visual pathways

Summary

Summary: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly transform cortical responses to visual stimuli
    Bassam V Atallah
    Computational Neurosciences Graduate Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0634, USA
    Neuron 73:159-70. 2012
  2. pmc Spatial and temporal scales of neuronal correlation in primary visual cortex
    Matthew A Smith
    Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Neurosci 28:12591-603. 2008
  3. pmc Local GABA circuit control of experience-dependent plasticity in developing visual cortex
    T K Hensch
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Brain Science Institute RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Science 282:1504-8. 1998
  4. ncbi Do we know what the early visual system does?
    Matteo Carandini
    Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94115, USA
    J Neurosci 25:10577-97. 2005
  5. pmc Diverse visual features encoded in mouse lateral geniculate nucleus
    Denise M Piscopo
    Institute of Neuroscience and Department of Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA
    J Neurosci 33:4642-56. 2013
  6. pmc Gain modulation by nicotine in macaque v1
    Anita A Disney
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 56:701-13. 2007
  7. pmc Broadly tuned response properties of diverse inhibitory neuron subtypes in mouse visual cortex
    Aaron M Kerlin
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Goldenson 243, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 67:858-71. 2010
  8. ncbi Parallel processing in the mammalian retina
    Heinz Wässle
    Department of Neuroanatomy, Max Planck Institut für Hirnforschung, Deutschordenstrasse 46, D 60528 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:747-57. 2004
  9. ncbi Circuits for local and global signal integration in primary visual cortex
    Alessandra Angelucci
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    J Neurosci 22:8633-46. 2002
  10. pmc Mechanisms underlying development of visual maps and receptive fields
    Andrew D Huberman
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94305, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:479-509. 2008

Research Grants

  1. SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IN VISUAL THALAMUS
    RAINER GUILLERY; Fiscal Year: 2003
  2. Novel Clinical and Ocular Imaging Outcomes with Long-Term Follow-Up in MS
    Laura Balcer; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. EXPERIMENTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEURAL PATHWAYS
    Martha Constantine Paton; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. Vision Sciences Training Grant
    Carol A Mason; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. TRP channel expression and function in ON-bipolar cells
    Robert M Duvoisin; Fiscal Year: 2012
  6. Delivery of Channel Rhodopsin for Optogenetic Control of Neurons in the Cochlea
    Daniel J Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. DEVELOPMENTAL REGULATION OF GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR FUNCTION
    MARTHA NA CONSTANTINE-PATON; Fiscal Year: 2012
  8. CORE GRANT FOR VISION RESEARCH
    Christopher W Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2011
  9. Trigeminal-autonomic relations in ocular homeostasis
    David A Bereiter; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. Cortical Structure and Function in Blindness and following Restored Vision
    Geoffrey Karl Aguirre; Fiscal Year: 2013

Detail Information

Publications305 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly transform cortical responses to visual stimuli
    Bassam V Atallah
    Computational Neurosciences Graduate Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0634, USA
    Neuron 73:159-70. 2012
    ..These results indicate that PV cells are ideally suited to modulate cortical gain and establish a causal relationship between a select neuron type and specific computations performed by the cortex during sensory processing...
  2. pmc Spatial and temporal scales of neuronal correlation in primary visual cortex
    Matthew A Smith
    Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Neurosci 28:12591-603. 2008
    ..These properties and the circuit mechanism they imply provide new constraints on the functional role that correlation may play in visual processing...
  3. pmc Local GABA circuit control of experience-dependent plasticity in developing visual cortex
    T K Hensch
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Brain Science Institute RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Science 282:1504-8. 1998
    ..Specific networks of inhibitory interneurons intrinsic to visual cortex may detect perturbations in sensory input to drive experience-dependent plasticity during development...
  4. ncbi Do we know what the early visual system does?
    Matteo Carandini
    Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94115, USA
    J Neurosci 25:10577-97. 2005
    ..They would be an invaluable guide for understanding the underlying biophysical and anatomical mechanisms and relating neural responses to visual perception...
  5. pmc Diverse visual features encoded in mouse lateral geniculate nucleus
    Denise M Piscopo
    Institute of Neuroscience and Department of Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA
    J Neurosci 33:4642-56. 2013
    ..These findings should therefore have a significant impact on our understanding of the computations performed in mouse visual cortex...
  6. pmc Gain modulation by nicotine in macaque v1
    Anita A Disney
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 56:701-13. 2007
    ..We demonstrate that at the site of thalamic input to visual cortex, the effect of this nAChR-mediated gain is an enhancement of the detection of visual stimuli...
  7. pmc Broadly tuned response properties of diverse inhibitory neuron subtypes in mouse visual cortex
    Aaron M Kerlin
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Goldenson 243, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 67:858-71. 2010
    ..These results suggest that the sensory responses of layer 2/3 GABAergic neurons reflect the pooled activity of the surrounding population--a principle that may generalize across species and sensory modalities...
  8. ncbi Parallel processing in the mammalian retina
    Heinz Wässle
    Department of Neuroanatomy, Max Planck Institut für Hirnforschung, Deutschordenstrasse 46, D 60528 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:747-57. 2004
    ..Within the second synaptic layer - the inner plexiform layer - circuits that involve complex inhibitory and excitatory interactions represent filters that select 'what the eye tells the brain'...
  9. ncbi Circuits for local and global signal integration in primary visual cortex
    Alessandra Angelucci
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    J Neurosci 22:8633-46. 2002
    ..V1 isotropic connectivity demonstrates that anisotropic horizontal connections are not necessary to generate orientation selectivity. Anisotropic feedback connections may play a role in contour completion...
  10. pmc Mechanisms underlying development of visual maps and receptive fields
    Andrew D Huberman
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94305, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:479-509. 2008
    ..A major goal now is to determine how these molecules cooperate with spontaneous and visually evoked activity to give rise to the circuits underlying precise receptive field tuning and orderly visual maps...
  11. pmc Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity
    S Hattar
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 2185, USA
    Science 295:1065-70. 2002
    ..Hence, melanopsin is most likely the visual pigment of phototransducing RGCs that set the circadian clock and initiate other non-image-forming visual functions...
