motor cortex

Summary

Summary: Area of the frontal lobe concerned with primary motor control. It lies anterior to the central sulcus.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The mirror-neuron system
    Giacomo Rizzolatti
    Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Fisiologia, Via Volturno, 3, Universita di Parma 43100, Parma, Italy
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:169-92. 2004
  2. pmc Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation
    M A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen, Germany
    J Physiol 527:633-9. 2000
  3. ncbi Cortical control of a prosthetic arm for self-feeding
    Meel Velliste
    Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, E1440 BST, Lothrop Street, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Nature 453:1098-101. 2008
  4. ncbi Sustained excitability elevations induced by transcranial DC motor cortex stimulation in humans
    M A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Goettingen, Germany
    Neurology 57:1899-901. 2001
  5. ncbi Effects of non-invasive cortical stimulation on skilled motor function in chronic stroke
    Friedhelm Hummel
    Human Cortical Physiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
    Brain 128:490-9. 2005
  6. ncbi Functional role of the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas
    Parashkev Nachev
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Institute of Neurology, University College London, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:856-69. 2008
  7. ncbi Somatotopic representation of action words in human motor and premotor cortex
    Olaf Hauk
    Medical Research Council, Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Neuron 41:301-7. 2004
  8. ncbi Theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex
    Ying Zu Huang
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuron 45:201-6. 2005
  9. ncbi Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhance excitability of the motor cortex and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    A Bastani
    Department of Physiotherapy, School of Primary Health Care, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    Clin Neurophysiol 123:644-57. 2012
  10. pmc Noninvasive cortical stimulation enhances motor skill acquisition over multiple days through an effect on consolidation
    Janine Reis
    Human Cortical Physiology Section and Stroke Neurorehabilitation Clinic, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1590-5. 2009

Detail Information

Publications311 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The mirror-neuron system
    Giacomo Rizzolatti
    Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Fisiologia, Via Volturno, 3, Universita di Parma 43100, Parma, Italy
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:169-92. 2004
    ..We stress, in particular, those properties specific to the human mirror-neuron system that might explain the human capacity to learn by imitation. We conclude by discussing the relationship between the mirror-neuron system and language...
  2. pmc Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation
    M A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen, Germany
    J Physiol 527:633-9. 2000
    In this paper we demonstrate in the intact human the possibility of a non-invasive modulation of motor cortex excitability by the application of weak direct current through the scalp...
  3. ncbi Cortical control of a prosthetic arm for self-feeding
    Meel Velliste
    Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, E1440 BST, Lothrop Street, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Nature 453:1098-101. 2008
    Arm movement is well represented in populations of neurons recorded from the motor cortex. Cortical activity patterns have been used in the new field of brain-machine interfaces to show how cursors on computer displays can be moved in two-..
  4. ncbi Sustained excitability elevations induced by transcranial DC motor cortex stimulation in humans
    M A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Goettingen, Germany
    Neurology 57:1899-901. 2001
    ..The feasibility of inducing long-lasting excitability modulations in a noninvasive, painless, and reversible way makes this technique a potentially valuable tool in neuroplasticity modulation...
  5. ncbi Effects of non-invasive cortical stimulation on skilled motor function in chronic stroke
    Friedhelm Hummel
    Human Cortical Physiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
    Brain 128:490-9. 2005
    ..Sham-controlled, crossover study was designed to test the hypothesis that non-invasive stimulation of the motor cortex could improve motor function in the paretic hand of patients with chronic stroke...
  6. ncbi Functional role of the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas
    Parashkev Nachev
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Institute of Neurology, University College London, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:856-69. 2008
    ..However, theories regarding their function vary widely. This Review brings together the data regarding the supplementary motor regions, highlighting outstanding issues and providing new perspectives for understanding their functions...
  7. ncbi Somatotopic representation of action words in human motor and premotor cortex
    Olaf Hauk
    Medical Research Council, Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Neuron 41:301-7. 2004
    ..This rules out a unified "meaning center" in the human brain and supports a dynamic view according to which words are processed by distributed neuronal assemblies with cortical topographies that reflect word semantics...
  8. ncbi Theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex
    Ying Zu Huang
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuron 45:201-6. 2005
    ..Here we describe a very rapid method of conditioning the human motor cortex using rTMS that produces a controllable, consistent, long-lasting, and powerful effect on motor cortex ..
  9. ncbi Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhance excitability of the motor cortex and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    A Bastani
    Department of Physiotherapy, School of Primary Health Care, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    Clin Neurophysiol 123:644-57. 2012
    ..However, the small sample size of the included studies reduces the strength of the presented evidences and any conclusion in this regard should be considered cautiously...
  10. pmc Noninvasive cortical stimulation enhances motor skill acquisition over multiple days through an effect on consolidation
    Janine Reis
    Human Cortical Physiology Section and Stroke Neurorehabilitation Clinic, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1590-5. 2009
    ..over 5 consecutive days while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1)...
  11. pmc Dynamic imaging of coherent sources: Studying neural interactions in the human brain
    J Gross
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:694-9. 2001
    ....
  12. pmc Rapid formation and selective stabilization of synapses for enduring motor memories
    Tonghui Xu
    Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
    Nature 462:915-9. 2009
    ..Earlier studies have shown that such learning induces an increase in the efficacy of synapses in the primary motor cortex, the persistence of which is associated with retention of the task...
  13. pmc The organization of the forelimb representation of the C57BL/6 mouse motor cortex as defined by intracortical microstimulation and cytoarchitecture
    Kelly A Tennant
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Cereb Cortex 21:865-76. 2011
    ..microstimulation (ICMS) and cytoarchitectonics to characterize the general organization of the C57BL/6 mouse motor cortex, and the forelimb representation in more detail...
  14. ncbi The role of the contralesional motor cortex for motor recovery in the early days after stroke assessed with longitudinal FMRI
    Anne K Rehme
    Neuromodulation and Neurorehabilitation Group, Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, 50931 Cologne, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 21:756-68. 2011
    ..Increases of activity in primary motor cortex, premotor cortex (dorsal and ventral), and supplementary motor area in both hemispheres significantly ..
  15. ncbi Pharmacological approach to the mechanisms of transcranial DC-stimulation-induced after-effects of human motor cortex excitability
    David Liebetanz
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen, Germany
    Brain 125:2238-47. 2002
    Weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces persisting excitability changes in the human motor cortex. These plastic excitability changes are selectively controlled by the polarity, duration and current strength of ..
