substantia nigra

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Dopaminergic loss and inclusion body formation in alpha-synuclein mice: implications for neurodegenerative disorders
    E Masliah
    Department of Neurosciences, Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0624, USA
    Science 287:1265-9. 2000
  2. ncbi Aggregated alpha-synuclein activates microglia: a process leading to disease progression in Parkinson's disease
    Wei Zhang
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    FASEB J 19:533-42. 2005
  3. ncbi Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson disease
    D C Wu
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 22:1763-71. 2002
  4. pmc Inflammation as a causative factor in the aetiology of Parkinson's disease
    P S Whitton
    1Department of Pharmacology, The School of Pharmacy, London, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 150:963-76. 2007
  5. ncbi Presence of reactive microglia in monkey substantia nigra years after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine administration
    Patrick L McGeer
    Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, Division of Neurology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
    Ann Neurol 54:599-604. 2003
  6. pmc Dynamic changes in presynaptic and axonal transport proteins combined with striatal neuroinflammation precede dopaminergic neuronal loss in a rat model of AAV alpha-synucleinopathy
    Chee Yeun Chung
    Neuroregeneration Laboratories, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA
    J Neurosci 29:3365-73. 2009
  7. ncbi Modeling Parkinson's disease in rats: an evaluation of 6-OHDA lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway
    Ronald Deumens
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Brain and Behavior Institute, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Exp Neurol 175:303-17. 2002
  8. ncbi Whole genome expression profiling of the medial and lateral substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
    L B Moran
    University Department of Neuropathology, Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Imperial College London and Hammersmith Hospitals Trust, Charing Cross Campus, Fulham Palace Road, London, W6 8RF, UK
    Neurogenetics 7:1-11. 2006
  9. doi Magnetic resonance imaging markers of Parkinson's disease nigrostriatal signature
    Patrice Peran
    Department of Radiology, I R C C S Foundation Santa Lucia, Via Ardeatina 306, 00179 Rome
    Brain 133:3423-33. 2010
  10. pmc Central and systemic IL-1 exacerbates neurodegeneration and motor symptoms in a model of Parkinson's disease
    María Clara Pott Godoy
    Fundacion Instituto Leloir, FBMC UBA, CONICET, Patricias Argentinas 435, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Brain 131:1880-94. 2008

Detail Information

Publications377 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Dopaminergic loss and inclusion body formation in alpha-synuclein mice: implications for neurodegenerative disorders
    E Masliah
    Department of Neurosciences, Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0624, USA
    Science 287:1265-9. 2000
    ..of alpha-synuclein-and ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in neurons in the neocortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Ultrastructural analysis revealed both electron-dense intranuclear deposits and cytoplasmic inclusions...
  2. ncbi Aggregated alpha-synuclein activates microglia: a process leading to disease progression in Parkinson's disease
    Wei Zhang
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    FASEB J 19:533-42. 2005
    A growing body of evidence indicates that an inflammatory process in the substantia nigra, characterized by activation of resident microglia, likely either initiates or aggravates nigral neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  3. ncbi Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson disease
    D C Wu
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 22:1763-71. 2002
    ..This study demonstrates that microglial-related inflammatory events play a significant role in the MPTP neurotoxic process and suggests that minocycline may be a valuable neuroprotective agent for the treatment of PD...
  4. pmc Inflammation as a causative factor in the aetiology of Parkinson's disease
    P S Whitton
    1Department of Pharmacology, The School of Pharmacy, London, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 150:963-76. 2007
    ..Given that dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra are relatively vulnerable to 'stress' and the region has a large population of microglia in comparison to ..
  5. ncbi Presence of reactive microglia in monkey substantia nigra years after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine administration
    Patrick L McGeer
    Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, Division of Neurology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
    Ann Neurol 54:599-604. 2003
    ..microglia, the accumulation of extracellular melanin, and the extensive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of monkeys administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) 5 to 14 years before death...
  6. pmc Dynamic changes in presynaptic and axonal transport proteins combined with striatal neuroinflammation precede dopaminergic neuronal loss in a rat model of AAV alpha-synucleinopathy
    Chee Yeun Chung
    Neuroregeneration Laboratories, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA
    J Neurosci 29:3365-73. 2009
    ..Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2-mediated delivery of mutant (A53T) human alpha-synuclein into the substantia nigra (SN) under a neuron-specific synapsin promoter resulted in protracted neurodegeneration with significant ..
  7. ncbi Modeling Parkinson's disease in rats: an evaluation of 6-OHDA lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway
    Ronald Deumens
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Brain and Behavior Institute, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Exp Neurol 175:303-17. 2002
    ..pathway: (a) the medial forebrain bundle which leads to extensive dopamine (DA) depletion; (b) the substantia nigra pars compacta, which leads to more specific and moderate DA depletions; and (c) subregions of the caudate-..
  8. ncbi Whole genome expression profiling of the medial and lateral substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
    L B Moran
    University Department of Neuropathology, Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Imperial College London and Hammersmith Hospitals Trust, Charing Cross Campus, Fulham Palace Road, London, W6 8RF, UK
    Neurogenetics 7:1-11. 2006
    ..of sporadic Parkinson's disease to establish the transcriptomic expression profile of the medial and lateral substantia nigra. In addition, the superior frontal cortex was analyzed in a subset of the same cases...
  9. doi Magnetic resonance imaging markers of Parkinson's disease nigrostriatal signature
    Patrice Peran
    Department of Radiology, I R C C S Foundation Santa Lucia, Via Ardeatina 306, 00179 Rome
    Brain 133:3423-33. 2010
    ..R₂* value, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy in the pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, thalamus, substantia nigra and red nucleus were compared between patients with Parkinson's disease and control subjects...
  10. pmc Central and systemic IL-1 exacerbates neurodegeneration and motor symptoms in a model of Parkinson's disease
    María Clara Pott Godoy
    Fundacion Instituto Leloir, FBMC UBA, CONICET, Patricias Argentinas 435, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Brain 131:1880-94. 2008
    ..Activated microglial cells in the substantia nigra (SN) are found in all animal models of Parkinson's disease and patients with the illness...
  11. ncbi A possible role for humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
    Carolyn F Orr
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Randwick, Sydney, Australia
    Brain 128:2665-74. 2005
    ..Formalin-fixed tissue samples from the substantia nigra and primary visual cortex for comparison were stained for alpha-synuclein, major histocompatibility complex ..
  12. ncbi Neuroinflammation of the nigrostriatal pathway during progressive 6-OHDA dopamine degeneration in rats monitored by immunohistochemistry and PET imaging
    F Cicchetti
    Neuroregeneration Laboratory, MRC119, McLean Hospital Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 15:991-8. 2002
    ..carboxamide) (specific ligand for activated microglia) showed increased binding in the striatum and substantia nigra indicative of a microglial response...
