myelin sheath

Summary

Summary: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Biology of oligodendrocyte and myelin in the mammalian central nervous system
    N Baumann
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 495, Biology of Neuron Glia Interactions, Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France
    Physiol Rev 81:871-927. 2001
  2. ncbi Remyelination in the CNS: from biology to therapy
    Robin J M Franklin
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:839-55. 2008
  3. ncbi Myelination and support of axonal integrity by glia
    Klaus Armin Nave
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hermann Rein Strasse 3, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 468:244-52. 2010
  4. ncbi A role for humoral mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Devic's neuromyelitis optica
    Claudia F Lucchinetti
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Brain 125:1450-61. 2002
  5. ncbi The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and disease
    Ben A Barres
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 60:430-40. 2008
  6. ncbi Demyelination increases radial diffusivity in corpus callosum of mouse brain
    Sheng Kwei Song
    Department of Radiology, Biomedical MR Laboratory, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuroimage 26:132-40. 2005
  7. ncbi Multiple sclerosis: an immune or neurodegenerative disorder?
    Bruce D Trapp
    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:247-69. 2008
  8. pmc Autoimmune T cell responses in the central nervous system
    Joan Goverman
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7650, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:393-407. 2009
  9. ncbi LINGO-1 is a component of the Nogo-66 receptor/p75 signaling complex
    Sha Mi
    Department of Discovery Biology, Biogen Idec, Inc, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nat Neurosci 7:221-8. 2004
  10. ncbi Control of peripheral nerve myelination by the beta-secretase BACE1
    Michael Willem
    Adolf Butenandt Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory for Alzheimer s and Parkinson s Disease Research, Schillerstrasse 44, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Science 314:664-6. 2006

Detail Information

Publications329 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Biology of oligodendrocyte and myelin in the mammalian central nervous system
    N Baumann
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 495, Biology of Neuron Glia Interactions, Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France
    Physiol Rev 81:871-927. 2001
    ..There is also a remarkable plasticity of the oligodendrocyte lineage, even in the adult with a certain potentiality for myelin repair after experimental demyelination or human diseases...
  2. ncbi Remyelination in the CNS: from biology to therapy
    Robin J M Franklin
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:839-55. 2008
    ..The mechanisms of remyelination therefore provide critical clues for regeneration biologists that help them to determine why remyelination fails in MS and in other demyelinating diseases and how it might be enhanced therapeutically...
  3. ncbi Myelination and support of axonal integrity by glia
    Klaus Armin Nave
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hermann Rein Strasse 3, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 468:244-52. 2010
    ..and mouse genetics have provided insight into axon-glia signalling and the molecular architecture of the myelin sheath. Glial cells that myelinate axons were found to have a dual role by also supporting the long-term integrity of ..
  4. ncbi A role for humoral mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Devic's neuromyelitis optica
    Claudia F Lucchinetti
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Brain 125:1450-61. 2002
    ..Based on this study, future therapeutic strategies designed to limit the deleterious effects of complement activation, eosinophil degranulation and neutrophil/macrophage/microglial activation are worthy of further investigation...
  5. ncbi The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and disease
    Ben A Barres
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 60:430-40. 2008
    ..I argue that until the roles of nonneuronal cells are more fully understood and considered, neurobiology as a whole will progress only slowly...
  6. ncbi Demyelination increases radial diffusivity in corpus callosum of mouse brain
    Sheng Kwei Song
    Department of Radiology, Biomedical MR Laboratory, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuroimage 26:132-40. 2005
    ..Radial diffusivity offers a specific assessment of demyelination and remyelination, as distinct from acute axonal damage...
  7. ncbi Multiple sclerosis: an immune or neurodegenerative disorder?
    Bruce D Trapp
    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:247-69. 2008
    ....
  8. pmc Autoimmune T cell responses in the central nervous system
    Joan Goverman
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7650, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:393-407. 2009
    ..This Review focuses on recent progress in delineating the pathogenic mechanisms, regulation and interplay between these different T cell subsets in CNS autoimmunity...
  9. ncbi LINGO-1 is a component of the Nogo-66 receptor/p75 signaling complex
    Sha Mi
    Department of Discovery Biology, Biogen Idec, Inc, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nat Neurosci 7:221-8. 2004
    ..This effect on neurons was mimicked using an exogenously added human LINGO-1-Fc fusion protein. Together these observations suggest that LINGO-1 has an important role in CNS biology...
  10. ncbi Control of peripheral nerve myelination by the beta-secretase BACE1
    Michael Willem
    Adolf Butenandt Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory for Alzheimer s and Parkinson s Disease Research, Schillerstrasse 44, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Science 314:664-6. 2006
    ..Thus, BACE1 is required for myelination and correct bundling of axons by Schwann cells, probably through processing of type III NRG1...
  11. ncbi Peripheral regeneration
    Zu Lin Chen
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 30:209-33. 2007
    ..We describe the current understanding of peripheral axon regeneration and focus on the molecules and potential mechanisms involved in remyelination...
  12. pmc Regulation of oligodendrocyte development and myelination by glucose and lactate
    Johanne E Rinholm
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology, and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Neurosci 31:538-48. 2011
    ....
  13. pmc The energetics of CNS white matter
    Julia J Harris
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 32:356-71. 2012
    ..Finally, we show that mitochondria in optic nerve axons could sustain measured firing rates with a plausible density of glucose transporters in the nodal membrane, without the need for energy transfer from oligodendrocytes...
  14. pmc Impaired adult myelination in the prefrontal cortex of socially isolated mice
    Jia Liu
    Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 15:1621-3. 2012
    ..Thus, myelinating oligodendrocytes in the adult PFC respond to social interaction with chromatin changes, suggesting that myelination acts as a form of adult plasticity...
  15. pmc Neurite outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-A establishes spatial segregation and extent of oligodendrocyte myelination
    S Y Christin Chong
    Department of Neurology and Program in Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:1299-304. 2012
    ..Maximizing the myelinogenic potential of oligodendrocytes may offer an effective strategy for repair in future therapies for demyelination...
