding type I IFN signaling in the CNS may aid in developing or refining therapeutic applications for type I IFNs, which are currently used in treatment of MS and hepatitis C. ..
  17. Role of FUS in ALS
    Haining Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The findings are expected to provide critical insights into the mechanisms by which FUS mutations perturb the RNA processing pathways and ultimately lead to the disease. ..
  18. Protective Effects of Cannabinoids in HIV Neuropathogenesis
    ROBERT BRYAN ROCK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  19. ROLE OF NITRIC OXIDE IN INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS
    Lori A Birder; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding the mechanisms contributing to and maintaining these types of changes may provide important insight for the identification of novel targets for the future clinical management of bladder diseases such as PBS/IC. ..
  20. Molecular and cellular mechanism of Microcephaly
    Arnold Kriegstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  21. Stress Proteins in Brain Cell Injury
    Rona G Giffard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Overall this proposal exams a novel hypothesis: that miRNAs act as master regulators of chaperones and BCL2 family members influencing Ca2+ homeostasis, mitochondria-ER crosstalk, and outcome after cerebral ischemia. ..
  22. Free Radicals and Methamphetamine Abuse
    Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These will lead to the development of important therapeutic tools for rehabilitating individuals, especially patients presenting co-morbid factors, such as HIV infection. ..
  23. Glypican-1 in gliomagenesis
    Andreas Friedl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The GPC1 signaling pathway may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention by targeting either GPC1 itself or downstream mediators. ..
  24. Disruption of Extracellular Matrix-Glial Interactions in Schizophrenia
    Sabina Berretta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  25. Alcohol, Glial Gene Expression and the Heat Shock Pathway
    Neil L Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Microglia are the immune component of the brain and eliminate foreign invaders. Alcohol may alter the activity of all three types of glial cell by changing gene expression, and in doing so may harm nerve cells. ..
  26. LEUKOTRIENES AND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
    Rose A Gubitosi-Klug; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  27. Cell Communication of the Vertebrate Retina
    ROBERT FRANCIS MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  28. Unconventional Synaptic Modulation at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction
    Clark A Lindgren; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It will also provide basic knowledge that may better inform our understanding of muscular dystrophy and numerous other diseases that are caused by the dysfunction of glial cells or the peptide N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG). ..
  29. Cell Models for Alzheimer's disease (AD): Lipids and Related Signaling Pathways
    Grace Y Sun; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These collaborative studies should identify novel strategies to control chronic inflammation and neurodegeneration in AD. ..
  30. Nogo Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis
    BENJAMIN MATTHEW SEGAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If successful, NgR antagonists will represent the first class of agents used to treat MS that have both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective/ neurorestorative properties. ..
  31. Sox10 Alleles for Functional Analysis of Glial Lineages
    E Michelle Southard-Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  32. Employing Familial AD Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Study Neurodegeneration
    Suman Jayadev; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..B) Assess neuronal susceptibility to neurotoxicity in the presence of wildtype or PS2 fAD microglia. ..
  33. AIDS, Immune Activation and Mental Health
    Robert Dantzer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  34. Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis in the rhesus monkey
    MARIO TOMAS PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..burgdorferi, causes Lyme neuroborreliosis by killing neurons and oligodendrocytes. This research could lead to a new way of treating Lyme neuroborreliosis. ..
  35. Astrocyte Function and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
    JAY ROBERT VARGAS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is anticipated that this work will reveal new potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of epilepsy. ..
  36. Glutathione in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease progression in ALS-models
    Marcelo R Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Stimuli promoting the survival of spiral ganglion neurons
    Steven H Green; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Our research focuses on improving the survival and function of surviving neurons in order to improve the long-term efficacy of cochlear implants, currently used by over 40,000 Americans. ..
  38. Satellite Glial Cells
    Luc Jasmin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A better understanding of this glia-induced hyper-excitability is likely to open the door to new therapies for nerve-injured patients. ..
  39. Neuroimmune Factors and Co-Morbid Fear, Depression and Alcohol Consumption
    Michael S Fanselow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will also determine if pharmacologically interfering with these neuroimmune pathways mitigate the symptoms of PTSD. ..
  40. Role of Cyclins in Brain Construction and Interneuron Genesis
    KRISTIN GIAMANCO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will contribute to the ultimate goal to devise more effective therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. ..
  41. Alcohol Abuse and HIV-1: Mechanisms of Combined CNS Injury and Interventions
    Yuri Persidsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Current proposal aims to understand mechanisms of combined effects of HIV-1 and alcohol abuse in the brain and to propose neuroprotective therapies. ..
  42. The control of retinal vascular development by Norrin and Frizzled4
    Jeremy Nathans; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1 ..
  43. Morphogenesis and function of the cerebral cortex
    Flora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both aspects may offer promising leads to correct or reverse the excitatory and inhibitory neuron imbalances that are present in the cerebral cortex of neuropsychiatric and impulse control disorders. ..
  44. Extracellular Zinc Buffering and A-beta Oligomerization
    GUIDO FAAS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..With the acquired insight it should be possible to design drugs that specifically target pathological Zn2+ signals that may cause AD while minimally disturbing the Zn2+ signals necessary for normal brain functioning. ..
  45. Novel transgenic reporter/deleter allele for Type I taste cells
    Sue Kinnamon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In summary, these experiments will allow us define the Type I cell population and provide a new tool to dissect the functions of this most common taste cell type. ..
  46. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF CORONAVIRUS INDUCED DEMYELINATION
    Susan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Such studies will be applicable to understanding the pathogenesis of virus-induced CNS disease and, in the long term, contribute to vaccine design. ..
