brain

Summary

Summary: The part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium, comprising the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. It is derived from the anterior part of the embryonic neural tube.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Beyond mind-reading: multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data
    Kenneth A Norman
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Green Hall, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 10:424-30. 2006
  2. ncbi Intrinsic bursting enhances the robustness of a neural network model of sequence generation by avian brain area HVC
    Dezhe Z Jin
    Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Comput Neurosci 23:283-99. 2007
  3. pmc Electrophysiological signatures of resting state networks in the human brain
    D Mantini
    Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies and Department of Clinical Sciences and Bio imaging, G d Annunzio University Foundation, G D Annunzio University, Chieti 66013, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13170-5. 2007
  4. pmc Whole-exome sequencing identifies recessive WDR62 mutations in severe brain malformations
    Kaya Bilguvar
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Nature 467:207-10. 2010
  5. pmc miR-107 regulates granulin/progranulin with implications for traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease
    Wang Xia Wang
    Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, and the Sanders Brown Center on Aging, Rm 311, Sanders Brown Center, 800 S Limestone, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0230, USA
    Am J Pathol 177:334-45. 2010
  6. ncbi Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain
    N Tzourio-Mazoyer
    Groupe d Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, UMR 6095 CNRS CEA, Universite de Caen, Université de Paris 5, France
    Neuroimage 15:273-89. 2002
  7. ncbi The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics
    John Hardy
    Laboratories of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:353-6. 2002
  8. ncbi Advances in functional and structural MR image analysis and implementation as FSL
    Stephen M Smith
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain FMRIB, Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Neuroimage 23:S208-19. 2004
  9. ncbi Complex network measures of brain connectivity: uses and interpretations
    Mikail Rubinov
    Black Dog Institute and School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Neuroimage 52:1059-69. 2010
  10. ncbi A fast diffeomorphic image registration algorithm
    John Ashburner
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, 12 Queen Square, London, UK
    Neuroimage 38:95-113. 2007

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications230 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Beyond mind-reading: multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data
    Kenneth A Norman
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Green Hall, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 10:424-30. 2006
    ..patterns of functional MRI data, with the goal of decoding the information that is represented in the subject's brain at a particular point in time...
  2. ncbi Intrinsic bursting enhances the robustness of a neural network model of sequence generation by avian brain area HVC
    Dezhe Z Jin
    Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Comput Neurosci 23:283-99. 2007
    Avian brain area HVC is known to be important for the production of birdsong. In zebra finches, each RA-projecting neuron in HVC emits a single burst of spikes during a song motif...
  3. pmc Electrophysiological signatures of resting state networks in the human brain
    D Mantini
    Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies and Department of Clinical Sciences and Bio imaging, G d Annunzio University Foundation, G D Annunzio University, Chieti 66013, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13170-5. 2007
    ..and electrophysiological studies have documented a dynamic baseline of intrinsic (not stimulus- or task-evoked) brain activity during resting wakefulness. This baseline is characterized by slow (<0...
  4. pmc Whole-exome sequencing identifies recessive WDR62 mutations in severe brain malformations
    Kaya Bilguvar
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Nature 467:207-10. 2010
    ..These findings unify previously disparate aspects of cerebral cortical development and highlight the use of whole-exome sequencing to identify disease loci in settings in which traditional methods have proved challenging...
  5. pmc miR-107 regulates granulin/progranulin with implications for traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease
    Wang Xia Wang
    Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, and the Sanders Brown Center on Aging, Rm 311, Sanders Brown Center, 800 S Limestone, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0230, USA
    Am J Pathol 177:334-45. 2010
    ..We also tested a mouse model where miR-107 has been shown to be down-regulated. In brain tissue subjacent to 1...
  6. ncbi Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain
    N Tzourio-Mazoyer
    Groupe d Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, UMR 6095 CNRS CEA, Universite de Caen, Université de Paris 5, France
    Neuroimage 15:273-89. 2002
    ..procedure was performed using a dedicated software which allowed a 3D following of the sulci course on the edited brain. Regions of interest were then drawn manually with the same software every 2 mm on the axial slices of the high-..
  7. ncbi The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics
    John Hardy
    Laboratories of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:353-6. 2002
    ..in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be caused by deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in plaques in brain tissue...
  8. ncbi Advances in functional and structural MR image analysis and implementation as FSL
    Stephen M Smith
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain FMRIB, Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Neuroimage 23:S208-19. 2004
    ..present a review of the research carried out by the Analysis Group at the Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB)...
  9. ncbi Complex network measures of brain connectivity: uses and interpretations
    Mikail Rubinov
    Black Dog Institute and School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Neuroimage 52:1059-69. 2010
    b>Brain connectivity datasets comprise networks of brain regions connected by anatomical tracts or by functional associations...
  10. ncbi A fast diffeomorphic image registration algorithm
    John Ashburner
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, 12 Queen Square, London, UK
    Neuroimage 38:95-113. 2007
    ..DARTEL has been applied to intersubject registration of 471 whole brain images, and the resulting deformations were evaluated in terms of how well they encode the shape information ..
  11. pmc A default mode of brain function
    M E Raichle
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:676-82. 2001
    ..Defining a baseline state in the human brain, arguably our most complex system, poses a particular challenge...
  12. ncbi Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells
    Sheila K Singh
    The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Nature 432:396-401. 2004
    ..Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation from human brain tumours that exhibited stem cell properties in vitro...
  13. ncbi Complex brain networks: graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional systems
    Ed Bullmore
    University of Cambridge, Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:186-98. 2009
    ..analysis of complex networks, based largely on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization...
  14. ncbi Fast robust automated brain extraction
    Stephen M Smith
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, Department of Clinical Neurology, Oxford University, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Hum Brain Mapp 17:143-55. 2002
    An automated method for segmenting magnetic resonance head images into brain and non-brain has been developed...
  15. pmc The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks
    Michael D Fox
    Department of Radiology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:9673-8. 2005
    During performance of attention-demanding cognitive tasks, certain regions of the brain routinely increase activity, whereas others routinely decrease activity...
