cytosol

Summary

Summary: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Molecular chaperones in the cytosol: from nascent chain to folded protein
    F Ulrich Hartl
    Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Science 295:1852-8. 2002
  2. ncbi M. tuberculosis and M. leprae translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol in myeloid cells
    Nicole van der Wel
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cell 129:1287-98. 2007
  3. ncbi The AAA ATPase Cdc48/p97 and its partners transport proteins from the ER into the cytosol
    Y Ye
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 414:652-6. 2001
  4. pmc Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: implications for classification of non-mammalian members of an ancient enzyme superfamily
    D Sheehan
    Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Mardyke, Cork, Ireland
    Biochem J 360:1-16. 2001
  5. pmc Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments
    Daniel Kaganovich
    Department of Biology and BioX Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 454:1088-95. 2008
  6. pmc Bcl-x(L) retrotranslocates Bax from the mitochondria into the cytosol
    Frank Edlich
    Surgical Neurology Branch, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell 145:104-16. 2011
  7. ncbi Protein quality control in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum: brothers in arms
    Alexander Buchberger
    Department of Biochemistry, Biocenter, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Cell 40:238-52. 2010
  8. ncbi 5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I
    Veit Hornung
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Science 314:994-7. 2006
  9. ncbi Induction of apoptotic program in cell-free extracts: requirement for dATP and cytochrome c
    X Liu
    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Cell 86:147-57. 1996
  10. pmc Movement of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria during apoptosis
    K G Wolter
    Biochemistry Section, Surgical Neurology Branch, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 139:1281-92. 1997

Detail Information

Publications289 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Molecular chaperones in the cytosol: from nascent chain to folded protein
    F Ulrich Hartl
    Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Science 295:1852-8. 2002
    ..Folding in the cytosol is achieved either on controlled chain release from these factors or after transfer of newly synthesized proteins ..
  2. ncbi M. tuberculosis and M. leprae translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol in myeloid cells
    Nicole van der Wel
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cell 129:1287-98. 2007
    ..After 2 days, M. tuberculosis progressively translocates from phagolysosomes into the cytosol in nonapoptotic cells. Cytosolic entry is also observed for M. leprae but not for vaccine strains such as M...
  3. ncbi The AAA ATPase Cdc48/p97 and its partners transport proteins from the ER into the cytosol
    Y Ye
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 414:652-6. 2001
    In eukaryotic cells, incorrectly folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are exported into the cytosol and degraded by the proteasome. This pathway is co-opted by some viruses...
  4. pmc Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: implications for classification of non-mammalian members of an ancient enzyme superfamily
    D Sheehan
    Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Mardyke, Cork, Ireland
    Biochem J 360:1-16. 2001
    ..GSTs; also known as glutathione S-transferases) are major phase II detoxification enzymes found mainly in the cytosol. In addition to their role in catalysing the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to glutathione (GSH), these ..
  5. pmc Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments
    Daniel Kaganovich
    Department of Biology and BioX Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 454:1088-95. 2008
    ..Here we examine the formation of misfolded protein inclusions in the eukaryotic cytosol of yeast and mammalian cell culture models...
  6. pmc Bcl-x(L) retrotranslocates Bax from the mitochondria into the cytosol
    Frank Edlich
    Surgical Neurology Branch, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell 145:104-16. 2011
    The Bcl-2 family member Bax translocates from the cytosol to mitochondria, where it oligomerizes and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane to promote apoptosis...
  7. ncbi Protein quality control in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum: brothers in arms
    Alexander Buchberger
    Department of Biochemistry, Biocenter, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Cell 40:238-52. 2010
    ..Here, we compare the protein quality control systems of the eukaryotic cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum, focusing on the principles of damage recognition, the triage decisions between ..
  8. ncbi 5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I
    Veit Hornung
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Science 314:994-7. 2006
    ....
  9. ncbi Induction of apoptotic program in cell-free extracts: requirement for dATP and cytochrome c
    X Liu
    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Cell 86:147-57. 1996
    ..The apoptotic program is initiated by addition of dATP. Fractionation of cytosol yielded a 15 kDa protein that is required for in vitro apoptosis...
