- Dopaminergic loss and inclusion body formation in alpha-synuclein mice: implications for neurodegenerative disorders
Department of Neurosciences, Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0624, USA
Science 287:1265-9. 2000
..of alpha-synuclein-and ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in neurons in the neocortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Ultrastructural analysis revealed both electron-dense intranuclear deposits and cytoplasmic inclusions...
- Aggregated alpha-synuclein activates microglia: a process leading to disease progression in Parkinson's disease
Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
FASEB J 19:533-42. 2005
A growing body of evidence indicates that an inflammatory process in the substantia nigra, characterized by activation of resident microglia, likely either initiates or aggravates nigral neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
- Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson disease
D C Wu
Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Neurosci 22:1763-71. 2002
..This study demonstrates that microglial-related inflammatory events play a significant role in the MPTP neurotoxic process and suggests that minocycline may be a valuable neuroprotective agent for the treatment of PD...
- Inflammation as a causative factor in the aetiology of Parkinson's disease
P S Whitton
1Department of Pharmacology, The School of Pharmacy, London, UK
Br J Pharmacol 150:963-76. 2007
..Given that dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra are relatively vulnerable to 'stress' and the region has a large population of microglia in comparison to ..
- Presence of reactive microglia in monkey substantia nigra years after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine administration
Patrick L McGeer
Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, Division of Neurology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
Ann Neurol 54:599-604. 2003
..microglia, the accumulation of extracellular melanin, and the extensive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of monkeys administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) 5 to 14 years before death...
- Dynamic changes in presynaptic and axonal transport proteins combined with striatal neuroinflammation precede dopaminergic neuronal loss in a rat model of AAV alpha-synucleinopathy
Chee Yeun Chung
Neuroregeneration Laboratories, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA
J Neurosci 29:3365-73. 2009
..Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2-mediated delivery of mutant (A53T) human alpha-synuclein into the substantia nigra (SN) under a neuron-specific synapsin promoter resulted in protracted neurodegeneration with significant ..
- Modeling Parkinson's disease in rats: an evaluation of 6-OHDA lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Brain and Behavior Institute, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Exp Neurol 175:303-17. 2002
..pathway: (a) the medial forebrain bundle which leads to extensive dopamine (DA) depletion; (b) the substantia nigra pars compacta, which leads to more specific and moderate DA depletions; and (c) subregions of the caudate-..
- Whole genome expression profiling of the medial and lateral substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
L B Moran
University Department of Neuropathology, Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Imperial College London and Hammersmith Hospitals Trust, Charing Cross Campus, Fulham Palace Road, London, W6 8RF, UK
Neurogenetics 7:1-11. 2006
..of sporadic Parkinson's disease to establish the transcriptomic expression profile of the medial and lateral substantia nigra. In addition, the superior frontal cortex was analyzed in a subset of the same cases...
- Magnetic resonance imaging markers of Parkinson's disease nigrostriatal signature
Department of Radiology, I R C C S Foundation Santa Lucia, Via Ardeatina 306, 00179 Rome
Brain 133:3423-33. 2010
..R₂* value, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy in the pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, thalamus, substantia nigra and red nucleus were compared between patients with Parkinson's disease and control subjects...
- Central and systemic IL-1 exacerbates neurodegeneration and motor symptoms in a model of Parkinson's disease
María Clara Pott Godoy
Fundacion Instituto Leloir, FBMC UBA, CONICET, Patricias Argentinas 435, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Brain 131:1880-94. 2008
..Activated microglial cells in the substantia nigra (SN) are found in all animal models of Parkinson's disease and patients with the illness...
- A possible role for humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
Carolyn F Orr
Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Randwick, Sydney, Australia
Brain 128:2665-74. 2005
..Formalin-fixed tissue samples from the substantia nigra and primary visual cortex for comparison were stained for alpha-synuclein, major histocompatibility complex ..