  16. ncbi The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease
    Randy L Buckner
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University, William James Hall, 33 Kirkland Drive, Cambridge, MA 02148, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1124:1-38. 2008
    Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition...
  17. pmc Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion
    Jonathan D Power
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuroimage 59:2142-54. 2012
    ..These changes cause systematic but spurious correlation structures throughout the brain. Specifically, many long-distance correlations are decreased by subject motion, whereas many short-distance ..
  18. ncbi An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets
    Joseph A Maldjian
    Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences Center, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Neuroimage 19:1233-9. 2003
    ..been based on identifying areas of significance on a thresholded statistical map of the entire imaged brain volume. This form of analysis can be likened to a "fishing expedition...
  19. ncbi Nonparametric permutation tests for functional neuroimaging: a primer with examples
    Thomas E Nichols
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 15:1-25. 2002
    ..Practical considerations are given throughout, and relevant statistical concepts are expounded in appendices...
  20. ncbi Improved optimization for the robust and accurate linear registration and motion correction of brain images
    Mark Jenkinson
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 17:825-41. 2002
    Linear registration and motion correction are important components of structural and functional brain image analysis. Most modern methods optimize some intensity-based cost function to determine the best registration...
  21. ncbi Physiology of microglia
    Helmut Kettenmann
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Buch, Germany
    Physiol Rev 91:461-553. 2011
    ..of mesodermal/mesenchymal origin migrate into all regions of the central nervous system, disseminate through the brain parenchyma, and acquire a specific ramified morphological phenotype termed "resting microglia...
  22. pmc Functional connectivity in the resting brain: a network analysis of the default mode hypothesis
    Michael D Greicius
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305 5719, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:253-8. 2003
    Functional imaging studies have shown that certain brain regions, including posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), consistently show greater activity during resting states than during cognitive ..
  23. pmc Consistent resting-state networks across healthy subjects
    J S Damoiseaux
    Department of Neurology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13848-53. 2006
    Functional MRI (fMRI) can be applied to study the functional connectivity of the human brain. It has been suggested that fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during rest reflect the neuronal baseline ..
  24. ncbi Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks
    Gyorgy Buzsaki
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Science 304:1926-9. 2004
    ..Are neuronal oscillations an inevitable by-product, similar to bridge vibrations, or an essential part of the brain's design? Mammalian cortical neurons form behavior-dependent oscillating networks of various sizes, which span ..
  25. ncbi Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease
    Heiko Braak
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 24:197-211. 2003
    ..The disease process in the brain stem pursues an ascending course with little interindividual variation...
  26. pmc The influence of head motion on intrinsic functional connectivity MRI
    Koene R A van Dijk
    Harvard University Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Neuroimage 59:431-8. 2012
    ..These effects are important to consider when interpreting variation between groups and across individuals...
  27. ncbi Whole brain segmentation: automated labeling of neuroanatomical structures in the human brain
    Bruce Fischl
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, Rm 2328, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Neuron 33:341-55. 2002
    ..The technique is shown to be comparable in accuracy to manual labeling, and of sufficient sensitivity to robustly detect changes in the volume of noncortical structures that presage the onset of probable Alzheimer's disease...
  28. pmc Fate mapping analysis reveals that adult microglia derive from primitive macrophages
    Florent Ginhoux
    Department of Gene and Cell Medicine and the Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Science 330:841-5. 2010
    ..macrophages of the central nervous system and are associated with the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative and brain inflammatory diseases; however, the origin of adult microglia remains controversial...
  29. ncbi A new SPM toolbox for combining probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps and functional imaging data
    Simon B Eickhoff
    Institut fur Medizin, Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany
    Neuroimage 25:1325-35. 2005
    Correlating the activation foci identified in functional imaging studies of the human brain with structural (e.g., cytoarchitectonic) information on the activated areas is a major methodological challenge for neuroscience research...
  30. ncbi Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging
    Michael D Fox
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4525 Scott Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:700-11. 2007
    The majority of functional neuroscience studies have focused on the brain's response to a task or stimulus. However, the brain is very active even in the absence of explicit input or output...
  31. ncbi Suppression of basal autophagy in neural cells causes neurodegenerative disease in mice
    Taichi Hara
    Department of Bioregulation and Metabolism, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nature 441:885-9. 2006
    ....
  32. pmc A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain
    Linda Madisen
    Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:133-40. 2010
    ..in situ hybridization platform, we are systematically profiling Cre-directed gene expression throughout the mouse brain in several Cre-driver lines, including new Cre lines targeting different cell types in the cortex...
  33. ncbi Dynamic causal modelling
    K J Friston
    The Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 19:1273-302. 2003
    ..allows one to characterise fMRI experiments, conceptually, as an experimental manipulation of integration among brain regions (by contextual or trial-free inputs, like time or attentional set) that is revealed using evoked responses ..
  34. pmc The reorienting system of the human brain: from environment to theory of mind
    Maurizio Corbetta
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuron 58:306-24. 2008
    ....
  35. pmc Correspondence of the brain's functional architecture during activation and rest
    Stephen M Smith
    Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13040-5. 2009
    ..However, it is not known to what extent brain regions are continuously interacting when the brain is "at rest...
  36. ncbi The brainweb: phase synchronization and large-scale integration
    F Varela
    Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et Imagerie Cerebrale, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris 47 Boulevard de l Hôpital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France
    Nat Rev Neurosci 2:229-39. 2001
    ..of a unified cognitive moment relies on the coordination of scattered mosaics of functionally specialized brain regions...
  37. ncbi Automated Talairach atlas labels for functional brain mapping
    J L Lancaster
    Research Imaging Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78284, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 10:120-31. 2000
    An automated coordinate-based system to retrieve brain labels from the 1988 Talairach Atlas, called the Talairach Daemon (TD), was previously introduced [Lancaster et al., 1997]...
  38. pmc Amyloid-beta protein dimers isolated directly from Alzheimer's brains impair synaptic plasticity and memory
    Ganesh M Shankar
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Med 14:837-42. 2008
    ..Despite extensive research in cellular and animal models, identifying the pathogenic agent present in the human brain and showing that it confers key features of Alzheimer's disease has not been achieved...
