prefrontal cortex

Summary

Summary: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and limbic system as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function
    E K Miller
    Center for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:167-202. 2001
  2. pmc Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex
    Amit Etkin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 15:85-93. 2011
  3. pmc Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia
    Amit Etkin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Rd, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:1476-88. 2007
  4. ncbi The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control
    K Richard Ridderinkhof
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Science 306:443-7. 2004
  5. ncbi Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex
    Adam R Aron
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Downing Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Trends Cogn Sci 8:170-7. 2004
  6. pmc The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: version III--the final common pathway
    Oliver D Howes
    Positron Emission Tomography PET Psychiatry Group, Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London W12 0NN, UK
    Schizophr Bull 35:549-62. 2009
  7. ncbi Empathy for pain involves the affective but not sensory components of pain
    Tania Singer
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, 12 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR London, UK
    Science 303:1157-62. 2004
  8. pmc Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans
    Nathaniel D Daw
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London UCL, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Nature 441:876-9. 2006
  9. pmc Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression
    Wayne C Drevets
    Section on Neuroimaging in Mood and Anxiety Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health NIH NIMH DIRP, 15K North Dr, Room 210, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain Struct Funct 213:93-118. 2008
  10. ncbi Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control
    John G Kerns
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Science 303:1023-6. 2004

Detail Information

Publications360 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function
    E K Miller
    Center for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:167-202. 2001
    The prefrontal cortex has long been suspected to play an important role in cognitive control, in the ability to orchestrate thought and action in accordance with internal goals. Its neural basis, however, has remained a mystery...
  2. pmc Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex
    Amit Etkin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 15:85-93. 2011
    ..Moreover, this new framework is broadly consistent with emerging data on other negative and positive emotions...
  3. pmc Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia
    Amit Etkin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Rd, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:1476-88. 2007
    ..The authors also compared these deficits to the neural systems engaged during anticipatory anxiety in healthy subjects...
  4. ncbi The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control
    K Richard Ridderinkhof
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Science 306:443-7. 2004
    ..Emerging evidence points to functional interactions between the pMFC and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), so that monitoring-related pMFC activity serves as a signal that engages regulatory processes in the ..
  5. ncbi Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex
    Adam R Aron
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Downing Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Trends Cogn Sci 8:170-7. 2004
    It is controversial whether different cognitive functions can be mapped to discrete regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
  6. pmc The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: version III--the final common pathway
    Oliver D Howes
    Positron Emission Tomography PET Psychiatry Group, Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London W12 0NN, UK
    Schizophr Bull 35:549-62. 2009
    ..Future drug development and research into etiopathogenesis should focus on identifying and manipulating the upstream factors that converge on the dopaminergic funnel point...
  7. ncbi Empathy for pain involves the affective but not sensory components of pain
    Tania Singer
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, 12 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR London, UK
    Science 303:1157-62. 2004
    ..We conclude that only that part of the pain network associated with its affective qualities, but not its sensory qualities, mediates empathy...
  8. pmc Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans
    Nathaniel D Daw
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London UCL, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Nature 441:876-9. 2006
    ..In contrast, regions of striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex exhibit activity characteristic of an involvement in value-based exploitative decision making...
  9. pmc Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression
    Wayne C Drevets
    Section on Neuroimaging in Mood and Anxiety Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health NIH NIMH DIRP, 15K North Dr, Room 210, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain Struct Funct 213:93-118. 2008
    ..These networks involve the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and closely related areas in the medial and caudolateral orbital cortex (medial prefrontal network), ..
  10. ncbi Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control
    John G Kerns
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Science 303:1023-6. 2004
    ..controlling for repetition effects, we demonstrate that ACC conflict-related activity predicts both greater prefrontal cortex activity and adjustments in behavior, supporting a role of ACC conflict monitoring in the engagement of ..
  11. pmc Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: relation to a default mode of brain function
    D A Gusnard
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4259-64. 2001
    Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is among those brain regions having the highest baseline metabolic activity at rest and one that exhibits decreases from this baseline across a wide variety of goal-directed behaviors in functional imaging ..
  12. pmc Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion
    A J Blood
    Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:11818-23. 2001
    ..and arousal, including ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex. These brain structures are known to be active in response to other euphoria-inducing stimuli, such as food, ..
  13. pmc Temporal dynamics and genetic control of transcription in the human prefrontal cortex
    Carlo Colantuoni
    Section on Neuropathology, Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program, IRP, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 478:519-23. 2011
    ..function and ageing, we explore the temporal dynamics and genetic control of transcription in human prefrontal cortex in an extensive series of post-mortem brains from fetal development through ageing...
  14. pmc Parvalbumin neurons and gamma rhythms enhance cortical circuit performance
    Vikaas S Sohal
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 459:698-702. 2009
    ....
  15. ncbi The principal features and mechanisms of dopamine modulation in the prefrontal cortex
    Jeremy K Seamans
    Department of Physiology, MUSC, 173 Ashley Avenue, Suite 403, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Prog Neurobiol 74:1-58. 2004
    Mesocortical [corrected] dopamine (DA) inputs to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) play a critical role in normal cognitive process and neuropsychiatic pathologies...
  16. pmc Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: neuroimaging findings and clinical implications
    Rita Z Goldstein
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 12:652-69. 2011
    ..However, imaging studies in addictive behaviours have identified a key involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) both through its regulation of limbic reward regions and its involvement in higher-order executive ..
  17. pmc Medial prefrontal cortex as an action-outcome predictor
    William H Alexander
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:1338-44. 2011
    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and especially anterior cingulate cortex is central to higher cognitive function and many clinical disorders, yet its basic function remains in dispute...
  18. ncbi Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system
    Todd A Hare
    Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 324:646-8. 2009
    ..self-control: (i) Goal-directed decisions have their basis in a common value signal encoded in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and (ii) exercising self-control involves the modulation of this value signal by dorsolateral ..