  13. ncbi A double-blind controlled trial of bilateral fetal nigral transplantation in Parkinson's disease
    C Warren Olanow
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Ann Neurol 54:403-14. 2003
    ..Fetal nigral transplantation currently cannot be recommended as a therapy for PD based on these results...
  14. doi Single nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons form widely spread and highly dense axonal arborizations in the neostriatum
    Wakoto Matsuda
    Department of Morphological Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    J Neurosci 29:444-53. 2009
    ..Our findings demonstrate that individual dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra can broadcast a dopamine signal and exert strong influence over a large number of striatal neurons...
  15. pmc Neuroinflammatory mechanisms in Parkinson's disease: potential environmental triggers, pathways, and targets for early therapeutic intervention
    MALU G TANSEY
    Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Exp Neurol 208:1-25. 2007
    ....
  16. pmc Stereological estimates of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field in the rat
    R G Nair-Roberts
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3US, UK
    Neuroscience 152:1024-31. 2008
    Midbrain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field play key roles in reward processing, learning and memory, and movement...
  17. ncbi Microglial activation with atypical proinflammatory cytokine expression in a rat model of Parkinson's disease
    Amaicha M Depino
    Institute Leloir Foundation CONICET University of Buenos Aires, Avenue Patricias Argentinas 435, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Eur J Neurosci 18:2731-42. 2003
    ..Immunohistochemistry showed that microglial cells were activated from days 6-30 postlesion in the substantia nigra pars compacta...
  18. pmc Dopamine spillover after quantal release: rethinking dopamine transmission in the nigrostriatal pathway
    Margaret E Rice
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Brain Res Rev 58:303-13. 2008
    ..In this review, we compare characteristics that regulate extracellular DA behavior in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and striatum, including regional differences in structure (a 40% greater extracellular ..
  19. pmc Blocking soluble tumor necrosis factor signaling with dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor inhibitor attenuates loss of dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson's disease
    Melissa K McCoy
    Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    J Neurosci 26:9365-75. 2006
    ..were observed with chronic in vivo coinfusion of XENP345 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the substantia nigra, confirming a role for solTNF-dependent neuroinflammation in nigral degeneration...
  20. pmc Parkin deficiency increases vulnerability to inflammation-related nigral degeneration
    Tamy C Frank-Cannon
    Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9040, USA
    J Neurosci 28:10825-34. 2008
    ..two genotypes, only parkin-/- mice displayed subtle fine-motor deficits and selective loss of DA neurons in substantia nigra. Therefore, our studies suggest that loss of Parkin function increases the vulnerability of nigral DA neurons ..
  21. ncbi Inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 induces an increase in extracellular dopamine in rat substantia nigra: a new metabolic pathway?
    H Nissbrandt
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Synapse 40:294-301. 2001
    We presented data previously on dopamine (DA) synthesis and catabolism in the rat substantia nigra (SN) suggesting that a substantial part of the synthesized DA in this brain part is metabolized by unknown nonclassical metabolic pathways...
  22. pmc Comparative transduction efficiency of AAV vector serotypes 1-6 in the substantia nigra and striatum of the primate brain
    Eleni A Markakis
    Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
    Mol Ther 18:588-93. 2010
    ..Vector injections were placed in the substantia nigra (SN) and the caudate nucleus (CD)...
  23. doi 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats increases glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and partially restores tyrosine hydroxylase expression in substantia nigra and striatum
    Begoña Sánchez
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    J Neurosci Res 87:723-32. 2009
    ..in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease on GDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum...
  24. ncbi The substantia nigra of the human brain. II. Patterns of loss of dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease
    P Damier
    INSERM U289, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France
    Brain 122:1437-48. 1999
    ..in Parkinson's disease, we used compartmental patterns of calbindin D(28K) immunostaining to subdivide the substantia nigra with landmarks independent of the degenerative process...
  25. ncbi Protocol for the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease
    Vernice Jackson-Lewis
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Nat Protoc 2:141-51. 2007
    ..This protocol calls for implementation of safety measures and for the acquisition of several pieces of equipment, which are a one-time investment worth making if one elects to use this model on a regular basis...
  26. pmc The ventral tegmental area revisited: is there an electrophysiological marker for dopaminergic neurons?
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    J Physiol 577:907-24. 2006
    ..These physiological criteria were first established in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but their validity in the VTA is uncertain...
  27. doi Mechanisms of action selection and timing in substantia nigra neurons
    DAVID FAN
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    J Neurosci 32:5534-48. 2012
    The timing of actions is critical for adaptive behavior. In this study we measured neural activity in the substantia nigra as mice learned to change their action duration to earn food rewards...
  28. ncbi Nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficits and hypokinesia caused by inactivation of the familial Parkinsonism-linked gene DJ-1
    Matthew S Goldberg
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Neuron 45:489-96. 2005
    ..Although DJ-1(-/-) mice had normal numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, evoked dopamine overflow in the striatum was markedly reduced, primarily as a result of increased reuptake...
  29. pmc Distribution and localization patterns of estrogen receptor-beta and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in neurons and glial cells of the female rat substantia nigra: localization of ERbeta and IGF-1R in substantia nigra
    Arnulfo Quesada
    Department of Neurobiology, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1763, USA
    J Comp Neurol 503:198-208. 2007
    ..E2 neuroprotective effects in the substantia nigra (SN) DA system have been shown to be dependent on IGF-1...
  30. ncbi Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson's disease
    R Betarbet
    Department of Neurology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 6000, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Nat Neurosci 3:1301-6. 2000
    ..These results indicate that chronic exposure to a common pesticide can reproduce the anatomical, neurochemical, behavioral and neuropathological features of PD...
  31. pmc Glucocerebrosidase deficiency in substantia nigra of parkinson disease brains
    Matthew E Gegg
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University College London Institute of Neurology
    Ann Neurol 72:455-63. 2012
    ..We investigated the enzymatic activity of glucocerebrosidase (GCase) in PD brains carrying heterozygote GBA mutations (PD+GBA) and sporadic PD brains...
  32. ncbi Dopamine-dependent neurotoxicity of alpha-synuclein: a mechanism for selective neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease
    Jin Xu
    Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Division of Neuroscience, The Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Med 8:600-6. 2002
    ..protein complexes that contain alpha-synuclein and 14-3-3 protein, which are elevated selectively in the substantia nigra in PD...