  39. ncbi Mammalian neural stem cells
    F H Gage
    The Salk Institute, Laboratory of Genetics, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 287:1433-8. 2000
    ..The location of the adult stem cells and the brain regions to which their progeny migrate in order to differentiate remain unresolved, although the number of viable ..
  40. ncbi Mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis
    Chunmei Zhao
    Laboratory of Genetics, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 132:645-60. 2008
    The generation of new neurons is sustained throughout adulthood in the mammalian brain due to the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells...
  41. pmc Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain: significant answers and significant questions
    Guo li Ming
    Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Neuron 70:687-702. 2011
    ..a process of generating functional neurons from adult neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions in mammals...
  42. ncbi Structure and function of the blood-brain barrier
    N Joan Abbott
    King s College London, Blood Brain Barrier Group, Pharmaceutical Science Division, Hodgkin Building, Guy s Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Neurobiol Dis 37:13-25. 2010
    ..Cells at three key interfaces form barriers between the blood and the CNS: the blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-CSF barrier and the arachnoid barrier...
  43. pmc Mechanisms underlying inflammation in neurodegeneration
    Christopher K Glass
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093, USA
    Cell 140:918-34. 2010
    ..A major unanswered question is whether pharmacological inhibition of inflammation pathways will be able to safely reverse or slow the course of disease...
  44. ncbi Alzheimer's disease is a synaptic failure
    Dennis J Selkoe
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and the Harvard Center for Neurodegeneration and Repair, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 298:789-91. 2002
    ....
  45. ncbi Emotion circuits in the brain
    J E Ledoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:155-84. 2000
    ..conditioning, and recent studies have also shown that the findings from experimental animals apply to the human brain. It is important to remember why this work on emotion succeeded where past efforts failed...
  46. pmc Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer's disease from healthy aging: evidence from functional MRI
    Michael D Greicius
    Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5719, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4637-42. 2004
    ..in a distributed network of cortical regions that characterizes the resting state, or default mode, of the human brain. Among the brain regions implicated in this network, several, including the posterior cingulate cortex and ..
  47. ncbi A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains
    C D Good
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 14:21-36. 2001
    Voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) is a whole-brain, unbiased technique for characterizing regional cerebral volume and tissue concentration differences in structural magnetic resonance images...
  48. ncbi Probabilistic diffusion tractography with multiple fibre orientations: What can we gain?
    T E J Behrens
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain FMRIB, Oxford, UK
    Neuroimage 34:144-55. 2007
    ..We show that multi-fibre tractography offers significant advantages in sensitivity when tracking non-dominant fibre populations, but does not dramatically change tractography results for the dominant pathways...
  49. pmc REST: a toolkit for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data processing
    Xiao Wei Song
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e25031. 2011
    ..REST is an open-source package and is freely available at http://www.restfmri.net...
  50. ncbi A mechanism for cognitive dynamics: neuronal communication through neuronal coherence
    Pascal Fries
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Trends Cogn Sci 9:474-80. 2005
    At any one moment, many neuronal groups in our brain are active. Microelectrode recordings have characterized the activation of single neurons and fMRI has unveiled brain-wide activation patterns...
  51. pmc Toward discovery science of human brain function
    Bharat B Biswal
    Department of Radiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4734-9. 2010
    ..core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses...
  52. pmc Hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers of the Alzheimer's pathological cascade
    Clifford R Jack
    Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA jack cliff
    Lancet Neurol 9:119-28. 2010
    ..to abnormal processing of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide, ultimately leading to formation of Abeta plaques in the brain. This process occurs while individuals are still cognitively normal...
  53. ncbi The role of microglia in the healthy brain
    Marie Eve Tremblay
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA
    J Neurosci 31:16064-9. 2011
    Microglia were recently shown to play unexpected roles in normal brain development and adult physiology. This has begun to dramatically change our view of these resident "immune" cells...
  54. ncbi A nonparametric method for automatic correction of intensity nonuniformity in MRI data
    J G Sled
    McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and McGill University, Canada
    IEEE Trans Med Imaging 17:87-97. 1998
    ..The performance of this method is evaluated using both real and simulated MR data...
  55. pmc Transcriptomic analysis of autistic brain reveals convergent molecular pathology
    Irina Voineagu
    Program in Neurogenetics and Neurobehavioral Genetics, Department of Neurology and Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1769, USA
    Nature 474:380-4. 2011
    ..in which the myriad genetic or environmental risk factors perturb common underlying molecular pathways in the brain. Here, we demonstrate consistent differences in transcriptome organization between autistic and normal brain by ..
  56. ncbi A transcriptome database for astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes: a new resource for understanding brain development and function
    John D Cahoy
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 28:264-78. 2008
    ....
  57. ncbi Microglia: active sensor and versatile effector cells in the normal and pathologic brain
    Uwe Karsten Hanisch
    Institute of Neuropathology, University of Gottingen, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 10:1387-94. 2007
    ..carry out active tissue scanning, which challenges the traditional notion of 'resting' microglia in the normal brain. Transformation of microglia to reactive states in response to pathology has been known for decades as microglial ..
  58. ncbi Segmentation of brain MR images through a hidden Markov random field model and the expectation-maximization algorithm
    Y Zhang
    FMRIB Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK
    IEEE Trans Med Imaging 20:45-57. 2001
    The finite mixture (FM) model is the most commonly used model for statistical segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images because of its simple mathematical form and the piecewise constant nature of ideal brain MR images...
  59. pmc ApoE-directed therapeutics rapidly clear β-amyloid and reverse deficits in AD mouse models
    Paige E Cramer
    Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Science 335:1503-6. 2012
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impaired clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain, a process normally facilitated by apolipoprotein E (apoE)...
  60. pmc Prediction of individual brain maturity using fMRI
    Nico U F Dosenbach
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 329:1358-61. 2010
    ..connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) studies have documented reliable changes in human functional brain maturity over development...