  16. ncbi Negative regulation of myelination: relevance for development, injury, and demyelinating disease
    Kristjan R Jessen
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Glia 56:1552-65. 2008
    ..In neuropathies, however, activation of these pathways is likely to be harmful because they may be key contributors to demyelination, a situation which would open new routes for clinical intervention...
  17. ncbi Ndrg1 in development and maintenance of the myelin sheath
    Rosalind H M King
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London NW3 2PF, UK
    Neurobiol Dis 42:368-80. 2011
    ..Impaired SC trafficking failing to meet the considerable demands of nerve growth, emerges as the likely pathogenetic mechanism in NDRG1 deficiency...
  18. ncbi Delayed transplantation of adult neural precursor cells promotes remyelination and functional neurological recovery after spinal cord injury
    Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Toronto Western Research Institute, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2S8, Canada
    J Neurosci 26:3377-89. 2006
    ..Our data provide strong evidence in support of the feasibility of adult NPCs for cell-based remyelination after SCI...
  19. ncbi Why is Wallerian degeneration in the CNS so slow?
    Mauricio E Vargas
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 30:153-79. 2007
    ..Here we review current work on the mechanisms of WD with an emphasis on deciphering this mystery and on understanding whether slow WD in the CNS could account for the failure of CNS axons to regenerate...
  20. ncbi Myelin-laden macrophages are anti-inflammatory, consistent with foam cells in multiple sclerosis
    Leonie A Boven
    Department of Immunology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Brain 129:517-26. 2006
    ..These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of lesion control and may open new roads to intervention...
  21. ncbi Remyelination protects axons from demyelination-associated axon degeneration
    K A Irvine
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, MS Society Cambridge Centre for Myelin Repair, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OES, UK
    Brain 131:1464-77. 2008
    ..Our results support the concept that prompt remyelination protects axons from demyelination-associated axonal loss and that remyelination failure contributes to the axon loss that occurs in multiple sclerosis...
  22. ncbi Mechanisms of axon ensheathment and myelin growth
    Diane L Sherman
    Centre for Neuroscience Research, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:683-90. 2005
    ..nervous systems in vertebrates has been accompanied by, and probably dependent on, the acquisition of the myelin sheath. Although there has been substantial progress in our understanding of the factors that determine glial cell ..
  23. ncbi Regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination
    Ben Emery
    Centre for Neuroscience and Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Level 2, Alan Gilbert Building, The University of Melbourne, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia
    Science 330:779-82. 2010
    ..Studies have also demonstrated an unexpected level of plasticity of myelin in the adult CNS. These recent advances provide new insight into how remyelination may be stimulated in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis...
  24. pmc Myelin gene regulatory factor is a critical transcriptional regulator required for CNS myelination
    Ben Emery
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5125, USA
    Cell 138:172-85. 2009
    ..These findings establish MRF as a critical transcriptional regulator essential for oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination...
  25. ncbi Myelin impairs CNS remyelination by inhibiting oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation
    Mark R Kotter
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:328-32. 2006
    ..These data identify myelin as an inhibitor of remyelination as well as its well documented inhibition of axon regeneration...
  26. ncbi Oligodendrocytes and myelination: the role of iron
    Bozho Todorich
    Department of Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Glia 57:467-78. 2009
    ..It is the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive overview of the existing literature on role of iron in oligodendrocytes and the mechanisms of iron acquisition and intracellular handling...
  27. pmc Control of local protein synthesis and initial events in myelination by action potentials
    Hiroaki Wake
    Nervous System Development and Plasticity Section, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 333:1647-51. 2011
    ..domains between oligodendrocytes and axons, and increasing local synthesis of the major protein in the myelin sheath, myelin basic protein, through Fyn kinase-dependent signaling...
  28. pmc Signals to promote myelin formation and repair
    Carla Taveggia
    Division of Neuroscience and INSPE, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, DIBIT, Milan, Italy
    Nat Rev Neurol 6:276-87. 2010
    The myelin sheath wraps large axons in both the CNS and the PNS, and is a key determinant of efficient axonal function and health. Myelin is targeted in a series of diseases, notably multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  29. ncbi Active induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
    Ingunn M Stromnes
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Box 357650, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195 7650, USA
    Nat Protoc 1:1810-9. 2006
    ..However, more diverse clinical signs can occur in certain strain/antigen combinations in rodents and in other species, reflecting increased inflammation in the brain...
  30. pmc Functional dissection of the Oct6 Schwann cell enhancer reveals an essential role for dimeric Sox10 binding
    Noorjahan B Jagalur
    Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands
    J Neurosci 31:8585-94. 2011
    ....
  31. ncbi Is the magnetization transfer ratio a marker for myelin in multiple sclerosis?
    Irene M Vavasour
    Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    J Magn Reson Imaging 33:713-8. 2011
    ..The MTR has been proposed as a marker for myelin in central nervous system tissue. However, changes in WC due to inflammation and edema may also affect the MTR...
  32. pmc What is the optimal value of the g-ratio for myelinated fibers in the rat CNS? A theoretical approach
    Taylor Chomiak
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    PLoS ONE 4:e7754. 2009
    ..This is, however, hardly surprising given that in the CNS, axonal myelination must achieve multiple goals including reducing conduction delays, promoting conduction fidelity, lowering energy costs, and saving space...
  33. ncbi Enhancing remyelination in disease--can we wrap it up?
    Mark R Kotter
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, MRC Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Box 167, Hills Road, Cambridge CB22QQ, UK
    Brain 134:1882-900. 2011
    ..We propose a model that may help to provide cues for how remyelination can be therapeutically enhanced in clinical disease...
  34. pmc Dicer1 and miR-219 Are required for normal oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination
    Jason C Dugas
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5125, USA
    Neuron 65:597-611. 2010
    ..Together, these findings show that miR-219 plays a critical role in coupling differentiation to proliferation arrest in the OL lineage, enabling the rapid transition from proliferating OPCs to myelinating OLs...
  35. pmc Disruption of Mtmr2 produces CMT4B1-like neuropathy with myelin outfolding and impaired spermatogenesis
    Alessandra Bolino
    Dulbecco Telethon Institute, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy
    J Cell Biol 167:711-21. 2004
    ..We propose that Schwann cell-autonomous loss of Mtmr2-Dlg1 interaction dysregulates membrane homeostasis in the paranodal region, thereby producing outfolding and recurrent loops of myelin...