  12. pmc Design principles of insect and vertebrate visual systems
    Joshua R Sanes
    Center for Brain Science, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Neuron 66:15-36. 2010
    ....
  13. ncbi The retinotopic organization of the human middle temporal area MT/V5 and its cortical neighbors
    Hauke Kolster
    Laboratorium voor Neurofysiologie en Psychofysiologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Medical School, Campus Gasthuisberg, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Neurosci 30:9801-20. 2010
    ..Together with similarities in retinotopic organization and topological neighborhood, the functional properties suggest that MT/V5 in human and macaque cortex are homologous...
  14. ncbi Functional imaging reveals rapid development of visual response properties in the zebrafish tectum
    Cristopher M Niell
    Neutosciences Program, Department of Molecular and Cell Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Neuron 45:941-51. 2005
    ..Surprisingly, most of these properties are established soon after dendrite growth and synaptogenesis begin and do not require patterned visual experience or a protracted period of refinement...
  15. ncbi Comparative mapping of higher visual areas in monkeys and humans
    Guy A Orban
    Lab Neuro en Psychofysiologie, K U Leuven, Medical School, Campus Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Trends Cogn Sci 8:315-24. 2004
    ..In the long term, fMRI offers opportunities to compare the functional anatomy of a variety of cognitive functions in the two species...
  16. ncbi Structure and function of visual area MT
    Richard T Born
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 5701, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:157-89. 2005
    ..Here we attempt a synthetic overview of the rich literature on MT with the goal of answering the question, What does MT do?..
  17. ncbi Salience, relevance, and firing: a priority map for target selection
    Jillian H Fecteau
    Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 47, 1105BA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Trends Cogn Sci 10:382-90. 2006
    ..These observations have important ramifications for theories of attention. We conclude that priority--the combined representation of salience and relevance--best describes the firing properties of neurons...
  18. ncbi Predictive coding in the visual cortex: a functional interpretation of some extra-classical receptive-field effects
    R P Rao
    Salk Institute, Sloan Center for Theoretical Neurobiology, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 2:79-87. 1999
    ....
  19. pmc Central projections of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse
    Samer Hattar
    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2105, USA
    J Comp Neurol 497:326-49. 2006
    ..Staining patterns after monocular enucleation revealed that the projections of these cells are overwhelmingly crossed except for the projection to the SCN, which is bilaterally symmetrical...
  20. ncbi Visual field representations and locations of visual areas V1/2/3 in human visual cortex
    Robert F Dougherty
    Department of Psychology and Stanford Institute for Reading and Learning, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    J Vis 3:586-98. 2003
    ..can be used as a reference for comparison to unusual cases involving developmental plasticity, recovery from injury, identifying homology with animal models, or analyzing the computational resources available within the visual pathways.
  21. ncbi Efficiency and ambiguity in an adaptive neural code
    A L Fairhall
    NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Nature 412:787-92. 2001
    ..The speed with which information is optimized and ambiguities are resolved approaches the physical limit imposed by statistical sampling and noise...
  22. ncbi Sensorimotor mismatch signals in primary visual cortex of the behaving mouse
    Georg B Keller
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 82152 Munich Martinsried, Germany
    Neuron 74:809-15. 2012
    ..These data suggest that processing in visual cortex may be based on predictive coding strategies that use motor-related and visual input to detect mismatches between predicted and actual visual feedback...
  23. ncbi Inhibition, spike threshold, and stimulus selectivity in primary visual cortex
    Nicholas J Priebe
    Section of Neurobiology, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0920, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Neuron 57:482-97. 2008
    ..e., spike threshold, contrast saturation, and spike-rate rectification) can account for properties that have previously appeared to require lateral inhibition...
  24. ncbi ON and OFF pathways in Drosophila motion vision
    Maximilian Joesch
    MPI for Neurobiology, Department of Systems and Computational Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Nature 468:300-4. 2010
    ..Thus, similar to the segregation of photoreceptor signals in ON and OFF bipolar cell pathways in the vertebrate retina, photoreceptor signals segregate into ON-L1 and OFF-L2 channels in the lamina of Drosophila...
  25. ncbi The constructive nature of vision: direct evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of apparent motion and motion imagery
    R Goebel
    Max Planck Institut für Hirnforschung, Frankfurt a M, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 10:1563-73. 1998
    ..The comparison between the results obtained with objective motion, apparent motion and imagined motion provides further insights into a complex cortical network of motion-sensitive areas driven by bottom-up and top-down neural processes...
  26. ncbi Brn3a-expressing retinal ganglion cells project specifically to thalamocortical and collicular visual pathways
    Lely A Quina
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, California 92093 0603, USA
    J Neurosci 25:11595-604. 2005
    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) innervate several specific CNS targets serving cortical and subcortical visual pathways and the entrainment of circadian rhythms...
  27. ncbi Contribution of feedforward, lateral and feedback connections to the classical receptive field center and extra-classical receptive field surround of primate V1 neurons
    Alessandra Angelucci
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 50 North Medical Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Prog Brain Res 154:93-120. 2006
    ..We show physiological data in support of the model's predictions, revealing that modulation from the "far" surround is not always suppressive, but can be facilitatory under specific stimulus conditions...
  28. ncbi Synaptic activity and the construction of cortical circuits
    L C Katz
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Science 274:1133-8. 1996
    ..The sequential combination of spontaneously generated and experience-dependent neural activity endows the brain with an ongoing ability to accommodate to dynamically changing inputs during development and throughout life...
  29. ncbi Magnocellular projections as the trigger of top-down facilitation in recognition
    Kestutis Kveraga
    Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Neurosci 27:13232-40. 2007
    ....
  30. pmc Spontaneous retinal activity mediates development of ocular dominance columns and binocular receptive fields in v1
    Andrew D Huberman
    Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Neuron 52:247-54. 2006
    ....
  31. ncbi Occipito-temporal connections in the human brain
    Marco Catani
    Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Brain 126:2093-107. 2003
    ..Future tractography studies of patients with occipito-temporal disconnection syndromes may help define the functional roles of the direct and indirect occipito-temporal pathways...