  19. pmc Global connectivity of prefrontal cortex predicts cognitive control and intelligence
    Michael W Cole
    Psychology Department, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    J Neurosci 32:8988-99. 2012
    ..A lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) region's activity was found to predict performance in a high control demand working memory task and ..
  20. pmc Antidepressant effect of optogenetic stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex
    Herbert E Covington
    Fishberg Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Neurosci 30:16082-90. 2010
    Brain stimulation and imaging studies in humans have highlighted a key role for the prefrontal cortex in clinical depression; however, it remains unknown whether excitation or inhibition of prefrontal cortical neuronal activity is ..
  21. ncbi Rethinking feelings: an FMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion
    Kevin N Ochsner
    Stanford University, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 14:1215-29. 2002
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that prefrontal cortex is involved in constructing reappraisal strategies that can modulate activity in multiple emotion-processing ..
  22. ncbi Choice, uncertainty and value in prefrontal and cingulate cortex
    Matthew F S Rushworth
    Department of Experimental Psychology and Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK
    Nat Neurosci 11:389-97. 2008
    ....
  23. ncbi Stop-signal inhibition disrupted by damage to right inferior frontal gyrus in humans
    Adam R Aron
    Brain Mapping Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
    Nat Neurosci 6:115-6. 2003
  24. ncbi Reciprocal limbic-cortical function and negative mood: converging PET findings in depression and normal sadness
    H S Mayberg
    Research Imaging Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 156:675-82. 1999
    ..Expanding on this theory, this study examined functional interactions between specific limbic and neocortical regions accompanying normal and disease-associated shifts in negative mood state...
  25. ncbi Upregulation of dicer and microRNA expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Brodmann area 46 in schizophrenia
    Danielle M Santarelli
    Schizophrenia Research Institute, Sydney, Australia
    Biol Psychiatry 69:180-7. 2011
    ..We hypothesize that abnormal miRNA levels contribute to the complex global changes in gene expression that underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
  26. ncbi Resolving emotional conflict: a role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala
    Amit Etkin
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University Medical Center, Neurological Institute Box 108, 710 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Neuron 51:871-82. 2006
    ..These data suggest that emotional conflict is resolved through top-down inhibition of amygdalar activity by the rostral cingulate cortex...
  27. pmc Prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation
    Tor D Wager
    Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
    Neuron 59:1037-50. 2008
    Although prefrontal cortex has been implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotion, the cortical-subcortical interactions that mediate this ability remain poorly understood...
  28. ncbi Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:321-52. 2002
    ....
  29. ncbi Prefrontal phase locking to hippocampal theta oscillations
    Athanassios G Siapas
    Computation and Neural Systems Program, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Neuron 46:141-51. 2005
    ..Here, we demonstrate that a significant portion of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of freely behaving rats are phase locked to the hippocampal theta rhythm...
  30. ncbi Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards
    Samuel M McClure
    Department of Psychology and Center for the Study of Brain, Mind, and Behavior, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Science 306:503-7. 2004
    ..In contrast, regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex are engaged uniformly by intertemporal choices irrespective of delay...
  31. pmc DNA methylation signatures in development and aging of the human prefrontal cortex
    Shusuke Numata
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 90:260-72. 2012
    The human prefrontal cortex (PFC), a mastermind of the brain, is one of the last brain regions to mature...
  32. ncbi The neural basis of loss aversion in decision-making under risk
    Sabrina M Tom
    Department of Psychology, University of California Los Angeles UCLA, Franz Hall, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Science 315:515-8. 2007
    ..Finally, individual differences in behavioral loss aversion were predicted by a measure of neural loss aversion in several regions, including the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex.
  33. pmc Role of left inferior prefrontal cortex in retrieval of semantic knowledge: a reevaluation
    S L Thompson-Schill
    Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:14792-7. 1997
    ..Our findings suggest that it is selection, not retrieval, of semantic knowledge that drives activity in the left IFG...
  34. pmc Associative learning of social value
    Timothy E J Behrens
    FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Nature 456:245-9. 2008
    ..a decision, however, the information learnt using these parallel streams was combined within ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that human social valuation can be realized by means of the same associative ..
  35. ncbi Neural substrates of pleiotropic action of genetic variation in COMT: a meta-analysis
    D Mier
    Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Mol Psychiatry 15:918-27. 2010
    ....
  36. ncbi Chronic back pain is associated with decreased prefrontal and thalamic gray matter density
    A Vania Apkarian
    Department of Physiology and Institute of Neuroscience, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Neurosci 24:10410-5. 2004
    ..Gray matter density was reduced in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right thalamus and was strongly related to pain characteristics in a pattern distinct for neuropathic ..
  37. pmc Dynamic coding for cognitive control in prefrontal cortex
    Mark G Stokes
    Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Neuron 78:364-75. 2013
    Cognitive flexibility is fundamental to adaptive intelligent behavior. Prefrontal cortex has long been associated with flexible cognitive function, but the neurophysiological principles that enable prefrontal cells to adapt their ..
  38. pmc Glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists rapidly reverse behavioral and synaptic deficits caused by chronic stress exposure
    Nanxin Li
    Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, Center for Genes and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06508, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 69:754-61. 2011
    ....
  39. ncbi Increased inflammatory markers identified in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia
    S G Fillman
    Schizophrenia Research Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Mol Psychiatry 18:206-14. 2013
    ..we used SOLiD Next Generation Sequencing to quantify neuroimmune mRNA expression levels in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 20 individuals with schizophrenia and their matched controls...
  40. pmc The signature of maternal rearing in the methylome in rhesus macaque prefrontal cortex and T cells
    Nadine Provençal
    Sackler Program for Epigenetics and Developmental Psychobiology, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A 0G4
    J Neurosci 32:15626-42. 2012
    ..The data presented here show that differential rearing leads to differential DNA methylation in both prefrontal cortex and T cells...
