medulla oblongata

Summary

Top Publications

  1. pmc Descending control of nociception: Specificity, recruitment and plasticity
    M M Heinricher
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA
    Brain Res Rev 60:214-25. 2009
  2. ncbi Chronic pain and medullary descending facilitation
    Frank Porreca
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    Trends Neurosci 25:319-25. 2002
  3. ncbi Orexin A regulates cardiovascular responses in stress-induced hypertensive rats
    Fen Xiao
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, PR China
    Neuropharmacology 67:16-24. 2013
  4. pmc Molecular depletion of descending serotonin unmasks its novel facilitatory role in the development of persistent pain
    Feng Wei
    Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, Dental School, and Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 30:8624-36. 2010
  5. ncbi The sympathetic control of blood pressure
    Patrice G Guyenet
    Department of Pharmacology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0735, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:335-46. 2006
  6. ncbi Kidney-induced hypertension depends on superoxide signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla
    Elizabeth B Oliveira-Sales
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bristol Heart Institute, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
    Hypertension 56:290-6. 2010
  7. ncbi Increased reactive oxygen species in rostral ventrolateral medulla contribute to neural mechanisms of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Takuya Kishi
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
    Circulation 109:2357-62. 2004
  8. ncbi Spatial and cortical influences exerted on cuneothalamic and thalamocortical neurons of the cat
    A Canedo
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Laboratory of Neuroscience and Neuronal Computation, associated to the Cajal Institute CSIC, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Eur J Neurosci 12:2515-33. 2000
  9. pmc Functional circuitry involved in the regulation of whisker movements
    Alexis M Hattox
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Comp Neurol 442:266-76. 2002
  10. pmc Spatial and functional architecture of the mammalian brain stem respiratory network: a hierarchy of three oscillatory mechanisms
    J C Smith
    Cellular and Systems Neurobiology Section, Porter Neuroscience Research Center, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neurophysiol 98:3370-87. 2007

Detail Information

Publications366 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Descending control of nociception: Specificity, recruitment and plasticity
    M M Heinricher
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA
    Brain Res Rev 60:214-25. 2009
    ....
  2. ncbi Chronic pain and medullary descending facilitation
    Frank Porreca
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    Trends Neurosci 25:319-25. 2002
    ..Understanding the mechanisms of descending facilitation and the spinal effects of such discharge could provide new insights into the modulation of chronic pain...
  3. ncbi Orexin A regulates cardiovascular responses in stress-induced hypertensive rats
    Fen Xiao
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, PR China
    Neuropharmacology 67:16-24. 2013
    ..The cardiovascular effects of OXA in the RVLM may be induced by nNOS-derived NO, which activated sGC-associated signaling pathway...
  4. pmc Molecular depletion of descending serotonin unmasks its novel facilitatory role in the development of persistent pain
    Feng Wei
    Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, Dental School, and Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 30:8624-36. 2010
    ..These results indicate that the descending 5-HT from the RVM is an important contributor to pain facilitation during the development of persistent pain, and may not mediate opioid-induced descending inhibition in acute pain...
  5. ncbi The sympathetic control of blood pressure
    Patrice G Guyenet
    Department of Pharmacology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0735, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:335-46. 2006
    ..This review examines how the sympathetic tone to cardiovascular organs is generated, and discusses how elevated sympathetic tone can contribute to hypertension...
  6. ncbi Kidney-induced hypertension depends on superoxide signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla
    Elizabeth B Oliveira-Sales
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bristol Heart Institute, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
    Hypertension 56:290-6. 2010
    ..In Goldblatt hypertension, superoxide signaling in the RVLM plays a major role in the generation of sympathetic vasomotor tone and the chronic sustained hypertension in this animal model...
  7. ncbi Increased reactive oxygen species in rostral ventrolateral medulla contribute to neural mechanisms of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Takuya Kishi
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
    Circulation 109:2357-62. 2004
    ....
  8. ncbi Spatial and cortical influences exerted on cuneothalamic and thalamocortical neurons of the cat
    A Canedo
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Laboratory of Neuroscience and Neuronal Computation, associated to the Cajal Institute CSIC, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Eur J Neurosci 12:2515-33. 2000
    ..The data indicate that the cortico-subcortical feedback contributes not only to enhance the surround antagonism of a centre response but also to increase the time resolution of thalamic and cuneate relay somesthetic neurons...
  9. pmc Functional circuitry involved in the regulation of whisker movements
    Alexis M Hattox
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Comp Neurol 442:266-76. 2002
    ....
  10. pmc Spatial and functional architecture of the mammalian brain stem respiratory network: a hierarchy of three oscillatory mechanisms
    J C Smith
    Cellular and Systems Neurobiology Section, Porter Neuroscience Research Center, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neurophysiol 98:3370-87. 2007
    ..We conclude that the respiratory network has rhythmogenic capabilities at multiple levels of network organization, allowing expression of motor patterns specific for various physiological and pathophysiological respiratory behaviors...
  11. pmc Medulla oblongata transcriptome changes during presymptomatic natural scrapie and their association with prion-related lesions
    Hicham Filali
    Centro de Investigación en Encefalopatías y Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
    BMC Genomics 13:399. 2012
    ..is the first to focus on the identification of genes regulated during the preclinical phases of natural scrapie in the ovine medulla oblongata (MO) and the association of these genes with prion deposition, astrocytosis and spongiosis.
  12. ncbi Differential pontomedullary catecholaminergic projections to hypoglossal motor nucleus and viscerosensory nucleus of the solitary tract
    Irma Rukhadze
    Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, 3800 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6046, USA
    J Chem Neuroanat 33:23-33. 2007
    ..Thus, the pontomedullary sources of CA projections to the Mo12 and NTS differ, with only A1/C1 and A5 groups having significant projections to these two functionally distinct targets...