  32. ncbi Architecture and activity-mediated refinement of axonal projections from a mosaic of genetically identified retinal ganglion cells
    Andrew D Huberman
    Department of Neurobiology, Fairchild Science Building D235, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 59:425-38. 2008
    ..Our findings reveal that in a genetically identified sensory map, spontaneous activity promotes synaptic specificity by segregating axons arising from RGCs of the same subtype...
  33. ncbi Visual prey capture in larval zebrafish is controlled by identified reticulospinal neurons downstream of the tectum
    Ethan Gahtan
    Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    J Neurosci 25:9294-303. 2005
    ..These results suggest that MeLc and MeLr function in series with the tectum, as part of a circuit that coordinates prey capture movements...
  34. ncbi Time course and time-distance relationships for surround suppression in macaque V1 neurons
    Wyeth Bair
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 23:7690-701. 2003
    ..We offer refinements to circuits for surround suppression that account for these results and describe how feedback from cells with large CRFs can account for the rapid propagation of suppression within V1...
  35. ncbi Integrated model of visual processing
    J Bullier
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition CNRS UPS, Universite Paul Sabatier, 133 route de Narbonne, 31062, Cedex 4, Toulouse, France
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 36:96-107. 2001
    ....
  36. ncbi Modulation of connectivity in visual pathways by attention: cortical interactions evaluated with structural equation modelling and fMRI
    C Buchel
    The Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Cereb Cortex 7:768-78. 1997
    ..This analysis revealed a significant modulatory effect of prefrontal regions on V5 afferents to posterior parietal cortex...
  37. ncbi Sensitivity to optic flow in human cortical areas MT and MST
    A T Smith
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 23:561-9. 2006
    ..Single components produce rather less response, while rigid translation and random motion produce less still. The results suggest that human MST is strongly specialized for encoding global flow properties, while human MT is less so...
  38. pmc Distinct roles of transcription factors brn3a and brn3b in controlling the development, morphology, and function of retinal ganglion cells
    Tudor C Badea
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Neuron 61:852-64. 2009
    ..These findings reveal distinct roles for Brn3a and Brn3b in programming RGC diversity, and they illustrate the broad utility of germline methods for genetically manipulating and visualizing individual identified mammalian neurons...
  39. ncbi Evidence for activity-dependent cortical wiring: formation of interhemispheric connections in neonatal mouse visual cortex requires projection neuron activity
    Hidenobu Mizuno
    Department of Biophysics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Science, Kitashirakawa Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 27:6760-70. 2007
    ..These results suggest that projection neuron activity plays a crucial role in interhemispheric connection development and that enhanced Kir2.1 activity can affect cortical wiring...
  40. pmc Anterior-posterior direction opponency in the superficial mouse lateral geniculate nucleus
    James H Marshel
    Systems Neurobiology Laboratories, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuron 76:713-20. 2012
    ..Furthermore, they support recent conjecture that cortical direction and orientation selectivity emerge in part from a previously undescribed motion-selective retinogeniculate pathway...
  41. pmc Eye smarter than scientists believed: neural computations in circuits of the retina
    Tim Gollisch
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Visual Coding Group, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Neuron 65:150-64. 2010
    ..Whereas the conventional wisdom treats the eye as a simple prefilter for visual images, it now appears that the retina solves a diverse set of specific tasks and provides the results explicitly to downstream brain areas...
  42. ncbi Neural mechanisms of orientation selectivity in the visual cortex
    D Ferster
    Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:441-71. 2000
    ..The modified feed-forward and the feedback models ascribe fundamentally different functions to cortical processing...
  43. pmc Disinhibition combines with excitation to extend the operating range of the OFF visual pathway in daylight
    Michael B Manookin
    Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    J Neurosci 28:4136-50. 2008
    ..To light increment, the AII circuit would directly inhibit OFF ganglion cells. These results show a new role for disinhibition in the retina and suggest a new role for the AII amacrine cell in daylight vision...
  44. pmc Neuronal mechanisms of visual stability
    Robert H Wurtz
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 49, Rm 2A50, Bethesda, MD 20892 4435, USA
    Vision Res 48:2070-89. 2008
    ..For the second problem, saccadic suppression, visual masking and corollary discharge are well established mechanisms, and possible neuronal correlates have been identified for each...
  45. pmc Network variability limits stimulus-evoked spike timing precision in retinal ganglion cells
    Gabe J Murphy
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Neuron 52:511-24. 2006
    ..Thus, the rod bipolar pathway modulates different RGCs via unique combinations of synaptic input, and RGC temporal variability reflects variability in the input this circuit provides...
  46. ncbi Visuomotor behaviors in larval zebrafish after GFP-guided laser ablation of the optic tectum
    Tobias Roeser
    Department of Physiology and Programs in Neuroscience, Genetics, Developmental Biology, and Human Genetics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0444, USA
    J Neurosci 23:3726-34. 2003
    ....
  47. ncbi Reorganization of visual processing in macular degeneration
    Chris I Baker
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Neurosci 25:614-8. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate large-scale reorganization of visual processing in MD and will likely prove important in any effort to develop new strategies for rehabilitation of MD subjects...
  48. ncbi Population coding of shape in area V4
    Anitha Pasupathy
    Center for Learning and Memory and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nat Neurosci 5:1332-8. 2002
    ..This exemplifies how a multi-peaked neural population response can represent a complex stimulus in terms of its constituent elements...
  49. ncbi Redundancy in the population code of the retina
    Jason L Puchalla
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Neuron 46:493-504. 2005
    ..This high degree of retinal redundancy suggests that design principles beyond coding efficiency may be important at the population level...
  50. pmc The temporal resolution of neural codes: does response latency have a unique role?
    M W Oram
    School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9JU, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 357:987-1001. 2002
    ..These coding issues have implications for our understanding of cognitive models of attention and the roles of executive and slave systems...
  51. pmc Two retinotopic visual areas in human lateral occipital cortex
    Jonas Larsson
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 26:13128-42. 2006
    ..The topography, stimulus selectivity, and anatomical location of LO1 and LO2 indicate that they integrate shape information from multiple visual submodalities in retinotopic coordinates...