  16. ncbi Parietal lobe: from action organization to intention understanding
    Leonardo Fogassi
    Dipartimento di Psicologia, Universita di Parma, Borgo Carissimi 10, 43100 Parma, Italy
    Science 308:662-7. 2005
    ..Thus, these neurons not only code the observed motor act but also allow the observer to understand the agent's intentions...
  17. ncbi An optical neural interface: in vivo control of rodent motor cortex with integrated fiberoptic and optogenetic technology
    Alexander M Aravanis
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Neural Eng 4:S143-56. 2007
    ..exiting the fiber ( approximately 380 mW mm(-2)) was sufficient to drive excitatory neurons in vivo and control motor cortex function with behavioral output in intact rodents...
  18. pmc Interhemispheric inhibition of the human motor cortex
    A Ferbert
    MRC Human Movement and Balance Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London
    J Physiol 453:525-46. 1992
    1. Using two magnetic stimulators, we investigated the effect of a conditioning magnetic stimulus over the motor cortex of one hemisphere on the size of EMG responses evoked in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle by a magnetic test ..
  19. pmc Restoration of grasp following paralysis through brain-controlled stimulation of muscles
    C Ethier
    Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Nature 485:368-71. 2012
    ..Then, using recordings from approximately 100 neurons in the motor cortex, we predicted the intended activity of several of the paralysed muscles, and used these predictions to control ..
  20. ncbi Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning
    D Huber
    Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA
    Nature 484:473-8. 2012
    The mechanisms linking sensation and action during learning are poorly understood. Layer 2/3 neurons in the motor cortex might participate in sensorimotor integration and learning; they receive input from sensory cortex and excite deep ..
  21. ncbi Facilitation of implicit motor learning by weak transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex in the human
    Michael A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
    J Cogn Neurosci 15:619-26. 2003
    ..During performance of a serial reaction time task, the primary motor cortex, premotor, or prefrontal cortices were stimulated contralaterally to the performing hand...
  22. ncbi What is the Bereitschaftspotential?
    Hiroshi Shibasaki
    Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1428, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:2341-56. 2006
    ..negative slope, called 'late BP' in this article (also referred to as NS'), occurs in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) and lateral premotor cortex with precise somatotopy...
  23. pmc Direct current stimulation promotes BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity: potential implications for motor learning
    Brita Fritsch
    Epilepsy Research Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuron 66:198-204. 2010
    ..Anodal tDCS applied to the human motor cortex (M1) improves motor skill learning...
  24. ncbi Spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical sensorimotor integration in behaving mice
    Isabelle Ferezou
    Laboratory of Sensory Processing, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Switzerland
    Neuron 56:907-23. 2007
    ..sensory responses, which began in the primary somatosensory barrel cortex and subsequently excited the whisker motor cortex. The spread of sensory information to motor cortex was dynamically regulated by behavior and correlated with ..
  25. ncbi Transcranial magnetic stimulation: a primer
    Mark Hallett
    Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuron 55:187-99. 2007
    ..All parts of the brain just beneath the skull can be influenced, but most studies have been of the motor cortex where a focal muscle twitch can be produced, called the motor-evoked potential...
  26. pmc Modulating parameters of excitability during and after transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex
    Michael A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Gottingen, Robert Koch Str 40, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Physiol 568:291-303. 2005
    Weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex results in excitability shifts which occur during and after stimulation...
  27. ncbi Prediction of arm movement trajectories from ECoG-recordings in humans
    Tobias Pistohl
    Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    J Neurosci Methods 167:105-14. 2008
    ..continuous trajectories of 2D hand position can be approximately predicted from the ECoG recorded from hand/arm motor cortex. This indicates that ECoG signals, related to body movements, can directly be transferred to equivalent ..
  28. pmc A common polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) modulates human cortical plasticity and the response to rTMS
    Binith Cheeran
    Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Physiol 586:5717-25. 2008
    ..It is also thought to influence possible synaptic changes in motor cortex following a simple motor learning task...
  29. ncbi TMS and drugs
    Ulf Ziemann
    Motor Cortex Laboratory, Clinic of Neurology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Schleusenweg 2 16, D 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Clin Neurophysiol 115:1717-29. 2004
    ..Finally, TMS or repetitive TMS by themselves may induce changes in endogenous neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. All these possible interactions are the focus of this in-depth review on TMS and drugs...
  30. ncbi Shaping the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex
    M A Nitsche
    Department for Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 97:3109-17. 2007
    ..We tested these hypotheses for motor cortex tDCS...
  31. ncbi Dynamic functional reorganization of the motor execution network after stroke
    Liang Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, and Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing 100875, People s Republic of China
    Brain 133:1224-38. 2010
    ..In conclusion, the study expands our understanding of the spectrum of changes occurring in the brain after stroke and provides a new avenue for investigating lesion-induced network plasticity...
  32. ncbi Functional properties of human primary motor cortex gamma oscillations
    Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
    Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    J Neurophysiol 104:2873-85. 2010
    Gamma oscillations in human primary motor cortex (M1) have been described in human electrocorticographic and noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG)/electroencephalographic recordings, yet their functional significance within the ..
  33. ncbi Modulation of activity in medial frontal and motor cortices during error observation
    Hein T van Schie
    Nijmegen Institute for Cognition and Information, University of Nijmegen, Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Nat Neurosci 7:549-54. 2004
    ..These data suggest that similar neural mechanisms are involved in monitoring one's own actions and the actions of others...
  34. ncbi Neuronal coherence as a mechanism of effective corticospinal interaction
    Jan Mathijs Schoffelen
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 EK Nijmegen, Netherlands
    Science 308:111-3. 2005
    ..reaction-time task were closely correlated with the strength of gamma-band (40 to 70 hertz) coherence between motor cortex and spinal cord neurons...
  35. pmc Direct control of paralysed muscles by cortical neurons
    Chet T Moritz
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nature 456:639-42. 2008
    ..In previously separate experiments, activity of motor cortex neurons related to actual or imagined movements has been used to control computer cursors and robotic arms, and ..
  36. pmc Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of cortical mechanisms involved in motor control
    Janine Reis
    Human Cortical Physiology Section, National Institute of Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 10 Center Drive, Bldg 10, Rm 5 N226, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Physiol 586:325-51. 2008
    ..Finally, areas of uncertainty and limitations in the interpretation of TMS studies are discussed in some detail...