  33. ncbi Multiple hit hypotheses for dopamine neuron loss in Parkinson's disease
    David Sulzer
    Department of Neurology, Black 309, 650 West, 168th Street, Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY 10032, USA
    Trends Neurosci 30:244-50. 2007
    ..neurotoxic causes that produce massive cell death of the neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Loss of these neurons is essential for the diagnostic parkinsonian features...
  34. doi L-DOPA-induced dopamine efflux in the striatum and the substantia nigra in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: temporal and quantitative relationship to the expression of dyskinesia
    Hanna S Lindgren
    Basal Ganglia Pathophysiology, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    J Neurochem 112:1465-76. 2010
    ..Here we compare DA efflux and metabolism in the striatum and the substantia nigra in dyskinetic and non-dyskinetic animals following a standard dose of L-DOPA...
  35. ncbi Enhanced substantia nigra mitochondrial pathology in human alpha-synuclein transgenic mice after treatment with MPTP
    David D Song
    Neurology Service, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161 9127, USA
    Exp Neurol 186:158-72. 2004
    ..to determine whether the overexpression of alpha-S in transgenic (tg) mice (alpha-S-tg) would enhance the substantia nigra (SN) pathology resulting from treatment with MPTP...
  36. ncbi Dopamine release from nigral transplants visualized in vivo in a Parkinson's patient
    P Piccini
    MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Nat Neurosci 2:1137-40. 1999
    ..Despite an ongoing disease process, grafted neurons can thus continue for a decade to store and release dopamine and give rise to substantial symptomatic relief...
  37. pmc Gene expression profiling of substantia nigra dopamine neurons: further insights into Parkinson's disease pathology
    Filip Simunovic
    Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Brain 132:1795-809. 2009
    Parkinson's disease is caused by a progressive loss of the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta...
  38. pmc The mesopontine rostromedial tegmental nucleus: A structure targeted by the lateral habenula that projects to the ventral tegmental area of Tsai and substantia nigra compacta
    Thomas C Jhou
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Comp Neurol 513:566-96. 2009
    ..above and behind the interpeduncular nucleus that project strongly to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) compacta (C). Other reports suggest that these neurons modulate responses to aversive stimuli...
  39. ncbi Behavioral phenotyping of the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease
    M Sedelis
    Institute of Physiological Psychology I and Center for Biological and Medical Research, Heinrich Heine University of Dusseldorf, Universitatsstrasse 1, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 125:109-25. 2001
    ..g. mice with a manipulation of genes relevant to the function of the basal ganglia...
  40. pmc High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging in the substantia nigra of de novo Parkinson disease
    D E Vaillancourt
    Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 West Taylor, 650 AHSB, MC 994, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Neurology 72:1378-84. 2009
    ..Parkinson disease (PD), there is a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ventrolateral and caudal substantia nigra (SN)...
  41. ncbi Alpha-synuclein redistributes to neuromelanin lipid in the substantia nigra early in Parkinson's disease
    Glenda M Halliday
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Brain 128:2654-64. 2005
    ..To determine early intracellular changes in regions where cell loss is most marked (dopaminergic A9 substantia nigra) versus regions with Lewy bodies but where cell loss is limited, we assessed 13 patients with definite ..
  42. ncbi Progressive neurodegeneration and motor disabilities induced by chronic expression of IL-1beta in the substantia nigra
    Carina Cintia Ferrari
    Institute Leloir, IIBBA CONICET, FBMC FCEyN Avenue Patricias Argentinas 435 1405, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Neurobiol Dis 24:183-93. 2006
    The functional role of the long-lasting inflammation found in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models is unclear...
  43. pmc Robust pacemaking in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons
    Jaime N Guzman
    Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Neurosci 29:11011-9. 2009
    Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta are autonomous pacemakers. This activity is responsible for the sustained release of dopamine necessary for the proper functioning of target structures, such as the striatum...
  44. pmc Structural integrity of the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus predicts flexibility of instrumental learning in older-age individuals
    Rumana Chowdhury
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
    Neurobiol Aging 34:2261-70. 2013
    ..The precise contribution of dopaminergic midbrain regions (substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area [SN/VTA]) to this form of behavioral adaptation remains unclear...
  45. pmc Interplay between cytosolic dopamine, calcium, and alpha-synuclein causes selective death of substantia nigra neurons
    Eugene V Mosharov
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 62:218-29. 2009
    ..disease (PD) is a synucleinopathy characterized by a preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), whereas neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are spared...
  46. pmc TNF-alpha knockout and minocycline treatment attenuates blood-brain barrier leakage in MPTP-treated mice
    Chaohui Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology, Rush University Medical Center, 1735 W Harrison St, Cohn Research Building, Suite 406, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 26:36-46. 2007
    ..we previously demonstrated passage of fluoresceinisothiocyanate-labeled albumin (FITC-LA) from blood into the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum suggesting damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
  47. ncbi High levels of mitochondrial DNA deletions in substantia nigra neurons in aging and Parkinson disease
    Andreas Bender
    Mitochondrial Research Group, School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry, The Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
    Nat Genet 38:515-7. 2006
    Here we show that in substantia nigra neurons from both aged controls and individuals with Parkinson disease, there is a high level of deleted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (controls, 43.3% +/- 9.3%; individuals with Parkinson disease, 52...
  48. ncbi Neurodegeneration prevented by lentiviral vector delivery of GDNF in primate models of Parkinson's disease
    J H Kordower
    Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Science 290:767-73. 2000
    ..We injected lenti-GDNF into the striatum and substantia nigra of nonlesioned aged rhesus monkeys or young adult rhesus monkeys treated 1 week prior with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-..
  49. pmc In vivo electrochemical evidence for simultaneous 5-HT and histamine release in the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata following medial forebrain bundle stimulation
    Parastoo Hashemi
    Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Neurochem 118:749-59. 2011
    ..Recently, we optimized fast-scan cyclic voltammetry for measuring 5-HT release and uptake in vivo in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) with electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the rat brain...
  50. pmc Lipopolysaccharide induces a significant increase in expression of iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in the cortex and substantia nigra in rat brain
    Qin Wang
    Laboratory of Brain Iron Metabolism, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
    Endocrinology 149:3920-5. 2008
    ..of hepcidin mRNA and protein in different brain regions, including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and substantia nigra, and the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of hepcidin using quantitative real-time RT-..
  51. pmc Diffusion tensor imaging in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder reveals microstructural changes in the brainstem, substantia nigra, olfactory region, and other brain regions
    Marcus M Unger
    Department of Neurology, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    Sleep 33:767-73. 2010
    ....
  52. ncbi Re-examining the ontogeny of substantia nigra dopamine neurons
    Monte A Gates
    Schools of Medicine and Life Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 23:1384-90. 2006
    ..Historically, peak ontogeny of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine neurons in the rat has been considered to occur around embryonic day (E)14...