  52. ncbi Reading normal and degraded words: contribution of the dorsal and ventral visual pathways
    Laurent Cohen
    Department of Neurology I, AP HP, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47 83 boulevard de l Hopital, Paris Cedex 13, France
    Neuroimage 40:353-66. 2008
    ..Those results clarify when and how the ventral parallel visual word form system needs to be supplemented by the deployment of dorsal serial reading strategies...
  53. pmc The neural substrate of spectral preference in Drosophila
    Shuying Gao
    Unit on Neuronal Connectivity, Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuron 60:328-42. 2008
    ..We propose that Dm8 sacrifices spatial resolution for sensitivity by relaying signals from multiple R7s to projection neurons, which then provide output to higher visual centers...
  54. pmc Cone photoreceptor contributions to noise and correlations in the retinal output
    Petri Ala-Laurila
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:1309-16. 2011
    ..picture emerges: cone noise, traversing the retina through diverse pathways, accounts for most of the noise and correlations in the retinal output and constrains how higher centers exploit signals carried by parallel visual pathways.
  55. pmc Synaptic circuits of the Drosophila optic lobe: the input terminals to the medulla
    Shin Ya Takemura
    Department of Psychology, Life Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
    J Comp Neurol 509:493-513. 2008
    Understanding the visual pathways of the fly's compound eye has been blocked for decades at the second optic neuropil, the medulla, a two-part relay comprising 10 strata (M1-M10), and the largest neuropil in the fly's brain...
  56. pmc Defining the computational structure of the motion detector in Drosophila
    Damon A Clark
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 70:1165-77. 2011
    ..Thus, this computational architecture may be widely used to achieve edge selectivity in motion detection...
  57. pmc Retinotopic organization of human ventral visual cortex
    Michael J Arcaro
    Department of Psychology, Center for the Study of Brain, Mind, and Behavior, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    J Neurosci 29:10638-52. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that ventral visual cortex can be subdivided on the basis of topographic criteria into a greater number of discrete maps than previously thought...
  58. ncbi Structural and functional composition of the developing retinogeniculate pathway in the mouse
    Lisa Jaubert-Miazza
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Vis Neurosci 22:661-76. 2005
    ..These data serve as a working framework for the assessment of phenotypes of genetically altered strains as well as provide some insight as to the molecular mechanisms underlying the refinement of retinogeniculate connections...
  59. ncbi The retinal ganglion cell axon's journey: insights into molecular mechanisms of axon guidance
    Lynda Erskine
    Division of Visual Science, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, 11 43 Bath Street, London, EC1V 9EL, UK
    Dev Biol 308:1-14. 2007
    ....
  60. ncbi Area map of mouse visual cortex
    Quanxin Wang
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Comp Neurol 502:339-57. 2007
    ..The results suggest that large numbers of areas with topologically equivalent maps of the visual field emerge early in evolution and that homologous areas are inherited in different mammalian lineages...
  61. ncbi Anatomical evidence of multimodal integration in primate striate cortex
    Arnaud Falchier
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U371, Cerveau et Vision, 69675 Bron Cedex, France
    J Neurosci 22:5749-59. 2002
    ..Direct projections from auditory and STP cortex to peripheral area 17 have important consequences for higher visual functions of area 17, including multimodal integration at early stages of the visual cortical pathway...
  62. ncbi EphB forward signaling controls directional branch extension and arborization required for dorsal-ventral retinotopic mapping
    Robert Hindges
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, 92037, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuron 35:475-87. 2002
    ..Our data suggest that branches of EphB expressing axons are attracted medially by ephrin-B1, and provide molecular mechanisms for D-V mapping in visual centers...
  63. ncbi Mapping of contralateral space in retinotopic coordinates by a parietal cortical area in humans
    M I Sereno
    Department of Cognitive Science, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0515, USA
    Science 294:1350-4. 2001
    ..This region may correspond to the lateral intraparietal area in macaque monkeys...
  64. ncbi The neural basis of object perception
    Kalanit Grill-Spector
    Department of Psychology, Jordan Hall Building 420, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 13:159-66. 2003
    ....
  65. pmc Mechanisms of face perception
    Doris Y Tsao
    Centers for Advanced Imaging and Cognitive Sciences, Bremen University, D 28334 Bremen, Germany
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:411-37. 2008
    ..We clarify this idea in concrete algorithmic terms and show how it can explain a variety of phenomena associated with face processing...
  66. pmc Laminar restriction of retinal ganglion cell dendrites and axons: subtype-specific developmental patterns revealed with transgenic markers
    In Jung Kim
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    J Neurosci 30:1452-62. 2010
    ..Taking account of these subtype-specific features will facilitate identification of the molecules and cells that regulate arbor formation...
  67. pmc Local dendrodendritic inhibition regulates fast synaptic transmission in visual thalamus
    Shane R Crandall
    Department of Pharmacology, Program in Neuroscience, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Neurosci 32:2513-22. 2012
    ..Furthermore, local stimulation of interneuron dendrites did not result in global excitation, supporting the notion that these interneurons can operate as multiplexors, containing numerous independently operating input-output devices...
  68. ncbi The early maturation of visual cortical area MT is dependent on input from the retinorecipient medial portion of the inferior pulvinar
    Claire E Warner
    Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University, Clayton, 3800 Victoria, Australia
    J Neurosci 32:17073-85. 2012
    ..Furthermore, from soon after birth to adulthood, there was a dynamic shift in the ratio of input from these three structures to area MT, with an increasing dominance of the direct V1 afference...
  69. pmc Cortico-cortical projections in mouse visual cortex are functionally target specific
    Lindsey L Glickfeld
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Neurosci 16:219-26. 2013
    ..Thus, transmission of specific information to downstream targets may be a general feature of cortico-cortical communication...
  70. ncbi Distinct functional properties of primary and posteromedial visual area of mouse neocortex
    Morgane M Roth
    Department of Neurophysiology, Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 32:9716-26. 2012
    ..Together, PM is tuned for cardinal orientations, high SFs, and low speed and is further located between V1 and the retrosplenial cortex consistent with a role in processing natural scenes during spatial navigation...
  71. pmc Neuronal pentraxins mediate synaptic refinement in the developing visual system
    Lisa Bjartmar
    Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6269-81. 2006
    ..We speculate that NPs exert their effects through mechanisms that parallel the known role of short pentraxins outside the CNS...