- Neuroinflammation of the nigrostriatal pathway during progressive 6-OHDA dopamine degeneration in rats monitored by immunohistochemistry and PET imaging
Neuroregeneration Laboratory, MRC119, McLean Hospital Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
Eur J Neurosci 15:991-8. 2002
..carboxamide) (specific ligand for activated microglia) showed increased binding in the striatum and substantia nigra indicative of a microglial response...
- A double-blind controlled trial of bilateral fetal nigral transplantation in Parkinson's disease
C Warren Olanow
Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
Ann Neurol 54:403-14. 2003
..Fetal nigral transplantation currently cannot be recommended as a therapy for PD based on these results...
- Single nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons form widely spread and highly dense axonal arborizations in the neostriatum
Department of Morphological Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
J Neurosci 29:444-53. 2009
..Our findings demonstrate that individual dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra can broadcast a dopamine signal and exert strong influence over a large number of striatal neurons...
- Neuroinflammatory mechanisms in Parkinson's disease: potential environmental triggers, pathways, and targets for early therapeutic intervention
MALU G TANSEY
Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Exp Neurol 208:1-25. 2007
- Stereological estimates of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field in the rat
R G Nair-Roberts
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3US, UK
Neuroscience 152:1024-31. 2008
Midbrain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field play key roles in reward processing, learning and memory, and movement...
- Microglial activation with atypical proinflammatory cytokine expression in a rat model of Parkinson's disease
Amaicha M Depino
Institute Leloir Foundation CONICET University of Buenos Aires, Avenue Patricias Argentinas 435, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Eur J Neurosci 18:2731-42. 2003
..Immunohistochemistry showed that microglial cells were activated from days 6-30 postlesion in the substantia nigra pars compacta...
- Dopamine spillover after quantal release: rethinking dopamine transmission in the nigrostriatal pathway
Margaret E Rice
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
Brain Res Rev 58:303-13. 2008
..In this review, we compare characteristics that regulate extracellular DA behavior in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and striatum, including regional differences in structure (a 40% greater extracellular ..
- Blocking soluble tumor necrosis factor signaling with dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor inhibitor attenuates loss of dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson's disease
Melissa K McCoy
Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
J Neurosci 26:9365-75. 2006
..were observed with chronic in vivo coinfusion of XENP345 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the substantia nigra, confirming a role for solTNF-dependent neuroinflammation in nigral degeneration...
- Parkin deficiency increases vulnerability to inflammation-related nigral degeneration
Tamy C Frank-Cannon
Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9040, USA
J Neurosci 28:10825-34. 2008
..two genotypes, only parkin-/- mice displayed subtle fine-motor deficits and selective loss of DA neurons in substantia nigra. Therefore, our studies suggest that loss of Parkin function increases the vulnerability of nigral DA neurons ..
- Inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 induces an increase in extracellular dopamine in rat substantia nigra: a new metabolic pathway?
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
Synapse 40:294-301. 2001
We presented data previously on dopamine (DA) synthesis and catabolism in the rat substantia nigra (SN) suggesting that a substantial part of the synthesized DA in this brain part is metabolized by unknown nonclassical metabolic pathways...
- Comparative transduction efficiency of AAV vector serotypes 1-6 in the substantia nigra and striatum of the primate brain
Eleni A Markakis
Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
Mol Ther 18:588-93. 2010
..Vector injections were placed in the substantia nigra (SN) and the caudate nucleus (CD)...
- 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats increases glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and partially restores tyrosine hydroxylase expression in substantia nigra and striatum
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
J Neurosci Res 87:723-32. 2009
..in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease on GDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum...
- The substantia nigra of the human brain. II. Patterns of loss of dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease
INSERM U289, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France
Brain 122:1437-48. 1999
..in Parkinson's disease, we used compartmental patterns of calbindin D(28K) immunostaining to subdivide the substantia nigra with landmarks independent of the degenerative process...
- Protocol for the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease
Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Nat Protoc 2:141-51. 2007
..This protocol calls for implementation of safety measures and for the acquisition of several pieces of equipment, which are a one-time investment worth making if one elects to use this model on a regular basis...
- The ventral tegmental area revisited: is there an electrophysiological marker for dopaminergic neurons?