  53. ncbi Motor stimulant effects of ethanol injected into the substantia nigra pars reticulata: importance of catalase-mediated metabolism and the role of acetaldehyde
    Maria N Arizzi-LaFrance
    Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 1020, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:997-1008. 2006
    ..the locomotor effects of local injections of ethanol and the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, into substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)...
  54. ncbi Neuroprotective effect of dextromethorphan in the MPTP Parkinson's disease model: role of NADPH oxidase
    Wei Zhang
    Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    FASEB J 18:589-91. 2004
    ..is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the striatum...
  55. pmc Nitrated alpha-synuclein immunity accelerates degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons
    Eric J Benner
    Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e1376. 2008
    The neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) includes loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, nitrated alpha-synuclein (N-alpha-Syn) enriched intraneuronal inclusions or Lewy bodies and neuroinflammation...
  56. doi PARK6 PINK1 mutants are defective in maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibiting ROS formation of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons
    Hung Li Wang
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Kwei San, Tao Yuan, Taiwan, ROC
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1812:674-84. 2011
    ..Our study also provides the evidence that PARK6 mutant (G309D), (E417G) or (CΔ145) PINK1 is defective in regulating mitochondrial functions and attenuating ROS production of SN dopaminergic cells...
  57. doi Possible involvement of complement factor C1q in the clearance of extracellular neuromelanin from the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease
    Candan Depboylu
    Experimental Neurology, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 70:125-32. 2011
    ..the expression of C1q, the initial recognition subcomponent of the classic complement cascade, in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in Parkinson disease (PD) and control cases using immunohistochemistry and in situ ..
  58. ncbi I(h) channels contribute to the different functional properties of identified dopaminergic subpopulations in the midbrain
    Henrike Neuhoff
    Medical Research Council, Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Oxford University, OX1 3TH United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 22:1290-302. 2002
    Dopaminergic (DA) midbrain neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are involved in various brain functions such as voluntary movement and reward and are targets in disorders such as Parkinson's disease and ..
  59. ncbi Five-year follow-up study of hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
    Daniela Berg
    Institute for Medical Genetics, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Mov Disord 20:383-5. 2005
    Using transcranial sonography, an area of hyperechogenicity at the substantia nigra (SN) may be detected as a typical marker in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as in approximately 9% of healthy subjects vulnerable to ..
  60. ncbi Pallidal origin of GABA release within the substantia nigra pars reticulata during high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus
    Francois Windels
    Dynamique des Réseaux Neuronaux, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09, France
    J Neurosci 25:5079-86. 2005
    ..extracellular glutamate (Glu) level in the output nuclei of the STN, the globus pallidus (GP), and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), consistent with an increase in the activity of STN neurons...
  61. ncbi Iron and alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice: effect of neuroprotective drugs R-apomorphine and green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
    Silvia Mandel
    Eve Topf and USA National Parkinson Foundation Centers of Excellence for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research and Department of Pharmacology and Rappaport Family Research Institute, Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, 31096, Israel
    J Mol Neurosci 24:401-16. 2004
    ..the prominent pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the abnormal accumulation of iron in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), in the reactive microglia, and in association with neuromelanin, within the melanin-..
  62. ncbi Neuronal loss is greater in the locus coeruleus than nucleus basalis and substantia nigra in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases
    Chris Zarow
    Department of Neurology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Arch Neurol 60:337-41. 2003
    ..Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are associated with neuronal degeneration in major subcortical nuclei, but few studies have examined the neuronal degeneration in these nuclei concurrently...
  63. ncbi Rotenone induces oxidative stress and dopaminergic neuron damage in organotypic substantia nigra cultures
    Claudia M Testa
    Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 134:109-18. 2005
    ..over weeks by low dose (10-50 nM) rotenone in this system lead to dose- and time-dependent destruction of substantia nigra pars compacta neuron processes, morphologic changes, some neuronal loss, and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (..
  64. ncbi Death in the substantia nigra: a motor tragedy
    Ennio Esposito
    Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Via Nazionale 8, 66030 Santa Maria Imbaro Chieti, Italy
    Expert Rev Neurother 7:677-97. 2007
    It is well known that the death of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common and disabling condition in the expanding elderly ..
  65. ncbi Subcutaneous rotenone exposure causes highly selective dopaminergic degeneration and alpha-synuclein aggregation
    Todd B Sherer
    Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30032, USA
    Exp Neurol 179:9-16. 2003
    ..Subcutaneous rotenone exposure caused alpha-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic aggregates in nigral neurons. This new protocol for chronic rotenone administration is a substantial improvement in terms of simplicity and throughput...
  66. doi Inflammatory priming of the substantia nigra influences the impact of later paraquat exposure: Neuroimmune sensitization of neurodegeneration
    Emily N Mangano
    Institute of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Neurobiol Aging 30:1361-78. 2009
    ..the release of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative factors often accompanies toxin-induced degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine (DA) neurons...
  67. pmc Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration
    Liya Qin
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    Glia 55:453-62. 2007
    ..Further, LPS reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) by 23% at 7-months post-treatment, which progressed to 47% at 10 months...
  68. doi Chronic expression of low levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the substantia nigra elicits progressive neurodegeneration, delayed motor symptoms and microglia/macrophage activation
    Ana Laura De Lella Ezcurra
    Institute Leloir Foundation and IIBBA CONICET, Patricias Argentinas 435, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Neurobiol Dis 37:630-40. 2010
    ..Microglial activation has been found in the substantia nigra (SN), one of the main brain regions affected in PD, for many years after the initiation of the disease...
  69. ncbi Parkin protects against the toxicity associated with mutant alpha-synuclein: proteasome dysfunction selectively affects catecholaminergic neurons
    Leonard Petrucelli
    Neurogenetics Laboratory, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
    Neuron 36:1007-19. 2002
    ..Therefore, parkin and alpha-synuclein are linked by common effects on a pathway associated with selective cell death in catecholaminergic neurons...
  70. ncbi Proteome analysis of human substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
    Manuela Basso
    Department of Structural and Functional Biology, and Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Busto Arsizio, Italy
    Proteomics 4:3943-52. 2004
    Protein expression has been compared in human substantia nigra specimens from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and from controls, and 44 proteins expressed in this midbrain region were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting...
  71. ncbi Lewy-body formation is an aggresome-related process: a hypothesis
    C Warren Olanow
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Lancet Neurol 3:496-503. 2004
    ..associated with the formation of intracytoplasmic protein aggregates (Lewy-body inclusions) in neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and other brain areas...