  72. ncbi Failure to maintain eye-specific segregation in nob, a mutant with abnormally patterned retinal activity
    Jay Demas
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Neuron 50:247-59. 2006
    ..Thus, normally structured spontaneous retinal activity stabilizes newly refined retinogeniculate circuitry...
  73. ncbi The large-scale organization of "visual" streams emerges without visual experience
    Ella Striem-Amit
    Department of Medical Neurobiology, The Institute for Medical Research Israel Canada, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91220, Israel
    Cereb Cortex 22:1698-709. 2012
    ..These results support the view that the brain is organized into task-specific but sensory modality-independent operators...
  74. ncbi The challenges natural images pose for visual adaptation
    Fred Rieke
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Neuron 64:605-16. 2009
    ..Multiple adaptational mechanisms in different locations within the retina act in concert to accomplish this task, with lighting conditions dictating which mechanisms dominate...
  75. pmc Genetic dissection of EphA receptor signaling dynamics during retinotopic mapping
    Nicholas Bevins
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 31:10302-10. 2011
    ....
  76. pmc On the origin of the functional architecture of the cortex
    Dario L Ringach
    Department of Psychology and Neurobiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e251. 2007
    ..The theory's simplicity, explanatory and predictive power makes it a serious candidate for the origin of the functional architecture of primary visual cortex...
  77. ncbi Direction selectivity in the goldfish tectum revisited
    Vadim Maximov
    Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1048:198-205. 2005
    ....
  78. ncbi The representation of Kanizsa illusory contours in the monkey inferior temporal cortex
    Gy Sáry
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Eur J Neurosci 28:2137-46. 2008
    ..These results reveal differences in processing for Kanizsa figures and shapes having real contours in the monkey inferotemporal cortex...
  79. ncbi The extent of the dorsal extra-striate deficit in amblyopia
    A J Simmers
    McGill Vision Research, McGill University, Montreal, Que, Canada
    Vision Res 46:2571-80. 2006
    ....
  80. ncbi Tactile spatial working memory activates the dorsal extrastriate cortical pathway in congenitally blind individuals
    D Bonino
    Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Pisa, Via San Zeno, 61, I 56127 Pisa, Italy
    Arch Ital Biol 146:133-46. 2008
    ....
  81. pmc Does the middle temporal area carry vestibular signals related to self-motion?
    Syed A Chowdhury
    Department of Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 29:12020-30. 2009
    ..Thus, the robust vestibular signals observed in area MSTd do not arise through inputs from area MT...
  82. pmc Retinal input influences the size and corticocortical connectivity of visual cortex during postnatal development in the ferret
    A S Bock
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 1525, USA
    J Comp Neurol 520:914-32. 2012
    ..These results indicate that the critical period during which the eyes influence the development of callosal patterns, but not the size of visual cortex, ends by P20 in the ferret...
  83. ncbi Visual activity and cortical rewiring: activity-dependent plasticity of cortical networks
    Sam H Horng
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Prog Brain Res 157:3-11. 2006
    ..We review the molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms of visual "rewiring" and activity-dependent shaping of cortical networks...
  84. ncbi Distinct spatial frequency sensitivities for processing faces and emotional expressions
    Patrik Vuilleumier
    Laboratory for Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Geneva Medical Center, 1 Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 6:624-31. 2003
    ..An activation of pulvinar and superior colliculus by fearful expressions occurred specifically with low-frequency faces, suggesting that these subcortical pathways may provide coarse fear-related inputs to the amygdala...
  85. ncbi The cortical connections of area V6: an occipito-parietal network processing visual information
    C Galletti
    Dipartimento di Fisiologia Umana e Generale, Universita di Bologna, I 40127 Bologna, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 13:1572-88. 2001
    ....
  86. ncbi BOLD responses in the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat viewing an apparent motion stimulus
    Condon Lau
    Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Neuroimage 58:878-84. 2011
    ..This work represents the first fMRI study of stimulus speed dependence in the SC and is also the first fMRI study of motion responsiveness in the rat...
  87. pmc A comparison of visual responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus of alert and anaesthetized macaque monkeys
    Henry J Alitto
    Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, CA 95618, USA
    J Physiol 589:87-99. 2011
    ....
  88. ncbi Transforming vision into action
    Melvyn A Goodale
    Centre for Brain and Mind, Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada
    Vision Res 51:1567-87. 2011
    ..A new model of the functional organization of the visual pathways in the primate cerebral cortex has emerged, one that posits a division of labor between vision-for-action (..
  89. ncbi Cytoarchitectonic analysis of the human extrastriate cortex in the region of V5/MT+: a probabilistic, stereotaxic map of area hOc5
    Aleksandar Malikovic
    C and O Vogt Institute for Brain Research, Heinrich Heine University, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 17:562-74. 2007
    ..This hypothesis was supported by comparing the cytoarchitectonic probabilistic map with results from a functional imaging study...
  90. ncbi Heparan sulfate sugar modifications mediate the functions of slits and other factors needed for mouse forebrain commissure development
    Christopher D Conway
    Genes and Development Group, Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 31:1955-70. 2011
    ..At the corpus callosum we find that Hs6st1 has Slit-independent functions and our data indicate additional roles in FGF signaling...
  91. ncbi Audition differently activates the visual system in neonatally enucleated mice compared with anophthalmic mutants
    Nicole Chabot
    Departement de Psychologie, and Groupe de Recherche en Neurosciences, Université de Québec à Trois Rivières, Trois Rivieres, Quebec, G9A 5H7, Canada
    Eur J Neurosci 26:2334-48. 2007
    ..None was found in controls with intact eyes. We suggest that the prenatal period of spontaneous retinal activity shapes the differences of the sensory reorganization in mice...
  92. pmc Development of single retinofugal axon arbors in normal and β2 knock-out mice
    Onkar S Dhande
    Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neurosci 31:3384-99. 2011
    ..In β2(-/-) mice, we found that retinofugal single axon arbors are well ramified but enlarged, particularly in the SC, indicating that activity-dependent visual map development occurs through the refinement of individual RGC arbors...