  36. ncbi LINGO-1 antagonist promotes spinal cord remyelination and axonal integrity in MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Sha Mi
    Biogen Idec Inc, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nat Med 13:1228-33. 2007
    Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are characterized by the loss of the myelin sheath around neurons, owing to inflammation and gliosis in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  37. ncbi An animal model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B1
    Sonja Bonneick
    Institute of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland
    Hum Mol Genet 14:3685-95. 2005
    ..Mainly, paranodal regions of the myelin sheath were affected, with a high degree of quantitative and qualitative variability between individuals...
  38. ncbi A central role for the ERK-signaling pathway in controlling Schwann cell plasticity and peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo
    Ilaria Napoli
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and the UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Neuron 73:729-42. 2012
    ..This reversible in vivo model identifies a central role for ERK signaling in Schwann cells in orchestrating nerve repair and is a powerful system for studying peripheral neuropathies and cancer...
  39. ncbi Molecular mechanisms regulating myelination in the peripheral nervous system
    Jorge A Pereira
    Institute of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Trends Neurosci 35:123-34. 2012
    ....
  40. pmc Assessing the role of the cadherin/catenin complex at the Schwann cell-axon interface and in the initiation of myelination
    Kathryn A Lewallen
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Neurosci 31:3032-43. 2011
    ..myelination is more severely delayed than when manipulating N-cadherin alone, but without any defect to the myelin sheath. Together, our results suggest that N-cadherin interacts with β-catenin in establishing SC polarity and the ..
  41. ncbi Sox10 is required for Schwann-cell homeostasis and myelin maintenance in the adult peripheral nerve
    Magdalena Bremer
    Institut fur Biochemie, Emil Fischer Zentrum, Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Glia 59:1022-32. 2011
    ..Our report is the first evidence that Sox10 is still essentially required for Schwann-cell function in the adult PNS and establishes a useful model in which to study human peripheral neuropathies...
  42. pmc Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS
    Stephen P J Fancy
    Institute for Regeneration Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Genes Dev 23:1571-85. 2009
    ..Evidence of Wnt pathway activity in human MS lesions suggests that its dysregulation might contribute to inefficient myelin repair in human neurological disorders...
  43. pmc Fingolimod (FTY720) enhances remyelination following demyelination of organotypic cerebellar slices
    Veronique E Miron
    Neuroimmunology Unit, McGill University, Montreal Neurological Institute, 3801 University St, Montreal, QC, Canada, H3A 2B4
    Am J Pathol 176:2682-94. 2010
    ....
  44. ncbi Axonal neuregulin-1 regulates myelin sheath thickness
    Galin V Michailov
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Science 304:700-3. 2004
    ..We suggest a model by which myelin-forming Schwann cells integrate axonal Nrg1 signals as a biochemical measure of axon size...
  45. pmc Retinoid X receptor gamma signaling accelerates CNS remyelination
    Jeffrey K Huang
    MRC Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Neurosci 14:45-53. 2011
    ..Our results indicate that RXR-γ is a positive regulator of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and remyelination and might be a pharmacological target for regenerative therapy in the CNS...
  46. ncbi Differentiation block of oligodendroglial progenitor cells as a cause for remyelination failure in chronic multiple sclerosis
    T Kuhlmann
    Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Domagkstr 19, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Brain 131:1749-58. 2008
    ..In summary, we provide evidence that a differentiation block of oligodendroglial progenitors is a major determinant of remyelination failure in chronic multiple sclerosis lesions...
  47. ncbi Magnetization transfer and multicomponent T2 relaxation measurements with histopathologic correlation in an experimental model of MS
    P J Gareau
    John P Robarts Research Institute, London Health Sciences Center, University Campus, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5K8
    J Magn Reson Imaging 11:586-95. 2000
    ..Pathologic features other than demyelination may be important in the determination of the MTR...
  48. ncbi From axon-glial signalling to myelination: the integrating role of oligodendroglial Fyn kinase
    Eva Maria Krämer-Albers
    Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Bentzelweg 3, Mainz, Germany
    Cell Mol Life Sci 68:2003-12. 2011
    ..Here, we review oligodendroglial Fyn signalling and discuss the role of Fyn in axon-glia interaction mediating myelination...
  49. ncbi Myelin-associated inhibitors of axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian CNS
    Marie T Filbin
    Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:703-13. 2003
  50. ncbi Bace1 modulates myelination in the central and peripheral nervous system
    Xiangyou Hu
    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:1520-5. 2006
    ..We show here that Bace1 regulates the process of myelination and myelin sheath thickness in the central and peripheral nerves...
  51. pmc White matter lesions impair frontal lobe function regardless of their location
    M Tullberg
    Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA
    Neurology 63:246-53. 2004
    ....
  52. pmc A G protein-coupled receptor is essential for Schwann cells to initiate myelination
    Kelly R Monk
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 325:1402-5. 2009
    The myelin sheath allows axons to conduct action potentials rapidly in the vertebrate nervous system...
  53. ncbi The neurotoxicant, cuprizone, as a model to study demyelination and remyelination in the central nervous system
    G K Matsushima
    UNC Neuroscience Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    Brain Pathol 11:107-16. 2001
    ..g. available knockouts or transgenics on the common genetic background, or pharmacological treatments) which may accelerate or repress the process of demyelination and or remyelination...
  54. ncbi erbb3 and erbb2 are essential for schwann cell migration and myelination in zebrafish
    David A Lyons
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Curr Biol 15:513-24. 2005
    ..Previous studies have not determined whether Nrg-ErbB signaling is essential in vivo for Schwann cell fate specification, proliferation, survival, migration, or the onset of myelination...
  55. ncbi Neuron-glia communication in the control of oligodendrocyte function and myelin biogenesis
    Mikael Simons
    Centre for Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University of Gottingen, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    J Cell Sci 119:4381-9. 2006
    ..These interconnections at multiple levels show how neurons and glia cooperate to build a complex network during development...