  61. ncbi The basis of anisotropic water diffusion in the nervous system - a technical review
    Christian Beaulieu
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    NMR Biomed 15:435-55. 2002
    Anisotropic water diffusion in neural fibres such as nerve, white matter in spinal cord, or white matter in brain forms the basis for the utilization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to track fibre pathways...
  62. ncbi The new mutation, E46K, of alpha-synuclein causes Parkinson and Lewy body dementia
    Juan J Zarranz
    Department of Neurology, de Cruces Hospital, Departament of Neuroscience, University del Pais Vasco, Baracaldo, Vizcaya, Spain
    Ann Neurol 55:164-73. 2004
    ..Our data show that, in addition to the previously described hereditary alpha-synucleinopathies, dementia with Lewy bodies is related to mutation of alpha-synuclein...
  63. pmc Investigations into resting-state connectivity using independent component analysis
    Christian F Beckmann
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain FMRIB, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 360:1001-13. 2005
    ..We show that these networks exhibit high spatial consistency across subjects and closely resemble discrete cortical functional networks such as visual cortical areas or sensory-motor cortex...
  64. ncbi Psychophysiological and modulatory interactions in neuroimaging
    K J Friston
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 6:218-29. 1997
    ..We focus on interactions among extrastriate, inferotemporal, and posterior parietal regions during visual processing, under different attentional and perceptual conditions...
  65. pmc Abundant quantitative trait loci exist for DNA methylation and gene expression in human brain
    J Raphael Gibbs
    Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000952. 2010
    ..that investigate the effects of common genetic variability on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in four human brain regions each from 150 individuals (600 samples total)...
  66. ncbi Mutations in the FUS/TLS gene on chromosome 16 cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    T J Kwiatkowski
    Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 114 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Science 323:1205-8. 2009
    ..Neuronal cytoplasmic protein aggregation and defective RNA metabolism thus appear to be common pathogenic mechanisms involved in ALS and possibly in other neurodegenerative disorders...
  67. pmc Somatic retrotransposition alters the genetic landscape of the human brain
    J Kenneth Baillie
    Division of Genetics and Genomics, The Roslin Institute and Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK
    Nature 479:534-7. 2011
    ..Recent reports of L1 expression and copy number variation in the human brain suggest that L1 mobilization may also occur during later development...
  68. pmc Glial and neuronal control of brain blood flow
    David Attwell
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 468:232-43. 2010
    Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes...
  69. ncbi Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain
    Ed S Lein
    Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA
    Nature 445:168-76. 2007
    ..the functional circuitry of the nervous system promise new insights into the relationship between genes, brain and behaviour...
  70. pmc The reward circuit: linking primate anatomy and human imaging
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:4-26. 2010
    Although cells in many brain regions respond to reward, the cortical-basal ganglia circuit is at the heart of the reward system...
  71. pmc Hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine by TET1 promotes active DNA demethylation in the adult brain
    Junjie U Guo
    Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell 145:423-34. 2011
    ..region-specific, active DNA demethylation and subsequent gene expression in the dentate gyrus of the adult mouse brain in vivo. Our study suggests a TET1-induced oxidation-deamination mechanism for active DNA demethylation in mammals.
  72. pmc Spatio-temporal transcriptome of the human brain
    Hyo Jung Kang
    Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Nature 478:483-9. 2011
    b>Brain development and function depend on the precise regulation of gene expression. However, our understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the transcriptome of the human brain is incomplete...
  73. pmc From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain
    Robert Dantzer
    Integrative Immunology and Behavior, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois 61801, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:46-56. 2008
    In response to a peripheral infection, innate immune cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause sickness behaviour...
  74. ncbi A specific amyloid-beta protein assembly in the brain impairs memory
    Sylvain Lesne
    Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Nature 440:352-7. 2006
    ..We propose that Abeta*56 impairs memory independently of plaques or neuronal loss, and may contribute to cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease...
  75. pmc Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia
    Amit Etkin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Rd, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:1476-88. 2007
    ..The authors also compared these deficits to the neural systems engaged during anticipatory anxiety in healthy subjects...
  76. ncbi Exon 1 of the HD gene with an expanded CAG repeat is sufficient to cause a progressive neurological phenotype in transgenic mice
    L Mangiarini
    Division of Medical and Molecular Genetics, UMDS, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Cell 87:493-506. 1996
    ..This transgenic model will greatly assist in an eventual understanding of the molecular pathology of HD and may open the way to the testing of intervention strategies...
  77. ncbi A brain-specific microRNA regulates dendritic spine development
    Gerhard M Schratt
    Neurobiology Program, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 439:283-9. 2006
    ..Although a number of microRNAs have been isolated from the mammalian brain, neither the specific microRNAs that regulate synapse function nor their target mRNAs have been identified...
  78. pmc Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density
    Britta K Hölzel
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Psychiatry Res 191:36-43. 2011
    ..Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program...
  79. ncbi Delivery of siRNA to the mouse brain by systemic injection of targeted exosomes
    Lydia Alvarez-Erviti
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Nat Biotechnol 29:341-5. 2011
    ..exosomes-endogenous nano-vesicles that transport RNAs and proteins-can deliver short interfering (si)RNA to the brain in mice. To reduce immunogenicity, we used self-derived dendritic cells for exosome production...
  80. ncbi Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain
    Bruce S McEwen
    Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Physiol Rev 87:873-904. 2007
    The brain is the key organ of the response to stress because it determines what is threatening and, therefore, potentially stressful, as well as the physiological and behavioral responses which can be either adaptive or damaging...
  81. ncbi Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: third report of the DLB Consortium
    I G McKeith
    Institute for Ageing and Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Neurology 65:1863-72. 2005
    ....
  82. pmc Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain
    Paula D Bos
    Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 459:1005-9. 2009
    The molecular basis for breast cancer metastasis to the brain is largely unknown...
  83. ncbi What makes us tick? Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing
    Catalin V Buhusi
    Duke University, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, 103 Research Drive, GSRB 2 Building, Room 3010, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:755-65. 2005
    ..However, recent advances have challenged this traditional view. It is now proposed that the brain represents time in a distributed manner and tells the time by detecting the coincidental activation of different ..