  41. ncbi Value, pleasure and choice in the ventral prefrontal cortex
    Fabian Grabenhorst
    University of Cambridge, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Cambridge, UK
    Trends Cogn Sci 15:56-67. 2011
    ..and experienced pleasure to describe how systems for valuation and decision-making are organized in the prefrontal cortex of humans and other primates...
  42. pmc Theta rhythms coordinate hippocampal-prefrontal interactions in a spatial memory task
    Matthew W Jones
    The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e402. 2005
    ..For example, in maze-based tasks, the prefrontal cortex must integrate spatial information encoded in the hippocampus with mnemonic information concerning route and ..
  43. pmc Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: an event-related functional MRI study
    H Garavan
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:8301-6. 1999
    ..Contrary to the prominence traditionally given to ventral frontal regions for response inhibition, the results suggest that response inhibition is accomplished by a distributed cortical network...
  44. ncbi Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Physiology, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732, USA
    Nature 420:70-4. 2002
    ..Destruction of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, which consists of infralimbic and prelimbic cortices, blocks recall of fear extinction, indicating that ..
  45. ncbi A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Lisa M Shin
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Mass, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:273-81. 2005
    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated exaggerated amygdala responses and diminished medial prefrontal cortex responses during the symptomatic state in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  46. ncbi Chronic stress causes frontostriatal reorganization and affects decision-making
    Eduardo Dias-Ferreira
    Life and Health Sciences Research Institute ICVS, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, 4710 057 Braga, Portugal
    Science 325:621-5. 2009
    ..corticostriatal circuits underlying these different behavioral strategies, with atrophy of medial prefrontal cortex and the associative striatum and hypertrophy of the sensorimotor striatum...
  47. pmc The neural bases of emotion regulation: reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion
    Philippe R Goldin
    Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:577-86. 2008
    ....
  48. ncbi Extinction learning in humans: role of the amygdala and vmPFC
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology and New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 43:897-905. 2004
    ..in nonhuman animals have focused on two interconnected brain regions: the amygdala and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
  49. ncbi Uniquely human social cognition
    Rebecca Saxe
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 46 4019, 43 Vassar St, Cambridge MA, 02138, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 16:235-9. 2006
    ..Medial prefrontal cortex is divided into at least two subregions...
  50. pmc Stress signalling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function
    Amy F T Arnsten
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:410-22. 2009
    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) - the most evolved brain region - subserves our highest-order cognitive abilities. However, it is also the brain region that is most sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress exposure...
  51. ncbi Distributed neural representation of expected value
    Brian Knutson
    Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 25:4806-12. 2005
    ..nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activated proportional to anticipated gain magnitude, the cortical mesial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) additionally activated according to anticipated gain probability...
  52. ncbi Dissociation of reward anticipation and outcome with event-related fMRI
    B Knutson
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1610, USA
    Neuroreport 12:3683-7. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that reward anticipation and outcomes may differentially recruit distinct regions that lie along the trajectory of ascending dopamine projections...
  53. ncbi An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging
    R L West
    Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, USA
    Psychol Bull 120:272-92. 1996
    ..N. Dempster, 1992) to include memory processes supported by the prefrontal cortex. To establish a background for this analysis, I review existing models of prefrontal cortex function and ..
  54. ncbi The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex
    Etienne Koechlin
    Institut National de la Sante et de Recherche Medicale, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 9, quai St Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Science 302:1181-5. 2003
    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves cognitive control: the ability to coordinate thoughts or actions in relation with internal goals. Its functional architecture, however, remains poorly understood...
  55. ncbi The prefrontal cortex and cognitive control
    E K Miller
    Center for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 1:59-65. 2000
    ..emerge from interactions between millions of neurons? This has long been suspected to depend on the prefrontal cortex--the neocortex at the anterior end of the brain--but now we are beginning to uncover its neural basis...
  56. pmc Synchronous oscillatory neural ensembles for rules in the prefrontal cortex
    Timothy J Buschman
    The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Neuron 76:838-46. 2012
    ..To understand its neural mechanisms, we simultaneously recorded from multiple electrodes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) while monkeys switched between two rules (respond to color versus orientation)...
  57. ncbi Neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control: the role of prefrontal cortex in action selection, response inhibition, performance monitoring, and reward-based learning
    K Richard Ridderinkhof
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Brain Cogn 56:129-40. 2004
    Convergent evidence highlights the differential contributions of various regions of the prefrontal cortex in the service of cognitive control, but little is understood about how the brain determines and communicates the need to recruit ..
  58. ncbi Anterior prefrontal function and the limits of human decision-making
    Etienne Koechlin
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Departement d Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 9, quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Science 318:594-8. 2007
    ..reward expectations, overcoming the serial constraint that bears upon the control of task execution in the prefrontal cortex. This function is mechanistically explained by interactions between FPC and neighboring prefrontal regions...
  59. ncbi Task set and prefrontal cortex
    Katsuyuki Sakai
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:219-45. 2008
    ..Single-unit and brain-imaging studies have identified the neural correlates for task sets in the prefrontal cortex. Here I examine whether the neural data obtained thus far are sufficient to explain the behaviors that have ..
  60. ncbi Gene expression deficits in a subclass of GABA neurons in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia
    Takanori Hashimoto
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Neurosci 23:6315-26. 2003
    Markers of inhibitory neurotransmission are altered in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects with schizophrenia, and several lines of evidence suggest that these alterations may be most prominent in the subset of GABA-containing ..
  61. pmc Extraordinary neoteny of synaptic spines in the human prefrontal cortex
    Zdravko Petanjek
    Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10, 000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13281-6. 2011
    ....
  62. ncbi Neuron number and size in prefrontal cortex of children with autism
    Eric Courchesne
    Department of Neuroscience, NIH UCSD Autism Center of Excellence, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    JAMA 306:2001-10. 2011
    Autism often involves early brain overgrowth, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although prefrontal abnormality has been theorized to underlie some autistic symptoms, the cellular defects that cause abnormal overgrowth remain unknown.