  56. ncbi Promotion of central nervous system remyelination by induced differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells
    Sha Mi
    Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Ann Neurol 65:304-15. 2009
    ..In this study, we test the ability of anti-LINGO-1 reagents to promote myelination in vitro and remyelination in the rodent adult central nervous system in vivo...
  57. ncbi Arrest of myelination and reduced axon growth when Schwann cells lack mTOR
    Diane L Sherman
    Centre for Neuroregeneration, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 32:1817-25. 2012
    ..The myelin sheath in the mutant was much thinner than normal; nevertheless, sheath thickness relative to axon diameter (g-ratio) ..
  58. ncbi Dissecting mechanisms of myelinated axon formation using zebrafish
    Tim Czopka
    Centre for Neuroregeneration, University of Edinburgh, Chancellor s Building, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, UK
    Methods Cell Biol 105:25-62. 2011
    The myelin sheath is an essential component of the vertebrate nervous system, and its disruption causes numerous diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), and neurodegeneration...
  59. ncbi CXCR4 signaling regulates remyelination by endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in a viral model of demyelination
    Kevin S Carbajal
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, California, USA
    Glia 59:1813-21. 2011
    ..These findings highlight the possibility to manipulate OPCs in order to increase the pool of remyelination-competent cells that can participate in recovery...
  60. ncbi Remyelination is extensive in a subset of multiple sclerosis patients
    Peter Patrikios
    Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Brain 129:3165-72. 2006
    ..These results suggest that the variable and patient-dependent extent of remyelination must be considered in the design of future clinical trials aimed at promoting CNS repair...
  61. ncbi Insights into brain microstructure from the T2 distribution
    Alex MacKay
    Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Magn Reson Imaging 24:515-25. 2006
    ..A strong correlation between MWF and the optical density from the luxol fast blue histological stain for myelin was observed in formalin-fixed brain, supporting the use of the MWF as an in vivo myelin marker...
  62. ncbi Myelin water imaging of multiple sclerosis at 7 T: correlations with histopathology
    Cornelia Laule
    Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Neuroimage 40:1575-80. 2008
    ..7 T imaging will allow detailed assessment of myelin pathology to a degree not possible with lower field strengths...
  63. pmc Specific functions for ERK/MAPK signaling during PNS development
    Jason M Newbern
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Neuron 69:91-105. 2011
    ..Our data suggest a tight linkage between developmental functions of ERK/MAPK signaling and biological actions of specific RTK-activating factors...
  64. ncbi Disruption of neurofascin localization reveals early changes preceding demyelination and remyelination in multiple sclerosis
    O W Howell
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, London, UK
    Brain 129:3173-85. 2006
    ..conduction in the nervous system is enabled through the intimate association between the leading edge of the myelin sheath and the axonal membrane to demarcate the node of Ranvier...
  65. ncbi Embryonic stem cell-derived glial precursors: a source of myelinating transplants
    O Brüstle
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn Medical Center, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Science 285:754-6. 1999
    ..Thus, ES cells can serve as a valuable source of cell type-specific somatic precursors for neural transplantation...
  66. pmc Peripheral nerve demyelination caused by a mutant Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor, frabin/FGD4
    Claudia Stendel
    Institute of Cell Biology, ETH Zurich, Schafmattstrasse 18, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Am J Hum Genet 81:158-64. 2007
    ..These data, together with the ability of frabin to induce Cdc42-mediated cell-shape changes in transfected Schwann cells, suggest that Rho GTPase signaling is essential for proper myelination of the peripheral nervous system...
  67. ncbi Elevated phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in glia triggers cell-autonomous membrane wrapping and myelination
    Sandra Goebbels
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany or
    J Neurosci 30:8953-64. 2010
    ..That myelin synthesis is not restricted to early development but can occur later in life is relevant to developmental disorders and myelin disease...
  68. pmc Kif1b is essential for mRNA localization in oligodendrocytes and development of myelinated axons
    David A Lyons
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Nat Genet 41:854-8. 2009
    ..Our data demonstrate previously unknown functions of kif1b in vivo and provide insights into its possible roles in MS...
  69. ncbi Disruption of Cnp1 uncouples oligodendroglial functions in axonal support and myelination
    Corinna Lappe-Siefke
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, D 37075 Goettingen, Germany
    Nat Genet 33:366-74. 2003
    ..Oligodendrocyte dysfunction, such as that in multiple sclerosis lesions, may suffice to cause secondary axonal loss...
  70. ncbi Pals1 is a major regulator of the epithelial-like polarization and the extension of the myelin sheath in peripheral nerves
    Murat Ozcelik
    Institute of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 30:4120-31. 2010
    Diameter, organization, and length of the myelin sheath are important determinants of the nerve conduction velocity, but the basic molecular mechanisms that control these parameters are only partially understood...
  71. ncbi High cholesterol level is essential for myelin membrane growth
    Gesine Saher
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, 37075 Goettingen, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 8:468-75. 2005
    ..This shows that cholesterol is an indispensable component of myelin membranes and that cholesterol availability in oligodendrocytes is a rate-limiting factor for brain maturation...
  72. pmc Analysis of congenital hypomyelinating Egr2Lo/Lo nerves identifies Sox2 as an inhibitor of Schwann cell differentiation and myelination
    Nam Le
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8118, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2596-601. 2005
    ..The characterization of a mouse model of CHN has provided insight into Schwann cell differentiation and allowed the identification of Sox2 as a negative regulator of myelination...
  73. pmc Distinct stages of myelination regulated by gamma-secretase and astrocytes in a rapidly myelinating CNS coculture system
    Trent A Watkins
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Fairchild Science Building D235, Stanford, CA 94305 5125, USA
    Neuron 60:555-69. 2008
    ..These insights illustrate the value of this defined system for investigating multiple aspects of CNS myelination...
  74. pmc Reduced BACE1 activity enhances clearance of myelin debris and regeneration of axons in the injured peripheral nervous system
    Mohamed H Farah
    Departments of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurosci 31:5744-54. 2011
    ..These observations were reproduced in part by pharmacological inhibition of BACE1. These data suggest BACE1 inhibition as a therapeutic approach to accelerate regeneration and recovery after peripheral nerve damage...
