amygdala

Summary

Summary: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain, within the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The amygdala: vigilance and emotion
    M Davis
    Department of Psychiatry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 6:13-34. 2001
  2. ncbi Emotion circuits in the brain
    J E Ledoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:155-84. 2000
  3. pmc Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia
    Amit Etkin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Rd, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:1476-88. 2007
  4. ncbi How brains beware: neural mechanisms of emotional attention
    Patrik Vuilleumier
    Laboratory for Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, Department of Neurosciences and Clinic of Neurology, University Medical Center, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trends Cogn Sci 9:585-94. 2005
  5. ncbi Effects of attention and emotion on face processing in the human brain: an event-related fMRI study
    P Vuilleumier
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, England, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 30:829-41. 2001
  6. ncbi Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge
    P J Whalen
    Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Group and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 18:411-8. 1998
  7. ncbi For better or for worse: neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion
    Kevin N Ochsner
    Department of Psychology, Columbia University, 369 Schermerhorn Hall, New York, NY 10027, USA
    Neuroimage 23:483-99. 2004
  8. pmc Emotion processing and the amygdala: from a 'low road' to 'many roads' of evaluating biological significance
    Luiz Pessoa
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:773-83. 2010
  9. ncbi The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences
    James L McGaugh
    Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine 92697 3800
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:1-28. 2004
  10. ncbi Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:400-3. 2002

Detail Information

Publications362 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The amygdala: vigilance and emotion
    M Davis
    Department of Psychiatry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 6:13-34. 2001
    Here we provide a review of the animal and human literature concerning the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning, considering its potential influence over autonomic and hormonal changes, motor behavior and attentional processes...
  2. ncbi Emotion circuits in the brain
    J E Ledoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:155-84. 2000
    ..This work has pinpointed the amygdala as an important component of the system involved in the acquisition, storage, and expression of fear memory and ..
  3. pmc Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia
    Amit Etkin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Rd, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:1476-88. 2007
    ..The authors also compared these deficits to the neural systems engaged during anticipatory anxiety in healthy subjects...
  4. ncbi How brains beware: neural mechanisms of emotional attention
    Patrik Vuilleumier
    Laboratory for Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, Department of Neurosciences and Clinic of Neurology, University Medical Center, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trends Cogn Sci 9:585-94. 2005
    ..The amygdala plays a crucial role in providing both direct and indirect top-down signals on sensory pathways, which can ..
  5. ncbi Effects of attention and emotion on face processing in the human brain: an event-related fMRI study
    P Vuilleumier
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, England, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 30:829-41. 2001
    ..Activation of fusiform gyri by faces was strongly affected by attentional condition, but the left amygdala response to fearful faces was not...
  6. ncbi Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge
    P J Whalen
    Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Group and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 18:411-8. 1998
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human brain was used to study whether the amygdala is activated in response to emotional stimuli, even in the absence of explicit knowledge that such stimuli were presented...
  7. ncbi For better or for worse: neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion
    Kevin N Ochsner
    Department of Psychology, Columbia University, 369 Schermerhorn Hall, New York, NY 10027, USA
    Neuroimage 23:483-99. 2004
    ..examining the neural bases of the cognitive control of emotion have found increased prefrontal and decreased amygdala activation for the reduction or down-regulation of negative emotion...
  8. pmc Emotion processing and the amygdala: from a 'low road' to 'many roads' of evaluating biological significance
    Luiz Pessoa
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:773-83. 2010
    A subcortical pathway through the superior colliculus and pulvinar to the amygdala is commonly assumed to mediate the non-conscious processing of affective visual stimuli...
  9. ncbi The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences
    James L McGaugh
    Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine 92697 3800
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:1-28. 2004
    Converging findings of animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that the amygdala is critically involved in enabling us to acquire and retain lasting memories of emotional experiences...
  10. ncbi Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:400-3. 2002
    ..5-HT)] function influences normal fear as well as pathological anxiety, behaviors critically dependent on the amygdala in animal models and in clinical studies...
  11. ncbi Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval
    K Nader
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 406:722-6. 2000
    ..The lateral and basal nuclei of the amygdala (LBA) are believed to be a site of memory storage in fear learning...
  12. pmc Self-regulation of amygdala activation using real-time FMRI neurofeedback
    Vadim Zotev
    Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e24522. 2011
    ..We investigated the feasibility of training healthy humans to self-regulate the hemodynamic activity of the amygdala, which plays major roles in emotional processing...
  13. ncbi 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression
    Lukas Pezawas
    Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive 4S235, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1379, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:828-34. 2005
    ..polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene have increased anxiety-related temperamental traits, increased amygdala reactivity and elevated risk of depression...
  14. ncbi Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology, New York University, 4 6 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Neuron 48:175-87. 2005
    Research on the neural systems underlying emotion in animal models over the past two decades has implicated the amygdala in fear and other emotional processes...
  15. ncbi Rethinking feelings: an FMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion
    Kevin N Ochsner
    Stanford University, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 14:1215-29. 2002
    ..were increased activation of the lateral and medial prefrontal regions and decreased activation of the amygdala and medial orbito-frontal cortex...
  16. ncbi Resolving emotional conflict: a role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala
    Amit Etkin
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University Medical Center, Neurological Institute Box 108, 710 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Neuron 51:871-82. 2006
    ..Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we find that activity in the amygdala and dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices reflects the amount of emotional conflict...
  17. ncbi Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:321-52. 2002
    ..The basolateral amygdala (BLA) appears to be required for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) to gain access to the current value of the ..
  18. ncbi Increased amygdala and decreased dorsolateral prefrontal BOLD responses in unipolar depression: related and independent features
    Greg J Siegle
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 61:198-209. 2007
    ..disorder is characterized by increased and sustained emotional reactivity, which has been linked to sustained amygdala activity...
  19. pmc Plastic synaptic networks of the amygdala for the acquisition, expression, and extinction of conditioned fear
    Hans Christian Pape
    Institute of Physiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms University, Muenster, Germany and Rutgers State University, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    Physiol Rev 90:419-63. 2010
    ..We will focus on Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model and the amygdala as a key component for the acquisition and extinction of fear responses.