  63. ncbi Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes
    E E Smith
    Department of Psychology, Mental Health Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Science 283:1657-61. 1999
    ..the right-hemisphere premotor cortex; and storage of object information activates other areas of the prefrontal cortex. Two of the fundamental executive processes are selective attention and task management...
  64. pmc The functional neuroanatomy of depression: distinct roles for ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    Michael Koenigs
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison, 6001 Research Park Blvd, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Behav Brain Res 201:239-43. 2009
    ..method, and brain stimulation) that converge to implicate the ventromedial and dorsolateral sectors of prefrontal cortex as critical neural substrates for depression, albeit with distinct functional contributions...
  65. ncbi Neurocognitive mechanisms of anxiety: an integrative account
    Sonia J Bishop
    Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Trends Cogn Sci 11:307-16. 2007
    ..This provides a focus for future translational research, and targeted pharmacological and cognitive interventions...
  66. pmc Causal role of the prefrontal cortex in top-down modulation of visual processing and working memory
    Theodore P Zanto
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:656-61. 2011
    ..Although the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is central to both selective attention and working memory, the underlying neural processes that link ..
  67. ncbi Keeping pain out of mind: the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in pain modulation
    J Lorenz
    Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Neurology Research Laboratories, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Brain 126:1079-91. 2003
    ..We propose that the DLPFC exerts active control on pain perception by modulating corticosubcortical and corticocortical pathways...
  68. ncbi Medial prefrontal cortex determines how stressor controllability affects behavior and dorsal raphe nucleus
    J Amat
    Department of Psychology, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80903 0345, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:365-71. 2005
    ..Here we find that the infralimbic and prelimbic regions of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv) in rats detect whether a stressor is under the organism's control...
  69. pmc The neuropsychopharmacology of fronto-executive function: monoaminergic modulation
    T W Robbins
    Department of Experimental Psychology, and Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB23EB, UK
    Annu Rev Neurosci 32:267-87. 2009
    ....
  70. ncbi Left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the cognitive control of memory
    David Badre
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, 132 Barker Hall, MC3190, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 3190, USA
    Neuropsychologia 45:2883-901. 2007
    ..In this review, we consider the contribution of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to the cognitive control of memory...
  71. pmc NMDA receptors subserve persistent neuronal firing during working memory in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    Min Wang
    Department Neurobiology, Yale Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Neuron 77:736-49. 2013
    Neurons in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) generate persistent firing in the absence of sensory stimulation, the foundation of mental representation...
  72. ncbi Characterization of the decision-making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions
    A Bechara
    Department of Neurology, Division of Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Brain 123:2189-202. 2000
    On a gambling task that models real-life decisions, patients with bilateral lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VM) opt for choices that yield high immediate gains in spite of higher future losses...
  73. ncbi Prefrontal hyperactivity in older people during motor planning
    Marika Berchicci
    Dept of Education in Sports and Human Movement, University of Rome Foro Italico, Piazza Lauro de Bosis 15, 00135 Rome RM, Italy
    Neuroimage 62:1750-60. 2012
    ..In summary, to reach the same accuracy, older subjects prepared the action with greater anticipation and higher cost, as indexed by the earlier latency onset and larger prefrontal cortical activation...
  74. pmc Gating of fear in prelimbic cortex by hippocampal and amygdala inputs
    Francisco Sotres-Bayon
    Departments of Psychiatry and Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, P O Box 365067, San Juan, PR 00936 5067, USA
    Neuron 76:804-12. 2012
    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates emotional responses, but it is unclear how PFC integrates diverse inputs to select the appropriate response...
  75. pmc Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements
    Michael Koenigs
    Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Nature 446:908-11. 2007
    ..Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social emotions, ..
  76. ncbi Neural mechanisms associated with food motivation in obese and healthy weight adults
    Laura E Martin
    Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:254-60. 2010
    ..showed increased activation, compared to HW participants, in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)...
  77. pmc Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in coping and resilience
    Steven F Maier
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Res 1355:52-60. 2010
    ..e., stressor resistance. This controllability-induced proactive stressor resistance generalizes across very different stressors and may be involved in determining individual difference in reactions to traumatic events...
  78. pmc The structural and functional connectivity of the amygdala: from normal emotion to pathological anxiety
    M Justin Kim
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, 6207 Moore Hall, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Behav Brain Res 223:403-10. 2011
    The dynamic interactions between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are usefully conceptualized as a circuit that both allows us to react automatically to biologically relevant predictive stimuli as well as regulate ..
  79. ncbi Expression of interneuron markers in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the developing human and in schizophrenia
    Samantha J Fung
    Schizophrenia Research Institute, Sydney, Australia
    Am J Psychiatry 167:1479-88. 2010
    ....
  80. pmc Dissociable roles of prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, ventral hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala in the expression and extinction of conditioned fear
    Demetrio Sierra-Mercado
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR 00936 5067, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:529-38. 2011
    ..models of conditioned fear expression and extinction involve the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the hippocampus (HPC)...
  81. pmc Cognitive control and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex: reflexive reorienting, motor inhibition, and action updating
    Benjamin J Levy
    Department of Psychology Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1224:40-62. 2011
    Delineating the functional organization of the prefrontal cortex is central to advancing models of goal-directed cognition...
  82. ncbi Inverted-U dopamine D1 receptor actions on prefrontal neurons engaged in working memory
    Susheel Vijayraghavan
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale Medical School, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8001, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:376-84. 2007
    Dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) stimulation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) produces an 'inverted-U' dose-response, whereby either too little or too much D1R stimulation impairs spatial working memory...
  83. ncbi Neural systems underlying the suppression of unwanted memories
    Michael C Anderson
    Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Science 303:232-5. 2004
    ..These results confirm the existence of an active forgetting process and establish a neurobiological model for guiding inquiry into motivated forgetting...