  37. ncbi Neural substrates for the effects of rehabilitative training on motor recovery after ischemic infarct
    R J Nudo
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 77030, USA
    Science 272:1791-4. 1996
    Substantial functional reorganization takes place in the motor cortex of adult primates after a focal ischemic infarct, as might occur in stroke...
  38. pmc Partially non-linear stimulation intensity-dependent effects of direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability in humans
    G Batsikadze
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Gottingen, Robert Koch Straße 40, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Physiol 591:1987-2000. 2013
    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation...
  39. pmc Reorganizing the intrinsic functional architecture of the human primary motor cortex during rest with non-invasive cortical stimulation
    Rafael Polania
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e30971. 2012
    The primary motor cortex (M1) is the main effector structure implicated in the generation of voluntary movements and is directly involved in motor learning...
  40. ncbi Functional links between motor and language systems
    Friedemann Pulvermüller
    Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Medical Research Council, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 2EF, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 21:793-7. 2005
    ....
  41. ncbi Imaging the premotor areas
    N Picard
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, W1640 Biomedical Science Tower, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 11:663-72. 2001
    ..Recent data also suggest the existence of separate functional divisions in the rostral cingulate zone...
  42. ncbi Cortical connectivity after subcortical stroke assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging
    Christian Grefkes
    Department of Neurology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    Ann Neurol 63:236-46. 2008
    ..This study aimed at identifying the impact of subcortical stroke on the interaction of cortical motor areas within and across hemispheres during the generation of voluntary hand movements...
  43. ncbi Modulation of training by single-session transcranial direct current stimulation to the intact motor cortex enhances motor skill acquisition of the paretic hand
    Maximo Zimerman
    Brain Imaging and Neurostimulation Labor, Department of Neurology, University Medical Center, Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Stroke 43:2185-91. 2012
    ..Recent noninvasive brain stimulation studies demonstrated that decreasing activity in the contralesional motor cortex might be beneficial, providing transient functional improvements after stroke...
  44. pmc Boosting cortical activity at Beta-band frequencies slows movement in humans
    Alek Pogosyan
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Curr Biol 19:1637-41. 2009
    ....
  45. ncbi Cerebellar loops with motor cortex and prefrontal cortex of a nonhuman primate
    Roberta M Kelly
    Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 23:8432-44. 2003
    ..examine the topographic organization of circuits linking the cerebellar cortex with the arm area of the primary motor cortex (M1) and with area 46 in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of monkeys...
  46. pmc Oscillatory interactions between sensorimotor cortex and the periphery
    Stuart N Baker
    Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Henry Wellcome Building, Medical School, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 17:649-55. 2007
    Field potential recordings from motor cortex show oscillations in the beta-band (approximately 20 Hz), which are coherent with similar oscillations in the activity of contralateral contracting muscles...
  47. ncbi Resting state fMRI reveals increased subthalamic nucleus-motor cortex connectivity in Parkinson's disease
    Simon Baudrexel
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Neuroimage 55:1728-38. 2011
    ..Moreover, FC analysis of the primary motor cortex (M1) hand area revealed that the FC increase was primarily found in the STN area within the basal ganglia...
  48. pmc A central source of movement variability
    Mark M Churchland
    Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Neuron 52:1085-96. 2006
    ..Thus, even for a highly practiced task, the ability to repeatedly plan the same movement limits our ability to repeatedly execute the same movement...
  49. ncbi Prolonged exercise induces angiogenesis and increases cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat
    R A Swain
    Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, 61801, Urbana, IL, USA
    Neuroscience 117:1037-46. 2003
    Plastic changes in motor cortex capillary structure and function were examined in three separate experiments in adult rats following prolonged exercise...
  50. ncbi Cross-modal plasticity of the motor cortex while listening to a rehearsed musical piece
    A D'Ausilio
    Institut für Medizinische Psychologie und Verhaltensneurobiologie, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Gartenstrasse 29, D 72074 Tubingen, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 24:955-8. 2006
    ..Moreover, we observed an increase of excitability over time as intracortical facilitation was already present after 30 min of training whereas cortico-spinal facilitation increased after a longer training period (5 days)...
  51. pmc Pharmacological modulation of cortical excitability shifts induced by transcranial direct current stimulation in humans
    M A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany
    J Physiol 553:293-301. 2003
    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex results in polarity-specific shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. Anodal tDCS enhances and cathodal stimulation reduces excitability...
  52. ncbi Real-time control of a robot arm using simultaneously recorded neurons in the motor cortex
    J K Chapin
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, MCP Hahnemann School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129, USA
    Nat Neurosci 2:664-70. 1999
    To determine whether simultaneously recorded motor cortex neurons can be used for real-time device control, rats were trained to position a robot arm to obtain water by pressing a lever...
  53. ncbi Long-range neuronal circuits underlying the interaction between sensory and motor cortex
    Tianyi Mao
    Janelia Farm Research Campus, HHMI, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA
    Neuron 72:111-23. 2011
    ..sensation and sensorimotor integration are mediated in part by connections between barrel cortex and vibrissal motor cortex. Little is known about how these structures interact at the level of neurons...
  54. pmc Three-dimensional locations and boundaries of motor and premotor cortices as defined by functional brain imaging: a meta-analysis
    Mary A Mayka
    Department of Movement Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Neuroimage 31:1453-74. 2006
    ..premotor cortex (dorsal premotor cortex and ventral premotor cortex), and primary sensorimotor cortex (primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex) have been identified as key cortical areas for sensorimotor function...
  55. pmc Effects of TMS on different stages of motor and non-motor verb processing in the primary motor cortex
    Liuba Papeo
    Sector of Cognitive Neuroscience, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste, Italy
    PLoS ONE 4:e4508. 2009
    ..This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study explores the role of the left primary motor cortex in action-verb processing...
  56. ncbi Imaging brain plasticity during motor skill learning
    Leslie G Ungerleider
    Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 78:553-64. 2002
    ..that: (i) the learning of sequential finger movements produces a slowly evolving reorganization within primary motor cortex (M1) over the course of weeks and (ii) this change in M1 follows more dynamic, rapid changes in the cerebellum, ..
  57. pmc Grasping ideas with the motor system: semantic somatotopy in idiom comprehension
    Véronique Boulenger
    Medical Research Council, Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 7EF, UK
    Cereb Cortex 19:1905-14. 2009
    Single words and sentences referring to bodily actions activate the motor cortex. However, this semantic grounding of concrete language does not address the critical question whether the sensory-motor system contributes to the processing ..