  20. ncbi Cytoarchitectonic mapping of the human amygdala, hippocampal region and entorhinal cortex: intersubject variability and probability maps
    K Amunts
    Research Center Julich, IME, 52425 Julich, Germany
    Anat Embryol (Berl) 210:343-52. 2005
    ..Here, for the first time, we present stereotaxic, probabilistic maps of the hippocampus, the amygdala and the entorhinal cortex and some of their subdivisions...
  21. ncbi Encoding of conditioned fear in central amygdala inhibitory circuits
    Stephane Ciocchi
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Nature 468:277-82. 2010
    The central amygdala (CEA), a nucleus predominantly composed of GABAergic inhibitory neurons, is essential for fear conditioning...
  22. pmc The neural bases of emotion regulation: reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion
    Philippe R Goldin
    Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:577-86. 2008
    ....
  23. ncbi Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: the role of the amygdala and fusiform face area
    Robert T Schultz
    Yale Child Study Center, 230 S Frontage Road, PO Box 207900, New Haven, CT 06520 7900, USA
    Int J Dev Neurosci 23:125-41. 2005
    ..This model posits an early developmental failure in autism involving the amygdala, with a cascading influence on the development of cortical areas that mediate social perception in the visual ..
  24. ncbi Extinction learning in humans: role of the amygdala and vmPFC
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology and New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 43:897-905. 2004
    ..Studies of extinction in nonhuman animals have focused on two interconnected brain regions: the amygdala and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
  25. ncbi Stress, memory and the amygdala
    Benno Roozendaal
    Department of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:423-33. 2009
    Emotionally significant experiences tend to be well remembered, and the amygdala has a pivotal role in this process...
  26. ncbi Memory--a century of consolidation
    J L McGaugh
    the Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory and the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Science 287:248-51. 2000
    ..This review examines the progress made over the century in understanding the time-dependent processes that create our lasting memories...
  27. pmc Amygdala volume and social network size in humans
    Kevin C Bickart
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:163-4. 2011
    We found that amygdala volume correlates with the size and complexity of social networks in adult humans...
  28. ncbi The amygdaloid complex: anatomy and physiology
    P Sah
    School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    Physiol Rev 83:803-34. 2003
    A converging body of literature over the last 50 years has implicated the amygdala in assigning emotional significance or value to sensory information...
  29. pmc Neuropsin cleaves EphB2 in the amygdala to control anxiety
    Benjamin K Attwood
    Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK
    Nature 473:372-5. 2011
    ..Here we show in mice that the serine protease neuropsin is critical for stress-related plasticity in the amygdala by regulating the dynamics of the EphB2-NMDA-receptor interaction, the expression of Fkbp5 and anxiety-like ..
  30. pmc Genetic dissection of an amygdala microcircuit that gates conditioned fear
    Wulf Haubensak
    Division of Biology 216 76, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nature 468:270-6. 2010
    The role of different amygdala nuclei (neuroanatomical subdivisions) in processing Pavlovian conditioned fear has been studied extensively, but the function of the heterogeneous neuronal subtypes within these nuclei remains poorly ..
  31. ncbi The role of the amygdala in emotional processing: a quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies
    Karine Sergerie
    Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, 6875 LaSalle Boulevard, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4H 1R3
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:811-30. 2008
    Functional neuroimaging studies have provided strong support for a critical role of the amygdala in emotional processing...
  32. ncbi Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variation: impact on amygdala response to aversive stimuli
    Katharina Domschke
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Germany
    Neuroimage 60:2222-9. 2012
    ..In 85 healthy subjects genotyped for the COMT val158met polymorphism, amygdala responses were assessed by means of fMRI...
  33. pmc The primate amygdala represents the positive and negative value of visual stimuli during learning
    Joseph J Paton
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 87, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 439:865-70. 2006
    ..To study this process, we turned to the amygdala, a brain structure implicated in reinforcement learning...
  34. ncbi Neural systems for recognizing emotion
    Ralph Adolphs
    Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, 200 Hawkins Drive, University of Iowa College of Medicine, 52242, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:169-77. 2002
    Recognition of emotion draws on a distributed set of structures that include the occipitotemporal neocortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex and right frontoparietal cortices...
  35. pmc Serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype and amygdala activation: a meta-analysis
    Marcus R Munafo
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 63:852-7. 2008
    We evaluated the magnitude of the reported associations between amygdala activation and the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the likely effect size of this relationship.
  36. ncbi Distinct spatial frequency sensitivities for processing faces and emotional expressions
    Patrik Vuilleumier
    Laboratory for Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Geneva Medical Center, 1 Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 6:624-31. 2003
    ..In contrast, amygdala responses to fearful expressions were greater for intact or low-frequency faces than for high-frequency faces...
  37. ncbi Oxytocin enhances amygdala-dependent, socially reinforced learning and emotional empathy in humans
    Rene Hurlemann
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Bonn, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    J Neurosci 30:4999-5007. 2010
    ..Further experiments investigated whether OT-sensitive behavioral components required a normal functional amygdala. Results in control groups showed that learning performance was improved when social rather than nonsocial ..
  38. ncbi Central mechanisms of stress integration: hierarchical circuitry controlling hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical responsiveness
    James P Herman
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0559, USA
    Front Neuroendocrinol 24:151-80. 2003
    ..Imbalances among these limbic pathways and homeostatic sensors are likely to underlie hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical dysfunction associated with numerous disease processes...
  39. pmc What does the amygdala contribute to social cognition?
    Ralph Adolphs
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1191:42-61. 2010
    The amygdala has received intense recent attention from neuroscientists investigating its function at the molecular, cellular, systems, cognitive, and clinical level...
  40. ncbi Emotion and cognition: insights from studies of the human amygdala
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 57:27-53. 2006
    ..explores insights into the relations between emotion and cognition that have resulted from studies of the human amygdala. Five topics are explored: emotional learning, emotion and memory, emotion's influence on attention and ..