  84. ncbi Anterior prefrontal cortex: insights into function from anatomy and neuroimaging
    Narender Ramnani
    Centre for fMRI of the Brain, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:184-94. 2004
  85. ncbi Motivation and cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex
    Frederique Kouneiher
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Center for Neuroimaging Research, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France
    Nat Neurosci 12:939-45. 2009
    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves cognitive control, that is, the ability to select thoughts or actions in relation to internal goals...
  86. ncbi The neural basis of financial risk taking
    Camelia M Kuhnen
    Stanford Graduate School of Business, 518 Memorial Way, S479, Stanford, California, 94305, USA
    Neuron 47:763-70. 2005
    ..Thus, consideration of anticipatory neural mechanisms may add predictive power to the rational actor model of economic decision making...
  87. pmc Heterogeneous reward signals in prefrontal cortex
    Jonathan D Wallis
    Department of Psychology, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 20:191-8. 2010
    ..Similar signals are also present in the cingulate sulcus (PFcs). By contrast, reward signals in lateral prefrontal cortex (PFl) are consistent with a role in using reward to guide other cognitive processes, such as the allocation ..
  88. ncbi Value computations in ventral medial prefrontal cortex during charitable decision making incorporate input from regions involved in social cognition
    Todd A Hare
    Computation and Neural Systems and Humanities and Social Science Divisions, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 7700, USA
    J Neurosci 30:583-90. 2010
    ..We found that the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal in ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) correlated with the subjective value of voluntary donations...
  89. ncbi Lateral prefrontal cortex and self-control in intertemporal choice
    Bernd Figner
    Center for Decision Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:538-9. 2010
    Disruption of function of left, but not right, lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) with low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) increased choices of immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards...
  90. pmc microRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder
    Diana O Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7160, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Genome Biol 8:R27. 2007
    ..They have been implicated in the etiology of a variety of complex diseases, including Tourette's syndrome, Fragile x syndrome, and several types of cancer...
  91. ncbi Right inferior prefrontal cortex mediates response inhibition while mesial prefrontal cortex is responsible for error detection
    Katya Rubia
    Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Neuroimage 20:351-8. 2003
    ..correlating with successful inhibitory control in 20 healthy volunteers could be isolated in right inferior prefrontal cortex. Failure to inhibit was associated with activation in mesial frontopolar and bilateral inferior parietal ..
  92. ncbi Heterogeneity in the pyramidal network of the medial prefrontal cortex
    Yun Wang
    Division of Neurology Research, Caritas St Elizabeth s Medical Center, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02135, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:534-42. 2006
    The prefrontal cortex is specially adapted to generate persistent activity that outlasts stimuli and is resistant to distractors, presumed to be the basis of working memory. The pyramidal network that supports this activity is unknown...
  93. ncbi Amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampal function in PTSD
    Lisa M Shin
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 490 Boston Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1071:67-79. 2006
    ..yielded important information concerning the structure, neurochemistry, and function of the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
  94. ncbi Functional neuroanatomy of body shape perception in healthy and eating-disordered women
    Rudolf Uher
    Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, London
    Biol Psychiatry 58:990-7. 2005
    ..Abnormalities in perception and evaluation of body shape are a hallmark of eating disorders...
  95. ncbi Neuronal correlates of parametric working memory in the prefrontal cortex
    R Romo
    Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico DF
    Nature 399:470-3. 1999
    ..how is this trace held in the brain? This question was investigated by recording from single neurons in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys while they performed the somatosensory discrimination task...
  96. ncbi The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: an individual-differences perspective
    Michael J Kane
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402 6164, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 9:637-71. 2002
    ..neuroscience research on the constructs of working-memory capacity (WMC), general fluid intelligence, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) function...
  97. ncbi Altered neuregulin 1-erbB4 signaling contributes to NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia
    Chang Gyu Hahn
    Cellular and Molecular Neuropathology Program, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nat Med 12:824-8. 2006
    ..postmortem tissue-stimulation approach, we show a marked increase in NRG1-induced activation of erbB4 in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Levels of NRG1 and erbB4, however, did not differ between schizophrenia and control groups...
  98. ncbi Making working memory work: a computational model of learning in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia
    Randall C O'Reilly
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Neural Comput 18:283-328. 2006
    The prefrontal cortex has long been thought to subserve both working memory (the holding of information online for processing) and executive functions (deciding how to manipulate working memory and perform processing)...
  99. pmc Expectations, gains, and losses in the anterior cingulate cortex
    Jerome Sallet
    Inserm U846, Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute, Bron, France
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 7:327-36. 2007
    ..ACC activity encodes the relative and not absolute expected reward values. Moreover, cingulate activitysignals and evaluates when reward expectations are violated by unexpected stimuli, indicating reward gains or losses...
  100. ncbi Do rats have a prefrontal cortex?
    Harry B M Uylings
    Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, KNAW, Graduate School Neurosciences, Meibergdreef 33, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Behav Brain Res 146:3-17. 2003
    The lack of a single anatomical or functional definition of 'prefrontal cortex' has led to different and, in some respects, controversial views on the existence of a prefrontal cortex in non-primate mammals, in particular in rats...
  101. ncbi Diminishing reciprocal fairness by disrupting the right prefrontal cortex
    Daria Knoch
    Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zurich, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 314:829-32. 2006
    ..Here we show that disruption of the right, but not the left, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation substantially reduces subjects' ..

Research Grants79

  1. Pediatric Thought Disorder: Insights from Neuroimaging
    Rochelle Caplan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..test the model that networks encompassing Wernicke's area, Broca's area, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and their right hemisphere homologues are involved in how children use language to formulate coherent and ..
  2. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Brain Activation responses in adolescents with genetic predisposition to obesity
    Susan Carnell; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum (appetitive reward), and less activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inhibition of food intake) and posterior hypothalamus (satiety)...
  4. Tyrosine Availability Influences Mesocortico-Limbic Catecholamines
    GEORGE EUGENE JASKIW; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will examine the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus, regions implicated in schizophrenia...