  93. pmc Specificity of neuronal responses in primary visual cortex is modulated by interhemispheric corticocortical input
    Kerstin E Schmidt
    Max Planck Research Group Cortical Function and Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Deutschordenstraße 46, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 20:2776-86. 2010
    ..In conclusion, our results support the view that interhemispheric interactions mainly perform integrative functions similar to those of connections intrinsic to one hemisphere...
  94. pmc Distinct visual pathways mediate Drosophila larval light avoidance and circadian clock entrainment
    Alex C Keene
    Department of Biology, Center for Developmental Genetics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 6688, USA
    J Neurosci 31:6527-34. 2011
    ..Our findings provide insights into the coding of sensory information for distinct behavioral functions and the underlying molecular and neuronal circuitry...
  95. pmc Cholinergic circuits integrate neighboring visual signals in a Drosophila motion detection pathway
    Shin Ya Takemura
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Life Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4R2
    Curr Biol 21:2077-84. 2011
    ..We propose that Tm2 integrates sign-conserving inputs from neighboring columns to mediate the detection of front-to-back motion generated during forward motion...
  96. pmc Reorganization of visual processing in macular degeneration: replication and clues about the role of foveal loss
    Chris I Baker
    Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, Room 4C104, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vision Res 48:1910-9. 2008
    ..We conclude that large-scale reorganization of visual processing in MD occurs only in the complete absence of functional foveal vision...
  97. pmc Filtering of visual information in the tectum by an identified neural circuit
    Filippo Del Bene
    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Science 330:669-73. 2010
    ..Photo-ablation of these cells with KillerRed, or silencing of their synaptic transmission, eliminates the size tuning of deeper layers and impairs the capture of prey...
  98. pmc Central gating of fly optomotor response
    Juergen Haag
    Department of Systems and Computational Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20104-9. 2010
    ..While head movements of flies have only a small amplitude when flies are at rest, the response amplitude is increased by a factor of 30-40 during flight...
  99. ncbi The neural mechanisms of perceptual filling-in
    Hidehiko Komatsu
    National Institute for Physiological Sciences and Graduate University for Advanced Studies SOKENDAI, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:220-31. 2006
    ..The evidence shows that neuronal activities in early visual cortical areas are involved in filling-in, providing new insights into visual cortical functions...
  100. pmc Six different roles for crossover inhibition in the retina: correcting the nonlinearities of synaptic transmission
    Frank S Werblin
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Vis Neurosci 27:1-8. 2010
    ..In some cases, crossover extends the operating range of cone-driven OFF ganglion cells into the scotopic levels. Crossover inhibition is also found in neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus and V1...
  101. ncbi Lack of patchy horizontal connectivity in primary visual cortex of a mammal without orientation maps
    Stephen D Van Hooser
    Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, USA
    J Neurosci 26:7680-92. 2006
    ..Receptive field response classes are quite similar across mammals, and therefore patchy and columnar connectivity may not be essential for these properties...

Research Grants66

  1. SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IN VISUAL THALAMUS
    RAINER GUILLERY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..For the visual pathways, the primary relay from the retina is in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, which sends ..
  2. Novel Clinical and Ocular Imaging Outcomes with Long-Term Follow-Up in MS
    Laura Balcer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The anterior visual pathways, including the optic nerves, retina, chiasm, and tracts, are frequent sites for inflammation and ..
  3. EXPERIMENTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEURAL PATHWAYS
    Martha Constantine Paton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and circuit refinement during development of central visual pathways. Understanding these mechanisms is cru- cial to facilitating recovery of functional vision following early ..
  4. Vision Sciences Training Grant
    Carol A Mason; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Training focuses on analysis of the visual pathways from retina to brain, and cellular, molecular and genetic aspects of the normal and diseased eye, in both ..
  5. TRP channel expression and function in ON-bipolar cells
    Robert M Duvoisin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cells, respond with opposite polarity to glutamate released by photoreceptors, thus establishing the opposing visual pathways. The basis of signaling in OFF-bipolar cells, which relies on the activation of ionotropic glutamate ..
  6. Delivery of Channel Rhodopsin for Optogenetic Control of Neurons in the Cochlea
    Daniel J Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neurons using a viral vector and has been used successfully in many systems, including the CNS and in the visual pathways. Optogenetic control of auditory pathways through transduction of SGCs has not yet been reported...
  7. DEVELOPMENTAL REGULATION OF GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR FUNCTION
    MARTHA NA CONSTANTINE-PATON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This research uses rodent visual pathways and focuses on the membrane associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKS), SAP102 and PSD-95...
  8. CORE GRANT FOR VISION RESEARCH
    Christopher W Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..are oculomotor processing, binocular vision and its dynamics, cortical organization and development of the visual pathways, vision in the aging eye, object recognition and computational vision for the disabled, and rehabilitation ..
  9. Trigeminal-autonomic relations in ocular homeostasis
    David A Bereiter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Bright light-evoked Vc/C1 neural activity required a relay in accessory visual pathways, increased PaNS outflow to the eye and transmission through the trigeminal ganglion...
  10. Cortical Structure and Function in Blindness and following Restored Vision
    Geoffrey Karl Aguirre; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..RELEVANCE: In response to early visual loss, both structural and functional changes occur in the brain's visual pathways, which may be the basis for compensatory nonvisual skills...
  11. Role of TSC Proteins in Neuronal Polarity and Axon Guidance
    Mustafa Sahin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Ultimately, our work will determine the role of TSC proteins in neuronal network formation by examining the visual pathways in Tsc-deficient mice - the best-studied and most accessible axon pathway in the central nervous system...
  12. Development of Visual Pathways
    Hwai Jong Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The understanding of basic developmental neurobiology gained from these experiments may someday help in the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. ..
  13. GENES AND VISUAL PIGMENTS OF RED-GREEN COLOR VISION
    MAUREEN E NEITZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Exciting technological advances reinvigorate the need to understand the circuitry of visual pathways in order to identify the best light-sensitivity-restoring therapeutic strategies and the most effective ..
  14. Photoperiod affects retinal function
    Chad R Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, non-image forming visual pathways have recently started to be elucidated but are still poorly understood...