Elyssa B Margolis
Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
J Physiol 577:907-24. 2006
..These physiological criteria were first established in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but their validity in the VTA is uncertain...
- Mechanisms of action selection and timing in substantia nigra neurons
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
J Neurosci 32:5534-48. 2012
The timing of actions is critical for adaptive behavior. In this study we measured neural activity in the substantia nigra as mice learned to change their action duration to earn food rewards...
- Nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficits and hypokinesia caused by inactivation of the familial Parkinsonism-linked gene DJ-1
Matthew S Goldberg
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Neuron 45:489-96. 2005
..Although DJ-1(-/-) mice had normal numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, evoked dopamine overflow in the striatum was markedly reduced, primarily as a result of increased reuptake...
- Distribution and localization patterns of estrogen receptor-beta and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in neurons and glial cells of the female rat substantia nigra: localization of ERbeta and IGF-1R in substantia nigra
Department of Neurobiology, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1763, USA
J Comp Neurol 503:198-208. 2007
..E2 neuroprotective effects in the substantia nigra (SN) DA system have been shown to be dependent on IGF-1...
- Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson's disease
Department of Neurology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 6000, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Nat Neurosci 3:1301-6. 2000
..These results indicate that chronic exposure to a common pesticide can reproduce the anatomical, neurochemical, behavioral and neuropathological features of PD...
- Glucocerebrosidase deficiency in substantia nigra of parkinson disease brains
Matthew E Gegg
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University College London Institute of Neurology
Ann Neurol 72:455-63. 2012
..We investigated the enzymatic activity of glucocerebrosidase (GCase) in PD brains carrying heterozygote GBA mutations (PD+GBA) and sporadic PD brains...
- Dopamine-dependent neurotoxicity of alpha-synuclein: a mechanism for selective neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease
Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Division of Neuroscience, The Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Nat Med 8:600-6. 2002
..protein complexes that contain alpha-synuclein and 14-3-3 protein, which are elevated selectively in the substantia nigra in PD...
- Multiple hit hypotheses for dopamine neuron loss in Parkinson's disease
Department of Neurology, Black 309, 650 West, 168th Street, Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY 10032, USA
Trends Neurosci 30:244-50. 2007
..neurotoxic causes that produce massive cell death of the neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Loss of these neurons is essential for the diagnostic parkinsonian features...
- L-DOPA-induced dopamine efflux in the striatum and the substantia nigra in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: temporal and quantitative relationship to the expression of dyskinesia
Hanna S Lindgren
Basal Ganglia Pathophysiology, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
J Neurochem 112:1465-76. 2010
..Here we compare DA efflux and metabolism in the striatum and the substantia nigra in dyskinetic and non-dyskinetic animals following a standard dose of L-DOPA...
- Enhanced substantia nigra mitochondrial pathology in human alpha-synuclein transgenic mice after treatment with MPTP
David D Song
Neurology Service, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161 9127, USA
Exp Neurol 186:158-72. 2004
..to determine whether the overexpression of alpha-S in transgenic (tg) mice (alpha-S-tg) would enhance the substantia nigra (SN) pathology resulting from treatment with MPTP...
- Dopamine release from nigral transplants visualized in vivo in a Parkinson's patient
MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
Nat Neurosci 2:1137-40. 1999
..Despite an ongoing disease process, grafted neurons can thus continue for a decade to store and release dopamine and give rise to substantial symptomatic relief...
- Gene expression profiling of substantia nigra dopamine neurons: further insights into Parkinson's disease pathology
Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
Brain 132:1795-809. 2009
Parkinson's disease is caused by a progressive loss of the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta...
- The mesopontine rostromedial tegmental nucleus: A structure targeted by the lateral habenula that projects to the ventral tegmental area of Tsai and substantia nigra compacta
Thomas C Jhou
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
J Comp Neurol 513:566-96. 2009
..above and behind the interpeduncular nucleus that project strongly to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) compacta (C). Other reports suggest that these neurons modulate responses to aversive stimuli...