  13. ncbi Expression and localisation of somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1-sst5 in areas of the rat medulla oblongata involved in autonomic regulation
    Emma J Spary
    Academic Unit of Cardiovascular Medicine, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Chem Neuroanat 35:49-66. 2008
    Somatostatin is known to modulate the activity of neurones of the medulla oblongata involved in autonomic regulation, mediated through five subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors, sst1-sst5...
  14. ncbi Role of reactive oxygen species in brainstem in neural mechanisms of hypertension
    Yoshitaka Hirooka
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Auton Neurosci 142:20-4. 2008
    ..We also found that atorvastatin has actions of reducing oxidative stress in the brain associated with sympatho-inhibitory effects...
  15. ncbi Effects of chronic oral treatment with imidapril and TCV-116 on the responsiveness to angiotensin II in ventrolateral medulla of SHR
    T Tsuchihashi
    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    J Hypertens 17:917-22. 1999
    ..To examine whether chronic oral treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor imidapril and an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist TCV-116 would alter the response to angiotensin II in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
  16. ncbi Angiotensin II-derived reactive oxygen species underpinning the processing of the cardiovascular reflexes in the medulla oblongata
    Valdir A Braga
    Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Federal University of Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB, Brazil
    Neurosci Bull 27:269-74. 2011
    ..The present review mainly discussed some recent findings documenting a role for ROS in the processing of the baroreflex and the peripheral chemoreflex in the brainstem...
  17. pmc Sumoylation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α ameliorates failure of brain stem cardiovascular regulation in experimental brain death
    Julie Y H Chan
    Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 6:e17375. 2011
    ..It follows that sumoylation of HIF-1α in RVLM in response to hypoxia may play a modulatory role on brain stem cardiovascular regulation during experimental brain death...
  18. pmc Regulation of central angiotensin type 1 receptors and sympathetic outflow in heart failure
    Irving H Zucker
    Dept of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, 985850 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297:H1557-66. 2009
    ..Finally, exercise training reduces both central oxidative stress and AT(1)R expression in animals with CHF. These data strongly suggest that multiple central and peripheral influences dynamically alter AT(1)R expression in CHF...
  19. pmc Periaqueductal gray neurons project to spinally projecting GABAergic neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla
    Michael M Morgan
    Department of Psychology, Washington State University Vancouver, Vancouver, WA 98686, USA
    Pain 140:376-86. 2008
    ..This pattern is consistent with PAG neurons producing antinociception by direct excitation of RVM OFF cells and inhibition of ON cells...
  20. pmc Connexin hemichannel-mediated CO2-dependent release of ATP in the medulla oblongata contributes to central respiratory chemosensitivity
    Robert T R Huckstepp
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    J Physiol 588:3901-20. 2010
    ..have studied the mechanisms of CO(2)-dependent ATP release in slices containing the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata. We found that CO(2)-dependent ATP release occurs in the absence of extracellular acidification and ..
  21. ncbi Effect of scrapie on the stability of housekeeping genes
    J Lyahyai
    Laboratorio de Genetica Bioquimica LAGENBIO, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
    Anim Biotechnol 21:1-13. 2010
    ..their stability decreased in scrapie-infected tissues, with the effect of the disease most evident in the medulla oblongata, a highly affected area of the brain stem...
  22. ncbi A novel functional neuron group for respiratory rhythm generation in the ventral medulla
    Hiroshi Onimaru
    Showa University School of Medicine, Shinagawa ku, Tokyo 142 8555, Japan
    J Neurosci 23:1478-86. 2003
    ..Our findings suggest that the pFRG comprises a neuronal population that is involved in the primary respiratory rhythm generation in the rostrocaudally extending respiratory neuron network of the medulla...
  23. ncbi Partial sciatic nerve ligation induces increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in astrocytes in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and the gracile nucleus
    Weiya Ma
    Department of Psychiatry, Douglas Hospital Research Center, McGill University, 6875 Boulevard LaSalle, Verdun, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4H 1R3
    Pain 99:175-84. 2002
    ..In summary, our data indicate that PSNL activates ERK/MAP and JNK/MAP kinase pathways in astrocytes in the dorsal horn and the gracile nucleus, these events possibly being involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain...
  24. ncbi Brain angiotensin peptides regulate sympathetic tone and blood pressure
    Alain G Dupont
    Department of Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    J Hypertens 28:1599-610. 2010
    ....
  25. ncbi Superoxide mediates sympathoexcitation in heart failure: roles of angiotensin II and NAD(P)H oxidase
    Lie Gao
    Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    Circ Res 95:937-44. 2004
    ..These data demonstrate intense radical stress in autonomic areas of the brain in experimental CHF and provide evidence for a tight relationship between Ang II and ROS as contributors to sympathoexcitation in CHF...
  26. ncbi A role for the brainstem in central sensitisation in humans. Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging
    L Zambreanu
    Pain Imaging Neuroscience PaIN Group, Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK
    Pain 114:397-407. 2005
    ..These results suggest that structures in the mesencephalic reticular formation, possibly the NCF and PAG, are involved in central sensitisation in humans...
  27. ncbi Neuronal pacemaker for breathing visualized in vitro
    N Koshiya
    Cellular and Systems Neurobiology Section, Laboratory of Neural Control, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 400:360-3. 1999
    ..These results provide evidence that the neuronal kernel for rhythm generation consists of a network of synaptically-coupled pacemaker neurons...
  28. ncbi Baroreceptor reflex pathways and neurotransmitters: 10 years on
    Paul M Pilowsky
    Department of Physiology, University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    J Hypertens 20:1675-88. 2002
    ..in the nucleus tractus solitarius, the role of neurons in the most caudal part of the ventrolateral medulla oblongata and the increasing understanding of the exquisite control of different sympathetic pathways by different ..
  29. ncbi Nitric oxide modulates cardiovascular function in the rat by activating adenosine A2A receptors and inhibiting acetylcholine release in the rostral ventrolateral medulla
    Mei yan Jiang
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, China
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 38:380-6. 2011
    ..5. The results indicate that the central NO/NO synthase system in the RVLM may modulate cardiovascular activity by activating the A(2A)R, which subsequently inhibits activation of the muscarinic M(1) receptor...