  10. pmc Movement of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria during apoptosis
    K G Wolter
    Biochemistry Section, Surgical Neurology Branch, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 139:1281-92. 1997
    ..membrane protein associated with organelles or bound to organelles by Bcl-2 or a soluble protein found in the cytosol. To explore Bcl-2 family member localization in living cells, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to ..
  11. ncbi Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses
    R Rizzuto
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and the National Research Council Center for the Study of Biomembranes, University of Padova, Via Colombo 3, 35121 Padova, Italy
    Science 280:1763-6. 1998
    ..channels of the ER, the mitochondrial surface was exposed to a higher concentration of Ca2+ than was the bulk cytosol. These results emphasize the importance of cell architecture and the distribution of organelles in regulation of ..
  12. ncbi Fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin
    A Miyawaki
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0647, USA
    Nature 388:882-7. 1997
    Important Ca2+ signals in the cytosol and organelles are often extremely localized and hard to measure...
  13. ncbi The cytosolic nucleic acid sensor LRRFIP1 mediates the production of type I interferon via a beta-catenin-dependent pathway
    Pengyuan Yang
    Institute of Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
    Nat Immunol 11:487-94. 2010
    ..Therefore, LRRFIP1 and its downstream partner beta-catenin constitute another coactivator pathway for IRF3-mediated production of type I interferon...
  14. pmc A novel ubiquitin-like modification modulates the partitioning of the Ran-GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 between the cytosol and the nuclear pore complex
    M J Matunis
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Cell Biol 135:1457-70. 1996
    ..Moreover, the variety and function of ubiquitin-like protein modifications in the cell may be more diverse than previously realized...
  15. ncbi A membrane protein complex mediates retro-translocation from the ER lumen into the cytosol
    Yihong Ye
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 429:841-7. 2004
    ..Derlin-1 interacts with US11, a virally encoded ER protein that specifically targets MHC class I heavy chains for export from the ER, as well as with VIMP, a novel membrane protein that recruits the p97 ATPase and its cofactor...
  16. ncbi STING and the innate immune response to nucleic acids in the cytosol
    Dara L Burdette
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
    Nat Immunol 14:19-26. 2013
    ..Here we discuss advances in the understanding of STING and highlight the many unresolved issues in the field...
  17. pmc Bat3 promotes the membrane integration of tail-anchored proteins
    Pawel Leznicki
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK
    J Cell Sci 123:2170-8. 2010
    ....
  18. ncbi Ca2+ indicators based on computationally redesigned calmodulin-peptide pairs
    Amy E Palmer
    Department of Pharmacology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Chem Biol 13:521-30. 2006
    ..These redesigned cameleons show significant improvements over previous versions in the ability to monitor Ca(2+) in the cytoplasm as well as distinct subcellular localizations, such as the plasma membrane of neurons and the mitochondria...
  19. pmc Cytosolic recognition of flagellin by mouse macrophages restricts Legionella pneumophila infection
    Ari B Molofsky
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Exp Med 203:1093-104. 2006
    ..pneumophila replication and initiated a proinflammatory program of cell death when flagellin contaminated their cytosol. Nuclear condensation, membrane permeability, and interleukin-1beta secretion were triggered by type IV secretion-..
  20. pmc Glutathione redox potential in the mitochondrial intermembrane space is linked to the cytosol and impacts the Mia40 redox state
    Kerstin Kojer
    Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany
    EMBO J 31:3169-82. 2012
    ..recovery assays together with E(GSH)-specific fluorescent reporters, we investigate the glutathione pools of the cytosol, mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space (IMS)...
  21. ncbi DAI (DLM-1/ZBP1) is a cytosolic DNA sensor and an activator of innate immune response
    Akinori Takaoka
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7 3 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Nature 448:501-5. 2007
    ....
  22. ncbi Autophagy controls Salmonella infection in response to damage to the Salmonella-containing vacuole
    Cheryl L Birmingham
    Infection, Immunity, Injury and Repair Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Biol Chem 281:11374-83. 2006
    ..by the autophagy system were often associated with ubiquitinated proteins, indicating their exposure to the cytosol. Surprisingly, these bacteria also colocalized with SCV markers...
  23. pmc Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 is a central component of the reactive oxygen gene network of Arabidopsis
    Sholpan Davletova
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
    Plant Cell 17:268-81. 2005
    ..Our study points to a key role for the cytosol in protecting the chloroplast during light stress and provides evidence for cross-compartment protection of ..