- Behavioral phenotyping of the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease
Institute of Physiological Psychology I and Center for Biological and Medical Research, Heinrich Heine University of Dusseldorf, Universitatsstrasse 1, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
Behav Brain Res 125:109-25. 2001
..g. mice with a manipulation of genes relevant to the function of the basal ganglia...
- High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging in the substantia nigra of de novo Parkinson disease
D E Vaillancourt
Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 West Taylor, 650 AHSB, MC 994, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Neurology 72:1378-84. 2009
..Parkinson disease (PD), there is a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ventrolateral and caudal substantia nigra (SN)...
- Alpha-synuclein redistributes to neuromelanin lipid in the substantia nigra early in Parkinson's disease
Glenda M Halliday
Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Brain 128:2654-64. 2005
..To determine early intracellular changes in regions where cell loss is most marked (dopaminergic A9 substantia nigra) versus regions with Lewy bodies but where cell loss is limited, we assessed 13 patients with definite ..
- Progressive neurodegeneration and motor disabilities induced by chronic expression of IL-1beta in the substantia nigra
Carina Cintia Ferrari
Institute Leloir, IIBBA CONICET, FBMC FCEyN Avenue Patricias Argentinas 435 1405, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Neurobiol Dis 24:183-93. 2006
The functional role of the long-lasting inflammation found in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models is unclear...
- Robust pacemaking in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons
Jaime N Guzman
Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
J Neurosci 29:11011-9. 2009
Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta are autonomous pacemakers. This activity is responsible for the sustained release of dopamine necessary for the proper functioning of target structures, such as the striatum...
- Structural integrity of the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus predicts flexibility of instrumental learning in older-age individuals
Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
Neurobiol Aging 34:2261-70. 2013
..The precise contribution of dopaminergic midbrain regions (substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area [SN/VTA]) to this form of behavioral adaptation remains unclear...
- Interplay between cytosolic dopamine, calcium, and alpha-synuclein causes selective death of substantia nigra neurons
Eugene V Mosharov
Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
Neuron 62:218-29. 2009
..disease (PD) is a synucleinopathy characterized by a preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), whereas neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are spared...
- TNF-alpha knockout and minocycline treatment attenuates blood-brain barrier leakage in MPTP-treated mice
Department of Pharmacology, Rush University Medical Center, 1735 W Harrison St, Cohn Research Building, Suite 406, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Neurobiol Dis 26:36-46. 2007
..we previously demonstrated passage of fluoresceinisothiocyanate-labeled albumin (FITC-LA) from blood into the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum suggesting damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
- High levels of mitochondrial DNA deletions in substantia nigra neurons in aging and Parkinson disease
Mitochondrial Research Group, School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry, The Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
Nat Genet 38:515-7. 2006
Here we show that in substantia nigra neurons from both aged controls and individuals with Parkinson disease, there is a high level of deleted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (controls, 43.3% +/- 9.3%; individuals with Parkinson disease, 52...
- Neurodegeneration prevented by lentiviral vector delivery of GDNF in primate models of Parkinson's disease
J H Kordower
Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Science 290:767-73. 2000
..We injected lenti-GDNF into the striatum and substantia nigra of nonlesioned aged rhesus monkeys or young adult rhesus monkeys treated 1 week prior with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-..
- In vivo electrochemical evidence for simultaneous 5-HT and histamine release in the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata following medial forebrain bundle stimulation
Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
J Neurochem 118:749-59. 2011
..Recently, we optimized fast-scan cyclic voltammetry for measuring 5-HT release and uptake in vivo in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) with electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the rat brain...
- Lipopolysaccharide induces a significant increase in expression of iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in the cortex and substantia nigra in rat brain
Laboratory of Brain Iron Metabolism, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Endocrinology 149:3920-5. 2008
..of hepcidin mRNA and protein in different brain regions, including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and substantia nigra, and the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of hepcidin using quantitative real-time RT-..