  41. ncbi Distant influences of amygdala lesion on visual cortical activation during emotional face processing
    Patrik Vuilleumier
    Laboratory for Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, Centre Medical Universitaire, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 7:1271-8. 2004
    ..To test whether this reflects modulatory influences from the amygdala on sensory processing, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human patients with ..
  42. ncbi Amygdalar and hippocampal theta rhythm synchronization during fear memory retrieval
    Thomas Seidenbecher
    Institut fur Physiologie, Otto von Guericke Universitat, Leipziger Strasse 44, Magdeburg D 39120, Germany
    Science 301:846-50. 2003
    ..We simultaneously recorded electrical activity in the lateral amygdala (LA) and the CA1 area of the hippocampus in freely behaving fear-conditioned mice...
  43. ncbi Different fear states engage distinct networks within the intercalated cell clusters of the amygdala
    Daniela Busti
    Department of Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    J Neurosci 31:5131-44. 2011
    ..Recent evidence suggests that the intercalated cell masses of the amygdala (ITCs) are critical structures for fear extinction...
  44. pmc Gating of fear in prelimbic cortex by hippocampal and amygdala inputs
    Francisco Sotres-Bayon
    Departments of Psychiatry and Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, P O Box 365067, San Juan, PR 00936 5067, USA
    Neuron 76:804-12. 2012
    ..We therefore evaluated the contribution of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventral hippocampus (vHPC) inputs to fear signaling in the prelimbic (PL) cortex, a PFC region critical ..
  45. ncbi Amygdala inhibitory circuits and the control of fear memory
    Ingrid Ehrlich
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Neuron 62:757-71. 2009
    ..Previous studies have clearly identified the amygdala as a key brain structure for acquisition and storage of fear memory traces...
  46. ncbi Putting feelings into words: affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity in response to affective stimuli
    Matthew D Lieberman
    University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Psychol Sci 18:421-8. 2007
    ..The results indicated that affect labeling, relative to other forms of encoding, diminished the response of the amygdala and other limbic regions to negative emotional images...
  47. ncbi Neuronal signalling of fear memory
    Stephen Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:844-52. 2004
    The learning and remembering of fearful events depends on the integrity of the amygdala, but how are fear memories represented in the activity of amygdala neurons? Here, we review recent electrophysiological studies indicating that ..
  48. ncbi Can't shake that feeling: event-related fMRI assessment of sustained amygdala activity in response to emotional information in depressed individuals
    Greg J Siegle
    University of Pittsburgh Medical School and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 51:693-707. 2002
    ..A computational neural network model of emotional information processing suggests this process involves sustained amygdala activity in response to processing negative features of information...
  49. pmc Dissociable roles of prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, ventral hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala in the expression and extinction of conditioned fear
    Demetrio Sierra-Mercado
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR 00936 5067, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:529-38. 2011
    Current models of conditioned fear expression and extinction involve the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the hippocampus (HPC)...
  50. ncbi Human emotion and memory: interactions of the amygdala and hippocampal complex
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology, 6 Washington Place, 8 th floor, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:198-202. 2004
    The amygdala and hippocampal complex, two medial temporal lobe structures, are linked to two independent memory systems, each with unique characteristic functions...
  51. ncbi The amygdala and persistent pain
    Volker Neugebauer
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, 77555 1069, USA
    Neuroscientist 10:221-34. 2004
    ..Accumulating evidence points to the amygdala as an important site of such interaction...
  52. ncbi Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: human neuroimaging research--past, present, and future
    Scott L Rauch
    Psychiatric Neuroscience Division, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:376-82. 2006
    ..fear conditioning and the pathogenesis of PTSD, we have proposed that PTSD is characterized by exaggerated amygdala responses (subserving exaggerated acquisition of fear associations and expression of fear responses) and ..
  53. ncbi Chronic stress induces contrasting patterns of dendritic remodeling in hippocampal and amygdaloid neurons
    Ajai Vyas
    National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore 560065, India
    J Neurosci 22:6810-8. 2002
    The hippocampus and the amygdala are essential components of the neural circuitry mediating stress responses...
  54. pmc Defective GABAergic neurotransmission and pharmacological rescue of neuronal hyperexcitability in the amygdala in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome
    Jose Luis Olmos-Serrano
    Center for Neuroscience Research, Children s National Medical Center, Washington DC, 20010, USA
    J Neurosci 30:9929-38. 2010
    ..Consistent with this, findings from human brain imaging studies suggest dysfunction of the amygdala. Underlying alterations in amygdala synaptic function in the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mouse model of FXS, however, ..
  55. ncbi Amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampal function in PTSD
    Lisa M Shin
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 490 Boston Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1071:67-79. 2006
    ..research has yielded important information concerning the structure, neurochemistry, and function of the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
  56. pmc Phasic vs sustained fear in rats and humans: role of the extended amygdala in fear vs anxiety
    Michael Davis
    Department of Psychiatry, Yerkes National Primate Center, Emory University, and The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:105-35. 2010
    ..Rodent studies suggest that phasic fear is mediated by the amygdala, which sends outputs to the hypothalamus and brainstem to produce symptoms of fear...
  57. ncbi Individual differences in trait anxiety predict the response of the basolateral amygdala to unconsciously processed fearful faces
    Amit Etkin
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University Medical Center, fMRI Research Center, 170 West 168th Street, Box 108, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Neuron 44:1043-55. 2004
    ..Unconscious processing modulated activity only in the basolateral subregion of the amygdala, while conscious processing modulated activity only in the dorsal amygdala (containing the central nucleus)...
  58. ncbi Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning
    S Maren
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:897-931. 2001
    ..These advances represent an important step in understanding the neural substrates of a rapidly acquired and adaptive form of associative learning and memory in mammals...
  59. ncbi Amygdala-prefrontal coupling depends on a genetic variation of the serotonin transporter
    Andreas Heinz
    Department of Psychiatry, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Schumannstr 20 21, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 8:20-1. 2005
    ..but not pleasant, pictures, healthy carriers of the SLC6A4 short (s) allele showed stronger activation of the amygdala on functional magnetic resonance imaging...