  72. ncbi Effect of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on the neuronal activities of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus in the rat
    A Benazzouz
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Preclinique, INSERM U 318, CHU Pavillon B, BP 217, 38043, Grenoble, France
    Neuroscience 99:289-95. 2000
    ..It also caused an inhibition of the majority of neurons recorded in the substantia nigra pars reticulata in normal rats (94%) and in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra pars ..
  73. ncbi Overexpression of alpha-synuclein in rat substantia nigra results in loss of dopaminergic neurons, phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein and activation of caspase-9: resemblance to pathogenetic changes in Parkinson's disease
    Masanori Yamada
    Research Institute for Diseases of Old Age, Juntendo University, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurochem 91:451-61. 2004
    ..both human alpha-synuclein transgenic mice and targeted overexpression of human alpha-synuclein in rat substantia nigra using viral vector-based methods have been studied, however, little is known about the pathogenetic changes ..
  74. ncbi Progressive dopamine neuron loss following supra-nigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion into rats exposed to LPS prenatally
    Zaodung Ling
    Department of Pharmacology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Exp Neurol 199:499-512. 2006
    ..This provides further support for the "multiple hit" hypothesis of PD...
  75. ncbi Developmental loss and resistance to MPTP toxicity of dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra pars compacta of gamma-synuclein, alpha-synuclein and double alpha/gamma-synuclein null mutant mice
    Darren C Robertson
    Department of Preclinical Veterinary Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, Scotland, UK
    J Neurochem 89:1126-36. 2004
    ..Reduced number of dopaminergic neurones was found in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) but not in ventral tegmental area (VTA) of early post-natal and adult gamma-synuclein ..
  76. pmc Roles for nigrostriatal--not just mesocorticolimbic--dopamine in reward and addiction
    Roy A Wise
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
    Trends Neurosci 32:517-24. 2009
    ..groups: students of Parkinson's disease who study the nigrostriatal dopamine system that originates in the substantia nigra (SN), and students of motivation and addiction who study the role of the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine ..
  77. pmc Calcium, cellular aging, and selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease
    D James Surmeier
    Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 E Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Cell Calcium 47:175-82. 2010
    ..The core motor symptoms are attributable to the degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)...
  78. ncbi Characterization of behavioral and neurodegenerative changes following partial lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine system induced by intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine in the rat
    D Kirik
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Lund University, Solvegatan 17, Lund, 223 62, Sweden
    Exp Neurol 152:259-77. 1998
    ..fiber density in the lateral striatum, accompanied by a 50-60% reduction in TH-positive cells in substantia nigra (SN), is sufficient for the induction of significant impairment in initiation of stepping...
  79. doi Morphological and functional alterations in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the Mecp2-null mouse
    Nicolas Panayotis
    INSERM, UMR_S 910, Faculte de Medecine de la Timone, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
    Neurobiol Dis 41:385-97. 2011
    ..We then studied the phenotype of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc)...
  80. ncbi Subcellular localization and molecular topology of the dopamine transporter in the striatum and substantia nigra
    S M Hersch
    Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Comp Neurol 388:211-27. 1997
    ..In the substantia nigra, DAT appears to be specifically transported into dendrites, where it can be found in smooth endoplasmic ..
  81. pmc The basal ganglia and motor control
    Henk J Groenewegen
    Department of Anatomy, Research Institute Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neural Plast 10:107-20. 2003
    ..The basal ganglia, including the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, are involved in a number of parallel, functionally segregated cortical-subcortical circuits...
  82. ncbi Spontaneous and evoked activity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons during high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus
    Nicolas Maurice
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 114, Chaire de Neuropharmacologie, College de France, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Neurosci 23:9929-36. 2003
    ..e., the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) and the internal segment of the globus pallidus...
  83. ncbi The adult substantia nigra contains progenitor cells with neurogenic potential
    D Chichung Lie
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 22:6639-49. 2002
    In Parkinson's disease, progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) leads to debilitating motor dysfunction...
  84. ncbi Alterations in the distribution of glutathione in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
    R K Pearce
    Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Centre, King s College, London, United Kingdom
    J Neural Transm 104:661-77. 1997
    Depletion of reduced glutathione occurs in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease and in incidental Lewy body disease (presymptomatic Parkinson's disease) which may implicate oxidative stress in the neurodegenerative process...
  85. ncbi Minocycline inhibits microglial activation and protects nigral cells after 6-hydroxydopamine injection into mouse striatum
    Y He
    Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Brain Res 909:187-93. 2001
    To determine the role of immune/inflammatory factors in dopaminergic cell degeneration in parkinsonian substantia nigra, we assayed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive immunoreactive neuronal numbers with stereologic techniques and CD11b-..
  86. ncbi Influence of the frequency parameter on extracellular glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid in substantia nigra and globus pallidus during electrical stimulation of subthalamic nucleus in rats
    Francois Windels
    Equipe Neurochimie et Neuroplasticité Fonctionnelles, INSERM U 318 Neurosciences Précliniques, Universite Joseph Fourier, Pavillon de Neurologie, CHU de Grenoble, France
    J Neurosci Res 72:259-67. 2003
    ..increase of extracellular glutamate (Glu) in the globus pallidus (GP in rats or GPe in primates) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was increased only in the SNr...
  87. pmc A comparison of model-based (2D) and design-based (3D) stereological methods for estimating cell number in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the C57BL/6J mouse
    Z C Baquet
    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Pl, Memphis, TN 38105 3678, USA
    Neuroscience 161:1082-90. 2009
    The substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) is a compact brain structure that contains a variable distribution of cells in both medial to lateral and rostral to caudal dimensions...
  88. ncbi GABAergic control of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons
    James M Tepper
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 197 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Prog Brain Res 160:189-208. 2007
    At least 70% of the afferents to substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons are GABAergic. The vast majority of these arise from the neostriatum, the external globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata...
  89. ncbi A simple and fast densitometric method for the analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta and in the ventral tegmental area
    Léder Leal Xavier
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Faculdade de Biociencias, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ipiranga 6681, CEP 90619 900, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 16:58-64. 2005
    ..is a progressive dyskinetic disorder caused by degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and, to a lesser extent, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
  90. pmc Similar roles of substantia nigra and ventral tegmental dopamine neurons in reward and aversion
    Anton Ilango
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21014, and Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599
    J Neurosci 34:817-22. 2014
    ..However, it is unclear to what extent dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) play such roles...
  91. pmc Safety/feasibility of targeting the substantia nigra with AAV2-neurturin in Parkinson patients
    Raymond T Bartus
    Ceregene, Inc, San Diego, CA, USA
    Neurology 80:1698-701. 2013
    ..PD), of bilaterally administering the gene therapy vector AAV2-neurturin (CERE-120) to the putamen plus substantia nigra (SN, a relatively small structure deep within the midbrain, in proximity to critical neuronal and vascular ..