  24. ncbi A companion protease inhibitor for the protection of cytosol-targeted recombinant proteins in plants
    Charles Goulet
    CRH INAF, Pavillon des Services INAF, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC, Canada
    Plant Biotechnol J 8:142-54. 2010
    ..5-fold in SlCDI-expressing plants. These data illustrate, overall, the potential of SlCDI as an in vivo protein-stabilizing agent in transgenic plant systems, useful to improve protein levels and recombinant protein accumulation...
  25. ncbi Molecular chaperones and protein quality control
    Bernd Bukau
    Zentrum fur Molekulare Biologie, Universitat Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 125:443-51. 2006
    ..Recent reports describe the removal of aggregates from the cytosol; reveal mechanisms for protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum; and provide new insight into two ..
  26. pmc Elimination of Mcl-1 is required for the initiation of apoptosis following ultraviolet irradiation
    Deepak Nijhawan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Genes Dev 17:1475-86. 2003
    ..The disappearance of Mcl-1 is also required for other mitochondrial apoptotic events including Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation...
  27. pmc Hsp90: a specialized but essential protein-folding tool
    J C Young
    Cellular Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried D 82152, Germany
    J Cell Biol 154:267-73. 2001
    ..Hsp90 is unique among molecular chaperones. The majority of its known substrates are signal transduction proteins, and recent work indicates that it uses a novel protein-folding strategy...
  28. ncbi Proton pump inhibitors induce apoptosis of human B-cell tumors through a caspase-independent mechanism involving reactive oxygen species
    Angelo De Milito
    Department of Drug Research and Evaluation, Pharmacogenetic, Drug Resistance, and Experimental Therapeutic Section, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Cancer Res 67:5408-17. 2007
    ..oxygen species (ROS), that preceded alkalinization of lysosomal pH, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and cytosol acidification, suggesting an early destabilization of the acidic vesicular compartment...
  29. ncbi Protein toxins from plants and bacteria: probes for intracellular transport and tools in medicine
    Kirsten Sandvig
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    FEBS Lett 584:2626-34. 2010
    ..Increased knowledge about toxins is important to prevent and treat these diseases in an optimal way. Interestingly, toxins can be used for diagnosis and treatment of cancer...
  30. pmc The chlamydial periplasmic stress response serine protease cHtrA is secreted into host cell cytosol
    Xiang Wu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    BMC Microbiol 11:87. 2011
    ..The periplasmic High Temperature Requirement protein A (HtrA) plays important roles in bacterial protein folding and stress responses. However, the role of chlamydial HtrA (cHtrA) in chlamydial pathogenesis is not clear...
  31. ncbi S3-12, Adipophilin, and TIP47 package lipid in adipocytes
    Nathan E Wolins
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:19146-55. 2005
    ....
  32. pmc Identification of a chlamydial protease-like activity factor responsible for the degradation of host transcription factors
    G Zhong
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
    J Exp Med 193:935-42. 2001
    ..identified a chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor (CPAF) that is secreted into the host cell cytosol and that is both necessary and sufficient for the degradation of host transcription factors RFX5 and upstream ..
  33. pmc The yeast endosomal Na+K+/H+ exchanger Nhx1 regulates cellular pH to control vesicle trafficking
    Christopher L Brett
    Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 16:1396-405. 2005
    ..This presents the newly defined family of eukaryotic endosomal NHE as novel targets for pharmacological inhibition to alleviate pathological states associated with organellar alkalinization...
  34. pmc Caspase-11 activation in response to bacterial secretion systems that access the host cytosol
    Cierra N Casson
    Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003400. 2013
    ..Many bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into the cytosol of host cells...
  35. pmc Localization of age-related macular degeneration-associated ARMS2 in cytosol, not mitochondria
    Gaofeng Wang
    Miami Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3084-90. 2009
    ....
  36. pmc AAA-ATPase p97/Cdc48p, a cytosolic chaperone required for endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation
    Efrat Rabinovich
    Department of Biochemistry, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Mol Cell Biol 22:626-34. 2002
    ..Protein substrates of ERAD are dislocated via the Sec61p translocon from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, where they are ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome...