  75. pmc c-Jun is a negative regulator of myelination
    David B Parkinson
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, England, UK
    J Cell Biol 181:625-37. 2008
    ..Negative regulation of myelination is likely to have significant implications for three areas of Schwann cell biology: the molecular analysis of plasticity, demyelinating pathologies, and the response of peripheral nerves to injury...
  76. ncbi Myelination and the trophic support of long axons
    Klaus Armin Nave
    Klaus Armin Nave is at the Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Herrmann Rein Strasse 3, D 37075 Goettingen, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:275-83. 2010
    ..This glial support of axonal integrity may be relevant for a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases...
  77. ncbi Novel signals controlling embryonic Schwann cell development, myelination and dedifferentiation
    Rhona Mirsky
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK
    J Peripher Nerv Syst 13:122-35. 2008
    ....
  78. ncbi Immunopathology of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis
    J W Prineas
    Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Ann Neurol 50:646-57. 2001
    ....
  79. ncbi Myelin basic protein-diverse conformational states of an intrinsically unstructured protein and its roles in myelin assembly and multiple sclerosis
    George Harauz
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Biophysics Interdepartmental Group, University of Guelph, Room 230, Axelrod Building, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ont, Canada N1G 2W1
    Micron 35:503-42. 2004
    The 18.5 kDa isoform of myelin basic protein (MBP) is a major component of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system of higher vertebrates, and a member of a larger family of proteins with a multiplicity of forms and post-..
  80. pmc Adult ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2)-deficient mice exhibit myelin sheath defects, cerebellar degeneration, and hepatocarcinomas
    Silke Imgrund
    Institute of Genetics, Division of Molecular Genetics, University of Bonn, Romerstrasse 164, 53117 Bonn, Germany
    J Biol Chem 284:33549-60. 2009
    ..Our results indicate that CERS2 activity supports different biological functions: maintenance of myelin, stabilization of the cerebellar as well as renal histological architecture, and protection against hepatocarcinomas...
  81. pmc MicroRNA-mediated control of oligodendrocyte differentiation
    Xianghui Zhao
    Department of Developmental Biology and Kent Waldrep Foundation Center for Basic Neuroscience Research on Nerve Growth and Regeneration, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Neuron 65:612-26. 2010
    ..These findings illustrate that miRNAs are important regulators of oligodendrocyte differentiation, providing new targets for myelin repair...
  82. ncbi In vivo time-lapse imaging shows dynamic oligodendrocyte progenitor behavior during zebrafish development
    Brandon B Kirby
    Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, 465 21st Avenue South, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:1506-11. 2006
    ....
  83. pmc NGF controls axonal receptivity to myelination by Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes
    Jonah R Chan
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Fairchild Science Building D235, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 43:183-91. 2004
    ..These findings indicate a novel role for growth factors in regulating the receptivity of axons to myelination and reveal that different axonal signals control central and peripheral myelination...
  84. ncbi Dicer in Schwann cells is required for myelination and axonal integrity
    Jorge A Pereira
    Institute of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule ETH Zurich, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 30:6763-75. 2010
    ..Thus, our data indicate that miRNAs critically regulate Schwann cell gene expression that is required for myelination and to maintain axons via axon-glia interactions...
  85. ncbi Progeny of Olig2-expressing progenitors in the gray and white matter of the adult mouse cerebral cortex
    Leda Dimou
    Department of Physiological Genomics, Institute of Physiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
    J Neurosci 28:10434-42. 2008
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate the continuous generation of mature, myelinating oligodendrocytes in the WM, whereas cells in the GM generated mostly postmitotic NG2(+) glia...
  86. ncbi Axonal swellings and degeneration in mice lacking the major proteolipid of myelin
    I Griffiths
    Applied Neurobiology Group, Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, Scotland, UK
    Science 280:1610-3. 1998
    ..Thus, fiber degeneration, which was probably secondary to impaired axonal transport, could indicate that myelinated axons require local oligodendroglial support...
  87. ncbi Astrocytes, but not olfactory ensheathing cells or Schwann cells, promote myelination of CNS axons in vitro
    Annette Sorensen
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Glasgow, Beatson Institute, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Glia 56:750-63. 2008
    ..These data suggest OECs can permit neurite extension and oligodendrocyte proliferation, but lack secreted factor(s) and possible cell-cell contact that is necessary for oligodendrocyte process extension and myelination...
  88. ncbi Cells of the oligodendroglial lineage, myelination, and remyelination
    Veronique E Miron
    Center for Regenerative Medicine, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1812:184-93. 2011
    ..All currently approved MS therapies are aimed at dampening the immune response and are not directly targeting neural processes...
  89. pmc Myelin activates FAK/Akt/NF-kappaB pathways and provokes CR3-dependent inflammatory response in murine system
    Xin Sun
    W M Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9380. 2010
    ....
  90. pmc Identification of a pathogenic antibody response to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in multiple sclerosis
    Dun Zhou
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19057-62. 2006
    ..Because of its location on the outer surface of the myelin sheath and its pathogenicity in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, myelin oligodendrocyte ..
  91. ncbi Myelin-phagocytosing macrophages in isolated sciatic and optic nerves reveal a unique reactive phenotype
    Denise van Rossum
    Institute for Neuropathology, University of Gottingen, D 37075, Gottingen, Germany
    Glia 56:271-83. 2008
    ..Nerve-exposed macrophages thus commit to a unique functional orientation...
  92. pmc CXCR4 promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors and remyelination
    Jigisha R Patel
    Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11062-7. 2010
    ..These data indicate that CXCR4 activation, by promoting the differentiation of OPCs into oligodendrocytes, is critical for remyelination of the injured adult CNS...
  93. pmc Guidance molecules in axon regeneration
    Roman J Giger
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2200, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a001867. 2010
    ..Anatomical growth often correlates with improved behavioral outcomes. Challenges ahead include testing whether some of the most promising treatment strategies in animal models are also beneficial for human patients suffering from SCI...