  58. ncbi Congruent embodied representations for visually presented actions and linguistic phrases describing actions
    Lisa Aziz-Zadeh
    Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Universita di Parma, Via Volturno, 39 E, I 43100 Parma, Italy
    Curr Biol 16:1818-23. 2006
    ..These results suggest a key role of mirror neuron areas in the re-enactment of sensory-motor representations during conceptual processing of actions invoked by linguistic stimuli...
  59. ncbi Transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS): a tool for double-blind sham-controlled clinical studies in brain stimulation
    Prateek C Gandiga
    Human Cortical Physiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:845-50. 2006
    ..Here, we evaluated the effects of tDCS and sham stimulation (SHAM) on healthy subjects and stroke patients' self-report measures of attention, fatigue, duration of elicited sensations and discomfort...
  60. ncbi Influence of interhemispheric interactions on motor function in chronic stroke
    Nagako Murase
    Human Cortical Physiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
    Ann Neurol 55:400-9. 2004
    In patients with chronic stroke, the primary motor cortex of the intact hemisphere (M1(intact hemisphere)) may influence functional recovery, possibly through transcallosal effects exerted over M1 in the lesioned hemisphere (M1(lesioned ..
  61. ncbi Depression of human corticospinal excitability induced by magnetic theta-burst stimulation: evidence of rapid polarity-reversing metaplasticity
    Reinhard Gentner
    Human Cortical Physiology and Motor Control Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of Wuerzburg, D 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 18:2046-53. 2008
    ..5 Hz) is a novel repetitive magnetic stimulation protocol used to model changes of synaptic efficacy in human motor cortex. Here we examined the influence of prior activity on the effects induced by cTBS...
  62. pmc Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates
    Jose M Carmena
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Biol 1:E42. 2003
    ..Learning to operate the BMIc was paralleled by functional reorganization in multiple cortical areas, suggesting that the dynamic properties of the BMIc were incorporated into motor and sensory cortical representations...
  63. ncbi Preconditioning of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation: evidence for homeostatic plasticity in the human motor cortex
    Hartwig R Siebner
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 24:3379-85. 2004
    ..direct current stimulation (TDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left primary motor cortex. "Facilitatory preconditioning" with anodal TDCS caused a subsequent period of 1 Hz rTMS to reduce ..
  64. ncbi A temporally asymmetric Hebbian rule governing plasticity in the human motor cortex
    Alexander Wolters
    Human Cortical Physiology Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of Rostock, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 89:2339-45. 2003
    ..the site of the plastic changes underlying the decrease of MEP amplitudes following PAS (10 ms) was within the motor cortex. MEP amplitudes remained depressed for approximately 90 min...
  65. ncbi The representation of object concepts in the brain
    Alex Martin
    Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1366, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 58:25-45. 2007
    ..However, some property-based regions seem to show a categorical organization, thus providing evidence consistent with category-based, domain-specific formulations as well...
  66. ncbi New insights into the relationship between dopamine, beta oscillations and motor function
    Ned Jenkinson
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK
    Trends Neurosci 34:611-8. 2011
    ..Loss of dopamine, as in Parkinson's disease, annuls this function, unless net dopaminergic activity can be elevated through medication...
  67. ncbi Therapeutic deep brain stimulation in Parkinsonian rats directly influences motor cortex
    Qian Li
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Neuron 76:1030-41. 2012
    ..recordings of the firing activities from populations of neurons and the local field potentials in the motor cortex of freely moving Parkinsonian rats, this study casts doubt on this assumption...
  68. pmc Ventral premotor cortex may be required for dynamic changes in the feeling of limb ownership: a lesion study
    Daniel Zeller
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 31:4852-7. 2011
    ..In contrast to RHIF, asomatognosia-associated lesion voxels showed no connection with PMv. The results point to a role of PMv and its connections in mediating changes in the sense of limb ownership driven by multisensory stimulation...
  69. pmc Role of rodent secondary motor cortex in value-based action selection
    Jung Hoon Sul
    Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute for Medical Sciences, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
    Nat Neurosci 14:1202-8. 2011
    ..activity in the lateral (AGl) and medial (AGm) agranular cortex, corresponding to the primary and secondary motor cortex, respectively, in rats performing a dynamic foraging task...
  70. ncbi Effects of simultaneous bilateral tDCS of the human motor cortex
    Laura Mordillo-Mateos
    FENNSI Group, Hospital Nacional de Paraplejicos, SESCAM, Toledo, Spain
    Brain Stimul 5:214-22. 2012
    ..Previous research has shown that simultaneous bilateral tDCS of the human motor cortex facilitates motor performance in the anodal stimulated hemisphere much more than when the same hemisphere is ..
  71. pmc You can count on the motor cortex: finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers
    Nadja Tschentscher
    Medical Research Council, Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 7EF, UK
    Neuroimage 59:3139-48. 2012
    ..The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing...
  72. ncbi Towards unravelling task-related modulations of neuroplastic changes induced in the human motor cortex
    Andrea Antal
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University of Gottingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 26:2687-91. 2007
    ..stimulation are able to modify transcranial direct current stimulation-induced plasticity in the left primary motor cortex in 12 healthy subjects...
  73. pmc Dissociating the roles of the cerebellum and motor cortex during adaptive learning: the motor cortex retains what the cerebellum learns
    Joseph M Galea
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Cereb Cortex 21:1761-70. 2011
    ..During visuomotor adaptation, subjects received cerebellar, primary motor cortex (M1) or sham anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive form of brain stimulation ..
  74. pmc Bihemispheric brain stimulation facilitates motor recovery in chronic stroke patients
    R Lindenberg
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neurology 75:2176-84. 2010
    ..In this sham-controlled randomized trial, we investigated whether noninvasive modulation of regional excitability of bilateral motor cortices in combination with physical and occupational therapy improves motor outcome after stroke...
  75. pmc Neurophysiology of dystonia: The role of inhibition
    Mark Hallett
    Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Building 10, Room 7D37, 10 Center Dr MSC 1428, Bethesda, MD 20892 1428, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 42:177-84. 2011
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Advances in dystonia"...
  76. pmc Human medial frontal cortex mediates unconscious inhibition of voluntary action
    Petroc Sumner
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
    Neuron 54:697-711. 2007
    ..These findings imply that the SEF and SMA mediate automatic effector-specific suppression of motor plans. This automatic mechanism may contribute to the participation of these areas in the voluntary control of action...