  5. Neurobehavioral Correlates of Familial/genetic obesity risk in adolescents
    Susan Carnell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum (appetitive reward), and less activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inhibition of food intake) and posterior hypothalamus (satiety)...
  6. Remodeling Neuronal Chromatin in Mouse Models for Depression
    Schahram Akbarian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This resulted in decreased levels of the NMDA receptor subunit Grin2b (NR2B) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...
  7. Ethanol Regulation of Serum Glucocorticoid Kinase I
    BLAIR N COSTIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and glucocorticoid- regulated kinase 1, Sgk1, is prominently up regulated by acute ethanol (2 g/kg) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of DBA/2J mice...
  8. Functional Neuroimaging of Individual Differences in Affect and Motivation
    BRIAN JAMES MICKEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that NPY influences approach circuitry in humans as well, specifically implicating ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and the interaction of these regions...
  9. Epigenetic Analysis of iPS Cell Models of Aging and Alzheimer's Disease
    Bruce A Yankner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Moreover, some of these changes also appear in the expression profile of the prefrontal cortex in AD...
  10. Therapeutic Approaches for Extinction of Conditioned Drug Reward
    Gary B Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..involve increases in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurons such as prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
  11. Parvalbumin-Containing Neurons in Schizophrenia
    Tsung Ung W Woo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that glutamatergic neurotransmission on PV neurons via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be deficient in SZ...
  12. STRESS, ADRENAL STEROIDS AND THE BRAIN
    Bruce S McEwen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..plasticity that has been most extensively studied in the hippocampal formation and is now found in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala...
  13. Interacting Impact of Adrenal and Ovarian Aging on the CNS
    Henryk F Urbanski; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..include: 1) delayed response test of spatial working memory, which is particularly sensitive to aging and prefrontal cortex dysfunction;2) delayed non- matching-to-sample, a task probing primarily hippocampus-based memory;3) a ..
  14. Glial-neuronal interactions underlying the molecular feedback between HIV viral p
    Sulie L Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have also demonstrated that there is elevated dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expression in the prefrontal cortex of HIV-1Tg rats, and that these animals have greater METH-induced behavioral sensitization, as assessed by ..
  15. Neuroendocrine Mechanisms and Therapeutics in an Animal Model of PTSD
    DAVID MARK DIAMOND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we will assess the effects of psychosocial stress on BDNF gene methylation in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. 3) Does psychosocial stress in rats produce PTSD-like abnormalities in neuroendocrine activity? PTSD ..
  16. Role of G-gamma-7 in striatal cannabinoid and D2 dopamine
    Dana E Selley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..nucleus accumbens and globus pallidus, as well as other CB1 and D2 containing regions such as prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...
  17. Dissecting the role of one neuronal RhoGEF amongst many: the Kalirin-7 null mouse
    Richard E Mains; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with increased iNOS levels in Alzheimer's disease brain and with decreased spine density in post-mortem prefrontal cortex from schizophrenic patients...
  18. CHOLINERGIC MECHANISMS OF REM SLEEP GENERATION
    Helen A Baghdoyan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..test the hypothesis that atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, alter cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex. Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that the increase in wakefulness caused by hypocretin (orexin) is mediated, ..
  19. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Pregnant Women with Depressive Disorder
    Deborah Kim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using 1 Hz active versus sham rTMS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of 66 pregnant women with moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD)...
  20. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF MESOLIMBIC TRANSMITTER INTERACTIONS
    Virginia M Pickel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The therapeutic sites include the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the nucleus accumbens (Acb) and other forebrain regions that receive dopamine input from mesolimbic ..
  21. Sex and Stress Mechanisms of Vulnerability to Addiction
    Rajita Sinha; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..to cocaine- induced changes in DA signaling and molecular neuroadaptations within the nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex and amygdala using in vivo microdialysis, Western blot analysis of downstream molecular markers (e.g...
  22. Understanding the Role of COMT Variants in Sensorimotor Gating
    XIANJIN ZHOU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This COMT-Met polymorphism is unique for humans and decreases COMT enzymatic activity 40% in prefrontal cortex tissue...
  23. The Neurochemistry of Cognitive Therapy: Predicting Treatment Outcome with PET
    Jeffrey M Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..processes likely to be recruited by CBT for depression, with evidence of regionally specific effects in the prefrontal cortex. We will quantify the 5-HT1A receptor at baseline using positron emission tomography (PET) with the [11C]WAY-..
  24. Neural Actions of Toluene
    John J Woodward; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..area (VTA), medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and deep-layer pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
  25. Physiology and structure of prefrontal projections to memory and motor circuits
    Maria Medalla; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..dedicated to understanding the structural synaptic pathway basis of functional specialization in the primate prefrontal cortex, using tract-tracing and electron microscopic techniques. The proposed project will use Dr...
  26. Aging and Antipsychotic Efficacy - Epigenetic Mechanisms
    Hongxin Dong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and atypical antipsychotics induce c Fos expression in specific brain regions, including the striatum and prefrontal cortex. Our preliminary data shows lower levels of antipsychotic induced c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens ..
  27. CRF and Stress Modulation of Phasic Dopamine Release and Behavior
    MATTHEW J WANAT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Emerging evidence suggests that catecholamine (dopamine and norepinephrine) release in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala are also involved with mediating the response to stress, so the candidate will also address how ..
  28. Neuroanatomical and functional outcomes of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea
    Robert Joseph Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..anatomical magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla;2) working memory (executive network including the lateral prefrontal cortex) and encoding (encoding network including the hippocampus) task- related activation on functional MRI...
  29. Impaired hippocampal function as a risk factor for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    Almira Vazdarjanova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..phenotype of susceptible rats can be reversed with 'cognitive exercise'known to engage the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...