  94. ncbi Interactions between Schwann cells and macrophages in injury and inherited demyelinating disease
    Rudolf Martini
    Department of Neurology, Developmental Neurobiology, University of Wuerzburg, Josef Schneider Strabetae 11, Wuerzburg, Germany
    Glia 56:1566-77. 2008
    ..Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying Schwann cell-macrophage interaction under pathological conditions is an important prerequisite to develop effective treatment strategies for various peripheral nerve disorders...
  95. pmc A dual role of erbB2 in myelination and in expansion of the schwann cell precursor pool
    A N Garratt
    Max Delbrück Centrum for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin, Germany
    J Cell Biol 148:1035-46. 2000
    ..The thickness of the myelin sheath is determined by the axon diameter, and we suggest that trophic signals provided by the nerve determine the ..
  96. ncbi IFN-gamma shapes immune invasion of the central nervous system via regulation of chemokines
    E H Tran
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Immunol 164:2759-68. 2000
    ..These findings show a regulatory role for IFN-gamma in EAE, acting on T cell proliferation and directing chemokine production, with profound implications for the onset and progression of disease...
  97. pmc Genetic deletion of BACE1 in mice affects remyelination of sciatic nerves
    Xiangyou Hu
    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    FASEB J 22:2970-80. 2008
    ..Pharmacological inhibition of BACE1 should be carefully monitored to avoid alteration of signaling pathway that regulates remyelination...
  98. ncbi Toll-like receptor signaling is critical for Wallerian degeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury
    Audrey Boivin
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Ste Foy, Quebec, Canada G1V 4G2
    J Neurosci 27:12565-76. 2007
    ..Our results provide strong evidence that TLR signaling plays a critical role in orchestrating the innate immune response leading to efficient and rapid clearance of inhibitory myelin debris and nerve regeneration...
  99. ncbi Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells enhances peripheral nerve regeneration after microsurgical nerve repair
    Christine Radtke
    Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience and Regeneration Research, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Brain Res 1254:10-7. 2009
    ..Even a modest improvement in nerve regeneration could have significant clinical implications for reconstructive nerve surgery...
  100. ncbi Glia unglued: how signals from the extracellular matrix regulate the development of myelinating glia
    Holly Colognato
    Department of Pharmacology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
    Dev Neurobiol 71:924-55. 2011
    ..the myelinating glia of the PNS and CNS, respectively, as well as in the construction and maintenance of the myelin sheath itself...
  101. ncbi Periaxin, a novel protein of myelinating Schwann cells with a possible role in axonal ensheathment
    C S Gillespie
    Department of Biological and Molecular Sciences, University of Stirling, Scotland
    Neuron 12:497-508. 1994
    ....

Research Grants64

  1. INTERFERON GAMMA EFFECTS ON OLIGODENDROCYTES
    BRIAN J POPKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..likely display enhanced sensitivity to such disruptions because of their primary role in the generation of the myelin sheath. The studies described in the current proposal are designed to further characterize this potentially important ..
  2. Role of axoglial CAMs in the organization of myelinated axons
    Elior Peles; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The myelin sheath covers the axon in segments that are separated by the nodes of Ranvier...
  3. MOLECULAR AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF GPR126 IN PERIPHERAL NERVE.
    Kelly R Monk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..peripheral nervous system, specialized cells called Schwann cells spiral themselves around axons to form the myelin sheath. Myelin ensures that nerve impulses travel quickly and efficiently, ultimately allowing for the entire nervous ..
  4. Genetic dissection of the role of macrophages in axonal myelination in zebrafish
    Celia E Shiau; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Myelinating glial cells wrap axons with the myelin sheath and thereby allow for fast axonal conduction...
  5. A human neuron/oligodendrocyte co-culture model to study myelination
    Bridget Shafit-Zagardo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sclerosis (MS) is the long-term survival and integrity of neurons and oligodendrocytes, and maintenance of the myelin sheath. Over time, the progressive nature of MS results in a chronic disease course with permanent axonal damage, ..
  6. Myelin Composition Influence on Bilayer Interactions in Multiple Sclerosis
    Jacob N Israelachvili; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have observed using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA), which appear to be related to the delamination of the myelin sheath. We hypothesize that the interactions between the cytoplasmic sides of the membranes are due primarily to ..
  7. Long term consequences of white matter damage by perinatal hyperoxia.
    Vittorio Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the overall hypothesis that delayed WM development after neonatal HO leads to persistent abnormalities in myelin sheath formation, axonal conduction and functional behavior...
  8. Autoantibody Arrays Guide Tolergenic Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
    Lawrence Steinman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have already shown promising clinical and pre- clinical results with tolerization to these components of the myelin sheath. Both tolerization to proteins and to lipids ameliorates paralysis in EAE...
  9. Role of FGF-Signaling in Myelinogenesis
    Rashmi Bansal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..uncovered a previously unrecognized function of FGFR1/2 signaling in OLs that contributes to the regulation of myelin sheath thickness and suggests that initial ensheathment of axons and subsequent myelin growth is likely to be ..
  10. Protection against acute inflammatory demyelinating peripheral nerve disease
    EVAN STUBBS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Cellular immunity directed against specific constituents of the peripheral nerve myelin sheath is considered causal in AIDP...
  11. Ocular HSV: Role of virus and IL-2 in Optic neuritis
    Homayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One of the major diseases associated with degradation of the myelin sheath is multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  12. Mining the Multiple Sclerosis miRNome for Disease Markers
    Amy E Lovett Racke; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease that destroys the myelin sheath around axons, resulting in impaired nerve conduction and functional loss...
  13. Next Generation Neutron Diffraction Detector for Neuroscience
    W B FELLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by the progressive disruption and breakdown with partial or attempted re-formation of the highly ordered myelin sheath. The ability to accurately measure these extremely subtle features of myelin, enabled by the new NOVA ..
  14. Functional Invitro CNS and PNS Myelination Model
    Stephen Lambert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) Correlate the functional consequences of demyelination with structural changes in the myelin sheath. 3) Use the hybrid system chip to monitor functional recovery associated with remyelination in vitro...
  15. Quantifying Demyelination and Axonal Loss with Diffusion MRI
    SUNGHEON GENE KIM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our modeling suggests that 1) the tortuosity [unreadable] correlates strongly with the thickness of the myelin sheath, and 2) AWF correlates strongly with the axonal density...