  77. ncbi Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the human motor cortex on corticospinal and transcallosal excitability
    N Lang
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    Exp Brain Res 156:439-43. 2004
    ..In the present study we asked whether tDCS applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) also produces aftereffects distant from the site of the stimulating electrodes...
  78. pmc The observation and execution of actions share motor and somatosensory voxels in all tested subjects: single-subject analyses of unsmoothed fMRI data
    Valeria Gazzola
    University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Neuroscience, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Cereb Cortex 19:1239-55. 2009
    ..The hand representation of the primary motor cortex showed a reduced BOLD during hand action observation, possibly preventing undesired overt imitation...
  79. pmc Sensing with the motor cortex
    Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
    Committee on Computational Neuroscience, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Neuron 72:477-87. 2011
    The primary motor cortex is a critical node in the network of brain regions responsible for voluntary motor behavior...
  80. ncbi Plasticity and primary motor cortex
    J N Sanes
    Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:393-415. 2000
    One fundamental function of primary motor cortex (MI) is to control voluntary movements...
  81. pmc Decoding complete reach and grasp actions from local primary motor cortex populations
    Carlos E Vargas-Irwin
    Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    J Neurosci 30:9659-69. 2010
    ..combined multielectrode recording techniques with full arm motion capture to relate neural activity in primary motor cortex (M1) of macaques (Macaca mulatta) to arm, wrist, and hand postures during movement...
  82. ncbi The suppressive influence of SMA on M1 in motor imagery revealed by fMRI and dynamic causal modeling
    Christian H Kasess
    MR Center of Excellence, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
    Neuroimage 40:828-37. 2008
    ..Modeling (DCM) to determine effective connectivity measures between supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex (M1)...
  83. ncbi Emotion facilitates action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study of motor cortex excitability during picture viewing
    Greg Hajcak
    Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 2500, USA
    Psychophysiology 44:91-7. 2007
    ..elicited in the abductor pollicus brevis muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered to the motor cortex. The electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from 16 participants while they viewed six blocks of pleasant, neutral, ..
  84. ncbi Spectral changes in cortical surface potentials during motor movement
    Kai J Miller
    Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 27:2424-32. 2007
    ..Sensorimotor representation was found to be somatotopic, localized in stereotactic space to rolandic cortex, and typically followed the classic homunculus with limited extrarolandic representation...
  85. pmc Neural correlates of outcome after stroke: a cross-sectional fMRI study
    N S Ward
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
    Brain 126:1430-48. 2003
    ..None of our patients had infarcts involving the hand region of the primary motor cortex. All subjects were scanned whilst performing an isometric, dynamic visually paced handgrip task...
  86. ncbi Primary motor cortex underlies multi-joint integration for fast feedback control
    J Andrew Pruszynski
    Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Nature 478:387-90. 2011
    ..Here we show, in humans and rhesus monkeys, that a transcortical pathway through primary motor cortex (M1) resolves this ambiguity during fast feedback control...
  87. pmc Dosage-dependent non-linear effect of L-dopa on human motor cortex plasticity
    Katia Monte-Silva
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University Gottingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37099 Gottingen, Germany
    J Physiol 588:3415-24. 2010
    ..The primary motor cortex served as a model system, and plasticity was monitored by motor evoked potential amplitudes elicited by ..
  88. ncbi Learning-related fine-scale specificity imaged in motor cortex circuits of behaving mice
    Takaki Komiyama
    Janelia Farm Research Campus, HHMI, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA
    Nature 464:1182-6. 2010
    ..Here we applied this technique to the motor cortex of mice performing a choice behaviour...
  89. ncbi Neural correlates of reaching decisions in dorsal premotor cortex: specification of multiple direction choices and final selection of action
    Paul Cisek
    Departement de Physiologie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada
    Neuron 45:801-14. 2005
    ..This supports a planning model in which multiple reach options are initially specified and then gradually eliminated in a competition for overt execution, as more information accumulates...
  90. pmc Subdivisions of primary motor cortex based on cortico-motoneuronal cells
    Jean Alban Rathelot
    Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15240, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:918-23. 2009
    ..rabies virus from single muscles of rhesus monkeys to identify cortico-motoneuronal (CM) cells in the primary motor cortex (M1) that make monosynaptic connections with motoneurons innervating shoulder, elbow, and finger muscles...
  91. ncbi Functional mapping of human sensorimotor cortex with electrocorticographic spectral analysis. I. Alpha and beta event-related desynchronization
    N E Crone
    Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Brain 121:2271-99. 1998
    ..We conjecture that alpha ERD may reflect activity within a broad synaptic network with distributed cortical representations...
  92. ncbi Decoupling the cortical power spectrum reveals real-time representation of individual finger movements in humans
    K J Miller
    Department of Physics, Seattle Children s Research Institute and Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 29:3132-7. 2009
    During active movement the electric potentials measured from the surface of the motor cortex exhibit consistent modulation, revealing two distinguishable processes in the power spectrum...
  93. ncbi Visual and motor cortex excitability: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
    Babak Boroojerdi
    Neurologische Klinik, Universitatsklinikum, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany
    Clin Neurophysiol 113:1501-4. 2002
    ..cortex and motor thresholds (MTs) have been used increasingly as measures of the excitability of the visual and motor cortex. MT has been utilized as a guide to the excitability of other, non-motor cortical areas such as dorsolateral ..
  94. pmc Role of hyperactive cerebellum and motor cortex in Parkinson's disease
    Hong Yu
    Department of Movement Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Neuroimage 35:222-33. 2007
    Previous neuroimaging studies have found hyperactivation in the cerebellum and motor cortex and hypoactivation in the basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) but the relationship between the two has not been established...
  95. pmc Intracranial EEG reveals a time- and frequency-specific role for the right inferior frontal gyrus and primary motor cortex in stopping initiated responses
    Nicole Swann
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0662, USA
    J Neurosci 29:12675-85. 2009
    ..role of two regions in this putative stopping network, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the primary motor cortex (M1), using electocorticography from subdural electrodes in four patients while they performed a stop-signal ..
  96. pmc Pallidal stimulation that improves parkinsonian motor symptoms also modulates neuronal firing patterns in primary motor cortex in the MPTP-treated monkey
    Matthew D Johnson
    Lerner Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Exp Neurol 219:359-62. 2009
    ..Whether these effects translate to the motor cortex and, if so, how they might modulate the functional responses of individual neurons in primary motor cortex ..