  60. ncbi Predictors of amygdala activation during the processing of emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of 385 PET and fMRI studies
    Sergi G Costafreda
    Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, UK
    Brain Res Rev 58:57-70. 2008
    Although amygdala activity has been purported to be modulated by affective and non-affective factors, considerable controversy remains on its precise functional nature...
  61. ncbi The amygdala theory of autism
    S Baron-Cohen
    Departments of Experimental Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24:355-64. 2000
    ..1990;1:27-51) proposed a network of neural regions that comprise the "social brain", which includes the amygdala. Since the childhood psychiatric condition of autism involves deficits in "social intelligence", it is plausible ..
  62. ncbi Lesions of the human amygdala impair enhanced perception of emotionally salient events
    A K Anderson
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 411:305-9. 2001
    ..Here we consider that a critical function of the human amygdala is to enhance the perception of stimuli that have emotional significance...
  63. pmc Fear conditioning, synaptic plasticity and the amygdala: implications for posttraumatic stress disorder
    Amy L Mahan
    Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 954 Gatewood Drive, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Trends Neurosci 35:24-35. 2012
    ..We then summarize how such approaches might help to inform our understanding of PTSD and other stress-related disorders and provide insight to new pharmacological avenues of treatment of PTSD...
  64. ncbi Regional cerebral blood flow in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD
    Lisa M Shin
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:168-76. 2004
    ..PTSD) and the results of previous neuroimaging studies of PTSD highlight the potential importance of the amygdala and medial prefrontal regions in this disorder...
  65. ncbi A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Lisa M Shin
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Mass, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:273-81. 2005
    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated exaggerated amygdala responses and diminished medial prefrontal cortex responses during the symptomatic state in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  66. pmc The structural and functional connectivity of the amygdala: from normal emotion to pathological anxiety
    M Justin Kim
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, 6207 Moore Hall, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Behav Brain Res 223:403-10. 2011
    The dynamic interactions between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are usefully conceptualized as a circuit that both allows us to react automatically to biologically relevant predictive stimuli as well as regulate ..
  67. ncbi Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation--a possible prelude to violence
    R J Davidson
    Laboratory for Affective Neuroscience and W M Keck Laboratory for Functional Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Science 289:591-4. 2000
    Emotion is normally regulated in the human brain by a complex circuit consisting of the orbital frontal cortex, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and several other interconnected regions...
  68. ncbi The amygdala and reward
    Mark G Baxter
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University, 906 William James Hall, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:563-73. 2002
    The amygdala -- an almond-shaped group of nuclei at the heart of the telencephalon -- has been associated with a range of cognitive functions, including emotion, learning, memory, attention and perception...
  69. ncbi Dissociable systems for gain- and loss-related value predictions and errors of prediction in the human brain
    Juliana Yacubian
    Department of Systems Neuroscience, NeuroImage Nord, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, D 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 26:9530-7. 2006
    ..In contrast, loss-related expected value (EV-) and the associated prediction error was represented in the amygdala. Thus, the ventral striatum and the amygdala distinctively process the value of a prediction and subsequently ..
  70. ncbi The human amygdala: an evolved system for relevance detection
    David Sander
    Geneva Emotion Research Group, Psychology Section, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Rev Neurosci 14:303-16. 2003
    Evidence from pioneering animal research has suggested that the amygdala is involved in the processing of aversive stimuli, particularly fear-related information...
  71. pmc Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala
    Britta K Hölzel
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 5:11-7. 2010
    ..Neurobiological studies have implicated the amygdala as a brain structure crucial in stress responses...
  72. pmc Fate of unattended fearful faces in the amygdala is determined by both attentional resources and cognitive modulation
    Luiz Pessoa
    Department of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Neuroimage 28:249-55. 2005
    The evidence for amygdala processing of emotional items outside the focus of attention is mixed. We hypothesized that differences in attentional demands may, at least in part, explain prior discrepancies...
  73. ncbi Increased amygdala response to masked emotional faces in depressed subjects resolves with antidepressant treatment: an fMRI study
    Y I Sheline
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 50:651-8. 2001
    BACKGROUND: The amygdala has a central role in processing emotions, particularly fear...
  74. pmc Sequence of information processing for emotions based on the anatomic dialogue between prefrontal cortex and amygdala
    H T Ghashghaei
    Boston University, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroimage 34:905-23. 2007
    The prefrontal cortex and the amygdala have synergistic roles in regulating purposive behavior, effected through bidirectional pathways...
  75. pmc Social defeat: impact on fear extinction and amygdala-prefrontal cortical theta synchrony in 5-HTT deficient mice
    Venu Narayanan
    Institute of Physiology I, Westfalische Wilhelms University, Munster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e22600. 2011
    ..repeated social defeat for fear-related behaviors and corresponding neurophysiological activities in the lateral amygdala (LA) and infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male 5-HTT wild-type (+/+), homo- (-/-) and ..
  76. pmc Peripuberty stress leads to abnormal aggression, altered amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity and increased prefrontal MAOA gene expression
    C Marquez
    Laboratory of Behavioral Genetics, Brain Mind Institute, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Transl Psychiatry 3:e216. 2013
    ..They also exhibit hyperactivity in the amygdala under both basal conditions (evaluated by 2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography) and after a resident-intruder (RI) ..
  77. pmc The adaptive threat bias in anxiety: amygdala-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex coupling and aversive amplification
    Oliver J Robinson
    Section on Neurobiology of Fear and Anxiety, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Neuroimage 60:523-9. 2012
    ..cingulate cortex constitute the human homologue of the rodent prelimbic and are thus associated with increased amygdala responding during this adaptive threat bias in anxiety...
  78. ncbi Failure to regulate: counterproductive recruitment of top-down prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in major depression
    Tom Johnstone
    Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    J Neurosci 27:8877-84. 2007
    ..nondepressed individuals showed an inverse relationship between activation in left ventrolateral PFC and the amygdala that is mediated by the ventromedial PFC (VMPFC)...
  79. ncbi Fear conditioning induces associative long-term potentiation in the amygdala
    M T Rogan
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 390:604-7. 1997
    ..Here we explore the relation between LTP and memory in fear conditioning, an amygdala-dependent form of learning in which an innocuous conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits fear responses after being ..