  16. Morphometric and physiologic analyses of the mammalian low frequency sound locali
    ARMIN HARRY SEIDL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Instead of axon length, conduction velocity parameters such as axon diameter, myelin sheath thickness and internode distances may provide significant and systematic functional variations toward creating ..
  17. Regulation of Schwann cell ensheathment and myelination by type III Neuregulin 1
    James Salzer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Relevance: These studies seek to identify signals that promote myelin sheath formation, the cellular insulation that surrounds nerve fibers and is critical for their proper function and ..
  18. Molecular Control of Na+ Channel Density and Localization in Myelinated Axons
    Lori L Isom; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..identified, a detailed understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying communication between the axon and the myelin sheath is essential to the future development of novel therapeutic regimens for Multiple Sclerosis...
  19. The role of focal adhesion kinase in CNS myelination
    Audrey D Lafrenaye; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The formation of the myelin sheath is a crucial step during development allowing for efficient conduction velocities to occur in the limited space of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS)...
  20. Probing Contactin Functions in Central Myelin
    Barbara Ranscht; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..probe for additional functions of oligodendrocyte Contactin in precursor maturation, axon-glia communication, myelin sheath extension and maintenance of central myelin by selective ablation of Contactin in the oligodendrocyte lineage ..
  21. Genetic mechanisms of myelination in zebrafish
    William S Talbot; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells form the myelin sheath that wraps axons and allows for the rapid transmission of action potentials...
  22. Mechanisms of CNS node of Ranvier formation
    Matthew N Rasband; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..system requires both myelination and the high-density clustering of voltage-gated ion channels at gaps in the myelin sheath called nodes of Ranvier...
  23. Development of lipid therapeutics for fatty acid 2-hydroxylase deficiency
    Hiroko Hama; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the cause of disease has recently been identified: the patients lack a type of fatty acids that make up myelin sheath. The goal of this project is to develop therapeutics to provide the missing fatty acids to patients'..
  24. Immunotherapy Induced Regulation of Demyelinating Disease
    ANDREW FARLEY TYLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system characterized by loss of the myelin sheath surrounding nerve processes, leading to impaired conduction and permanent disability...
  25. ZFP191 control of the myelination program of oligodendrocytes
    BRIAN J POPKO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, we will determine if the continued expression of this protein is required for the maintenance of the myelin sheath, and we will also assess if this protein has a similar essential function in the remyelination process...
  26. Determining the mechanisms that regulate neurofascin155 distribution in myelin
    Jeffrey L Dupree; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Neurofascin155 (NF155) accumulates in that lateral edges of the myelin sheath and tethers the sheath to the axon by binding the neuronal heterodimer of contactin/caspr...
  27. DTI as a tool to identify infants with Krabbe Disease in need of urgent treatment
    Maria L Escolar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Once the myelin sheath is destroyed, severe degeneration of mental and motor skills ensue...
  28. Pathology of dysmyelination and demyelination
    Jack Rosenbluth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The paranodal junction (PNJ) is a crucial component of myelinated nerve fibers responsible for attaching the myelin sheath to the axon, restricting short-circuiting of nodal action currents under the myelin sheath, segregating nodal ..
  29. Role of ERK1/ERK2 MAP Kinase in Myelin Assembly and Maintenance
    Rashmi Bansal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Wrapping of the myelin sheath around axons by oligodendrocytes (OLs) is critical for the rapid conduction of electrical signals that are required for normal functioning of the CNS...
  30. mTOR complexes in oligodendrocyte differentiation
    STACEY ELIZABETH CIFELLI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Oligodendrocytes envelop axons with a myelin sheath in the central nervous system to facilitate action potential conduction...
  31. Role of Necl-4 Complex PNS Myelination
    XIAOSONG MENG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..1G and its association with spectrin and the actin cytoskeleton, thereby promoting long-term viability of the myelin sheath. Understanding the functional role of the Necl-4 complex could yield new insight into the molecular mechanisms ..
  32. Buprenorphine effects on oligodendrocyte development and axonal growth
    Carmen Sato Bigbee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Moreover, these axons were characterized by having a disproportionately thinner myelin sheath. Based on these observations, this proposal is based on the central hypothesis that perinatal exposure to ..
  33. PD-Ialpha/ATX's role for forebrain oligodendrocyte specification and migration
    Babette Fuss; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for stimulating CNS-resident neural stem/progenitor cells for repair of the CNS and in particular the myelin sheath that is a prerequisite for fast and efficient nerve conduction...
  34. Transcriptional control of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination
    MENSHENG QIU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypothesis that persistent expression of Sox10 in mature OLs functions to maintain myelin gene expression and myelin sheath stability. The interplay of Sox10 and Nkx2...
  35. Actomyosin motors and Mechanism of Myelin Formation
    Carmen V Melendez Vasquez; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The myelin sheath forms by the spiral wrapping of a glial membrane around an axon. The;mechanisms responsible for this process are unknown but are likely to involve changes in the glial cell cytoskeleton...
  36. TOOLS TO ENHANCE STUDY OF REMAK SCHWANN CELLS
    Kelly R Monk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Myelinating Schwann cells iteratively wrap their membrane around a single axonal segment to generate the myelin sheath, while Remak Schwann cells envelop multiple small caliber axons...
  37. Molecular Analysis of Genes Uniquely Expressed by Encephalitogenic T Cells
    Amy E Lovett-Racke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HEALTH RELEVANCE: Project Narrative Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease that destroys the myelin sheath around axons, resulting in impaired nerve conduction and functional loss...
  38. ASSEMBLY OF A NEURAL PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEOLIPID
    Victor Sapirstein; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Moreover, its associated with the myelin sheath suggest that not only may it be involved in the integrity of myelin but the abnormalities in the assembly of ..
  39. Feasibility of Direct Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Myelin
    Felix W Wehrli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Virtually all current, noninvasive, methods for evaluating the integrity of the myelin sheath rely on indirect measures, principally magnetization transfer and myelin water fraction...