  97. ncbi Neural substrates of motor memory consolidation depend on practice structure
    Shailesh S Kantak
    Motor Behavior and Neurorehabilitation Laboratory, Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy at the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:923-5. 2010
    ..Interference to dorsolateral-prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but not to primary motor cortex (M1), after variable practice attenuated motor-skill retention, whereas interference to M1, but not to DLPFC, ..
  98. ncbi Patterns of spatio-temporal correlations in the neural activity of the cat motor cortex during trained forelimb movements
    Soumya Ghosh
    Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands, WA, Australia
    Somatosens Mot Res 26:31-49. 2009
    In order to study how neurons in the primary motor cortex (MI) are dynamically linked together during skilled movement, we recorded simultaneously from many cortical neurons in cats trained to perform a reaching and retrieval task using ..
  99. ncbi Differential involvement of excitatory and inhibitory neurons of cat motor cortex in coincident spike activity related to behavioral context
    David Putrino
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Neurosci 30:8048-56. 2010
    To assess temporal associations in spike activity between pairs of neurons in the primary motor cortex (MI) related to different behaviors, we compared the incidence of coincident spiking activity of task-related (TR) and non-task-related ..
  100. ncbi fMRI at 1.5, 3 and 7 T: characterising BOLD signal changes
    Wietske van der Zwaag
    Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Neuroimage 47:1425-34. 2009
    ..An earlier onset of the haemodynamic response at higher field provides some evidence for a reduced venous contribution to the BOLD signal at 7 T...
  101. pmc Fast and slow oscillations in human primary motor cortex predict oncoming behaviorally relevant cues
    Maryam Saleh
    Committee on Computational Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Neuron 65:461-71. 2010
    ..In this study, a human participant implanted with a multielectrode array in the hand area of primary motor cortex (MI) was instructed to plan a movement using either the second or fourth of five sequentially presented ..

Research Grants70

  1. Neural Representation of Reach-to-Grasp for Cortical FES Neuroprostheses
    Abidemi Bolu Ajiboye; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..discriminating imagined and performed functional hand grasps based upon the neural activity patterns of primary motor cortex (M1). These models will discern which cortical frequency bands are most useful for hand grasp discrimination...
  2. Role of ABC efflux transporters in ALS
    Davide Trotti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..most devastating and lethal progressive neuromuscular disorders, affecting motor neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex. Over 30,000 people are living with this disease in the United States and approximately 5,000 Americans will be ..
  3. Local Circuit Properties of Mouse Corticospinal Neurons
    Patrick L Sheets; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neuropathology affecting primary motor cortex (M1) causes major neurological impairment including paralysis/paraplegia, epilepsy, and movement disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a ..
  4. Neural Substrates of Oral Motor Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease
    EMILY KATE PRINE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and dopamine replacement therapy on oral motor versus upper extremity movement representations within the motor cortex. This study involves first training 90 male Long Evans rats on an extensive battery of motor tasks to establish ..
  5. The mechanistic basis of non-invasive deep brain stimulation by ultrasound
    MERRITT C MADUKE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..sodium channels (Nav channels) and consequently increase the rate of action potential firing in the mouse motor cortex in vivo...
  6. Perivascular astrocyte morphology during motor neuron degeneration
    Ileana Lorenzini; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..There are also prominent changes in morphology and function of spinal cord and motor cortex astroglia...
  7. MOLECULAR ETIOLOGY OF EARLY ONSET TORSION DYSTONIA
    XANDRA OWENS BREAKEFIELD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the developmental role of torsinA in neurogenesis and neuronal migration in several brain regions, including motor cortex, striatum and midbrain, and related effects on neuronal numbers, transcription factors and signaling. Drs...
  8. Oligonucleotides that Modulate AMPA Receptor Alternative Splicing as Drug Candida
    Gordon J Lutz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the progressive and selective loss of motor neurons (MNs) in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in death of patients typically 2-5 years after diagnosis...
  9. STATIC AND DYNAMIC ORGANIZATION OF PRIMATE MOTOR CORTEX
    John P Donoghue; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..specific objective of this project is to determine how interconnected networks of neurons in the premotor and motor cortex compute reach and grasp actions from different types of signals...
  10. Cortical Control of Hindlimb Muscles in Primates
    PAUL DAVID CHENEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..baboons has established some basic features of the synaptic linkage between hindlimb motoneurons and primary motor cortex (M1), including the existence of monosynaptic connections, suggesting a synaptic linkage similar to that for ..
  11. Mechanisms of Mutant SOD 1-Mediated Mitochondria Toxicity in the Spinal Cord of A
    Davide Trotti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The disease is characterized by the death of motor neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex. This leads to spasticity, hyper-reflexia, general weakness and muscle atrophy...
  12. Cortical and basal ganglia local field potentials in human movement disorders
    Philip A Starr; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..associated with other movement disorders of basal ganglia origin? Are abnormal beta oscillations present in motor cortex as well, reflecting a network property of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical (BGTC) circuit? Here, we address ..
  13. Cortical Excitability: Biomarker and Endophenotype in Combat Related PTSD
    Zhewu Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Single and pair-pulse TMS over the motor cortex will be performed to assess SICI and ICF...
  14. Determining Functions of a Brainstem Pre-motor Module In Masticatory Jaw Movement
    EDWARD JOHN STANEK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, tonic stimulation applied to a sub-region of the jaw motor cortex deemed the cortical masticatory area (CMA) can activate rhythmic jaw movements...
  15. Applying a Multidimensional Algorithm for Motor Control
    Emilio Bizzi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Potential Scientific and Clinical Impact: This proposal offers and tests the new hypothesis that the human motor cortex produces voluntary movements by selecting and activating muscle synergies encoded downstream of the cortex...
  16. Brain Stimulation- aided Stroke Rehabilitation: Neural Mechanisms of Recovery
    Ela B Plow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In a critical appraisal, the candidate concluded that discrepancies stem from over-reliance on the surviving motor cortex (M1) as a target for stimulation, which may have limited viability in humans, and lack of understanding of ..
  17. Performance Error Signals in Basal Ganglia-Forebrain Circuits of the Songbird
    Michale S Fee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..product is a stereotyped sequence of sounds that is driven by a chain of forebrain premotor nuclei analogous to motor cortex. One of these premotor nuclei (RA) also receives an excitatory projection from the anterior forebrain pathway (..