  30. ncbi Pre-Bötzinger neurons with preinspiratory discharges "in vivo" express NK1 receptors in the rat
    P G Guyenet
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0735, USA
    J Neurophysiol 86:438-46. 2001
    ..This region of the medulla oblongata contains neurons that are strongly immunoreactive for the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R-ir), and a recent ..
  31. ncbi Role for medullary pain facilitating neurons in secondary thermal hyperalgesia
    Wendy Kincaid
    Department Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:33-41. 2006
    ..These experiments support a pronociceptive role for on cells and suggest that these neurons contribute to secondary hyperalgesia in inflammation...
  32. ncbi Adenosine A(2A)R modulates cardiovascular function by activating ERK1/2 signal in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of acute myocardial ischemic rats
    Meiyan Jiang
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, China
    Life Sci 89:182-7. 2011
    ..To investigate the cardiovascular regulatory mechanism of adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in acute myocardial ischemic (AMI) rats...
  33. ncbi Transcriptional upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rostral ventrolateral medulla by angiotensin II: significance in superoxide homeostasis and neural regulation of arterial pressure
    Samuel H H Chan
    Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan 813, Republic of China
    Circ Res 107:1127-39. 2010
    ..Emerging evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) manifests "nontrophic" actions...
  34. pmc Active medullary control of atonia in week-old rats
    K A Karlsson
    Program in Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, E11 Seashore Hall, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Neuroscience 130:275-83. 2005
    ..All together, these findings demonstrate that muscle atonia is actively regulated very early in ontogeny...
  35. pmc Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata
    Nephtali Marina
    Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Cardiovasc Res 91:703-10. 2011
    ..of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone, arterial blood pressure, and hypercapnia-evoked sympathetic ..
  36. ncbi What drives the tonic activity of presympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla?
    R A Dampney
    Department of Physiology and Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 27:1049-53. 2000
    ..4. These neurons are also chemosensitive and this may contribute to their tonic activation under conditions of hypoxia or hypercapnia...
  37. ncbi AT1 receptors in the RVLM mediate pressor responses to emotional stress in rabbits
    Dmitry N Mayorov
    Baker Heart Research Institute, PO Box 6492, St Kilda Rd Central, Melbourne, Victoria 8008, Australia
    Hypertension 41:1168-73. 2003
    ..These results suggest that AT1 receptors in the RVLM are important in mediating the pressor effects of emotional stress in conscious rabbits...
  38. pmc Normal breathing requires preBötzinger complex neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons
    P A Gray
    Department of Neurobiology, University of California Los Angeles, Box 951763, Los Angeles, California 90095 1763, USA
    Nat Neurosci 4:927-30. 2001
    ..Thus, these approximately 600 neurons seem necessary for the generation of normal breathing in rats...
  39. ncbi Transmission security for single, hair follicle-related tactile afferent fibers and their target cuneate neurons in cat
    M K Zachariah
    School of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    J Neurophysiol 86:900-11. 2001
    ....
  40. pmc Cannabinoid receptor activation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata evokes cardiorespiratory effects in anaesthetised rats
    James R Padley
    Hypertension and Stroke Research Laboratories, Department of Neurosurgery, Ground Floor Block 3, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards 2065, NSW, Australia
    Br J Pharmacol 140:384-94. 2003
    ..In the present study we investigated whether cannabinoid receptor activation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata (RVLM) affects cardiovascular and/or respiratory function. 2...
  41. ncbi Orexin-A and respiration in a rat model of smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Zi Bing Liu
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 37:963-8. 2010
    ..6. The findings of the present study demonstrate that the increased respiratory activity in smoke-exposed rats is due to an increase in orexin-A as well as upregulation of orexin receptors in the ventrolateral medulla...
  42. ncbi Differential expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the rat ventrolateral medulla
    J K Phillips
    Department of Physiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    J Comp Neurol 432:20-34. 2001
    ..5% of cells that contained mRNA for TH, DBH, and PNMT contained detectable message for AADC. These experiments suggest that a proportion of C1 cells may not express all of the enzymes necessary for adrenaline synthesis...
  43. ncbi Oxidative stress in the sympathetic premotor neurons contributes to sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension
    Elizabeth B Oliveira-Sales
    Cardiovascular Division, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Am J Hypertens 22:484-92. 2009
    ....
  44. ncbi Orexins depolarize rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons and increase arterial pressure and heart rate in rats mainly via orexin 2 receptors
    Shang Cheng Huang
    Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334:522-9. 2010
    ..We concluded that orexins directly excite RVLM neurons, which include bulbospinal vasomotor neurons, and regulate cardiovascular function mainly via the OX(2)R, with a smaller contribution from the OX(1)R...
  45. ncbi Mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species mediate sympathoexcitation induced by angiotensin II in the rostral ventrolateral medulla
    Masatsugu Nozoe
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
    J Hypertens 26:2176-84. 2008
    ..It is not clear, however, whether mitochondria-derived ROS in the central nervous system also participate in sympathoexcitation...
  46. ncbi Modeling the ponto-medullary respiratory network
    I A Rybak
    School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 143:307-19. 2004
    ....
  47. ncbi Carbachol models of REM sleep: recent developments and new directions
    L Kubin
    Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6046, USA
    Arch Ital Biol 139:147-68. 2001
    ....
  48. ncbi Location and electrophysiological characterization of rostral medullary adrenergic neurons that contain neuropeptide Y mRNA in rat medulla
    R L Stornetta
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    J Comp Neurol 415:482-500. 1999
    ..NPY-positive C(1) neurons are barosensitive, have unmyelinated axons, and have a very low rate of discharge. Most bulbospinal C(1) cells with a putative sympathoexcitatory role do not make NPY...
  49. ncbi Combined antagonism of aminergic excitatory and amino acid inhibitory receptors in the XII nucleus abolishes REM sleep-like depression of hypoglossal motoneuronal activity
    V Fenik
    Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6046, USA
    Arch Ital Biol 142:237-49. 2004
    ....