  37. ncbi The expanding superfamily of phospholipase A(2) enzymes: classification and characterization
    D A Six
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, MC 0601, Revelle College and School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0601, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1488:1-19. 2000
    ..These four criteria have led to the expansion or realignment of Groups VI, VII and VIII, as well as the addition of Group XI PLA(2) from plants...
  38. pmc Nuclear localization and regulation of erk- and rsk-encoded protein kinases
    R H Chen
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Mol Cell Biol 12:915-27. 1992
    ....
  39. ncbi How ricin and Shiga toxin reach the cytosol of target cells: retrotranslocation from the endoplasmic reticulum
    Robert A Spooner
    School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 357:19-40. 2012
    ..The free A chains are then dislocated, or retrotranslocated, across the ER membrane into the cytosol. Here, in contrast to ER substrates destined for proteasomal destruction, they undergo folding to a catalytic ..
  40. ncbi Listeriolysin O: a phagosome-specific lysin
    Pamela Schnupf
    Graduate Group in Microbiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3202, USA
    Microbes Infect 9:1176-87. 2007
    ..responsible for mediating rupture of the phagosomal membrane, thereby allowing the bacterium access to the host cytosol, its replicative niche...
  41. pmc Double mutants deficient in cytosolic and thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase reveal a complex mode of interaction between reactive oxygen species, plant development, and response to abiotic stresses
    Gad Miller
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
    Plant Physiol 144:1777-85. 2007
    ....
  42. pmc RNA polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferons through the RIG-I pathway
    Yu Hsin Chiu
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9148, USA
    Cell 138:576-91. 2009
    ..These results suggest that RNA Pol-III is a cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune responses...
  43. pmc PEX19 is a predominantly cytosolic chaperone and import receptor for class 1 peroxisomal membrane proteins
    Jacob M Jones
    Dept of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Cell Biol 164:57-67. 2004
    ..Here, we demonstrate that PEX19 binds and stabilizes newly synthesized PMPs in the cytosol, binds to multiple PMP targeting signals (mPTSs), interacts with the hydrophobic domains of PMP targeting signals,..
  44. ncbi Phosphorylation of p47phox sites by PKC alpha, beta II, delta, and zeta: effect on binding to p22phox and on NADPH oxidase activation
    Alexandre Fontayne
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 479, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Xavier Bichat, Paris, France
    Biochemistry 41:7743-50. 2002
    ..In addition, phosphorylation of some serines could have an inhibitory effect on oxidase activation...
  45. pmc Listeria monocytogenes triggers AIM2-mediated pyroptosis upon infrequent bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol
    John Demian Sauer
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3202, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:412-9. 2010
    ..that caused hyperstimulation of IL-1beta secretion and pyroptosis following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. In addition, strains engineered to lyse in the cytosol by expression of both bacteriophage holin and lysin or ..
  46. ncbi Arabidopsis TT19 functions as a carrier to transport anthocyanin from the cytosol to tonoplasts
    Yi Sun
    National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Feng Lin Road, Shanghai 200032, China
    Mol Plant 5:387-400. 2012
    ..Isothermal titration calorimetry analysis also confirmed physical interaction between TT19 and C3G. Taken together, our data reveal molecular mechanism underlying TT19-mediated anthocyanin transportation...
  47. pmc A viral deubiquitylating enzyme restores dislocation of substrates from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in semi-intact cells
    Sumana Sanyal
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:23594-603. 2012
    Terminally misfolded glycoproteins are ejected from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol and are destroyed by the ubiquitin proteasome system...
  48. pmc Mechanism of diphtheria toxin catalytic domain delivery to the eukaryotic cell cytosol and the cellular factors that directly participate in the process
    John R Murphy
    Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Toxins (Basel) 3:294-308. 2011
    ..their respective catalytic domains through the trans-endosomal vesicle membrane pore and delivery into the cell cytosol. In this review, I shall focus on recent findings that have led to a more detailed understanding of the mechanism ..
  49. ncbi Recognition of cytosolic DNA activates an IRF3-dependent innate immune response
    Daniel B Stetson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Immunity 24:93-103. 2006
    ..is the only known sensor of foreign DNA; it is unknown whether innate immune recognition of DNA exists in the cytosol. Here we present evidence that cytosolic DNA activates a potent type I interferon response to the invasive ..