  84. pmc Efficiency and cost of economical brain functional networks
    Sophie Achard
    Brain Mapping Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Addenbrooke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Comput Biol 3:e17. 2007
    b>Brain anatomical networks are sparse, complex, and have economical small-world properties...
  85. pmc The human connectome: A structural description of the human brain
    Olaf Sporns
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 1:e42. 2005
    The connection matrix of the human brain (the human "connectome") represents an indispensable foundation for basic and applied neurobiological research...
  86. pmc Neurodegenerative diseases target large-scale human brain networks
    William W Seeley
    Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neuron 62:42-52. 2009
    During development, the healthy human brain constructs a host of large-scale, distributed, function-critical neural networks...
  87. ncbi Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease
    E Ron de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:463-75. 2005
    In response to stress, the brain activates several neuropeptide-secreting systems...
  88. ncbi Evidence that glycogen synthase kinase-3 isoforms have distinct substrate preference in the brain
    Marc P M Soutar
    Biomedical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    J Neurochem 115:974-83. 2010
    ....
  89. pmc High-resolution analysis of parent-of-origin allelic expression in the mouse brain
    Christopher Gregg
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 329:643-8. 2010
    ..We have performed a genome-wide characterization of imprinting in the mouse embryonic and adult brain. This approach uncovered parent-of-origin allelic effects of more than 1300 loci...
  90. ncbi Exploring the brain network: a review on resting-state fMRI functional connectivity
    Martijn P van den Heuvel
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Neuroimaging Division, The Netherlands
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 20:519-34. 2010
    Our brain is a network. It consists of spatially distributed, but functionally linked regions that continuously share information with each other...
  91. ncbi Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of older adults: a shrinking brain
    Susan M Resnick
    Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224 6825, USA
    J Neurosci 23:3295-301. 2003
    Age-related loss of brain tissue has been inferred from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies, but direct measurements of gray and white matter changes from longitudinal studies are lacking...
  92. ncbi Merging the senses into a robust percept
    Marc O Ernst
    Max Planck Institut für biologische Kybernetik, Tubingen, Germany
    Trends Cogn Sci 8:162-9. 2004
    To perceive the external environment our brain uses multiple sources of sensory information derived from several different modalities, including vision, touch and audition...
  93. ncbi Default-mode brain dysfunction in mental disorders: a systematic review
    Samantha J Broyd
    Institute for Disorders of Impulse and Attention, Developmental Brain Behaviour Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of Southampton, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:279-96. 2009
    ..Finally, we provide an integrative overview and highlight important challenges and tasks for future research...
  94. pmc Predicting human resting-state functional connectivity from structural connectivity
    C J Honey
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2035-40. 2009
    ....
  95. ncbi Nonparametric statistical testing of EEG- and MEG-data
    Eric Maris
    NICI, Biological Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci Methods 164:177-90. 2007
    ..This means that we formulate a null hypothesis (identical probability distribution in the different experimental conditions) and show that the nonparametric test controls the false alarm rate under this null hypothesis...
  96. ncbi Disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in the nervous system results in reduced anxiety
    F Tronche
    Molecular Biology of the Cell I, Deutsches Krebsforschungzentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Genet 23:99-103. 1999
    ..In the brain, Gr has been proposed to modulate emotional behaviour, cognitive functions and addictive states...
  97. pmc The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI): MRI methods
    Clifford R Jack
    Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Magn Reson Imaging 27:685-91. 2008
    ..The approach taken in ADNI to standardization across sites and platforms of the MRI protocol, postacquisition corrections, and phantom-based monitoring of all scanners could be used as a model for other multisite trials...
  98. ncbi Small-world brain networks
    Danielle Smith Bassett
    Brain Mapping Unit, University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Neuroscientist 12:512-23. 2006
    ..This is an attractive model for the organization of brain anatomical and functional networks because a small-world topology can support both segregated/specialized and ..
  99. pmc Putting brain training to the test
    Adrian M Owen
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 7EF, UK
    Nature 465:775-8. 2010
    b>Brain training', or the goal of improved cognitive function through the regular use of computerized tests, is a multimillion-pound industry, yet in our view scientific evidence to support its efficacy is lacking...
  100. ncbi The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?
    Karl Friston
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:127-38. 2010
    ..This Review looks at some key brain theories in the biological (for example, neural Darwinism) and physical (for example, information theory and ..
  101. pmc When the brain changes its mind: interocular grouping during binocular rivalry
    I Kovacs
    Laboratory of Vision Research, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:15508-11. 1996
    ..Can the brain unscramble the pieces of the patchwork arriving from different eyes to obtain coherent percepts? We find that ..

Research Grants93

  1. Is There a Link Between Alzheimer's and Atheroclerosis
    Paula Grammas; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We are the first to demonstrate that brain blood vessels release neurotoxic proteins in Alzheimer's disease...
  2. The Role of Neuronal Integration in Working Memory
    Eric R Kandel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..How does HCN1 knockout affect the physiological properties of circuits involved in short-term memory both in the prefrontal cortex? 3) Does HCN1 influence the 'on-line'neural representation of information during working memory? ..
  3. ETHANOL, INSULIN/IGF SIGNALING AND NEURONAL MIGRATION
    Suzanne de la Monte; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..grant period established that chronic gestational exposure to ethanol impairs neuronal migration in the developing brain, and that this effect of ethanol is associated with reduced expression and function of a critical target gene, ..
  4. Vascular inflammation and neurotoxicity in aging brain
    Paula Grammas; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It is our hypothesis that age-related inflammatory changes in brain blood vessels contribute to age-related pathology in the brain...
  5. Diffuse optical imaging of intracranial pressure changes
    Gary Strangman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) poses a significant risk in patients with traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, massive stroke, and brain edema from multiple causes...
  6. Alzheimer's Diagnosis by Real-Time Motion Corrected FMRI
    Clifford Jack; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Aim number 4: to assess motion corrected fMRI as a diagnostic test for early Alzheimer's disease. ..