  92. doi Contact dependent reproducible hypomania induced by deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical, anatomical and functional imaging study
    Miguel Ulla
    Service de Neurologie A, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, 58 rue Montalembert, CHU Clermont Ferrand, F 63000 Clermont Ferrand, France
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 82:607-14. 2011
    ..6±0.5 compared with 7.8±3.1 under 'manic' conditions. Nine of 10 'manic' contacts were located in the substantia nigra, mainly in its ventral part...
  93. doi Rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, protects against striatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA lesions in the substantia nigra of rats
    Eun Young Lee
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 133 791 Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Toxicol Lett 213:332-44. 2012
    ..Our results provide insight into the neuroprotective mechanisms of rosiglitazone against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal damages...
  94. doi Enlarged substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and risk for Parkinson disease: a 37-month 3-center study of 1847 older persons
    Daniela Berg
    Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hoppe Seyler Strasse 3, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Arch Neurol 68:932-7. 2011
    To evaluate whether enlarged substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) is associated with an increased risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in a healthy elderly population.
  95. doi Novelty increases the mesolimbic functional connectivity of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) during reward anticipation: Evidence from high-resolution fMRI
    R M Krebs
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Neuroimage 58:647-55. 2011
    ..magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to isolate neural responses to reward and novelty within the human substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) complex to investigate the spatial delineation and integration of reward- and ..
  96. doi Properly scaled and targeted AAV2-NRTN (neurturin) to the substantia nigra is safe, effective and causes no weight loss: support for nigral targeting in Parkinson's disease
    Raymond T Bartus
    Ceregene, Inc, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 44:38-52. 2011
    ..factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) likely requires delivery to both the degenerating cell bodies (in substantia nigra) and their terminals (in striatum)...
  97. pmc Functional NR2B- and NR2D-containing NMDA receptor channels in rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurones
    Susan Jones
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, UK
    J Physiol 569:209-21. 2005
    NMDA receptors regulate burst firing of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and may contribute to excitotoxic cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  98. ncbi 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced alterations in blood-brain barrier permeability
    P M Carvey
    Rush University Medical Center, Department of Pharmacology, Cohn 406, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 22:1158-68. 2005
    ..of 6OHDA into the striatum or the medial forebrain bundle produced increased leakage in the ipsilateral substantia nigra and striatum 10 and 34 days following 6OHDA...
  99. doi Pathogenic lysosomal depletion in Parkinson's disease
    Benjamin Dehay
    Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Vall d Hebron Research Institute Center for Networked Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases CIBERNED, Barcelona 08035, Spain
    J Neurosci 30:12535-44. 2010
    ..Restoration of lysosomal levels and function may thus represent a novel neuroprotective strategy in PD...
  100. doi Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra in healthy controls is related to MRI changes and to neuronal loss as determined by F-Dopa PET
    S Behnke
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital of the Saarland, Homburg Saar, Germany
    Neuroimage 47:1237-43. 2009
    Transcranial ultrasound (TCS) has been shown to reveal hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) in Parkinsonian patients and in about 10% of healthy controls...
  101. pmc Morphometry of the human substantia nigra in ageing and Parkinson's disease
    Gay Rudow
    Neuropathology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Ross Research Building 555, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Acta Neuropathol 115:461-70. 2008
    To investigate the relation between the loss of substantia nigra (SN) neurons in normal ageing and Parkinson's disease (PD), we measured the total number and the cell body volume of pigmented (neuromelanin) neurons in the SN...

Research Grants76

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Enzymatic Regulation of S-Glutathionylation : Role in Apoptosis and Disease
    John J Mieyal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Experimentation will progress to studies of mouse midbrain slices containing the substantia nigra pars compacta, the focal region of Parkinson's disease where all three cell types reside...
  3. Electrochemical tools to measure local cerebral blood flow and metabolism
    ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our primary target will be the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, a brain region with high 5-HT. 3...
  4. GI Endotoxin as an Environmental Trigger in an alpha-Synuclein Transgenic Mouse
    Robert L Nussbaum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..While loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons is primarily responsible for the characteristic parkinsonian movement disorder, non-..
  5. Persisting Grand Mal and Myoclonic Seizures in JME including Veterans
    Antonio V Delgado-Escueta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pedunculopontine pathway system, and compare neuropathology of caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus substantia nigra and brainstem especially superior coliculus and dorsal pons varolii of Myoclonin1/efhc1 KO mice with ..
  6. Hiv-1 Infection: Central Serotonergic Activity and its Health Implications
    Adarsh M Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..regions {raphe nuclei, hypothalamus, hippocampus, basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus), substantia nigra, amygdala and fronto-cortical regions (cingulate and subgenual cortical areas) as well as CSF} of a total of ..
  7. Testing the efficacy of PGC-1alpha as a therapeutic target for Parkinson's diseas
    HANS BUELER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the most frequent movement disorder, is caused by the progressive loss of the dopamine neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the associated deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the striatum...
  8. Leptin function &resistance in midbrain VTA &SN in reward eating &obesity
    YI NONE ZHANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus;(2) a new physiological function of leptin to curtail weight gain in the substantia nigra (SN), another area within the midbrain reward circuitry...
  9. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN STIMULANT ACTION
    Cynthia M Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have shown that removal of gonadal steroids has marked and opposite effects on DA neuron number in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area in male and female rats...
  10. Role of NADPH oxidase 1-derived ROS in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
    Yoon Seong Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and protein aggregation are the common molecular basis of the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpC)...
  11. Glucocerebrosidase mutations in a mouse synucleinopathy model
    Robert L Nussbaum; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons causes the characteristic parkinsonian movement disorder while non-motor ..
  12. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Parkinsons Disease
    Paula C Bickford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by following the progression of damage from wild-type (WT) alpha-synuclein overexpressed in neurons of the substantia nigra via transduction with adeno-associated virus (AAV) 9...
  13. Role of complement in alpha-synuclein based models of Parkinson disease
    HEATHER ELIZABETH ALLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have shown that targeted overexpression of alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra of mice driven by an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV-SYN) recapitulates the microgliosis and slow ..
  14. Phenotypic Spectrum of LRRK2 Mutations
    Rachel Saunders-Pullman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Non-motor abnormalities such as olfactory dysfunction, hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra, and dysautonomia may occur before overt motor signs and clinical diagnosis of PD...