  15. Understanding feature-based auditory-visual interactions.
    Satoru Suzuki; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Auditory signals influence neural activation throughout the visual pathways including in the mid brain and primary visual cortex...
  16. Signal Transfer in the Tectothalamic Pathway
    Martha E Bickford; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Parallel visual pathways from the retina to the cortex, via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) or via the superior colliculus (SC) and pulvinar nucleus, likely serve distinct functions in the ..
  17. OPTICAL AND NEURAL CHANGES IN THE AGING VISUAL SYSTEM
    John S Werner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This research builds on a program demonstrating that age-related losses in the visual pathways have a profound effect on early stage processing but are compensated to a surprising degree to maintain ..
  18. Signaling mechanisms of retinal bipolar cells
    Catherine W Morgans; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..respond with opposite polarity to glutamate released by photoreceptors, thus establishing the opposing visual pathways that are maintained throughout the rest of the visual system...
  19. VISION SCIENCE RESEARCH CENTER
    Steven J Pittler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..involved in anatomical, biochemical, physiological, and psychophysical studies of the retina and central visual pathways. Other areas of research include myopia, biochemistry of the lens and cornea, and vitreous biochemistry...
  20. P-30 Core Grant for Vision Research
    David H Brainard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..degeneration, retinal circuitry, gene therapy, cell and molecular biology, molecular genetics, eye, central visual pathways and cortical physiology, visual performance and cortical function in awake-behaving primates, cognitive ..
  21. Prefrontal -> Top Down Contribution to Object Recognition
    Moshe Bar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition the proposed examination of the cortical visual pathways will enhance our understanding of visual impairments such as visual agnOSia and anomia, prosopagnosia and ..
  22. GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF LOCAL CIRCUIT ORGANIZATION
    Charles A Greer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..subpopulations of neurons and their synaptic circuits underlies functional specificity, as is evident in the visual pathways mediating low versus high resolution images...
  23. DNA nanoparticle formulations for optimal ocular gene delivery
    Muna I Naash; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..also conduct toxicology and DNA biodistribution studies in baboons, including a detailed evaluation of brain visual pathways. Building on the documented ability of the current NP formulation to penetrate deep retinal layers, we ..
  24. SHORT TERM TRAINING IN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS
    Laura J Frishman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..error, 3) ocular surface 3) oculomotor systems;4) structure and function in normal and diseased eyes and visual pathways;5) visual cell and molecular biology 6) clinical optometry;7) spatial vision, 8) binocular vision...
  25. Development of the Human Visual Pathways.
    Brian A Wandell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. optic neuritis or multiple sclerosis) progression, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapies. ..
  26. Neural Organization of Inner Retina
    DENNIS MICHAEL DACEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However the identity of the neural cell types, visual pathways and the underlying synaptic mechanisms for macular spatial and color-coding are poorly understood...
  27. Instrument for Glaucoma Early Detection and Monitoring
    GEORGE Z HU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..on recording the visual evoked potential from the surface of the head, to assess the integrity of select visual pathways known to be affected by the disease process of glaucoma...
  28. Transgenic/Molecular Approaches for Ocular Albinism
    Debora Farber; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Genetic mutations that alter ocular pigmentation produce abnormalities within the developing retina and visual pathways that cause permanent visual impairment...
  29. VISUAL NEUROSCIENCE TRAINING PROGRAM
    Steven C McLoon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Relevance: The retina and central visual pathways share many common features in terms of development, organization and function with the rest of the nervous ..
  30. Effects of Blindness on Human Early Visual Pathways
    Ione Fine; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have been well studied in animal models, much less is known about the effects of blindness on human early visual pathways. Understanding the effects of visual deprivation on early visual pathways in humans is important for two ..
  31. Plasticity from predictive coding of object states in visual cortex
    NICHOLAS CARL HINDY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The findings will help us to understand plasticity in visual pathways both in the normal brain, as well as during recovery and rehabilitation from deprivation and brain damage.
  32. Multimodal Imaging of Spatiotemporal Integration in the Human Visual System
    Jonathan A Winawer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test hypotheses about how these receptive fields are organized throughout the visual pathways, characterizing differences between central and peripheral cortical representations and between early and ..
  33. Multimodal Imaging of Spatiotemporal Integration in the Human Visual System
    Jonathan A Winawer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test hypotheses about how these receptive fields are organized throughout the visual pathways, characterizing differences between central and peripheral cortical representations and between early and ..
  34. A System for Study of Pediatric Visual Pathways
    Anne Fulton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    A System for Study of the Pediatric Visual Pathways is requested by a group of Pediatric Ophthalmologists and Neonatal Neurologists...
  35. CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL PROCESSES IN VISUAL ADAPTATION
    Steven K Shevell; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Psychophysical measurements of color and brightness will test alternative theories. Quantitative modeling will incorporate characteristics of visual pathways from physiological studies.
  36. RESEARCH TRAINING IN VISUAL NEUROSCIENCE
    JOHN HR MAUNSELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Training focuses on the study of visual pathways from retina to brain, and cellular, molecular and developmental neurobiology of the visual system...
  37. STUDIES OF HUMAN PIGMENTATION DISORDERS
    Richard Spritz; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..characterized by greatly reduced pigmentation of the skin and eyes, major developmental defects of the visual pathways and consequent low visual acuity, susceptibility to skin cancer, and various other problems...
  38. Development of a Neurotransmitter Based Epiretinal Prosthesis
    Paul Finlayson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, current technology cannot selectively stimulate specific types of visual pathways (e.g. ON and OFF channels) within the visual system via electrical stimulation...
  39. NMDA EFFECTS ON DEVELOPING VISUAL SYNAPSES
    Martha Constantine Paton; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..synaptic and biochemical interactions that mediate activity- dependent competition in all vertebrate central visual pathways. Understanding these interactions will ultimately be crucial to the development of effective clinical ..
  40. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF VISUAL PATHWAYS
    J Anthony Movshon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  41. Prenatal Development of Visual System
    W Martin Usrey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..function, intrinsic physiological properties and morphological differences associated with these distinct visual pathways. The proposed research program will break new ground by increasing our understanding of the mechanisms ..