  7. Diffuse optical brain imaging for stroke rehabilitation
    Gary Strangman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed research will test two primary hypotheses: 1) that a relatively new brain imaging technique, diffuse optical tomography (DOT), is able to detect and map learning-related modulations in ..
  8. Mast cells, antidepressants and chronic fatigue syndrome
    Theoharis Theoharides; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..by pretreatment with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neutralizing antiserum, (c) stress increases blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability, which is inhibited by the CRH-receptor-1 (CRH-R1) antagonist Antalarmin and does not ..
  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Estrogen Neuroprotection
    Michael Wang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    We have demonstrated that female rats experience significantly decreased brain injury after experimental stroke compared to male rats...
  10. High End Computing for PET/SPECT
    DEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): High resolution PET imaging for Brain and other organs continues to undergo enormous technological advances...
  11. Amyloid Imaging Agents for Position Emission Tomography
    Chester A Mathis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..research involves the development of positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals that localize in the brain of human subjects based upon their selective binding to beta- sheet fibrils found in amyloid-beta (Ap) protein...
  12. MECHANISMS OF DOPAMINE & SEROTONIN IN TOURETTE SYNDROME
    DEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We propose to carry out experiments using PET to establish a more complete understanding of the neurotransmission in TS. This will also help establish new ationales for improved therapeutics in TS. ..
  13. Dedicated High Performance Human Brain/Preclinical PET
    DEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The new scanner will be dedicated to greatly enhanced human brain imaging, pre-clinical studies of the CNS, and pre-clinical studies from other disciplines, including cancer...
  14. IMAGING DOPAMINE/SEROTONIN MECHANISMS IN COCAINE CRAVING
    DEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..cerebral glucose metabolism (Grant, 1995) and perfusion (Childress et all 1996) in cortical and limbic areas of brain and that activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala is correlated with self-reports of craving (..
  15. Protein interactions with CADASIL-mutants of Notch3
    Michael Wang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Understanding CADASIL may provide clues to designing better treatments and prevention strategies for stroke and dementia. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  16. Early Randomized Surgical Epilepsy Trial
    Jerome Engel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. DEPRESSION, 5-HT1A RECEPTOR & NEUROPLASTICITY
    Efrain Azmitia; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Loss of serotonin in the adult rat brain produces decreased dendritic length, dendritic spine number and size, synapse number and a reduction in ..
  18. Social and Steroidal Influences on Adult Neurogenesis
    KENT DUNLAP; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..However, environmental and hormonal stimuli can increase rates of neurogenesis in certain brain regions, suggesting that such stimuli might be eventually used therapeutically to enhance the repair of damaged or ..
  19. fMRI Measures of Central Sensitization in Migraine
    David Borsook; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  20. Time processing in stimulant users: Impulsivity and temporal discounting
    Martin Paulus; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The current study will inform treatment programs to create intervention strategies that manipulate the temporal delay of rewards to shape more adaptive behavior. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. EXPERIMENTAL NEUROGENIC HYPERTENSION PROGRAM
    Costantino Iadecola; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Program is a long-standing multidisciplinary research program focusing on the reciprocal interaction between the brain and the circulatory system...
  22. Triplet Repeat Disease:Requirement for Caspase Cleavage
    Lisa Ellerby; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In all cases, there is selective death of neurons in different brain regions and the clinical symptoms correlate with the affected regions...
  23. Global vs. Focal Neuroimaging Markers of Dementia Risk
    Caterina Rosano; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our goal is to identify and quantify specific neuroimaging markers of Alzheimer Disease (AD) using an automated brain MRI reading technique, the automated labeling pathway (ALP)...
  24. Effects of Drug Abuse on Human Neurodevelopment
    Yasmin Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In the adult brain, there is a strong anatomical and functional interaction between the CB1 and endogenous dopamine (DA) and opioid ..
  25. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF OLFACTORY SIGNALING
    Cornelia Bargmann; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Characterizing these signaling pathways may elucidate related pathways that are important in disease and injury states. ..
  26. smRNA-Mediated Regulation of Adult Neural Stem Cell Fate
    Fred Gage; Fiscal Year: 2008
    The discovery that restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain exhibit ongoing neurogenesis promises considerable therapeutic potential, however, there is a current lack of understanding regarding the cellular and molecular ..
  27. Neurodegenration and Mitochnodrial Dysfunction in Aging
    Stephen Bondy; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The ability to slow or reverse changes associated with brain aging by dietary supplementation will be investigated with a focus on these two processes...
  28. Opening of the Blood Brain Barrier for Molecular Imaging
    Kullervo Hynynen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..large molecular agents into the central nervous system (CNS) via the blood supply is often impossible as the blood brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain tissue from foreign molecules...
  29. Fetal Programming of Early Development
    CURT ALAN SANDMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..stress exposure and birth phenotypes with measures of (a) emotional regulation;(b) cognition;(c) anatomy of brain structures (using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI);and (d) regulation of the HPA stress axis...
  30. Mapping Abnormal Neurodevelopment in Schizophrenia
    Deanna Barch; Fiscal Year: 2008
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Abnormalities of brain structure and function are one of the key neurobiologic characteristics of schizophrenia...
  31. Cognitive Neuroscience of Mathematical Development
    Vinod Menon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, very little is currently known about the development of brain systems that mediate mathematical skill acquisition...
  32. Primate Models of Autism
    MELISSA DAWN contact BAUMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, evidence suggests that maternal autoantibodies directed against fetal brain tissue are a putative cause for a subset of autism cases...
  33. Neural Substrates of Variability in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADH
    Francisco Xavier Castellanos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..which combines novel methods and hypotheses with substantial preliminary data, has the potential to delineate brain-behavior relationships that will inform translational models of pathophysiology of this common and highly ..
  34. SYNAPTIC CHANGE IN MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
    Stephen W Scheff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Successful completion of the proposed studies will lead to new insights into the mechanisms underlying MCI and early AD and contribute to the development of effective pharmacologic therapies for AD. ..