  50. pmc Fos expression in pontomedullary catecholaminergic cells following rapid eye movement sleep-like episodes elicited by pontine carbachol in urethane-anesthetized rats
    I Rukhadze
    Department of Animal Biology 209E VET, School of Veterinary Medicine and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, 3800 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6046, USA
    Neuroscience 152:208-22. 2008
    ..transmission in brain somato- and viscerosensory, somatomotor, and cardiorespiratory pathways...
  51. ncbi Heterogeneity of metabotropic glutamate receptors in autonomic cell groups of the medulla oblongata of the rat
    M Hay
    Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia 65211, USA
    J Comp Neurol 403:486-501. 1999
    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the medulla oblongata have been suggested to be involved in the regulation of autonomic function...
  52. ncbi A cellular mechanism for the antinociceptive effect of a kappa opioid receptor agonist
    M A Ackley
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Pain 91:377-88. 2001
    ....
  53. pmc Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
    S T Sakai
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Neuroscience 163:1158-70. 2009
    ..The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates...
  54. ncbi HCN1 ion channel immunoreactivity in spinal cord and medulla oblongata
    Carol J Milligan
    Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    Brain Res 1081:79-91. 2006
    ..These data therefore described the first localization of the HCN1 subunit in the spinal cord and extend previous reports from the brainstem...
  55. pmc Downregulated Kv4.3 expression in the RVLM as a potential mechanism for sympathoexcitation in rats with chronic heart failure
    Lie Gao
    Dept of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Univ of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, 68198 5850, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298:H945-55. 2010
    ..3 expression and subsequent decrease in K(+) current, thereby increasing the excitability of neurons in the RVLM. The ANG II-induced inhibition of Kv4.3 mRNA expression was mediated by ANG II-AT(1)R-ROS-p38 MAPK signaling...
  56. ncbi Parvalbumin in respiratory neurons of the ventrolateral medulla of the adult rat
    G F Alheid
    Department of Physiology and Institute for Neuroscience, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Neurocytol 31:693-717. 2002
    ..Taken together, the distributions of parvalbumin, NK1R and bulbospinal neurons suggest that the rostral VRG may be subdivided into distinct, anterodorsal, anteroventral, and posterior subdivisions...
  57. pmc Activation of estrogen receptor beta-dependent nitric oxide signaling mediates the hypotensive effects of estrogen in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of anesthetized rats
    Cheng Dean Shih
    Department of Pharmacy and Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung 90741, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Biomed Sci 16:60. 2009
    ....
  58. ncbi Neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFF2) is localized to pain-processing regions in the primate spinal cord and the lower level of the medulla oblongata
    Zhizhen Zeng
    Department of Neuroscience, Merck Research Laboratories, WP26A 3000, P O Box 4, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    J Chem Neuroanat 25:269-78. 2003
    ....
  59. ncbi Gain modulation of respiratory neurons
    Edward J Zuperku
    Research Service 151, Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI 53295, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 131:121-33. 2002
    ..g. coughing, sneezing, vomiting) mediated by respiratory premotor neurons...
  60. ncbi Brainstem neurons projecting to the rostral ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the medulla oblongata of the rat revealed by co-application of NMDA and biocytin
    Y Zheng
    Biologie Fonctionnelle du Neurone, Institut Alfred Fessard, C N R S, Gif sur Yvette, France
    Brain Res 782:113-25. 1998
    ..Moreover, in the NTS and the PB/KF, efferent terminal varicosities were seen closely apposed to the soma and proximal dendrites of labelled neurons, suggesting monosynaptic connections between the rVRG and these nuclei...
  61. ncbi Electrophysiological properties of rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons in angiotensin II 1a receptor knockout mice
    Tomokazu Matsuura
    Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Hypertension 46:349-54. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the angiotensin II type 2 receptor in rostral ventrolateral medulla plays an antagonistic role against the angiotensin II type 1a receptor in controlling the neuronal activity of rostral ventrolateral medulla...
  62. ncbi Cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II in the rostral ventrolateral medulla: the push-pull hypothesis
    R A L Dampney
    Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney F13, NSW 2006, Australia
    Curr Hypertens Rep 9:222-7. 2007
    ....
  63. ncbi Cardiovascular regulation after destruction of the C1 cell group of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in rats
    Christopher J Madden
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 285:H2734-48. 2003
    ..These data suggest that RVLM-C1 cells contribute to the maintenance of baseline arterial pressure and play an integral role in sympathoexcitatory responses...
  64. ncbi Indels within promoter and intron 1 of bovine prion protein gene modulate the gene expression levels in the medulla oblongata of two Japanese cattle breeds
    G Msalya
    Kagoshima University, Japan
    Anim Genet 41:218-21. 2010
    ..expression levels of prion in 40 animals by quantification of real-time PCR using mRNAs extracted from the medulla oblongata to study the relationship between PRNP genotypes and PRNP expression...
  65. pmc Acid sensitivity and ultrastructure of the retrotrapezoid nucleus in Phox2b-EGFP transgenic mice
    Roman M Lazarenko
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0735, USA
    J Comp Neurol 517:69-86. 2009
    ..The RTN neurons receive inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs and may have unfettered biochemical interactions with glial cells and the local microvasculature...
  66. ncbi Movement-sensitive, polarization-sensitive, and light-sensitive neurons of the medulla and accessory medulla of the locust, Schistocerca gregaria
    U Homberg
    Institut fur Zoologie, Universitat Regensburg, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 386:329-46. 1997
    ..The results show that neurons of the accessory medulla receive photic input and support an involvement of this neuropil in circadian timekeeping functions. The possible role of the accessory medulla in polarization vision is discussed...
  67. ncbi Effect of endothelin on vasomotor and respiratory neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in rats
    Mamoru Kumada
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 23:691-707. 2003
    ..of endothelin-1 (ET-1) elicited cardiorespiratory responses acting on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VSM) subjacent to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)...