- Diffusion tensor imaging in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder reveals microstructural changes in the brainstem, substantia nigra, olfactory region, and other brain regions
Marcus M Unger
Department of Neurology, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Marburg, Germany
Sleep 33:767-73. 2010
- Re-examining the ontogeny of substantia nigra dopamine neurons
Monte A Gates
Schools of Medicine and Life Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK
Eur J Neurosci 23:1384-90. 2006
..Historically, peak ontogeny of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine neurons in the rat has been considered to occur around embryonic day (E)14...
- Motor stimulant effects of ethanol injected into the substantia nigra pars reticulata: importance of catalase-mediated metabolism and the role of acetaldehyde
Maria N Arizzi-LaFrance
Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 1020, USA
Neuropsychopharmacology 31:997-1008. 2006
..the locomotor effects of local injections of ethanol and the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, into substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)...
- Neuroprotective effect of dextromethorphan in the MPTP Parkinson's disease model: role of NADPH oxidase
Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
FASEB J 18:589-91. 2004
..is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the striatum...
- Nitrated alpha-synuclein immunity accelerates degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons
Eric J Benner
Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
PLoS ONE 3:e1376. 2008
The neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) includes loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, nitrated alpha-synuclein (N-alpha-Syn) enriched intraneuronal inclusions or Lewy bodies and neuroinflammation...
- PARK6 PINK1 mutants are defective in maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibiting ROS formation of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons
Hung Li Wang
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Kwei San, Tao Yuan, Taiwan, ROC
Biochim Biophys Acta 1812:674-84. 2011
..Our study also provides the evidence that PARK6 mutant (G309D), (E417G) or (CΔ145) PINK1 is defective in regulating mitochondrial functions and attenuating ROS production of SN dopaminergic cells...
- Possible involvement of complement factor C1q in the clearance of extracellular neuromelanin from the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease
Experimental Neurology, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 70:125-32. 2011
..the expression of C1q, the initial recognition subcomponent of the classic complement cascade, in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in Parkinson disease (PD) and control cases using immunohistochemistry and in situ ..
- I(h) channels contribute to the different functional properties of identified dopaminergic subpopulations in the midbrain
Medical Research Council, Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Oxford University, OX1 3TH United Kingdom
J Neurosci 22:1290-302. 2002
Dopaminergic (DA) midbrain neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are involved in various brain functions such as voluntary movement and reward and are targets in disorders such as Parkinson's disease and ..
- Five-year follow-up study of hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
Institute for Medical Genetics, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
Mov Disord 20:383-5. 2005
Using transcranial sonography, an area of hyperechogenicity at the substantia nigra (SN) may be detected as a typical marker in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as in approximately 9% of healthy subjects vulnerable to ..
- Pallidal origin of GABA release within the substantia nigra pars reticulata during high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus
Dynamique des Réseaux Neuronaux, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09, France
J Neurosci 25:5079-86. 2005
..extracellular glutamate (Glu) level in the output nuclei of the STN, the globus pallidus (GP), and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), consistent with an increase in the activity of STN neurons...
- Iron and alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice: effect of neuroprotective drugs R-apomorphine and green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
Eve Topf and USA National Parkinson Foundation Centers of Excellence for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research and Department of Pharmacology and Rappaport Family Research Institute, Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, 31096, Israel
J Mol Neurosci 24:401-16. 2004
..the prominent pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the abnormal accumulation of iron in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), in the reactive microglia, and in association with neuromelanin, within the melanin-..
- Neuronal loss is greater in the locus coeruleus than nucleus basalis and substantia nigra in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases
Department of Neurology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Arch Neurol 60:337-41. 2003
..Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are associated with neuronal degeneration in major subcortical nuclei, but few studies have examined the neuronal degeneration in these nuclei concurrently...
- Rotenone induces oxidative stress and dopaminergic neuron damage in organotypic substantia nigra cultures
Claudia M Testa
Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 134:109-18. 2005
..over weeks by low dose (10-50 nM) rotenone in this system lead to dose- and time-dependent destruction of substantia nigra pars compacta neuron processes, morphologic changes, some neuronal loss, and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (..