  80. ncbi Selective reduction in amygdala volume in pediatric anxiety disorders: a voxel-based morphometry investigation
    Michael P Milham
    Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:961-6. 2005
    ..We examine the neural correlates of pediatric anxiety disorders, to consider the validity of the categorization scheme used in recent treatment studies...
  81. ncbi Tonic inhibition in principal cells of the amygdala: a central role for α3 subunit-containing GABAA receptors
    Anne Marowsky
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 32:8611-9. 2012
    GABAergic inhibition in the amygdala is essential in regulating fear and anxiety...
  82. ncbi Topographic organization of projections from the amygdala to the visual cortex in the macaque monkey
    D G Amaral
    Department of Psychiatry, Center for Neuroscience, 1544 Newton Court, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Neuroscience 118:1099-120. 2003
    ..locations in the occipital and temporal lobes and mapping the distribution of retrogradely labeled cells in the amygdala. Injections involving regions from rostral area TE to caudal area V1 all resulted in labeled cells within the ..
  83. ncbi Selective erasure of a fear memory
    Jin Hee Han
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Science 323:1492-6. 2009
    ..We have shown previously that lateral amygdala (LA) neurons with increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) are ..
  84. pmc Glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation depend on functional interactions between the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala
    Benno Roozendaal
    Department of Neuroscience, Section Anatomy, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 29:14299-308. 2009
    Considerable evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) interacts with efferent brain regions in mediating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation...
  85. ncbi A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage
    Ralph Adolphs
    Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Nature 433:68-72. 2005
    Ten years ago, we reported that SM, a patient with rare bilateral amygdala damage, showed an intriguing impairment in her ability to recognize fear from facial expressions...
  86. pmc Excitatory transmission from the amygdala to nucleus accumbens facilitates reward seeking
    Garret D Stuber
    Department of Psychiatry, UNC Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Nature 475:377-80. 2011
    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) has a crucial role in emotional learning irrespective of valence...
  87. ncbi Neurocognitive mechanisms of anxiety: an integrative account
    Sonia J Bishop
    Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Trends Cogn Sci 11:307-16. 2007
    ..of conditioned fear, attention to threat and interpretation of emotionally ambiguous stimuli indicate common amygdala-prefrontal circuitry underlying these processes, and suggest that the balance of activity within this circuitry ..
  88. pmc Relationship between amygdala responses to masked faces and mood state and treatment in major depressive disorder
    Teresa A Victor
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:1128-38. 2010
    ..However, few studies have investigated such biases toward implicitly presented stimuli...
  89. pmc Amygdala circuitry mediating reversible and bidirectional control of anxiety
    Kay M Tye
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 471:358-62. 2011
    ..Although it has been proposed that the amygdala, a brain region important for emotional processing, has a role in anxiety, the neural mechanisms that control ..
  90. ncbi Amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are inversely coupled during regulation of negative affect and predict the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion among older adults
    Heather L Urry
    Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Neurosci 26:4415-25. 2006
    ..affect, enabling effective responses to stressful experiences, engages regions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala. Because regions of PFC and the amygdala are known to influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, here we ..
  91. pmc A comparison of automated segmentation and manual tracing for quantifying hippocampal and amygdala volumes
    Rajendra A Morey
    Duke UNC Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Neuroimage 45:855-66. 2009
    ..fully automated tools, FSL/FIRST and FreeSurfer, to expert hand tracing in the measurement of the hippocampus and amygdala. Volumes derived from each automated measurement were compared to hand tracing for percent volume overlap, ..
  92. ncbi The human amygdala in social judgment
    R Adolphs
    Department of Neurology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Nature 393:470-4. 1998
    Studies in animals have implicated the amygdala in emotional and social behaviours, especially those related to fear and aggression...
  93. ncbi A susceptibility gene for affective disorders and the response of the human amygdala
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:146-52. 2005
    ..functional magnetic resonance imaging study suggested that this association may be mediated by 5-HTTLPR effects on the response bias of the human amygdala-a brain region critical for emotional and social behavior-to environmental threat.
  94. ncbi Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex
    Jay A Gottfried
    Functional Imaging Laboratory, Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 301:1104-7. 2003
    ..In amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, responses evoked by a predictive target stimulus were decreased after devaluation, ..
  95. ncbi Association between amygdala hyperactivity to harsh faces and severity of social anxiety in generalized social phobia
    K Luan Phan
    Department of Psychiatry, Biological Sciences Division, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 59:424-9. 2006
    Previous functional brain imaging studies of social anxiety have implicated amygdala hyperactivity in response to social threat, though its relationship to quantitative measures of clinical symptomatology remains unknown...
  96. ncbi Interaction between the amygdala and the medial temporal lobe memory system predicts better memory for emotional events
    Florin Dolcos
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Neuron 42:855-63. 2004
    Emotional events are remembered better than neutral events possibly because the amygdala enhances the function of medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system (modulation hypothesis)...
  97. ncbi Reciprocal connections between the amygdala and the hippocampal formation, perirhinal cortex, and postrhinal cortex in rat. A review
    A Pitkanen
    A I Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, Finland
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 911:369-91. 2000
    ..The most substantial inputs to the amygdala originate in the rostral half of the entorhinal cortex, the temporal end of the CA1 subfield and subiculum, and ..
  98. pmc Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review
    Christina Sehlmeyer
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e5865. 2009
    ..Results were summarized descriptively. A network consisting of fear-related brain areas, such as amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, is activated independently of design parameters...
  99. ncbi Dissociation of neural representation of intensity and affective valuation in human gustation
    Dana M Small
    Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer s Disease Center, Northwestern University Feinberg Medical School, 320 East Superior Street, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Neuron 39:701-11. 2003
    ..The cerebellum, pons, middle insula, and amygdala responded to intensity irrespective of valence...
  100. ncbi Switching on and off fear by distinct neuronal circuits
    Cyril Herry
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Nature 454:600-6. 2008
    ..and low fear are triggered by a rapid switch in the balance of activity between two distinct populations of basal amygdala neurons...