  68. pmc Photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 expressing ventrolateral medullary neurons increases sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in rats
    Stephen B G Abbott
    University of Virginia Health System, PO Box 800735, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908 0735, USA
    J Physiol 587:5613-31. 2009
    ..Photostimulation of RVLM neurons caused a sizable sympathoactivation and rise in blood pressure. These results provide the most direct evidence yet that the C1 neurons have a sympathoexcitatory function...
  69. ncbi Overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rostral ventrolateral medulla causes hypertension and sympathoexcitation via an increase in oxidative stress
    Yoshikuni Kimura
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
    Circ Res 96:252-60. 2005
    ..These results suggest that overexpression of iNOS in the RVLM increases blood pressure via activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is mediated by an increase in oxidative stress...
  70. ncbi GABAergic and glycinergic presympathetic neurons of rat medulla oblongata identified by retrograde transport of pseudorabies virus and in situ hybridization
    Ruth L Stornetta
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    J Comp Neurol 479:257-70. 2004
    ..A proportion of this input is suspected to originate from neurons located within the medulla oblongata. The present study provides definitive evidence for the existence of these supraspinal presympathetic (PS) ..
  71. ncbi Role of angiotensin II receptors in the regulation of vasomotor neurons in the ventrolateral medulla
    R A L Dampney
    Department of Physiology and Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29:467-72. 2002
    ..Further studies are also required to determine the cellular mechanisms of action of AngII in the RVLM and its interactions with other neurotransmitters in that region...
  72. ncbi Hypoxia-inducible factor 1/heme oxygenase 1 cascade as upstream signals in the prolife role of heat shock protein 70 at rostral ventrolateral medulla during experimental brain stem death
    Alice Y W Chang
    Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung County, Republic of China
    Shock 32:651-8. 2009
    ....
  73. ncbi Metallothionein in bovine spongiform encephalopathy
    J Hanlon
    Department of Zoology and Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    J Comp Pathol 127:280-9. 2002
    ....
  74. ncbi Hox gene colinear expression in the avian medulla oblongata is correlated with pseudorhombomeric domains
    Faustino Marin
    Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, CIBER de Enfermedades Raras, Instituto Universitario de Envejecimiento, E 30100 Murcia, Spain
    Dev Biol 323:230-47. 2008
    The medulla oblongata (or caudal hindbrain) is not overtly segmented, since it lacks observable interrhombomeric boundaries...
  75. ncbi The medullary subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) as a key link in both the transmission and modulation of pain signals
    L Villanueva
    INSERM, Paris, France
    Pain 67:231-40. 1996
    ..Moreover, the existence of SRD-thalamic connections put a new light on the role of spino-reticulo-thalamic circuits in pain transmission...
  76. ncbi Angiotensin peptides and baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow: pathways and mechanisms of the medulla oblongata
    D B Averill
    Hypertension and Vascular Disease Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Brain Res Bull 51:119-28. 2000
    ..this is accomplished through central neural pathways responsible for autonomic outflow residing in the medulla oblongata. The circulating renin-angiotensin system also contributes to the regulation of blood pressure, ..
  77. pmc Gene expression profiling and association with prion-related lesions in the medulla oblongata of symptomatic natural scrapie animals
    Hicham Filali
    Centro de Investigación en Encefalopatías y Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
    PLoS ONE 6:e19909. 2011
    ..of this work was to identify disease-associated alterations in the gene expression profiles of the caudal medulla oblongata (MO) in sheep presenting the symptomatic phase of natural scrapie...
  78. ncbi The rat ponto-medullary network responsible for paradoxical sleep onset and maintenance: a combined microinjection and functional neuroanatomical study
    Romuald Boissard
    CNRS FRE 2469, Institut Fédératif des Neurosciences de Lyon IFR 19, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 8 avenue Rockefeller, 69373 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Eur J Neurosci 16:1959-73. 2002
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that GABAergic disinhibition and glutamate excitation of these neurons might also play a crucial role in the onset of PS...
  79. ncbi Efferent projections of rat rostroventrolateral medulla C1 catecholamine neurons: Implications for the central control of cardiovascular regulation
    J Patrick Card
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Comp Neurol 499:840-59. 2006
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that RVLM C1 neurons modulate the activity of other central cell groups known to participate in the regulation of cardiovascular and autonomic function...
  80. ncbi Overexpression of eNOS in the RVLM causes hypotension and bradycardia via GABA release
    T Kishi
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cardiovascular Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Hypertension 38:896-901. 2001
    ..Furthermore, these responses may be mediated by an increased release of GABA in the RVLM...
  81. pmc Heat shock protein 60 in rostral ventrolateral medulla reduces cardiovascular fatality during endotoxaemia in the rat
    Alice Y W Chang
    Center for Neuroscience, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Physiol 574:547-64. 2006
    ....
  82. ncbi Medullary and supramedullary mechanisms regulating sympathetic vasomotor tone
    R A L Dampney
    Department of Physiology and Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Acta Physiol Scand 177:209-18. 2003
    ..This paper will briefly review some recent findings on the role of glutamate, GABA and angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in maintaining the tonic activity of RVLM presympathetic neurons...
  83. ncbi Alexander disease: ventricular garlands and abnormalities of the medulla and spinal cord
    M S van der Knaap
    Department of Child Neurology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurology 66:494-8. 2006
    ..The disease is caused by mutation of the GFAP gene. Clinical and MRI phenotypic variation have been increasingly recognized...
  84. ncbi Differential mediation of descending pain facilitation and inhibition by spinal 5HT-3 and 5HT-7 receptors
    Ahmet Dogrul
    Gulhane Military Academy of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Ankara, Turkiye
    Brain Res 1280:52-9. 2009
    ..These studies suggest that descending pain inhibitory or facilitatory pathways from RVM act ultimately in the spinal cord in acute and chronic pain states through activation of 5-HT7 and 5-HT3 receptors, respectively...