  15. Neuroprotective role of RAB3B in rodent models of Parkinson's disease
    Chee Yeun Chung; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN;A9) are particularly vulnerable, whereas adjacent DA neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA;A10) ..
  16. Neuroprotection Against Parkinsonian Cell Death
    Jun Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta...
  17. Studies toward the development of monoamine oxidase B specific inhibitors
    ERIKA MARIE MILCZEK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..these diseases are the loss of neurons in either the cortex and hippocampus (Alzheimer's disease) or the substantia nigra (Parkinson's disease)...
  18. Dorsal Column Stimulation as a New Therapy for Motor Disorders
    Miguel A L Nicolelis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..areas, including striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus, motor and sensory cortices, thalamus, and substantia nigra pars compacta...
  19. Mitochondrial Proteins in Parkinson's Disease
    J Timothy Greenamyre; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and a previously unrecognized mitochondrial transferrin receptor (TfR2) that is selectively localized in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons...
  20. Sunlight Exposure & Vitamin D Metabolic Gene Variations in Parkinson's Disease
    Beate R Ritz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, is increasingly recognized as having a complex multi-factorial etiology...
  21. GABA channels and dopamine in striatum
    Stefano Vicini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..converging glutamatergic innervation from the cortex and thalamus and dopaminergic innervation from the substantia nigra. In addition a small population of GABAergic interneurons controls the excitability of a vast population of ..
  22. Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Formation of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
    KENNETH J CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cortical inputs and subsequently regulates activity in the output nuclei (the entopeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra) through two distinct pathways...
  23. CRCNS: Propagation of beta oscillations in cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop
    Michelle M McCarthy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A pathologic hallmark of Parkinson's disease is degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta projecting to the striatum...
  24. Role of inflammation in manganese neurotoxicity: molecular mechanisms
    Nikolay M Filipov; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..has the following Specific Aims: 1) determine, in a time-, brain region (striatum, globus pallidus, thalamus, substantia nigra)-, concentration-, and route of exposure- dependent fashion, the molecular alterations caused by peripheral ..
  25. Functional characterization of D3 dopamine receptor in Drd3-EGFP transgenic mice
    Eldo V Kuzhikandathil; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to ion channels at the single cell level in fluorescent cells isolated from the nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra brain regions of the Drd3- EGFP transgenic mice...
  26. T Cell-Mediated Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's Disease
    R Lee Mosley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..N-a-syn) is found aggregated within the cytoplasm and Lewy bodies of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra and is released to the extraneuronal environment by dying and damaged neurons...
  27. Role of Nuclear Gangliosides in Neuronal Function
    Robert W Ledeen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This has been attributed by Surmeier and others to the autonomous pacemaking property of DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) which utilize L-type Ca2+ channels to mediate continuous Ca2+ influx...
  28. Glutamate, aging and enriched environment after dopamine loss
    CHARLES KENNETH MESHUL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MPTP), results in alterations in the glutamate input to the striatum and substantia nigra (SN)...
  29. Alpha4 Nicotinic Receptor in Addiction: Mouse Models
    Henry A Lester; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Previous data, especially on the substantia nigra-dorsal striatum pathway, show tiers of selectivity in upregulation...
  30. Detoxification of Biogeneic Aldehydes in Parkinson's Disease
    Randy Strong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The major biochemical abnormality is a profound loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum, resulting from loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and their axon ..
  31. Serotonin Therapy for Parkinson's Disease and Neurodegenerative Disorders
    William A Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this model, ASyn upregulation in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is caused by intranigral microinjection of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector ..
  32. Androgen Modulation of Neurodegeneration in Dopamine Neurons
    Rebecca L Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and motor behavior in aged male rats exposed to 6-OHDA, which induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in the substantia nigra and striatum...
  33. Identifying and testing new targets for Parkinson Disease gene therapy
    Nicholas Muzyczka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In work already published, we showed that expression of human ? synuclein (? syn) in the rat substantia nigra causes reproducible and progressive neurodegeneration of the nitgrolstriatal tract, loss of dopamine, and ..
  34. Genetics of Parkinsonism in a Special Population of Untreated Schizophrenia
    Gabriel Alejandro De Erausquin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Smokinghas a negative association with parkinsonism, whereas hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra, executive function and working memory deficits, and increased harm avoidance on the temperament and ..
  35. Synaptic regulation of single substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons
    STEVEN WILLIAM JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..nucleus (STN) plays an important role in movement control by exerting its excitatory influence on the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR), a major output structure of the basal ganglia...
  36. Maternal Brain and Behavioral Responses to Infant Cues in Cocaine Exposed Mothers
    Lane Strathearn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex) and the nigrostriatal regions (substantia nigra, dorsal striatum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex)...
  37. Oxidative Stress and Glutamate Excitotoxicity on Aged Dopaminergic Neruons
    Heather A Boger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..has been associated with a reduction of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the substantia nigra, increased oxidative stress, and an increase in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuitry (..
  38. Oxidative Stress and Glutamate Excitotoxicity on Aged Dopaminergic Neruons
    Heather A Boger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..has been associated with a reduction of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the substantia nigra, increased oxidative stress, and an increase in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuitry (..
  39. Regulation of basal ganglia output neurons
    Fu Ming Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It is caused by degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons, particularly those in the substantia nigra (SN). The SN has two distinct components: SN pars compacta (SNc) and SN pars reticulata (SNr)...
  40. Chronic nicotine: cell-specific receptor and circuit alterations in basal ganglia
    Henry A Lester; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) will be studied to confirm the absence of up-regulation in these neurons...
  41. Macrophage-mediated gene delivery of neurotrophic factors for Parkinson's disease
    Senlin Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sites and macrophage-mediated GDNF delivery dramatically reduces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, as well as their fibers in the striatum, and induces axon regeneration, without any apparent adverse effects...
  42. Regulation of pacemaking and bursting of substantia nigra dopamine neurons by cal
    CYNTHIA N KIMM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..implicated in addiction, schizophrenia, and ADHD, and the selective de- generation of dopamine cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is the hallmark of Parkinson's disease...
  43. GD3S knockdown to improve cognitive and motor deficits in models of parkinsonism
    Michael P McDonald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disease is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments and cell death in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)...
  44. Studies on the the mechanism of OPRM1 biased agonism and in vivo consequences: Di
    Ping Yee Law; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition to dopaminergic inputs from the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra to the nucleus accumbens and striatum, glutaminergic inputs from the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and ..
  45. Mutant human a-synuclein toxicity in mice
    Deborah E Cabin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to cerebral cortex, though the diagnostic motor symptoms arise from loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. To study early stages of the disease that are pre-diagnostic in humans, a progressive animal model is needed...