- Death in the substantia nigra: a motor tragedy
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Via Nazionale 8, 66030 Santa Maria Imbaro Chieti, Italy
Expert Rev Neurother 7:677-97. 2007
It is well known that the death of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common and disabling condition in the expanding elderly ..
- Subcutaneous rotenone exposure causes highly selective dopaminergic degeneration and alpha-synuclein aggregation
Todd B Sherer
Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30032, USA
Exp Neurol 179:9-16. 2003
..Subcutaneous rotenone exposure caused alpha-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic aggregates in nigral neurons. This new protocol for chronic rotenone administration is a substantial improvement in terms of simplicity and throughput...
- Inflammatory priming of the substantia nigra influences the impact of later paraquat exposure: Neuroimmune sensitization of neurodegeneration
Emily N Mangano
Institute of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Neurobiol Aging 30:1361-78. 2009
..the release of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative factors often accompanies toxin-induced degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine (DA) neurons...
- Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration
Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Glia 55:453-62. 2007
..Further, LPS reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) by 23% at 7-months post-treatment, which progressed to 47% at 10 months...
- Chronic expression of low levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the substantia nigra elicits progressive neurodegeneration, delayed motor symptoms and microglia/macrophage activation
Ana Laura De Lella Ezcurra
Institute Leloir Foundation and IIBBA CONICET, Patricias Argentinas 435, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Neurobiol Dis 37:630-40. 2010
..Microglial activation has been found in the substantia nigra (SN), one of the main brain regions affected in PD, for many years after the initiation of the disease...
- Parkin protects against the toxicity associated with mutant alpha-synuclein: proteasome dysfunction selectively affects catecholaminergic neurons
Neurogenetics Laboratory, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
Neuron 36:1007-19. 2002
..Therefore, parkin and alpha-synuclein are linked by common effects on a pathway associated with selective cell death in catecholaminergic neurons...
- Proteome analysis of human substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
Department of Structural and Functional Biology, and Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Busto Arsizio, Italy
Proteomics 4:3943-52. 2004
Protein expression has been compared in human substantia nigra specimens from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and from controls, and 44 proteins expressed in this midbrain region were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting...
- Lewy-body formation is an aggresome-related process: a hypothesis
C Warren Olanow
Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
Lancet Neurol 3:496-503. 2004
..associated with the formation of intracytoplasmic protein aggregates (Lewy-body inclusions) in neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and other brain areas...
- Effect of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on the neuronal activities of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus in the rat
Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Preclinique, INSERM U 318, CHU Pavillon B, BP 217, 38043, Grenoble, France
Neuroscience 99:289-95. 2000
..It also caused an inhibition of the majority of neurons recorded in the substantia nigra pars reticulata in normal rats (94%) and in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra pars ..
- Overexpression of alpha-synuclein in rat substantia nigra results in loss of dopaminergic neurons, phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein and activation of caspase-9: resemblance to pathogenetic changes in Parkinson's disease
Research Institute for Diseases of Old Age, Juntendo University, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
J Neurochem 91:451-61. 2004
..both human alpha-synuclein transgenic mice and targeted overexpression of human alpha-synuclein in rat substantia nigra using viral vector-based methods have been studied, however, little is known about the pathogenetic changes ..
- Progressive dopamine neuron loss following supra-nigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion into rats exposed to LPS prenatally
Department of Pharmacology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Exp Neurol 199:499-512. 2006
..This provides further support for the "multiple hit" hypothesis of PD...
- Developmental loss and resistance to MPTP toxicity of dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra pars compacta of gamma-synuclein, alpha-synuclein and double alpha/gamma-synuclein null mutant mice
Darren C Robertson
Department of Preclinical Veterinary Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, Scotland, UK
J Neurochem 89:1126-36. 2004
..Reduced number of dopaminergic neurones was found in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) but not in ventral tegmental area (VTA) of early post-natal and adult gamma-synuclein ..