  101. ncbi Learning-related plasticity of temporal coding in simultaneously recorded amygdala-cortical ensembles
    Stephen E Grossman
    Volen National Center for Complex Systems, Department of Psychology, and Program in Neuroscience, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, USA
    J Neurosci 28:2864-73. 2008
    ..In contrast, and consistent with data suggesting the amygdala's primary role in judging stimulus palatability, CTA altered all components of BLA taste responses, including the ..

Research Grants74

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Brain Activation responses in adolescents with genetic predisposition to obesity
    Susan Carnell; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..cues), obese Ss are expected to show greater activation relative to lean Ss in the insula, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum (appetitive reward), and less activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (..
  3. CRF-Oxytocin Interaction in the Regulation of Stress and Affect
    Joanna Dabrowska; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..techniques, who has over 20 years experience in electrophysiological recordings from neurons of the extended amygdala. Dr...
  4. Neuroimaging abnormalities in major depressive disorder: effect of inflammation
    Jonathan Savitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and three neurophysiological correlates of MDD: (a) the abnormal pattern of hemodynamic response in the amygdala, hippocampus, and perigenual ACC to emotionally-valenced faces, (b) reductions in hippocampal volume, and (c) ..
  5. Neurobehavioral Correlates of Familial/genetic obesity risk in adolescents
    Susan Carnell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cues), obese Ss are expected to show greater activation relative to lean Ss in the insula, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum (appetitive reward), and less activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (..
  6. Systemic Inflammation and Central Nervous System Dysfunction
    Laura L Dugan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of Nox2 led to a superoxide-dependent loss of subsets of inhibitory interneurons in hippocampus, cortex, and amygdala. Loss of these neurons is observed in rodents, dogs, and primates, and has been proposed to underlie cognitive ..
  7. Cellular Signaling in Alcoholism
    Subhash C Pandey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..at the level of BDNF expression and related signaling pathways, thereby affecting dendritic spines in the central amygdala (CeA) and medial amygdala (MeA), but not in the basolateral amygdala (BLA);and 2) tolerance at the level of BDNF, ..
  8. Understanding Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin in Women that Serve in OEF/OIF
    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, corticosterone-induced stimulation of the amygdala, a key central nuclei involved in the emotional expression of fear and anxiety, enhances anxiety-like behavior ..
  9. Signaling Mechanisms in Alcohol Drinking Behaviors
    Subhash C Pandey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protein (Arc) expression, and dendritic spine density (DSD) were lower in the central (CeA) and medial nucleus of amygdala (MeA) but not basolateral amygdala (BLA) of P rats as compared with NP rats...
  10. Therapeutic Approaches for Extinction of Conditioned Drug Reward
    Gary B Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurons such as prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
  11. STRESS, ADRENAL STEROIDS AND THE BRAIN
    Bruce S McEwen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..has been most extensively studied in the hippocampal formation and is now found in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala. In young animals, this plasticity is largely reversible after chronic stress but the reversal is lost in older ..
  12. Olfactory Circuits for Reproduction and Reward
    James A Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using mice, we have identified a direct projection of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) to the medial amygdala (Me), which projects to areas in the hypothalamus that control reproduction...
  13. Reversing Corticosteroid-Induced Memory Impairment
    E Sherwood Brown; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also assess NAA and glutamate using spectroscopy and hippocampal and amygdala volume using structural magnetic resonance imaging...
  14. Hiv-1 Infection: Central Serotonergic Activity and its Health Implications
    Adarsh M Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..nuclei, hypothalamus, hippocampus, basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus), substantia nigra, amygdala and fronto-cortical regions (cingulate and subgenual cortical areas) as well as CSF} of a total of 40 adult men ..
  15. Interacting Impact of Adrenal and Ovarian Aging on the CNS
    Henryk F Urbanski; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..cueing test of visual attention that is estrogen-sensitive;and 4) a test of behavioral reactivity sensitive to amygdala damage...
  16. Neuroendocrine Mechanisms and Therapeutics in an Animal Model of PTSD
    DAVID MARK DIAMOND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, we will assess the effects of psychosocial stress on BDNF gene methylation in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex...
  17. Multiple Mechanisms of Nasal Chemoreception
    Diego Restrepo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..OSNs transmit information about semiochemicals to restricted areas of the MOB which project in turn to the medial amygdala - an area associated with reproductive and defensive behaviors...
  18. In vivo targeted gene silencing, a novel method
    WILLIAM ANTHONY TRUITT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of interneurons containing substance P1 receptors (also known as tachykinin receptor 1;Tacr1) located within the amygdala. These Tacr1 interneurons receive cortical inputs related to social recognition and suppress anxiety-like outputs ..
  19. Epigenetic Changes in the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Due to Arsenic Exposure
    Andrea M Allan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The GRs are particularly concentrated in areas of central importance for cognition (hippocampus, amygdala and frontal cortex)...
  20. Immediate and Delayed Effects of Morphine on Brain Circuits: Animal and Human Cor
    Dusica Bajic; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies have demonstrated significant dose-related decreases in the amygdala volume and connectivity after long-term opioid exposure in adult patients...
  21. Optimization of KCa2 Channel Activators as Neuroscience Tools and Potential Drugs
    Heike Wulff; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Promising compounds will then be tested in amygdala kindled mice and rats with kainate-induced epilepsy, two models that are more representative of human refractory ..
  22. Oxidative Stress: A Recipe for Anxiety
    Samina Salim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..BSO) treatment reduced RGS2, Glo1 and Gsr1 levels in locus coeruleus (LC), hippocampus and amygdala and increased anxiety-like behavior of rats...
  23. Role of AIE in Epigenetic and Behavioral Changes at Adulthood
    Subhash C Pandey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The extended amygdala, which includes central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), medial nucleus of amygdala (MeA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) ..
  24. Central Mechanisms Modulating Visceral Sensitivity
    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The hypothesis of this application is that specific genomic responses within the amygdala underlie the induction of anxiety and abnormal pain behaviors...
  25. Sex and Stress Mechanisms of Vulnerability to Addiction
    Rajita Sinha; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..changes in DA signaling and molecular neuroadaptations within the nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex and amygdala using in vivo microdialysis, Western blot analysis of downstream molecular markers (e.g...