  85. ncbi Independent and convergent signals from the pontomedullary reticular formation contribute to the control of posture and movement during reaching in the cat
    Benedicte Schepens
    Unité de Physiologie et Biomécanique de la Locomotion, Département d Education Physique et de Réadaptation, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    J Neurophysiol 92:2217-38. 2004
    ..Together our results suggest the existence of neurons that signal posture and movement independently and others that encode a convergent signal that contributes to the control of both posture and movement...
  86. pmc Differential cardiovascular responses to blockade of nNOS or iNOS in rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat
    S H Chan
    Center for Neuroscience, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Br J Pharmacol 133:606-14. 2001
    ....
  87. ncbi Cardiovascular effects of overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Takuya Kishi
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
    Hypertension 39:264-8. 2002
    ....
  88. ncbi Upregulation of AT1 receptor gene on activation of protein kinase Cbeta/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide diphosphate oxidase/ERK1/2/c-fos signaling cascade mediates long-term pressor effect of angiotensin II in rostral ventrolateral medulla
    Samuel H H Chan
    Center for Neuroscience, National Sun Yat Sen University, and Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Hypertens 25:1845-61. 2007
    ....
  89. ncbi Differential localization of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A and glycine receptor subunits and gephyrin in the human pons, medulla oblongata and uppermost cervical segment of the spinal cord: an immunohistochemical study
    H J Waldvogel
    Department of Anatomy with Radiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    J Comp Neurol 518:305-28. 2010
    ..microscopically in the rostral and caudal one-thirds of the pons, in the middle and caudal one-thirds of the medulla oblongata, and in the first cervical segment of the spinal cord...
  90. ncbi Differential contribution of pacemaker properties to the generation of respiratory rhythms during normoxia and hypoxia
    Fernando Pena
    Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Neuron 43:105-17. 2004
    ..We propose that respiratory rhythm generation in normoxia depends on a heterogeneous population of pacemaker neurons, while during hypoxia the respiratory rhythm is driven by only one type of pacemaker...
  91. pmc Photostimulation of Phox2b medullary neurons activates cardiorespiratory function in conscious rats
    Roy Kanbar
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:1184-94. 2010
    ..This preclinical study explores whether direct stimulation of central chemoreceptors could be used as an alternative method to stimulate breathing...
  92. ncbi Heat shock protein 70 confers cardiovascular protection during endotoxemia via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla
    Julie Y H Chan
    Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Republic of China
    Circulation 110:3560-6. 2004
    ..The present study tested the hypothesis that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) may confer protection against sepsis-induced circulatory fatality via inhibition of iNOS gene expression in the RVLM through prevention of NF-kappaB activation...
  93. ncbi Effects of angiotensin type 2 receptor overexpression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla on blood pressure and urine excretion in normal rats
    Lie Gao
    Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985850 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    Hypertension 51:521-7. 2008
    ..1+/-0.5 microg in control rats and 2.4+/-0.5 microg in AT(2)R rats; P<0.05). These results suggest that overexpression of AT(2)R in the RVLM induced a diuresis that may be mediated, in part, by sympathoinhibition...
  94. ncbi Brain projections from the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus: an anterograde and retrograde tracing study in the rat
    H Leite-Almeida
    Life and Health Sciences Research Institute, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, CP II, Piso 3, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 057 Braga, Portugal
    Neuroscience 140:577-95. 2006
    ..In the medulla oblongata, anterograde labeling was observed in the orofacial motor nuclei, inferior olive, caudal ventrolateral ..
  95. ncbi A5 cells are silenced when REM sleep-like signs are elicited by pontine carbachol
    Victor Fenik
    Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6046, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 93:1448-56. 2002
    ..This will lead to decreased norepinephrine release and may alter synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract and rostral ventrolateral medulla without, however, a detectable impact on XII motoneurons...
  96. ncbi Neuroprotective effects of coenzyme Q10 at rostral ventrolateral medulla against fatality during experimental endotoxemia in the rat
    Yao Chung Chuang
    Center for Neuroscience and Department of Biological Science, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Shock 19:427-32. 2003
    ....
  97. pmc Neurochemistry of bulbospinal presympathetic neurons of the medulla oblongata
    Ruth L Stornetta
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States of America
    J Chem Neuroanat 38:222-30. 2009
    This review focuses on presympathetic neurons in the medulla oblongata including the adrenergic cell groups C1-C3 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the serotonergic, GABAergic and glycinergic neurons in the ventromedial medulla...
  98. ncbi Processing afferent proprioceptive information at the main cuneate nucleus of anesthetized cats
    Roberto Leiras
    Health Research Institute, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15704 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    J Neurosci 30:15383-99. 2010
    ....
  99. ncbi Somatotopic arrangement of the corticospinal tract at the medullary pyramid in the human brain
    Hyeok Gyu Kwon
    Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Rehabilitation Science, Daegu University, Gyeongsangbuk do, Republic of Korea
    Eur Neurol 65:46-9. 2011
    ..Using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigated the somatotopic arrangement of the CST at the MP in the normal human brain...
  100. ncbi State-dependent opioid control of pain
    Howard Fields
    University of California, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:565-75. 2004
  101. ncbi Correlation between Bax overexpression and prion deposition in medulla oblongata from natural scrapie without evidence of apoptosis
    Jaber Lyahyai
    Laboratorio de Genetica Bioquimica LAGENBIO, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
    Acta Neuropathol 112:451-60. 2006
    ..of Bax and Bcl-2 has been investigated by the analysis of their expression and protein distribution in medulla oblongata of naturally scrapie-infected sheep...

Research Grants63

  1. ORGANIZATION OF CENTRAL SYMPATHETIC PATHWAYS
    Patrice G Guyenet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This research focuses on specific neuronal networks located in the lower part of the brain called the medulla oblongata and its ultimate goal is to uncover novel treatments for OSA and other sleep-related respiratory disorders.