- Roles for nigrostriatal--not just mesocorticolimbic--dopamine in reward and addiction
Roy A Wise
Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
Trends Neurosci 32:517-24. 2009
..groups: students of Parkinson's disease who study the nigrostriatal dopamine system that originates in the substantia nigra (SN), and students of motivation and addiction who study the role of the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine ..
- Calcium, cellular aging, and selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease
D James Surmeier
Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 E Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Cell Calcium 47:175-82. 2010
..The core motor symptoms are attributable to the degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)...
- Characterization of behavioral and neurodegenerative changes following partial lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine system induced by intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine in the rat
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Lund University, Solvegatan 17, Lund, 223 62, Sweden
Exp Neurol 152:259-77. 1998
..fiber density in the lateral striatum, accompanied by a 50-60% reduction in TH-positive cells in substantia nigra (SN), is sufficient for the induction of significant impairment in initiation of stepping...
- Morphological and functional alterations in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the Mecp2-null mouse
INSERM, UMR_S 910, Faculte de Medecine de la Timone, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
Neurobiol Dis 41:385-97. 2011
..We then studied the phenotype of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc)...
- Subcellular localization and molecular topology of the dopamine transporter in the striatum and substantia nigra
S M Hersch
Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
J Comp Neurol 388:211-27. 1997
..In the substantia nigra, DAT appears to be specifically transported into dendrites, where it can be found in smooth endoplasmic ..
- The basal ganglia and motor control
Henk J Groenewegen
Department of Anatomy, Research Institute Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Neural Plast 10:107-20. 2003
..The basal ganglia, including the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, are involved in a number of parallel, functionally segregated cortical-subcortical circuits...
- Spontaneous and evoked activity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons during high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 114, Chaire de Neuropharmacologie, College de France, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
J Neurosci 23:9929-36. 2003
..e., the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) and the internal segment of the globus pallidus...
- The adult substantia nigra contains progenitor cells with neurogenic potential
D Chichung Lie
Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Neurosci 22:6639-49. 2002
In Parkinson's disease, progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) leads to debilitating motor dysfunction...
- Alterations in the distribution of glutathione in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
R K Pearce
Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Centre, King s College, London, United Kingdom
J Neural Transm 104:661-77. 1997
Depletion of reduced glutathione occurs in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease and in incidental Lewy body disease (presymptomatic Parkinson's disease) which may implicate oxidative stress in the neurodegenerative process...
- Minocycline inhibits microglial activation and protects nigral cells after 6-hydroxydopamine injection into mouse striatum
Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Brain Res 909:187-93. 2001
To determine the role of immune/inflammatory factors in dopaminergic cell degeneration in parkinsonian substantia nigra, we assayed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive immunoreactive neuronal numbers with stereologic techniques and CD11b-..
- Influence of the frequency parameter on extracellular glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid in substantia nigra and globus pallidus during electrical stimulation of subthalamic nucleus in rats
Equipe Neurochimie et Neuroplasticité Fonctionnelles, INSERM U 318 Neurosciences Précliniques, Universite Joseph Fourier, Pavillon de Neurologie, CHU de Grenoble, France
J Neurosci Res 72:259-67. 2003
..increase of extracellular glutamate (Glu) in the globus pallidus (GP in rats or GPe in primates) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was increased only in the SNr...
- A comparison of model-based (2D) and design-based (3D) stereological methods for estimating cell number in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the C57BL/6J mouse
Z C Baquet
Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Pl, Memphis, TN 38105 3678, USA
Neuroscience 161:1082-90. 2009
The substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) is a compact brain structure that contains a variable distribution of cells in both medial to lateral and rostral to caudal dimensions...
- GABAergic control of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons
James M Tepper
Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 197 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
Prog Brain Res 160:189-208. 2007
At least 70% of the afferents to substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons are GABAergic. The vast majority of these arise from the neostriatum, the external globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata...