  26. Functionally Significant Polymorphisms in Serotonin Pathway Genes
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These neurons project too many regions of the brain including the cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and amygdala. Released serotonin can act on over 14 different receptors, expressed by both presynaptic and postsynaptic ..
  27. The Neurochemistry of Cognitive Therapy: Predicting Treatment Outcome with PET
    Jeffrey M Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5-HT1A receptor binding in the raphe nuclei is inversely associated with amygdala reactivity to negative emotional stimuli, which itself has been found to be predictive of outcome with CBT for ..
  28. MODULATION OF ALCOHOL REINFORCEMENT
    Christopher L Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Brain areas of interest include: ventral tegmental area, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, anterior cingulate cortex and the CA1 region of ..
  29. CRCNS: Gamma Rhythms and Cell Assemblies
    Nancy Kopell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hz) are found in many parts of the nervous system, including the hippocampus, neocortex, entorhinal cortex and amygdala. They are believed to be important for a range of functions, including attention, early sensory processing, short ..
  30. Etanercept: a Mechanistic Probe of Central Mu-Opioid Dysregulation in Pain States
    ALAN RODNEY PROSSIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These data specifically implicate the ventral striatum and amygdala, regions involved in encoding salient and stressful signals, rewarding and aversive...
  31. Disruption of Extracellular Matrix-Glial Interactions in Schizophrenia
    Sabina Berretta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..published in the Archives of General Psychiatry, point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder...
  32. Sex Differences in the Roles of Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Social Withdrawal
    Michael Q Steinman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will use real time PCR to examine how OT and AVP receptor mRNA expression in the lateral septum, central amygdala, paraventricular nucleus and pituitary is changes 4 wk after social defeat...
  33. CRF and Stress Modulation of Phasic Dopamine Release and Behavior
    MATTHEW J WANAT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Emerging evidence suggests that catecholamine (dopamine and norepinephrine) release in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala are also involved with mediating the response to stress, so the candidate will also address how phasic ..
  34. DEVELOPMENT AND REGULATION OF EMOTION IN PRIMATES
    Ned H Kalin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In terms of brain mechanisms, indirect evidence implicates increased central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) activity and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system activity as factors underlying the risk to ..
  35. TWIN STUDY OF BIOLOGIC MARKERS FOR PTSD
    Lisa M Shin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..decreased rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and increased amygdala activation during passive viewing of overt fearful facial expressions during fMRI, and b...
  36. Placebo Effects in the Treatment of Depression: Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms
    Bret R Rutherford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Brain regions implicated in expectancy and placebo effects comprise prefrontal cortical (PFC) areas, amygdala and insular cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), and dopaminergic reward pathways in the striatum...
  37. Changes in neural response to eating after bariatric surgery: MRI results
    Thomas A Wadden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., ventral-tegmental area and nucleus accumbens), and other limbic areas (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, insula, and cingulate cortex). Furthermore, responses are greater in obese vs. lean individuals...
  38. Trajectories and Markers of Neurodegeneration in Fragile X Premutation Carriers
    Susan M Rivera; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..at our center, we have demonstrated that abnormal elevation of FMR1 mRNA is associated with reduced hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal lobe function, which in turn are correlated with psychological symptoms and social deficits, ..
  39. BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PEPTIDE AMIDATION
    ELIZABETH ANNE EIPPER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..observed in PAM mice will be explored in electrophysiological studies focused on GABAergic signaling in the amygdala. Aim 3: How regulated intramembrane proteolysis generates sfCD will be evaluated in PAM-1-expressing AtT-20 cells...
  40. ANATOMY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF FEAR-POTENTIATED STARTLE
    MICHAEL NMN DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Progress over the last 10 years has focused on the amygdala and its direct projection to a critical part of the acoustic startle pathway...
  41. Neuroimmune Factors and Co-Morbid Fear, Depression and Alcohol Consumption
    Michael S Fanselow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..model of PTSD, our aims are to determine if stress is associated with a neuroimmune response within the amygdala and to determine if this response predicts changes in behavior, as well as determine if blockade of glia ..
  42. GABA-active neurosteroids in contextual fear responses
    Graziano Pinna; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..mice that express a neurosteroid biosynthesis downregulation in the medial frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, excessive contextual fear responses can be normalized by administering neurosteroidogenic drugs, including ..
  43. Novel epigenetic mechanisms in neuronal development and cognitive function
    Jun Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..causes cognitive defects in associative memory and reduced expression of genes regulated by neuronal activity in amygdala. One of the main goals of this application is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanism of action of ..
  44. The Role of CLOCK in Ethanol-Related Behaviors
    Angela Renee Ozburn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Important components of this circuitry include the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, central nucleus of the amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
  45. CNS EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL: CELLULAR NEUROBIOLOGY
    George F Koob; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..central stress system, most notably driven by changes in CRF, glutamate, and endocannabinoids in the extended amygdala (Specific Aim 2)...
  46. Stress, Neurodevelopment and the Emergence of Addictive Behaviors in Adolescence
    HILARY PATRICIA BLUMBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our pilot data suggest that childhood stress alters development of ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) control over amygdala and ventral striatum responses to emotional stimuli, resulting in excessive drive towards hedonic stimuli, ..
  47. Chromatin remodeling mechanisms of gene transcription in memory
    Farah D Lubin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to obtain insight into the H3K9me2 landscape in mature neurons from the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala. We will then define the epigenetic readers recruited to the H3K9me2 methylation marks in a gene promoter-..
  48. Effects of expectation on gustatory cortical activity
    Alfredo Fontanini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in connected areas known to be involved in taste and expectation (GC, orbitofrontal cortex [OFC], basolateral amygdala [BLA])...
  49. PDZ DOMAINS AND AMPA RECEPTOR FUNCTION
    Richard L Huganir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..receptor complexes in several forms of plasticity in the hippocampus, cerebellum, somatosensory cortex and the amygdala. Finally, we will analyze behavioral phenotypes, including spatial and motor learning and fear conditioning and ..