  35. Amyloid Beta Protein Precursor Influences Cerebral Thrombosis
    William E Van Nostrand; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These defining biochemical features of PN2/ABetaPP, coupled with its abundance in brain and in circulating blood platelets, have suggested a role for this protein in regulating thrombosis during ..
  36. Neural Dissection of Hyperactivity/Inattention in Autism
    Francisco Xavier Castellanos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the neuronal substrates of these symptoms with novel resting state fMRI methods employed by our lab for mapping brain functional connectivity. FMRI signals contain large amplitude low frequency spontaneous fluctuations...
  37. NICOTINE ADDICTION IN MICE LACKING THE NEURONAL NACHR
    MARINA PICCIOTTO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We propose that this mouse model may have implications for the development of psychiatric disorders in subjects exposed to nicotine in utero. ..
  38. Contribution of Estradiol to Female Neural Development
    Michael Baum; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Current dogma states that testosterone secreted perinatally by the testes promotes male brain sexual differentiation in mammals whereas the female brain develops in the absence of any sex hormone action...
  39. Role of Astrocyte-Derived Wnts in Adult Neurogenesis
    Fred Gage; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..New neurons are continuously generated from neural stem cells in two discrete regions of the adult mammalian brain: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus...
  40. LOCALIZATION OF EPILEPTIC FOCI WITH PET IN CHILDREN
    Harry Chugani; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..funding period, and will contribute to further definition and clarification of primary and secondary epileptogenic brain regions during epilepsy surgery evaluation, with a goal towards better surgical outcome in children whose surgical ..
  41. MECHANISMS OF NEURONAL APOPTOSIS IN VIVO
    Lee Martin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In this grant renewal we will use our model of apoptosis in mouse brain, in which dLGN neurons undergo apoptosis over 7 days after occipital cortex ablation, to study mitochondrial ..
  42. Neurobiology of Social Attraction and Preference
    Aras Petrulis; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This data will provide novel insights into how sexual attraction and preference is generated by the nervous system and how sensory and internal state cues interact to regulate motivated behavior. ..
  43. Artifact reduction in simultaneous EEG and fMRI recordings
    Vinod Menon; Fiscal Year: 2008
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the neural basis of human brain function requires knowledge about the spatial and temporal aspects of information processing...
  44. Neurodevelopmental Effects of Adolescent Cannabis Use
    Yasmin Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. Maternal immune activation, cytokines, and the pathogenesis of autism
    A Kimberley McAllister; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..insults work through mechanisms that converge to chronically activate cytokines during fetal and early postnatal brain development...
  46. SH2-B regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis
    Liangyou Rui; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..3. Determine whether SH2-B differentially regulates leptin sensitivity in the LEPRb-neurons governing energy intake versus energy expenditure. ..
  47. INVESTIGATING THE NEURAL BASES OF CHRONIC STUTTERING
    Roger Ingham; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Performance correlations analyses (see below) strongly support Hypothesis One. A nascent system model derived from regional intercorrelation matrix analyses offers the basis for Hypothesis Two. ..
  48. Functional Changes Induced By Sleep Deprivation
    Giulio Tononi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Decades of investigation have failed to reveal any substantial abnormality in peripheral organs or in the brain. Over the past few years, molecular approaches have been employed the to study the cellular correlates of sleep ..
  49. IR-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN THE DEVELOPING NERVOUS SYSTEM
    PETER MCKINNON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (adapted from applicant's abstract): Brain tumors are second only to leukemia as the most prevalent form of pediatric malignancy. However, unlike leukemia, effective treatments for brain tumors are lacking...
  50. Molecular Dissection of Melatonin Synthesis In Vivo
    Jimo Borjigin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  51. MDMA & Amphetamine--Behavioral Organization in Mice
    Martin Paulus; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results from these studies will provide a set of measures derived from a widely used behavioral paradigm to examine the molecular basis of the effects of drugs of abuse using genetically modified mice. ..
  52. NEURAL CORRELATES OF AGE RELATED DIFFERENCES IN MEMORY
    Naftali Raz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  53. CONTROLLED STUDY OF METHYLPHENIDATE IN ADULTS WITH ADHD
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The auditory and visual continuous performance tasks and the Stroop test will be used to further assess treatment efficacy. A larger neuropsychological battery will be used to assess the long term effects of MPH treatment. ..
  54. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMIC EXPLORATION OF TASK REPETITION
    Randy Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..developed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods are able to observe activation changes in human brain regions as cognitive tasks are facilitated by repetition...
  55. Mapping Basal Ganglia Function During Motor Sequencing
    Vinod Menon; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..of the dBG, motor cortex, SMA, pre-SMA and the cerebellum will yield significant information about distributed brain processes involved in the sequential organization of behavior...
  56. Role of SH2-B in signaling by leptin and insulin
    Liangyou Rui; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies will reveal the role of SH2-B in leptin and insulin signaling, and might identify new targets (e.g. SH2-B and it associated pathways) for therapeutic interventions of obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
  57. HIGH TEMPERATURE ULTRASOUND THERAPY GUIDED BY MRI
    Kullervo Hynynen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The noninvasive focused ultrasound coagulation of liver tumors has a large clinical potential in reducing complication rates and costs associated with open surgery. ..
  58. Conference on Stem Cells: Origins, Fate and Functions
    Fred Gage; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Evaluation of the current application of stem cells for diagnosis and therapy should provide a measure of how much progress has been made and is needed. ..
  59. NEONATAL PREDICTORS OF LANGUAGE PERFORMANCE
    Dennis Molfese; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The goal is to match AER and other assessment data to template data obtained from children with known outcomes so that predictions for referrals can be made and actual outcomes observed. ..
  60. COGNITION, STEROIDS AND IMAGING IN CUSHINGS DISEASE
    MONICA STARKMAN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The investigator proposes to use MRI of the brain together with neuropsychologic (NP) testing to investigate such a mechanism in humans...
  61. STOMACH CAPACITY AND EMPTYING IN OBESITY
    Allan Geliebter; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Body weight and composition will be assessed at the start and monthly. The studies may enhance knowledge of the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of BED. ..