  46. Anthocyanins Derivatives for Drug Discovery in Aging Neurodegenerative Disorders
    David A Colby; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is a debilitating, age-related neurodegenerative disorder that results from a loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. This neuronal death is believed to involve: 1) a loss of function in mitochondria;2) oxidative stress;and 3) ..
  47. Pontine motor circuits
    Jun Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The extensor circuit utilizes a presumably dopaminergic input from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) to the ventral MLR while the extensor circuit is comprised of a presumably GABAergic ..
  48. A Novel Monkey Model for Parkinson's Drug Discovery
    Howard J Federoff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by Applicant): Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by death of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons (DANs), dopamine deficiency within the striatum and a clinical movement disorder...
  49. Brain specific non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site
    ROBERT CHARLES SPETH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of this binding site in high concentrations in brain regions such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert, substantia nigra, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord could explain the proposed ..
  50. A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease
    GRETCHEN OLSON REYNOLDS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..been characterized as a classic motor disorder arising from the death of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain...
  51. Dependence Induced Changes in Ethanol Reinforcement
    Christopher L Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to play important roles in dependence-induced increases in voluntary alcohol intake (amygdala, caudolateral substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens)...
  52. Reconstruction of the nigrostriatal pathway
    George M Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Parkinson's disease (PD) is one such disorder, caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Many investigators have already explored neural transplantation as therapy for PD, both in the lab and in ..
  53. Organization of the Cortical Projection to the Basal Ganglia
    ANTON J REINER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..type) preferentially target striatal neurons projecting to the internal pallidal segment (GPi) and/or the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)...
  54. Role of MyD88-5 in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
    Bobby Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by widespread neurodegeneration in the brain with profound loss of dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta...
  55. Multimodal MRI markers of nigrostriatal pathology in Parkinson's disease
    Xuemei Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked pathologically by dopamine neuronal loss in the substantia nigra (SN) of the basal ganglia (BG) and the presence of Lewy bodies...
  56. miRNAs as regulators of gene expression in Parkinson Disease
    Kai Christian Sonntag; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by applicant): Parkinson disease (PD) is caused by a progressive loss of the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)...
  57. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Parkinson's Disease
    M Flint Beal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In PD, there is an early reduction in reduced glutathione in the substantia nigra, as well as increases in markers of lipid, protein and DNA oxidation...
  58. Role of urate in protecting mitochondrial function in the brain
    David K Simon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and somatic mtDNA mutations accumulate with age in substantia nigra neurons and may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and in neurodegenerative disease like PD...
  59. NEUROPATHOLOGY OF CHRONIC MANGANESE EXPOSURE
    Brad A Racette; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with antibodies against NeuN, GFAP and CD68, in the following fixed brain regions: globus pallidus interna, substantia nigra pars compacta, locus ceruleus, and olfactory bulb...
  60. Nigrostriatal Dopamine Function
    JAMES TEPPER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Dopamine (DA), originating in the substantia nigra, has long been recognized to play an essential role in striatal function, and it is the degeneration of the ..
  61. L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias and dysregulation of striatopallidal neurons
    STEVEN MICHAEL GRAVES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PD results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in dopamine depletion of the striatum, part of the basal ganglia circuitry controlling motor ..
  62. Progressive dopamine loss:effect of exercise on striatal and nigral glutamate
    CHARLES KENNETH MESHUL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a systemic neurotoxin commonly used to produce partial loss of at least the dopamine (DA) input from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) to the caudate/putamen (CPu)...
  63. Glucocerebrosidase mutations in a mouse synucleinopathy model
    Robert L Nussbaum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons causes the characteristic parkinsonian movement disorder while non-motor ..
  64. DOPAMINERGIC MODULATION OF THE STARTLE REFLEX
    Michael Davis; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Local infusion of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 into the substantia nigra completely blocks the enhancement of startle produced by SKF 82958 given systemically...
  65. Defective nuclear FGFR1 signaling - a new model for PD
    MICHAL STACHOWIAK; Fiscal Year: 2003
    In Parkinson Disease (PD) the content of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (Snc) becomes depleted prior to cell degeneration...
  66. Restoration of Dopaminergic Function in Parkinson's Disease
    Greg Gerhardt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..putamen + substantia nigra) to improve the functional restoration of DA systems...
  67. Mechanism and Treatment of Manganese Toxicity
    JEROME ALLAN ROTH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..degeneration of GABAminergic neurons within the globus pallidus and not the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although the neurotoxic mechanisms provoking increased susceptibility of pallidal neurons to the toxic ..
  68. GLYCINE POTENTIATION OF ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS
    Steven Peterson; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..in experimental models of epilepsy; (2) the glycine potentiation is mediated by a GABAergic mechanism in the substantia nigra. The first goal will be accomplished by determining the effect of orally administered glycine on the ..
  69. DBS of the pedunculopontine nucleus in Parkinsonian primate
    Jerrold L Vitek; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located within the substantia nigra, pars compacta (SNc)...
  70. MOTOR ACTIONS OF CANNABINOIDS IN A PARKINSONS MODEL
    CLARA SANUDO PENA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..s disease is a dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta...
  71. Regulation and function of Nurr1 in adult nigrostriatal dopamine neurons
    JEFFREY EELLS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..common neurological disorder, the symptoms of which are caused primarily by a loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and reduced dopamine in the striatum...
  72. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEURON-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOPROTEIN
    Samuel Gandy; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..with a specturm of neurological illnesses which include Huntington's disease (caudate), Parkinson's disease (substantia nigra), and the dystonias (putamen and globus pallidus)...
  73. HIGH FIELD MRI IN PARKINSONS DISEASE
    Jay Gorell; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..from PD brain that iron-promoted oxidative stress, producing lipid peroxidative damage particularly in the substantia nigra (SN) of the midbrain, the chief site of neuronal loss in PD, is involved in the premature death of those ..
  74. SUBSTANTIA NIGRA IN MOVEMENT AND MOVEMENT DISORDERS
    Thomas Wichmann; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..A. 4). With the hypothesis that abnormal discharge in SNr contributes to Parkinsonian motor signs, it is expected that inactivation of SNr will ameliorate the motor disturbances, and that effects of GPi and SNr lesions will be additive. ..
  75. Neostriatal Visual Processing & Initiation of Movement
    Emad Eskandar; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The output nuclei include the Gpi and the substantia nigra pars reticulata...
  76. Afterhyperpolarization in dopamine neurons, H2O2 and KATP channels
    Marat Avshalumov; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION: Dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) play a crucial role in basal- ganglia mediated motor function. Indeed loss of SNc DA neurons leads to the motor deficits in Parkinson's disease...