  50. pmc Real-time monitoring of redox changes in the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum
    Marcel van Lith
    College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    J Cell Sci 124:2349-56. 2011
    Redox-sensitive GFPs with engineered disulphide bonds have been used previously to monitor redox status in the cytosol and mitochondria of living cells...
  51. pmc Perforin pores in the endosomal membrane trigger the release of endocytosed granzyme B into the cytosol of target cells
    Jerome Thiery
    Immune Disease Institute and Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Children s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 12:770-7. 2011
    How the pore-forming protein perforin delivers apoptosis-inducing granzymes to the cytosol of target cells is uncertain...
  52. pmc The bimodal lifestyle of intracellular Salmonella in epithelial cells: replication in the cytosol obscures defects in vacuolar replication
    Preeti Malik-Kale
    Salmonella Host Cell Interactions Section, Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e38732. 2012
    ..However, this bacterium can also replicate efficiently in the cytosol of epithelial cells and net intracellular growth is a product of both vacuolar and cytosolic replication...
  53. ncbi Role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in allergic response and parturition
    N Uozumi
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Nature 390:618-22. 1997
    ..Considered together with previous findings, our results indicate that cytosolic PLA2 plays a non-redundant role in allergic responses and reproductive physiology...
  54. ncbi Targeting of the ring exported protein 1 to the Maurer's clefts is mediated by a two-phase process
    Matthew W A Dixon
    Malaria Biology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, QLD, Australia
    Traffic 9:1316-26. 2008
    ..This protein localizes to the Maurer's clefts, parasite-induced structures in the host-cell cytosol. Transgenic parasites expressing green fluorescent protein-REX1 chimeras revealed that the single hydrophobic ..
  55. pmc GRP78(BiP) facilitates the cytosolic delivery of anthrax lethal factor (LF) in vivo and functions as an unfoldase in vitro
    Alfred G Tamayo
    Section of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Mol Microbiol 81:1390-401. 2011
    ..must be completely denatured in order to transit through the PA63 formed pore and enter the eukaryotic cell cytosol. We demonstrate by protease protection assays that the molecular chaperone GRP78 mediates the unfolding of LFnDTA ..
  56. pmc Divergent regulation of protein synthesis in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum compartments of mammalian cells
    Samuel B Stephens
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 19:623-32. 2008
    ..the steady-state protein synthesis rates and compartmental distribution of newly synthesized proteins in the cytosol and ER compartments. We report that ER protein synthesis rates exceed cytosolic protein synthesis rates by 2...
  57. pmc A novel role for minimal introns: routing mRNAs to the cytosol
    Jiang Zhu
    CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 5:e10144. 2010
    ..A remarkable fraction of vertebrate introns have a minimal size of about 100 bp, while majority of introns expand to several kilobases even megabases in length...
  58. ncbi Sec61-mediated transfer of a membrane protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to the proteasome for destruction
    E J Wiertz
    Center for Cancer Research, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    Nature 384:432-8. 1996
    ..gene US2 specifies a product capable of dislocating MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol and delivering them to the proteasome...
  59. ncbi Cytosolic pH regulates root water transport during anoxic stress through gating of aquaporins
    Colette Tournaire-Roux
    Biochimie et Physiologie Moleculaire des Plantes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 5004, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Université Montpellier 2 et Ecole Nationale d Agronomie, Montpellier, France
    Nature 425:393-7. 2003
    ..Here we delineate the whole-root and cell bases for inhibition of water uptake by anoxia and link them to cytosol acidosis. We also uncover a molecular mechanism for aquaporin gating by cytosolic pH...
  60. ncbi Redox-sensitive GFP in Arabidopsis thaliana is a quantitative biosensor for the redox potential of the cellular glutathione redox buffer
    Andreas J Meyer
    Heidelberg Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Plant J 52:973-86. 2007
    ..redox changes, combined with detailed characterization of roGFP2 in vitro, shows that roGFP2 expressed in the cytosol senses the redox potential of the cellular glutathione buffer via glutaredoxin (GRX) as a mediator of reversible ..
  61. pmc Endosome-to-cytosol transport of viral nucleocapsids
    Isabelle Le Blanc
    Biochemistry Department, University of Geneva, 30 quai E Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Nat Cell Biol 7:653-64. 2005
    ....