  47. Regulation of gastrointestinal neuromuscular function by NIBP/NFkB signaling
    Wenhui Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our studies will highlight the importance of ENS NFkB signaling and provide a novel mechanism for the pathogenesis of neurogastrointestinal disorders. ..
  48. Interleukin-6 and Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration in Glaucoma
    Rebecca M Sappington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose a series of studies to examine the potential of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target to rescue RGCs in glaucoma. ..
  49. Glial Interactions in Premyelinating Oligodendrocyte Destruction
    Jianrong Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such fundamental insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neonatal white matter injury will provide new avenues for developing novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of this devastating disorder. ..
  50. Neuron-Dervied S1P and Endothelial Function in Stroke
    Christian Waeber; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This project will study a novel system that can provide long-lasting improvement in EC function following stroke and serve as a target for stroke therapy. ..
  51. Role of axoglial CAMs in the organization of myelinated axons
    Elior Peles; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our studies on the generation of functional myelinated nerves may lead to new routes to the restoration of function of demyelinated nerves. ..
  52. Exosome-induced innate and antigen-specific immune responses in Type 1 Diabetes
    Yang D Dai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will use EXO as a vehicle for activating DC and delivering antigens. We anticipate that EXO can upregulate Slc11a1 function in DC and thus promote induction of the disease-causing Th1 cells. ..
  53. CNS Delivery of Activated Antiviral Drugs with Reduced Neurotoxicity (Nano-NRTIs)
    Serguei V Vinogradov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We develop a pNRTI-based HAART design (Nano-HAART), which enables the delivery of brain-targeted and oral activated drug formulations with reduced neurotoxicity into the CNS. ..
  54. NG2 cell dynamics in the normal and injured adult central nervous system
    Ethan Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  55. Glial Cell Regulation of Circadian Behavior
    F Rob Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our proposed studies have significance for understanding the roles of glia and neuron-glia communication in health and many different neurological diseases. ..
  56. Astrocyte Control of Toxin-Mediated Neuron Death: Role of the Gamma-Glutamyl Path
    George I Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will determine how the toxins damage it (to prevent this from happening), and how this system is normally controlled. ..
  57. Elimination of Carcinogen-Induced Tumor Stem Cells by ATF5 Loss of Function.
    JAMES ANGELASTRO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In a glioblastoma brain tumor cell model system, we found that interference with ATF5 function causes death of the tumor cells. Thus, ATF5 may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention and a possible treatment for brain cancer. ..
  58. STUDY OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
    Timothy S Kern; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also test a possible therapeutic option to stop white blood cells from interacting with endothelial cells as an option to inhibit the retinopathy. ..
  59. STEM CELLS IN PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
    Sean J Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By better understanding these mechanisms we will gain new insights into how the PNS forms and what goes wrong in the context of disease. ..
  60. Extracellular anomalies in Schizophrenia: from molecules to symptoms
    Sabina Berretta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Biopsy donors will be tested for olfactory functions and on psychiatric rating scales. BD subjects will be included to test whether CSPG abnormalities are specific to SZ or represent a shared feature among major psychoses. ..
  61. Astroglial Cells in Perinatal Brain Injury
    Flora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Importantly, the regenerative processes investigated in this proposal could be mimicked in adult and aged individuals, in which unfortunately cortical neuron loss is not recovered. ..
  62. Mechanisms underlying sexually differentiated brain remodeling during adolescence
    Cheryl L Sisk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  63. MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FGF 1
    Ing Ming Chiu; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..B will be generated through targeted gene replacement. Information obtained through this study will have important implications in understanding the proliferation of glial cells and progression of tumorigenesis. ..
  64. Cell Volume Regulation in Neurons and Glia
    FRANCISCO ALVAREZ LEEFMANS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  65. Molecular Biology: Viral Glial Gene Interaction in Brain
    Kamel Khalili; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This program project brings together basic scientists and physicians with expertise in neurovirology, molecular retrovirology, CNS cell biology, and pathology to perform the studies. ..
  66. Dendritic Repulsion by the EphA4 Receptor
    Elena Pasquale; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Furthermore, it may clarify the neurological aspects of diseases characterized by abnormal dendritic spine structure, such as mental retardation, William's syndrome, Down's syndrome, and autism. ..
  67. Matrix Control of Glial/Axonal Interactions in Developing Nerves
    Bruce Patton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This project will study how the growth of peripheral nerve glial cells, called Schwann cells, is regulated by dominant signaling components concentrated in the extracellular matrix of the developing nerve. ..
  68. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BASIS OF BRAIN VOLUME REGULATION
    Kevin Strange; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Studies outlined in this grant provide a central foundation for the comprehensive understanding of brain volume homeostasis. Such an understanding is essential for treating a variety of disease status. ..
  69. RETINAL CELLS: TISSUE CULTURE AND CELL BIOLOGY
    Robert Frank; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..cells; and a substance present in aqueous extracts of bovine retina that promotes morphologic differentiation of neuroglia. The interaction of disease states (diabetes and galactosemia, simulated by elevated levels of glucose and ..
  70. Role of Nitric Oxide in Feline Interstitial Cystitis.
    Lori Birder; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the mechanisms involved in these types of changes may provide important insights for development of novel targets for the clinical management of PBS/IC. ..
  71. HIV GP120 INDUCTION OF ICAM-1--INVOLVEMENT IN ADC
    ETTY BENVENISTE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..These studies will help delineate potential avenues of therapeutic intervention during HIV-1 infection of the brain. ..