  40. Mechanisms in CNS myelination: Role of PD-Ialpha/ATX
    Babette Fuss; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Unfortunately endogenous repair of the myelin sheath is limited within the CNS and currently no remyelination-promoting therapies exist, despite the fact that ..
  41. ROLE OF NERVOUS SYSTEM MAST CELLS IN DEMYELINATION
    David Johnson; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..inflammation, invasion of the nervous tissue by cells of the immune system, and specific attack on the myelin sheath. It is not clear what the initial lesion is, how cells are attracted to the myelin, or how they cross the ..
  42. Myelin Biogenesis: Vesicle Transport in Oligodendrocytes
    JORGE LAROCCA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Myelin is a highly specialized multilamellar structure that surrounds axon segments. The integrity of the myelin sheath is essential for normal conduction...
  43. BIOSYNTHESIS AND ASSEMBLY OF MYELIN MEMBRANE PROTEINS
    David Colman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Ultimately, we want to understand how the myelin sheath acquires its extraordinary morphology, and so provide the groundwork for understanding a wide variety of de- and dysmyelinating disease states, such as Multiple Sclerosis, Guillain-..
  44. The Role of Connexin32 in the Pathogenesis of CMTX
    Steven Scherer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..that mutations cause CMTX, that Cx32 is localized to incisures and paranodes (regions of the Schwann cell (SC) myelin sheath that are composed on non-compact myelin) and that the SC myelin sheath contains functional gap junctions...
  45. Molecular pathology of deafness due to mutation in PMP22
    MARGARET KOVACH; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The myelin sheath acts as an insulator of the electrical signal that is transmitted through nerve cells, and it is thought that ..
  46. Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blockers as New Therapeutics for Multiple Sclerosis
    Heike Wulff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..4 million people in the US and more than 2 million worldwide. Memory T cells specific for components of the myelin sheath appear to be crucial for the pathogenesis of MS. With the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1...
  47. Multimodal multiphoton imaging of nervous system ex vivo and in vivo
    Ji Xin Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..two laser scanning microscopes, we have demonstrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of myelin sheath, sum frequency generation imaging of astroglial processes, and two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging of ..
  48. COMPARATIVE CYTOLOGY OF NERVE AND MUSCLE TISSUES
    Jack Rosenbluth; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..the structural basis for attachment of the myelin sheath to the axon in the paranodal region...
  49. Axonal degeneration can trigger demyelinating disease
    Ikuo Tsunoda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The axon is wrapped by the myelin sheath, which is required for efficient nerve conduction...
  50. Demyelinating Disease-Viral and Cellular Function
    Xuming Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This finding leads us to hypothesize that MHV infection in the CNS results in the destruction of the myelin sheath by direct viral killing of oligodendrocytes...
  51. FOLATE AND B12 IN NUTRITIONAL ANEMIAS--DIETARY CONTROL
    DONALD HORNE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..generate methyl groups for methylation reactions essential for synthesis of choline, a major component of the myelin sheath, and biogenic amines...
  52. MYELIN PROTEIN ZERO--MECHANISMS OF MEMBRANE ADHESION
    David Colman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Protein zero (P-0, mw = 28,500) is the major adhesive glycoprotein of the myelin sheath in the mammalian peripheral nervous system...
  53. A Macedonian Center for Ultrastructural Studies in Schizophrenia
    Gorazd Rosoklija; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..frequencies of morphological types of spines in frontal cortex and subiculum, and measures of axonal and myelin sheath diameters in optic nerve, corpus callosum, and cingulum bundle...
  54. CONNEXIN32 MUTATIONS IN CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH-X DISEASE
    LINDA MUSIL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..that are thought to affect its ability to mediate the radial diffusion of substances through the Schwann cell myelin sheath. CMTX is genetically as well as phenotypically heterogeneous: over 200 different defects in the coding region ..
  55. ROLE OF CEREBROSIDE SYNTHESIS IN DEVELOPING BRAIN
    E Costantino Ceccarini; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..play a role in the expression of the activity of UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyltransferase, and 3) the rat myelin sheath, as well as isolated axolemma-enriched fractions, contains UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyltransferase...
  56. Tissue Imaging Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
    ROBERT COOKS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The aim is to map the distribution of lipids characteristic of the myelin sheath in healthy mice and in animals with neural degenerative disease...
  57. REGULATION OF MYELIN BASIC PROTEIN GENE EXPRESSION
    Shohreh Amini; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..critical for cell type-specific transcription of the MBP gene which encodes the major protein component of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  58. ROLES OF SCIP AND KROX-20 IN MYELINATION
    Steven Scherer; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..stage, when myelinating Schwann cells have ensheathed axons in a 1:1 manner but have not yet elaborated a myelin sheath. In SCIP-null mice, Schwann cells are transiently arrested at this stage, whereas in Krox-20-null mice, ..
  59. CNS myelination--role of phosphodiesterase-I/autotaxin
    Babette Fuss; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Since repair of the myelin sheath under such pathological conditions still remains limited, yet to be characterized molecular mechanisms are ..
  60. MR of post traumatic axonal de- and regeneration
    David Hackney; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..process suggest that anisotropy is a consequence of diffusion barriers posed by the axon surface membrane and myelin sheath and that the diameter of the axons is an important parameter in determining white matter (WM) ADC...
  61. BP RECOGNITION BY T CELLS MEDIATING EAE
    ABIGAIL BUENAFE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..EAE can be actively induced by immunization with components of the myelin sheath such as myelin basic protein (BP) or proteolipid protein (PLP) and can also be induced by passive transfer of ..
  62. Cytoplasmic transport of mRNAs in the myelin sheath
    David Colman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..D. students on state-of-the-art techniques that are currently not established at their home institute, thus representing a valuable contribution ..
  63. EXPRESSION OF THE MYELIN BASIC PROTEIN GENE
    CARMIE PUCKETT; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..is a complex developmental process seen only in the nervous system, whereby a specialized glial membrane, the myelin sheath, is elaborated around axons...
  64. ASSEMBLY AND MAINTENANCE OF THE MYELIN SHEATH
    Pierre Morell; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The myelin sheath of the central nervous system is a compositionally and structurally modified extension of the surface membrane of the oligodendroglial cell...