  62. CHARACTERIZATION & UTILIZATION OF ADULT PROGENITOR CELLS
    Fred Gage; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..2) We will determine if, and to what extent, adult progenitors survive engraftment to the developing and adult brain. We will then determine whether the grafted cells will differentiate and which phenotypic markers they express at ..
  63. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUSTATORY SYSTEM
    RICHARD NORTHCUTT; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..To test the hypothesis that retinoic acid acts as a signal to pattern endoderm directly during gastrulation (aim 3), presumptive pharyngeal endoderm will be excised, exposed to retinoic acid, and cultured. ..
  64. Function of Stem Cell-Derived Neurons in the Aging Brain
    Fred Gage; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Under specific conditions the cells can be transplanted back into the adult brain where they can differentiate into neurons and glia...
  65. Synaptic Alterations in the Cerebral Cortex during Aging
    A Cuello; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  66. Dopamine Transporter Binding by PET in Adult ADHD
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..qenetic risk factors, a) We hypothesize that DAT binding will be associated with the 480 allele of the 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene. ..
  67. Mechanisms of Disease in the Newborn Human Infant
    F Cole; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..As such, this program should provide for new pediatric scholars to lead the way for future advances in this important area of child health. ..
  68. AGING, WHITE MATTER HYPERINTENSITIES & COGNITIVE DECLINE
    Robert Nebes; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..is evident on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as areas of hyperintensity in the white matter of the brain. These WMH become increasingly common with advanced age and can be quite extensive without producing gross ..
  69. AbetaPP and Cerebral Vasculopathy
    William Van Nostrand; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  70. ALUMINUM/IRON INTERACTIONS IN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE
    Stephen Bondy; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Together, these five objectives delineate a research strategy that will allow resolution of the seemingly contradictory evidence relating aluminum to neurological degeneration. ..
  71. Brain LC-PUFAs and Maternal Mental Health
    Beth Levant; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Alterations in brain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) composition, particularly decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated as a contributing factor in depression and psychosis...
  72. Gene Targeting and Regulation for Neurological Disease
    Fred Gage; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..requires further research is the development of efficient delivery strategies to target diseased regions of the brain. Thirdly, effective methods for both long-term and controlled expression of therapeutic transgenes need to be ..
  73. LONGITUDINAL FMRI STUDY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
    Vinod Menon; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..training and research experience in physics and the computer sciences as well as in neurophysiology and functional brain imaging...
  74. Lamina I and Homeostasis
    Arthur Craig; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..diameter A-delta and C-fiber afferent inputs to homeostatic and pre- autonomic integration mechanisms in the brain stem...
  75. Mechanisms of Motor Neuron Death
    Lee Martin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  76. STRENGTH TRAINING FOLLOWING GASTRIC BYPASS FOR OBESITY
    Allan Geliebter; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The findings should improve understanding of surgical weight loss in morbidly obese patients and have clinical applications in the postoperative care of such patients. ..
  77. Postnatal Consequences of Fetal Inflammation
    Alan Jobe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This research will use clinically relevant prenatal exposures and postnatal sensitization to establish under controlled conditions any link between antenatal inflammation and the hygiene hypothesis. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  78. The Brain & Psychosis: Asymmetry & cortical organization
    Martin Reite; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..those without such history. This suggests the possibility to differentiate brain variables related to psychosis from those related to the mental illness per se...
  79. Clinical Symptons & Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia
    Martha Shenton; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..long-term objective is to investigate clinical symptoms, cognitive impairments, and structural and functional brain abnormalities in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders...
  80. Neurobiologic Study of Psychological Distress & Dementia
    Robert S Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and neurotrophic changes in limbic structures that mediate the stress response and memory function, making the brain more vulnerable to common age-related pathology and increasing the likelihood that such pathology will be ..
  81. Maternal Programming of Gene Expression Through DNA Methylation
    MICHAEL JOSEPH MEANEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a clear description of the mechanisms by which maternal care exerts long-term effects over gene expression in the brain and thus of phenotypic development...
  82. Alzheimer's ABeta, Apolipoproteins & Blood-Brain Barrier
    Berislav Zlokovic; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Recent studies suggest a major role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in determining the concentrations of AB in the CNS...
  83. Exploring Growth Energy Expenditure in Normal-Weight and Overweight Children
    ZiMian Wang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  84. MICROGLIAL NEURON SPECIFIC TOXIN
    Daniel Laskowitz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..A major expected drawback to large scale, long term inhibition of the brain's immune system is increased susceptibility to cancer and infection...
  85. Neurodegeneration in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease
    Xiaoning Bi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..in Npcl-/- mice in vivo? These studies will combine several approaches, using dissociated cell cultures, cultured brain tissue slices, and in vivo studies...
  86. Serotonin, Drug Use and MDMA Induced Deficits
    FREDERICK MOELLER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Likewise, the more clear evidence that MDMA causes detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, the more likely MDMA users will consider substance abuse treatment...
  87. Eighth Cooley's Anemia Symposium
    Elliott Vichinsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  88. SCALING THE REINFORCING VALUE OF CIGARETTE SMOKE
    Jed Rose; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results will lead to a better understanding of the role of pharmacologic and sensory/behavioral cues in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation. ..
  89. FUNCTION OF THE CALCIUM SENSING RECEPTOR IN THE BREAST
    John Wysolmerski; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We believe that these studies will deepen our understanding of the physiology of the CaR and will contribute to an understanding of both osteoporosis and bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. ..
  90. MR Spectroscopy of SIV Brain Injury
    Ramon Gonzalez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Specific Aim 2. Determine the severity of CNS injury by in vivo &ex vivo MRS and immunohistochemistry in different brain regions, and determine the levels of perivascular MPs in those regions.
  91. NEURONAL MECHANISMS OF FEVER
    Clifford Saper; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..activate production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by endothelial cells lining small venules at the margins of the brain. PGE2 acts upon specific EP receptors in the preoptic area to cause fever responses...
  92. Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network
    Michel Pontari; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Issues in developing a clinically relevant definition of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes are discussed. ..