  30. TWIN STUDY OF BIOLOGIC MARKERS FOR PTSD
    Lisa M Shin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..n- acetyl aspartate levels in dACC, rACC, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus by magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
  31. Cognition in Rhesus Macaques in Relation to Age and Endocrine Status
    Henryk F Urbanski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1) the delayed response test of spatial working memory, which is particularly sensitive to aging and prefrontal cortex dysfunction;2) delayed non-matching-to-sample, a task probing primarily temporal lobe-based memory;3) a ..
  32. Ontogenic factors in adolescent-emergent depression and decision-making
    SHANNON LEIGH GOURLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..outcomes may relate to the effects of adversity-such as social isolation or stress hormone exposure- on the prefrontal cortex, which reaches full structural maturity only at the end of adolescence...
  33. Changes in neural response to eating after bariatric surgery: MRI results
    Thomas A Wadden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..obese individuals. Generally, high-calorie food images stimulate activation in the prefrontal cortex, mesolimbic dopamine system (e.g., ventral-tegmental area and nucleus accumbens), and other limbic areas (e...
  34. Interactions of MAO A with vulnerability factors for aggression
    Marco Bortolato; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..levels at puberty interacts with these changes, resulting in imbalances in steroids and monoamines in prefrontal cortex and other key brain regions for emotional regulation...
  35. Aerobic Exercise, Neurotrophins, and fMRI of Hippocampal Function and Structure
    Karin Schon; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..memory and long-term memory and the role of the medial temporal lobes (including the hippocampus) and prefrontal cortex in working memory...
  36. DORSAL RAPHE NUCLEUS SEROTONIN NEURONS IN ALCOHOLISM
    Mark D Underwood; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a decrease in the amount of serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A inhibitory autoreceptor binding and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding in alcoholics and in cases with a family history of alcoholism and ..
  37. Extinction is mediated by the infralimbic cortex and protein kinase C epsilon
    Philip M Newton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A fundamental characteristic of both disorders is impaired activity of the prefrontal cortex, which may exist prior to disease onset and lead to a delay in the extinction of Pavlovian conditioning...
  38. Brain Alterations And Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults with Heart Failure
    LISA C BRATZKE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will obtain neuropsychological measures of multiple domains, as well as MRI measurements of the temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex at baseline and 12-months.
  39. Stress, Neurodevelopment and the Emergence of Addictive Behaviors in Adolescence
    HILARY PATRICIA BLUMBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our pilot data suggest that childhood stress alters development of ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) control over amygdala and ventral striatum responses to emotional stimuli, resulting in excessive ..
  40. Morphogenesis and function of the cerebral cortex
    Flora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Abnormal level of neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and connected regions is thought to underlie the symptoms of serious neuropsychiatric syndromes, including schizophrenia, autism, ..
  41. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: animal models
    Athina Markou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..antipsychotics by using in vivo microdialysis to measure monoamine, glutamate, and GABA levels in the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens...
  42. Development of Medial Temporal Lobe Function
    JOCELYNE H BACHEVALIER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..syndrome, and anxiety, and are associated with dysfunction of the medial temporal lobe structures and prefrontal cortex. These disorders of unknown origin have significant impact on the normal cognitive development of a young ..
  43. Neurobiology of Anxiety and Panic Disorders
    Anantha Shekhar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST);2) the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA);and 3) the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) to delay the extinction of conditioned fear...
  44. ALL therapy and developing brains: MRI measures, genetic factors and cognition
    Wilburn E Reddick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Disrupted myelin and abnormal cortical thickness diminish the efficiency of neural processing, especially in prefrontal cortex, which leads ultimately to altered patterns of brain activity and therapy-induced cognitive deficits (Aim 3)...
  45. Neuronal Mechanisms for Fear Memory Generalization in PTSD and Anxiety Disorders
    Wei Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..I observed over- generalized contextual fear memory following functional manipulations of the medial prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus...
  46. Serotonergic Contribution to Adolescent Risk Taking
    ANDREW EMMETT ARRANT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Preliminary microdialysis in the prefrontal cortex showed that adolescent rats have a lower serotonergic response to fenfluramine (1, 2...
  47. Alcoholism and Brain Functions
    MARLENE OSCAR BERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Primary regions of interests (ROIs) include prefrontal cortex (and associated white matter connections), and medial temporal areas, which together constitute a neural ..
  48. Prenatal androgen effects on sex-related neural processing of reward and threat
    Sheri A Berenbaum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this using sex-differentiated measures of reward and emotional memory systems and functional connections to prefrontal cortex (PFC), and brain structure...
  49. Epigenetic Markings in Developing and Diseased Prefrontal Neurons
    Schahram Akbarian; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The prefrontal cortex (PFC), among other brain regions, is thought to be frequently in subjects in schizophrenia, as reflected by ..
  50. Environment and Gene Effects on Brain and Behavior
    Jay S Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DNA methylation in the adult brain is highly dynamic and that the dynamic regulation of methylation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus together play integral roles in memory formation, consolidation, and maintenance...
  51. Cocktail Party Problem: Perspective on Neurobiology of Auditory Scene Analysis
    Mounya Elhilali; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..micro-level, meso-level) and across area (macro-level) physiological activity in both primary auditory and prefrontal cortex, while presenting sufficiently complex acoustic environments so as to test and refine the computational ..
  52. 5-HT1A receptor anti-apoptotic transduction pathways in suicide
    Victoria Arango; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..evaluate four brain regions, one where we have found changes in both major depression and suicide (ventral prefrontal cortex, vPFC) and three regions where the findings seem more specifically linked to major depression (anterior ..
  53. Alcohol and Development of the Prefrontal Cortex
    LEON GARLAND COLEMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..If it is established that the adolescent brain has unique vulnerability this could lead to increased prevention and treatment of adolescent binge drinking. ..
  54. Aerobic Exercise, Neurotrophins, and fMRI of Hippocampal Function and Structure
    Karin Schon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..memory and long-term memory and the role of the medial temporal lobes (including the hippocampus) and prefrontal cortex in working memory...