  18. Functional Architecture of Human Speech Motor Cortex
    Edward Chang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..engineering: 1) How are the coordinated movements of articulation functionally represented in human speech motor cortex? 2) Can we apply this new knowledge to decode speech motor cortex for the practical implementation of a neuro-..
  19. Neurophysiology of Receptive Speech in Rett Syndrome
    John J Foxe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. "leg" and "kick") elicits activity in the corresponding parts o motor cortex. If motor impairments in RTT are primarily due to motor cortex dysfunction, then semantic processing for action ..
  20. Cortical Control of an Assistive Robotic Arm
    John P Donoghue; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the research will establish the ability for BrainGate trial participants to use neural signals from their motor cortex to perform useful reach and grasp actions with a robotic arm...
  21. THERAPEUTIC MOTOR TRAINING AND FETAL ALCOHOL EFFECTS
    William T Greenough; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the capacity for post-weaning cytogenesis in adolescence and young adulthood is present, even enhanced, in the motor cortex of rats given binge-like alcohol exposure during the neonatal period of rapid brain growth, compared to ..
  22. Neurophysiological Studies of Visual Perception in Schizophrenia
    Kevin M Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Decision information is then transmitted to motor cortex and a response is made...
  23. Dentatothalamocortical electrical stimulation in post-stroke motor recovery
    Andre Guelman Machado; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3) anatomical evidence that indicates the dentatothalamocortical pathway projects not only to the motor cortex but also to the premotor frontal and parietal cortical areas...
  24. Pathophysiology of Dystonia
    Mark S Baron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of neuronal discharge activity in GP leading to excessive and abnormal basal ganglia outflow drive to the motor cortex via the thalamus. Our specific aims (SAs) will test this hypothesis: SA 1...
  25. Electrical stimulation of motor cortex: a candidate adjuvant to stroke therapy?
    JAMES WILLIAM STINEAR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The Research Plan will assess whether direct current electrical stimulation of the motor cortex is a candidate adjuvant for stroke therapy...
  26. Near Infrared Brain Imaging for Guiding Treatment in Children with Cerebral Palsy
    Georgios Alexandrakis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..fNIR imaging has been demonstrated as a sensitive method to map functional activities in the healthy human motor cortex and is relatively immune from patient motion artifacts, is cost effective, and can be widely deployable in a ..
  27. Targeting AMPA Receptor Splicing as a Therapeutic Approach for ALS
    Gordon J Lutz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the progressive and selective loss of motor neurons (MNs) in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in death of patients 2-5 years after diagnosis...
  28. ATTENTION AND TACTILE PROCESSING IN SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
    Steven S Hsiao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..years we have made remarkable progress in controlling prosthetic arms with signals taken directly from the motor cortex. However our ability to provide sensory feedback has been limited to targeted reinnervation of receptors in the ..
  29. Restoring Communication with an Intracortical Neural Interface System
    Leigh R Hochberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..array (4x4 mm) which will record the individual and summed activities of ensembles of neurons in the motor cortex. In addition to further assessing the safety of this implanted medical device, this research will support the ..
  30. Bulbar Motor Deterioration in ALS
    Yana Yunusova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Gehrig's disease"), which is a fatal neurologic disease caused by degeneration of the motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord...
  31. Sensorimotor loops in vibrissa somatosensation
    David Kleinfeld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We then build on this effort and ask: 3) Does feedback from motor cortex control the region of interest of rhythmic whisking? The interpretation of touch in neural pathways depends on ..
  32. Genetic labeling and visualization of CSMN in models of motor neuron disorders
    Pembe Hande Ozdinler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) are large pyramidal neurons that are located in layer V of the motor cortex. Their cellular structure is very unique and they function as the "spokes person"of the cerebral cortex for the ..
  33. PREMOTOR AREAS IN THE FRONTAL LOBE
    Peter L Strick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the past, the primary motor cortex (M1) was viewed as the sole source of descending command signals to the spinal cord...
  34. Neural Interactions Among Multiple Motor Structures
    Marc H Schieber; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in Motor Control (Mink, PI) asks how interactions of the globus pallidus, pars interna, with the primary motor cortex and the supplementary motor area, suppress posture and permit movement, or suppress a prepotent movement when ..
  35. Functional architecture of motor cortex: Topography and connections
    DYLAN FRANCIS COOKE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this proposal is to improve our understanding of motor cortex organization...
  36. Central Control of Movement
    Peter L Strick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this proposal we will explore one major component of this substrate- the primary motor cortex (M1)...
  37. Transmission of Abnormal Bursting along the Nigro-thalamo-cortical Pathway
    COLLIN JETHRO LOBB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is likely that this abnormal activity reaches the motor cortex through the thalamus since basal ganglia output neurons strongly project to the motor thalamus...
  38. MECHANISMS OF MOTOR RECOVERY AFTER SUBTOTAL BRAIN INJURY
    Robert J Morecraft; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In clinical practice, variable levels of motor recovery are commonly observed and occur following damage of the motor cortex or its descending pathways...
  39. MECHANISMS OF MOTOR RECOVERY AFTER SUBTOTAL BRAIN INJURY
    ROBERT MORECRAFT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In clinical practice, variable levels of motor recovery are commonly observed and occur following damage of the motor cortex or its descending pathways...
  40. Direct nicotinic excitation of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons
    Jack Waters; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We directly assess how ACh, released by axons from nucleus basalis, affects pyramidal neurons in motor cortex, using a combination of techniques, including optogenetics, viral tools, genetically-modified mice, immuno-..
  41. Effect of Physiological Changes in Neuronal Activity AB Levels in Vivo
    ADAM WILLIAM BERO; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..determine the effect of voluntary exercise on ISF Ab levels and neuronal activity in hippocampus and primary motor cortex by performing in vivo microdialysis with concurrent electrophysiological recording in these brain regions ..
  42. Neural mechanisms of increased cortical excitability in human MDMA/Ecstasy users
    Ronald L Cowan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the neural mechanism for these findings by: 1) by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in visual and motor cortex to demonstrate MDMA users have increased cortical excitability and, 2) to use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (..
  43. Rehabilitative Training Effects on Corticofugal Plasticity after Cortical Damage
    STEPHANIE CHRISTINE JEFFERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..using a rodent model of upper extremity impairment after ischemic cortical lesions of distinct regions of the motor cortex. The caudal motor cortex (CMC) has been found to posses the capacity to promote rapid recovery of skilled ..