  2. BRAINSTEM MATURATION IN THE SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME
    HANNAH CHASE KINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..serotonin (5-HT) and its biosynthetic enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), in regions of the medulla oblongata that modulate cardiorespiratory function during sleep (the medullary 5-HT system) in four independent ..
  3. Role of the PVN in Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Cardiorespiratory Changes
    Prabha Kc; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A subpopulatlon of these neurons projects to the rostral ventrolateral region of the medulla oblongata (RVLM) and midline serotonin (5-HT)-producing neurons, sites that play an important role in regulation of ..
  4. Mechanisms of Exercise Pressor Reflex Overactivity in Hypertension
    Scott A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by activation of the exercise pressor reflex is processed within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the medulla oblongata. The activity of neurons within the medulla that receive and process this information can be modulated by ..
  5. Cellular/Molecular Mechanisms of Respiratory Neuronal Chemosensitivity
    Douglas A Bayliss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this regard, a discrete population of neurons in the retro-trapezoid nucleus (RTN) of the medulla oblongata fulfills key criteria expected for chemoreceptor neurons. However, key questions remain...
  6. Function and Expression of Connexins in the pre-Botzinger Complex
    JONATHAN KELTY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..ganglion, the vertebrate retina, the inferior olivary complex of mammals, and autonomic networks of the medulla oblongata, including the pre-B"tzinger complex (PBC)...
  7. CHANGES IN BRAIN AMINES BY DENTAL LOCAL ANESTHETICS
    ALFRED CIARLONE; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..to be analyzed consist of the cerebral cortex, striatum, midbrain, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pons-medulla oblongata. A total of fourteen experiments are planned and consist of: 1) Dose-response curves with lidocaine ..
  8. REGULATION OF SECRETION OF POMC PEPTIDES IN BRAIN
    LEONARD KAPCALA; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..effects on POMC peptide secretion will be further evaluated in cells from extrahypothalamic forebrain and medulla oblongata. Effects of other regulatory candidates will subsequently be studied and compared in hypothalamic and ..
  9. RESPIRATORY NEURONS: NEUROCHEMICAL INTERRELATIONSHIPS
    Madhu Kalia; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These studies are aimed at uncovering the neurochemical identity of respiratory interneurons in the medulla oblongata and respiratory motor neurons in the spinal cord...
  10. Role of the PVN in Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Cardiorespiratory Changes
    Prabha Kc; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A subpopulation of these neurons projects to the rostral ventrolateral region of the medulla oblongata (RVLM) and midline serotonin (S-HT)-producing neurons, sites that play an important role in regulation of ..
  11. NEUROHORMONAL MECHANISMS IN HYPERTENSION
    Karen Barnes; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..actions of angiotensin II (Ang II), its congener peptides, and aldosterone on the neuronal circuits of the medulla oblongata and hypothalamus involved in tonic and reflex regulation of cardiovascular function, and integration of ..
  12. Hypothalamic control of energy expenditure and breathing
    SERDIA MACK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..leptin activates neurons in the hypothalamus that project to a common respiratory-related network within the medulla oblongata to alter respiratory patterns and/or responses to hypercapnia...
  13. MATERNAL DRUG ABUSE: EFFECTS ON FETAL RAPHE DEVELOPMENT
    GENE JONAKAIT; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Since cells of the raphe nuclei in the medulla oblongata, long defined by their use of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) as a neurotransmitter, play a role in a ..
  14. Leak potassium channels in chemosensitive RTN neurons
    DANIEL MULKEY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..the brain senses CO2/pH and regulates breathing, is thought to involve neurons on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata within the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN)...
  15. CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS--CENTRAL CARDIOVASCULAR CONTROL
    ARTHUR LOEWY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The efferent connections of the rostral, intermediate, and caudal regions of the ventral medulla oblongata will be studied with both anterograde and retrograde transport techniques...
  16. CENTRAL NEURONAL MECHANISMS--DECOMPENSATED HEMORRHAGE
    PATRICE GUYENET; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms triggered by hypotensive hemorrhage should lead to improved ability to manage this all too frequent clinical problem. ..
  17. ORGANIZATION OF CENTRAL SYMPATHETIC PATHWAYS
    PATRICE GUYENET; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The research will contribute to the basic physiological knowledge needed to understand how syrr pathetic tone is regulated in health and in diseases such as arrhythmias, hypertension and dysautonomias. ..
  18. Interleukin-1Beta in Central Pain Modulating Circuits
    Mary Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In providing additional tools to manipulate these systems, this work may ultimately lead to improved clinical treatment of pain. ..
  19. CSF AND THE CENTRAL CHEMICAL CONTROL OF BREATHING
    Eugene Nattie; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. Supraspinal prostaglandins and descending control
    Mary Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Medullary Circuitry of Opioid Analgesia
    Mary Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed work should advance our understanding of central processes involved in bi-directional pain modulation, and should ultimately lead to improved clinical treatment of pain. ..
  22. Neural circuitry of improgran analgesia
    Mary M Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  23. Migraine headache and central pain facilitating systems
    Mary M Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This idea is attractive because a central dysfunction could potentially explain the multiple triggers for migraine attached, as well as the range of associated symptoms, including nausea and aversion to light and sound. ..
  24. BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL BY FOREBRAIN & BRAINSTEM NEURONS
    SUSAN BARMAN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. MECHANISMS AND SITES OF VENTILATORY NEUROGENESIS
    WALTER ST JOHN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Such information might provide insights into dysfunctions of the control of ventilation in humans, such as in "sleep apnea" or the "sudden infant death syndrome." [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. Developmental Affects of Ritalin on Brain
    TERESA MILNER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Determining how therapeutic dosage regimens effect these transmitter systems is critical in understanding the safety of long-term therapeutic doses of MPH administered to children and adolescents with ADHD and other related disorders. ..