  55. Mechanisms and Consequences of Locus Coeruleus Activation
    KENICHIRO HAYASHIDA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Lastly, we will administrate GBP in the LC and compare NA release in the spinal cord, prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, and the dorsal hippocampus by using microdialysis to test ..
  56. Neuroimaging in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project
    William R Lovallo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While evidence points to altered communication between the limbic system and prefrontal cortex, confirmatory neuroimaging is lacking...
  57. NEUROBIOLOGY OF NICOTINE REWARD AND WITHDRAWAL
    Athina Markou; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..into the nucleus accumbens shell, the ventral tegmental area, the central nucleus of the amygdala or the prefrontal cortex. Specific Aim 2 will explore brain sites (same as in Aim 1) where adaptations in glutamate system function ..
  58. Maternal Brain and Behavioral Responses to Infant Cues in Cocaine Exposed Mothers
    Lane Strathearn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that cocaine exposed mothers will show significantly less activation of the prefrontal cortex and reward-associated brain regions, on viewing pictures of their own baby's face and cry cues vs...
  59. Neuroimaging and Behavioral Biomarkers for ADHD in Children
    Martin H Teicher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The second marker is a measure of regional T2-relaxation time (T2RT) in left putamen and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The third marker is a composite of actigraph measures of sleep, daytime hyperactivity and circadian ..
  60. DNA METHYLOME ANALYSIS IN BIPOLAR DISORDER
    ART PETRONIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..study, we used 12,192- feature containing CpG-island microarrays to identify DNA methylation changes in the prefrontal cortex of individuals affected with BPD and schizophrenia...
  61. ORGANIZATION OF PREFRONTAL FEEDBACK CIRCUITS
    Helen Barbas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and functional studies in human and non-human primates suggest that the executive functions of the prefrontal cortex are guided by interaction with structures associated with emotions...
  62. Epigenetics underlies long-term risk of relapse during abstinence
    Kristine M Wiren; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have previously reported identification of pathways altered in prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region associated with cognitive dysfunction and damage in alcoholics, during a defined ..
  63. Neuroimaging in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project
    William R Lovallo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While evidence points to altered communication between the limbic system and prefrontal cortex, confirmatory neuroimaging is lacking...
  64. Neurobiology of PTSD During REM Sleep
    Anne Germain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to fear and threat-related stimuli, and /or impaired top-down inhibition of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal cortex characterize PTSD...
  65. Molecular biology of mesocortical and mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons
    JEFFREY EELLS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Additionally, we hypothesize that the prefrontal cortex will have opposing effects on gene expression between these two populations...
  66. Brain Mechanisms in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivit
    Mani N Pavuluri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Higher cortical centers such as ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may both be affected in PBD and ADHD groups relative to ..
  67. Hippocampal-Prefrontal Control of Working Memory: Inactivation and PET in Monkeys
    MARIA ALVARADO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Thus, understanding how the prefrontal cortex interacts with other neural structures to modulate behavioral and cognitive functions will be invaluable for ..
  68. BEHAVIORAL TOXICITY OF LEAD--A PHARMACOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
    Deborah Cory Slechta; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..a limbic-motor interface, integrating information via glutamatergic projections from hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, two regions well known to mediate cognitive function...
  69. Neurotensin Analogs For Neurocognitive Deficits In Schizophrenia
    Adam Prus; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..with dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in brain areas important for cognitive functioning, including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, preliminary studies in our laboratory have found that NT69L elevates dopamine and ..
  70. Serotonin Glutamate Interactions in Prefrontal Cortex
    Gerard Marek; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract): The overall goal of the present proposed project studying glutamate-serotonin interactions in the prefrontal cortex is to bridge cellular and behavioral levels of analysis for 5-HT2A receptor-mediated responses that will ..
  71. Effects of Psychopathology on Prefrontal Cortical Functioning During Goal-Directe
    Sharon L Thompson Schill; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Basic research on prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning has established a specific cognitive and behavioral profile of patients afflicted by lesions in this region, that is characterized by a decline in performance in tasks that require ..
  72. Imaging the fronto-limbic-striatal circuit in adolescent cannabis users
    JOHN CLYBURN CHURCHWELL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Underdeveloped cortical structures, such as prefrontal cortex, may also lead to myopia for future outcomes...
  73. Sex Differences in Alcohol Habit Formation in Rats: Corticostriatal Mechanisms
    Jane Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Additionally, we have shown that dopamine infusions into the ventromedial prefrontal cortex can restore goal-directed responding in rats trained to express an instrumental, food-reinforced, habit...
  74. Understanding the Role of COMT Variants in Sensorimotor Gating
    Victoria Risbrough; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This COMT-Met polymorphism is unique for humans and decreases COMT enzymatic activity 40% in prefrontal cortex tissue...
  75. An fMRI Study of Executive Functioning after TBI
    Harvey Levin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..cognitive skills such as declarative memory and other domains such as perceptuomotor skills, are mediated by prefrontal cortex and its circuitry...
  76. Chronic Cocaine Exposure & HIV-1 Tat: Dysregulation of the Medical Prefrontal Cor
    Xiu Ti Hu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Dysregulation and progressive neurodegeneration in the prefrontal cortex of HIV/AIDS patients affect cognitive function and are implicated in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), including ..
  77. Prefrontal Cortex BDNF and Amygdala-Dependent Emotional LearningChallenge Area:
    Kerry J Ressler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    This application addresses broad Challenge Area (15) Translational Science, 15-MH-109: Prefrontal cortex regulation of higher brain function and complex behaviors, which is directed to examine mechanisms by which the developing and ..
  78. SYNAPTIC ORGANIZATION OF RETROHIPPOCAMPAL PATHWAYS
    David Finch; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Work will concentrate on projections from the subicular complex and entorhinal cortex to the prefrontal cortex. In order to achieve this objective, the subicular complex and entorhinal cortex will be stimulated ..
  79. The neuroanatomical basis for the human stress response
    TONY BUCHANAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Animal research has implicated the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in the control of the stress response...