- A simple and fast densitometric method for the analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta and in the ventral tegmental area
Léder Leal Xavier
Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Faculdade de Biociencias, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ipiranga 6681, CEP 90619 900, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 16:58-64. 2005
..is a progressive dyskinetic disorder caused by degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and, to a lesser extent, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
- Similar roles of substantia nigra and ventral tegmental dopamine neurons in reward and aversion
Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21014, and Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599
J Neurosci 34:817-22. 2014
..However, it is unclear to what extent dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) play such roles...
- Safety/feasibility of targeting the substantia nigra with AAV2-neurturin in Parkinson patients
Raymond T Bartus
Ceregene, Inc, San Diego, CA, USA
Neurology 80:1698-701. 2013
..PD), of bilaterally administering the gene therapy vector AAV2-neurturin (CERE-120) to the putamen plus substantia nigra (SN, a relatively small structure deep within the midbrain, in proximity to critical neuronal and vascular ..
- Contact dependent reproducible hypomania induced by deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical, anatomical and functional imaging study
Service de Neurologie A, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, 58 rue Montalembert, CHU Clermont Ferrand, F 63000 Clermont Ferrand, France
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 82:607-14. 2011
..6±0.5 compared with 7.8±3.1 under 'manic' conditions. Nine of 10 'manic' contacts were located in the substantia nigra, mainly in its ventral part...
- Rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, protects against striatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA lesions in the substantia nigra of rats
Eun Young Lee
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 133 791 Seoul, Republic of Korea
Toxicol Lett 213:332-44. 2012
..Our results provide insight into the neuroprotective mechanisms of rosiglitazone against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal damages...
- Enlarged substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and risk for Parkinson disease: a 37-month 3-center study of 1847 older persons
Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hoppe Seyler Strasse 3, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Arch Neurol 68:932-7. 2011
To evaluate whether enlarged substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) is associated with an increased risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in a healthy elderly population.
- Novelty increases the mesolimbic functional connectivity of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) during reward anticipation: Evidence from high-resolution fMRI
R M Krebs
Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Neuroimage 58:647-55. 2011
..magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to isolate neural responses to reward and novelty within the human substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) complex to investigate the spatial delineation and integration of reward- and ..
- Properly scaled and targeted AAV2-NRTN (neurturin) to the substantia nigra is safe, effective and causes no weight loss: support for nigral targeting in Parkinson's disease
Raymond T Bartus
Ceregene, Inc, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
Neurobiol Dis 44:38-52. 2011
..factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) likely requires delivery to both the degenerating cell bodies (in substantia nigra) and their terminals (in striatum)...
- Functional NR2B- and NR2D-containing NMDA receptor channels in rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurones
Department of Pharmacology, University College London, UK
J Physiol 569:209-21. 2005
NMDA receptors regulate burst firing of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and may contribute to excitotoxic cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
- 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced alterations in blood-brain barrier permeability
P M Carvey
Rush University Medical Center, Department of Pharmacology, Cohn 406, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Eur J Neurosci 22:1158-68. 2005
..of 6OHDA into the striatum or the medial forebrain bundle produced increased leakage in the ipsilateral substantia nigra and striatum 10 and 34 days following 6OHDA...
- Pathogenic lysosomal depletion in Parkinson's disease
Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Vall d Hebron Research Institute Center for Networked Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases CIBERNED, Barcelona 08035, Spain
J Neurosci 30:12535-44. 2010
..Restoration of lysosomal levels and function may thus represent a novel neuroprotective strategy in PD...
- Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra in healthy controls is related to MRI changes and to neuronal loss as determined by F-Dopa PET
Department of Neurology, University Hospital of the Saarland, Homburg Saar, Germany
Neuroimage 47:1237-43. 2009
Transcranial ultrasound (TCS) has been shown to reveal hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) in Parkinsonian patients and in about 10% of healthy controls...
- Morphometry of the human substantia nigra in ageing and Parkinson's disease
Neuropathology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Ross Research Building 555, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Acta Neuropathol 115:461-70. 2008
To investigate the relation between the loss of substantia nigra (SN) neurons in normal ageing and Parkinson's disease (PD), we measured the total number and the cell body volume of pigmented (neuromelanin) neurons in the SN...