  42. MONKEY MODEL FOR INFANTILE APHAKIA/AMBLYOPIA TREATMENT
    RONALD BOOTHE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The results will provide direct information about alterations in the central visual pathways of monkeys following early visual deprivation that can also be extrapolated to human infants with aphakic ..
  43. CONTROL OF RETINAL GENES BY THE OPTIC NERVE ENVIRONMENT
    J H Skene; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: A hallmark of visual development is the dramatic loss of plasticity in the primary visual pathways that follows initial axon outgrowth and the dynamic sorting out synaptic connections...
  44. PREGENICULATE NUCLEUS IN VISUAL/OCULOMOTOR CONTROL
    Christine Livingston; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..g. reading). Damage to the central nervous system or errors in the development of the visual pathways can result in deficits in the visual- oculomotor system and an inability to direct gaze accurately...
  45. A vision neural prosthesis based upon intra-cortical micro-stimulation using an a
    Bradley Greger; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This vision prosthesis will bypass damage sections of the visual pathways and provide visual input to patients by sending signals from a video camera directly to the vision processing ..
  46. Superior colliculus participation in rat vibrissa sensorimotor loops
    MARIE HEMELT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..While studies of visual pathways involving the superior colliculus have yielded promising results relating to sensorimotor processing and ..
  47. CONNECTIONS OF EXTRAGENICULATE VISUAL PATHWAYS
    Joseph Weber; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..to use modern neurtoanatomical methods to analyze, in significant detail, the organization of extrageniculate visual pathways in mammals...
  48. TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL OF EYE DEVELOPMENT
    Eseng Lai; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..applicant's abstract): Understanding the molecular mechanisms which control the development of the eye and visual pathways will serve as the foundation for the development of novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of ..
  49. S CONE RESPONSES AND NEURAL PATHWAYS FOR ACCOMODATION
    FRANCES RUCKER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..function, and to produce computer-generated images that drive accommodation and isolate cone classes or visual pathways. The program will prepare the student to meet these goals through a series of graduate courses and seminars, ..
  50. VESTIBULAR/VISUAL INTERACTIONS DURING COMPENSATION
    ADRIAN PERACHIO; Fiscal Year: 2000
    The purpose of the proposed research is to examine the role of specific visual pathways in the recovery of vestibulo-ocular and vestibular neuronal responsiveness following unilateral labyrinth lesions...
  51. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAMMALIAN VISUAL SYSTEM
    DOUGLAS FROST; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..of single neurons receiving the anomalous visual input and the retinotopic organization of the ectopic visual pathways will also be studied electrophysiologically...
  52. Functional significance of parallel sensory pathways in the rat vibrissal system.
    Blythe Towal; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recent studies have demonstrated similarities between the rat vibrissal (trigeminal) sensory pathways and visual pathways that could expand the vibrissal system as a model for visual sensory processing...
  53. Impact of Somatosensory Input in Auditory Processing
    Charles Schroeder; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..of whether auditory and somatosensory systems have "what" and "where" divisions like those proposed for the visual pathways. Anatomical tracer studies, in conjunction with standard multiunit/single unit mapping procedures in ..
  54. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF GLOBAL MOTION ANALYSIS
    Philip Ulinski; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The proposed research takes advantage of the relative simplicity of the central visual pathways in turtles and a powerful in vitro preparation of turtle visual cortex to provide initial quantitative data ..
  55. OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF CHROMATIC PATHWAYS IN AGING
    MICHAEL CROGNALE; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..agent in the visual evoked potential (VEP) in response to stimuli that preferentially activate different visual pathways, and 2) to establish a normative database for the aging population with which to compare those suspected of ..
  56. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF VISUAL PATHWAYS
    Peter Lennie; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The overall aim of the work proposed here is to understand how central visual pathways analyze information about the chromatic and spatial properties of objects. Three major projects are proposed...
  57. MECHANISMS MEDIATING SUBCORTICAL ORIENTATION SENSITIVITY
    AUDIE LEVENTHAL; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..broad, long-term objectives are to increase our understanding of the functional organization of the visual pathways. The aims of Experiment I and II are to study the retinal, cortical, and intrageniculate contributions to the ..
  58. Diagnostic Aid Software for Visual Field Test
    DARIUSZ WROBLEWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Visual Field (VF) test is a widely used, noninvasive technique for evaluating pathology or dysfunction in the visual pathways. The VF test, in conjunction with other diagnostics, is used for detection of early stages of glaucoma and for ..
  59. Diagnostic aid software for the visual field test
    DARIUSZ WROBLEWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Visual field (VF) test is a widely used, noninvasive technique for evaluating pathology or dysfunction in the visual pathways. The VF test, in conjunction with other diagnostics, is used for detection of laucoma and for following its ..
  60. MODIFIABILITY OF PREATTENTIONAL PROCESSES
    Michael Carlin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These dimensions are believed to be processed by separate precortical visual pathways (e.g...
  61. DEVELOPMENT OF CENTRAL VISUAL PATHWAYS
    James Wilson; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..We anticipate that these data will provide important insignts into the mechanisms whereby the environment interacts with the developing, neuroplastic visual system...
  62. PARALLEL PATHWAYS IN VISUAL PROCESSING AND DEVELOPMENT
    PETER SPEAR; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The first approach is to use monoclonal antibodies as molecular markers for studies of the visual pathways. During the current grant period, we have generated eight monoclonal antibodies that bind selectively to ..
  63. DEGRADATION OF CORTICAL FUNCTION IN SENESCENT MONKEYS
    AUDIE LEVENTHAL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Much of this decline is associated with neuronal changes in the central visual pathways. The purpose of this proposal is, for the first time A highly experienced, productive, and innovative ..
  64. EXCITABILITY OF VISUAL PATHWAYS
    MORRIS CRAWFORD; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..To describe the role of opponent and non-opponent neurons in spectral sensitivity; and d. To describe and compare the absolute quantum threshold of neurons with that of behavior. ..
  65. NEW APPROACHES IN VISION RESEARCH
    Erich Harth; Fiscal Year: 1980
    The function of individual neurons in visual pathways is investigated by use of new techniques and instrumentation developed in this laboratory...
  66. Visual Dysfunction in Retinal Degenerations
    Kenneth R Alexander; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....