  50. Amygdala CRH, Insomnia and Depression
    Rong Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our central hypothesis is that dysregulation of central amygdala (CeA) CRH is responsible for the stress-induced Depression by assessing the genetic and environmental risk ..
  51. Neurobiology of Anxiety and Panic Disorders
    Anantha Shekhar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in disrupted network functions in 1) the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST);2) the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA);and 3) the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) to delay the extinction of conditioned fear...
  52. Alpha4 Nicotinic Receptor in Addiction: Mouse Models
    Henry A Lester; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3 tests hypotheses about the amygdala, which is a partial locus for nicotine's calming responses to environmental stress...
  53. A Molecular Analysis of the Gateway Hypothesis in Mice
    Amir Levine; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..selected target regions to survey patterns of mRNA in the striatum, particularly the nucleus accumbens, and the amygdala. We will use pharmacological analysis to dissect any possible signal transduction pathway that may mediate the ..
  54. VESTIBULO-CEREBELLAR CIRCUITS
    CAREY DAVID BALABAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It will test the hypothesis that there are two specific ascending vestibular pathways to the amygdala: (1) Substance P immunopositive vestibular ganglion cells AE 5OR1 immunopositive vestibular nucleus neurons AE ..
  55. The Role of Amygdala GABAergic Transmission in Fear and Anxiety
    Scott A Heldt; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Summary The results of numerous studies have demonstrated that changes in fast glutamatergic tr ansmission in the amygdala play a major role in neural processes involved in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear...
  56. Antibodies to NR2 in SLE
    Betty Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..When epinephrine is used to compromise the blood-brain barrier, the antibodies damage neurons in the amygdala and cause a behavioral deficit...
  57. Prenatal androgen effects on sex-related neural processing of reward and threat
    Sheri A Berenbaum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..connectivity during reward presentation, (b) reduced memory for threat/fear stimuli, and altered lateralized amygdala activity and reduced amygdala-PFC connectivity during encoding of accurately-recalled stimuli, and (c) increased ..
  58. CNS Action of Appetite Suppressant Aminosterol
    Rexford S Ahima; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and to a lesser extent in the arcuate, ventromedial nuclei, central amygdala and nucleus solitarius...
  59. Childhood Maltreatment: Epigenetic Modulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor
    AUDREY TYRKA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..impairs neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the hippocampus and enhances dendritic branching in the amygdala, effects linked to the pathogenesis of depression and anxiety...
  60. Neuroimaging in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project
    William R Lovallo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..two aims: Aim I addresses altered affective reactivity associated with a high risk for alcoholism, and focuses on amygdala functional connectivity and anticipatory affective responses...
  61. Gustatory Control of Sodium Appetite
    Ralph Norgren; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The specific limbic areas to be tested include the lateral hypothalamus, the amygdala, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Pleasure is a product of brain activity...
  62. Central Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Visceral Hypersensitivity
    ANTHONY CHRISTOPHER JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using pre- clinical models, we have previously demonstrated that activation of the amygdala, an area of the brain that regulates stress and anxiety and has been identified in clinical studies, can induce ..
  63. ANXIETY--GABA RECEPTOR AND OPIOID GENE TRANSFER
    MARLENE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Evidence suggests that the GABA/BZ system in the amygdala may play a critical role in mediating the anxiety-reducing aspects of BZ agonists...
  64. Neurobiology of PTSD During REM Sleep
    Anne Germain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Waking neuroimaging studies in PTSD that used activation paradigms indicate that hyper-responsiveness of the amygdala to fear and threat-related stimuli, and /or impaired top-down inhibition of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal ..
  65. COCAINE & MATERNAL AGGRESSION--OXYTOCINERGIC MECHANISMS
    JOSEPHINE JOHNS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..to increase aggression towards an intruder (maternal aggression) and reduce the levels of oxytocin (OXY) in the amygdala of rats on postpartum days (PPD) 6-10...
  66. The Role of the Amygdala in Anesthetic-Induced Amnesia
    MICHAEL ALKIRE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We recently demonstrated, using inhibitory avoidance learning in rats, that the basolateral amygdala (BL) is critically nvolved with mediating the amnesic effects of propofol general anesthesia...
  67. Development of Amygdala specific monoclonal Antibodies
    Andreas Kottmann; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..L.C., and generate rat monoclonal antibodies to epitopes specific to the Amygdala of mice...
  68. Phenotypic and Functional Determination of Central Extended Amygdala Cell Groups
    HEIDI E DAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    This proposal focuses on a brain area that is part of the central extended amygdala: the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA)...
  69. AMYGDALOID FUNCTION IN FEAR CONDITIONING
    Stephen Maren; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..g., panic and post-traumatic stress disorder) in humans. Many studies indicate that the amygdala is required for both the acquisition and expression of fear conditioning in mammals, however, it is unclear to ..
  70. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROMORPHOMETRY IN YOUNG DEPRESSED TWINS
    Kelly Botteron; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..MDD, the investigators have demonstrated structural differences in the subgenual prefrontal cortex(SGPFC) and amygdala. Specifically we and others have demonstrated reduced volume in the left SGPFC and the right amygdala...
  71. Neural Correlates of Emotion
    N Keele; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..aggression is associated with (1) changes in other emotional behavior and (2) increased membrane excitability in amygdala neurons. Impulsive-aggressive humans reportedly have low anxiety and are less sensitive to fear-conditioning...
  72. Neural mechanisms of heightened fear during glucocorticoid excess
    Jack D Shepard; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Both the amygdala and bed nuclei of stria terminalis (BNST) are limbic structures crucial for the expression of fear and the ..
  73. Stress-induced alterations in amygdala-LC interactions
    Anthony A Grace; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Over the past funding period, the effects of stress on the amygdala-locus coeruleus (LC) system, and how the response is altered after chronic stress exposure, was examined...
  74. Prefrontal Cortex BDNF and Amygdala-Dependent Emotional LearningChallenge Area:
    Kerry J Ressler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cortex (mPFC) is a major modulator of fear and appetitive conditioning and extinction by directly influencing the amygdala. However, neural mechanisms and interactions between the mPFC and the amygdala in the control of conditioned ..