  27. ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF BRAINSTEM CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS
    Sue Aicher; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This collaborative project provides a unique opportunity to directly address structural and physiological questions regarding NTS neuronal function in both the normal and hypertensive states. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. ADRENERGIC CONTROL OF CENTRAL SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY
    Antonio Granata; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  29. Network mechanisms for respiratory rhythm generation
    Nicholas Mellen; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We propose to test this hypothesis at the network level, by selectively modulating VIEB and VDEB networks, and at the single neuron level, by characterizing perturbation responses in synaptically isolated VIEBs and VDEBs. ..
  30. NEURAL BASIS OF TASTE ELICITED INGESTION AND REJECTION
    JOSEPH TRAVERS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the neurological basis of the fundamental biological decision ingest or reject food will contribute to the eventual solution of these chronic debilitating disorders. ..
  31. Humoral Interactions in long-term blood pressure control
    VIRGINIA BROOKS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. OPIOID DEPRESSION OF RESPIRATORY NEURONS
    PETER LALLEY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It will also test a new method that may alleviate opioid-induced depression of respiration without affecting analgesia, and counteract respiratory depression by overdose of opioids. ..
  33. Acute and Chronic Microdialysis in the Gustatory System
    JOSEPH TRAVERS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  34. Trigeminal Mechanisms of Cannabinoid Analgesia
    Ian Meng; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. NEUROPEPTIDES AND CARDIOVASCULAR REGULATION
    VIRGINIA BROOKS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  36. Chronic morphine-induced sensitization of trigeminal dura sensitive neurons
    Ian D Meng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding the neuro-adaptive changes that occur with chronic morphine exposure will lead the way to new therapeutic strategies to treat headache patients while reducing the risk of developing MOH. ..
  37. Volatile Anesthetic Action in Vertebrate Locomotor Systems
    Steven L Jinks; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results from these projects will increase our understanding of how and where anesthetics act in the nervous system, contributing to the development of safer anesthetics and clinical practices. ..
  38. Role of ASIC3 in the etiology of fibromyalgia
    Kathleen A Sluka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies could lead to peripherally based therapeutic approaches to control pain without undesirable CMS (central nervous system) side effects, including gene therapy. ..
  39. ENCODING OF VOCAL SIGNALS IN THE AUDITORY SYSTEM
    Andrew H Bass; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..with auditory; neuropathy/dys-synchrony.. '-.'...... ..
  40. Hindbrain Actions of Leptin
    Gerlinda E Hermann; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Clearly, a better understanding of the control of energy expenditure should be crucial to the control of obesity and is of critical scientific, clinical and societal importance. ..
  41. CENTRAL REGULATION OF SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY TO BROWN FAT
    Shaun F Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. Contribution of the PAG to morphine tolerance
    Michael Morgan; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In the long term, such knowledge should improve the treatment of pain by allowing therapies that disrupt tolerance to be developed. ..
  43. PAIN, OPIOID ANALGESIA AND BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL
    Bradley Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The results of these studies will facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to chronic pain in the hypertensive patient. ..
  44. MORPHOLOGIC BASIS FOR CENTRAL VESTIBULAR INHIBITION
    GAY HOLSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  45. Electrical Coupling in Central Respiratory Control
    JOSEPH ERLICHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Here we outline experiments designed to examine the changes in the relative contribution of electrical and chemical synaptic transmission in the NTS during development using the chronically instrumented, conscious rats. ..
  46. Neurobiology of Joint Manipulation Induced Analgesia
    Kathleen Sluka; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This information will further assist the clinician in determining the treatment of choice for a particular patient and potentially guide future clinical research. ..
  47. NEUROPEPTIDERGIC INHIBITION OF SPINAL PAIN TRANSMISSION
    Bradley Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We predict that the activity of this population of spinal neurons will be decreased by NPY administration, and increased by NPY knockdown. ..
  48. BIFUNCTIONAL OPIOID/CCK LIGANDS FOR PAIN
    Frank Porreca; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This novel mechanism of action should yield therapeutic utility as well as provide an increased understanding of opioid-CCK interactions in normal and pathological pain states. ..
  49. Chemoanatomic bases for peripheral vestibular function
    GAY HOLSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed research is unique, and will have direct bearing on the development of more effective therapeutic interventions, both medicinal and device-oriented, for peripheral vestibular disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. Thrombin and CNS: Gastric Dysfunction after Head Trauma
    Gerlinda Hermann; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..e., via an R01 funding program). ..
  51. Neural Circulatory Control: Pregnancy & Ovarian Hormones
    CHERYL HEESCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Spontaneous Arousals in "CHIME" Infants at Risk for SIDS
    ROBERT DARNALL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, we will examine the relationships among the level of arousal, post-conceptional age, sleep state, and other infant behaviors such as feeding that are also associated with changes in autonomic activity. ..
  53. Ventral Mesopontine Junction and Motor Activity
    Yuan Yang Lai; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This proposed work is of critical importance for the understanding of RLS/PLMD, RBD and other motor pathologies of sleep and for the design of therapeutic strategies to reverse these disorders. ..
  54. Supraspinal Modulation of Neuropathic Pain
    Bradley Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  55. Multianalyte Assays for Cardiovascular Disease
    Debra Diz; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..As such the peptide and protein applications developed in this proposal will be ideal for widespread use. ..
  56. Neurobiology of Musculoskeletal Pain
    Kathleen Sluka; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These proposed studies are intended to help in the understanding and thus potential treatment of chronic muscle pain including such conditions as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain and low back pain. ..
  57. Methylphenidate & gene expression in the rat brain.
    JOAN BAIZER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. THE CPA: SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS
    W Panneton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Understanding the brainstem mechanisms governing he vascular constriction after either of these somatic stimuli may provide a neurological explanation for this. Such knowledge may lead to an understanding of essential hypertension. ..
  59. NEUROBIOLOGY OF CHRONIC MUSCLE PAIN
    Kathleen Sluka; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These proposed studies will help in the understanding and thus potential treatment of chronic muscle pain, including such conditions as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain and low back pain. ..
  60. Central contributions to pathobiology of fibromyalgia
    Kathleen Sluka; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A better understanding of the pathobiological mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pain conditions may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for its treatment. ..