  44. CORTICAL CONTROL OF MOVEMENT
    Asaf Keller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The motor cortex of all mammalian species, including humans, contains a gross somatotopic representation of the major divisions of the body, such as hindlimb, forelimb, and face...
  45. NEURAL CONTROL OF MUSCLE ACTIVITY
    Eberhard E Fetz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The functional roles of neurons in primary motor cortex and spinal cord will be directly compared...
  46. Scaling and Sequencing Motor Output in Humans: fMRI Study
    David E Vaillancourt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..signs will be related to region-specific changes in functional activity of the basal ganglia, thalamus, motor cortex, and frontal cortex in PD...
  47. Structure-Function Relationships in Dystonia: A Network Approach
    David Eidelberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This distal defect is clinically "protective": it blocks transmission of the aberrant cerebellar output to the motor cortex. Our work has given rise to a new model for the motor circuitry dysfunction underlying dystonia, which we will ..
  48. Variation in Throughput from Single Motor Cortex Neurons to Muscles
    Marc H Schieber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the present project is to understand factors that influence throughput from single neurons in the primary motor cortex to the motoneurons that drive muscles...
  49. Functional integration of elongated axon-electrode array constructs with the peri
    HAN CHIAO I CHEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of electrical activity to and from the host peripheral and central nervous systems, the latter involving motor cortex stimulation and mapping of somatosensory potential equivalents evoked by the microelectrode array...
  50. Injury and adaptation in the developing rat corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts
    JASON BRANT CARMEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The CST, which connects the motor cortex to the spinal cord, controls fine hand movements and modulates spinal cord reflexes...
  51. Neural pathway of REM sleep atonia
    Jun Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally in aim 4, we ask whether the motor cortex drives complex behaviors of RBD...
  52. Fronto-basal-ganglia circuits for selective stopping and braking
    ADAM ROBERT ARON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..difference between global and selective stopping by identifying effects on motor representations in the primary motor cortex. We will use Electrocorticography (ECoG) in patients being evaluated for epilepsy to address how the functions ..
  53. Combined stem cell transplantation and targeted microstimulation to direct the fo
    Chet T Moritz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..sites within the spinal cord below the injury that is synchronized with functionally related activity in the motor cortex. Targeted microstimulation will strengthen appropriate and functional connections via mechanisms of Hebbian ..
  54. Mechanisms of Neural Repair in White Matter Stroke
    STANLEY THOMAS CARMICHAEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have recently developed a model of subcortical stroke in white matter below the mouse forelimb motor cortex that models many aspects of this disease in humans...
  55. Is cortical reorganization following limb amputation functionally relevant and re
    Scott H Frey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): In modern neuroscience, the notion that the functional organization of sensory and motor cortex is dynamic-- changing in response either to increases or decreases in stimulation, is axiomatic...
  56. RGS10 in microglia activation and dopaminergic neuron survival
    MARIALOURDES G TANSEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathological hallmark of which is loss of ventral midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons that control output from motor cortex. However, the key molecular regulators of neuroinflammatory responses in the ventral midbrain have yet to be ..
  57. RETICULOSPINAL CONTROL OF REACHING
    Lyn B Jakeman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Three cortical motor areas are the subject of the study, the primary motor cortex (M1), the supplementary motor area (SMA), and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd)...
  58. Augmenting Neuroplasticity through Visual and Proprioceptive Feedback
    HAMID FRANZ BAGCE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..motor system, we propose to explore the potential of using visually-based feedback to facilitate activation of motor cortex via Hebbian mechanisms...
  59. Imaging Circuit Change in the Motor Cortex of Mouse Model of ALS
    Gregory A Cox; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons in both the motor cortex and the spinal cord. Currently, there is no curative therapy...
  60. Effects of aging on swallowing physiology with transient cortical disruption
    Ianessa A Humbert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have significantly delayed swallowing onset as well as increased neural activation in the primary sensory-motor cortex (SMI), a phenomenon absent in younger adults...
  61. Spatial and Temporal Scales of Motor Sequence Learning
    SCOTT THOMAS GRAFTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The common thread for all groups is to focus on changes that occur within the primary motor cortex as a new skill is acquired...
  62. Motor learning and neuroplasticity in an aged mouse model of cerebral ischemia
    Kelly A Tennant; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in intact young and aged mice, and then by determining how behavior and neural plasticity change following motor cortex stroke and behavioral rehabilitation in young and aged mice...
  63. Primate Model of Stroke and Recovery in Aging
    Tara Moore; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..primate model of cortical ischemia with older animals with small, focal unilateral lesions in the area of the motor cortex that controls the upper extremity provides a unique opportunity to not only develop coordination and strength ..
  64. Symmetrical walking enhanced neuroplasticity post-stroke
    JAMES STINEAR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..will determine if repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered at 1 Hz to the contralesional motor cortex during symmetrical walking training induces functionally relevant plasticity of impaired motor pathways...
  65. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEURON-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOPROTEIN
    Samuel Gandy; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..brain nuclei which modulate the performance of motor tasks in series and in parallel with the cerebellum and motor cortex. Dysfunction of these structures is clinically associated with a specturm of neurological illnesses which ..
  66. PRECISE CONTOL OF TONGUE MOVEMENT
    Stephen Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Voluntary control in this motor system involves a sequence of neural and muscular events beginning in the motor cortex. Coordinated tongue movements are needed for eating (mastication and swallowing), drinking, licking (suckling), ..
  67. Effect of Contralateral Leg on Motor Output Post Stroke
    Susanne M Morton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Three studies will be undertaken to determine: 1) does damage to the motor cortex cause specific deficits in bilateral more than unilateral cyclical ankle movements? 2) to what extent do ..
  68. TEMPORAL LOBE INPUT TO THE DESCENDING MOTOR PATHWAYS
    ROBERT MORECRAFT; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..several limbic-affiliated parts of the temporal lobe with physiologically mapped body representations of the motor cortex which, in turn, directly influence distinct muscle groups in the face and extremities...
  69. Towards pratical Mapping of Complex White Matter Fiber Pathways by Disffusion-Wei
    Ken Sakaie; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Primary motor cortex, the seed regions for tracking, will be identified by BOLD-fMRI...
  70. ECoG Correlates of Visuomotor Transformation and Application to a Force-Based BCI
    Jordan J Williams; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Previous studies have shown that high gamma band ECoG and LFP activity (>60 Hz) over motor cortex is well correlated to hand speed during reaching tasks, while single unit studies have suggested that premotor ..