  62. pmc Mitochondrial iron trafficking and the integration of iron metabolism between the mitochondrion and cytosol
    Des R Richardson
    Iron Metabolism and Chelation Program, Discipline of Pathology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10775-82. 2010
    ..the regulation of iron uptake by the mitochondrion and how this is coordinated with iron metabolism in the cytosol and other organelles (e.g., lysosomes)...
  63. ncbi In vivo imaging of the dynamics of glucose uptake in the cytosol of COS-7 cells by fluorescent nanosensors
    Marcus Fehr
    Zentrum für Molekular biologie der Pflanzen Tübingen, Plant Physiology, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:19127-33. 2003
    ..The glucose nanosensor provides a novel tool with numerous scientific, medical, and environmental applications...
  64. ncbi The nucleus together with the cytosol generates patterns of specific cellular calcium signatures in tobacco suspension culture cells
    N Pauly
    , Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, , Castanet-Tolosan, France
    Cell Calcium 30:413-21. 2001
    ..method, we have measured the spatial and temporal characteristics of calcium signatures in the nucleus and the cytosol of BY-2 tobacco suspension cells challenged with hypo- or hyper-osmotic shock...
  65. ncbi Functional analysis of Nox4 reveals unique characteristics compared to other NADPH oxidases
    Kendra D Martyn
    Department of Immunology IMM28, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell Signal 18:69-82. 2006
    ..Mechanistic insight into ROS regulation is significant for understanding fundamental cell biology and pathophysiological conditions...
  66. ncbi Subcellular distribution of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in rat liver: Cu,Zn-SOD in mitochondria
    A Okado-Matsumoto
    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:38388-93. 2001
    ..As expected, the cytosol and lysosomal fractions contained Cu,Zn-SOD; while the mitochondrial matrix contained Mn-SOD...
  67. ncbi The cytosolic sensors Nod1 and Nod2 are critical for bacterial recognition and host defense after exposure to Toll-like receptor ligands
    Yun Gi Kim
    Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Immunity 28:246-57. 2008
    ..monocytogenes was critically dependent on Nod1 and Nod2 when mice were previously stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or E. coli. Thus, Nod1 and Nod2 are important for microbial recognition and host defense after TLR stimulation...
  68. ncbi PLD1 and ERK2 regulate cytosolic lipid droplet formation
    Linda Andersson
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Goteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden
    J Cell Sci 119:2246-57. 2006
    ..Microinjection of antibodies to dynein strongly inhibited the formation of lipid droplets, demonstrating that dynein has a central role in this formation. Thus dynein is a possible target for ERK2...
  69. ncbi Recognition of bacteria in the cytosol of Mammalian cells by the ubiquitin system
    Andrew J Perrin
    Infection, Immunity, Injury, and Repair Program, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Curr Biol 14:806-11. 2004
    ..studies have suggested the existence of innate host surveillance systems for the detection of bacteria in the cytosol of mammalian cells. The molecular details of how bacteria are recognized in the cytosol, however, remain unclear...
  70. pmc Identification of host cytosolic sensors and bacterial factors regulating the type I interferon response to Legionella pneumophila
    Kathryn M Monroe
    Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000665. 2009
    ..pneumophila. It was previously suggested that the delivery of L. pneumophila DNA to the host cell cytosol is the primary signal that induces the type I IFN response...
  71. ncbi The host cell chaperone Hsp90 is essential for translocation of the binary Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin into the cytosol
    Gerd Haug
    Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Albert Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Albertstrasse 25 Otto Krayer Haus, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:32266-74. 2003
    ..In acidic endosomes, heptameric C2IIa forms pores and mediates the translocation of C2I into the cytosol. We report that the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90-specific inhibitors, geldanamycin or radicicol, block ..
  72. ncbi A novel S-adenosyl-L-methionine:arsenic(III) methyltransferase from rat liver cytosol
    Shan Lin
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:10795-803. 2002
    S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet):arsenic(III) methyltransferase, purified from liver cytosol of adult male Fischer 344 rats, catalyzes transfer of a methyl group from AdoMet to trivalent arsenicals producing methylated and dimethylated ..
  73. ncbi Injection of flagellin into the host cell cytosol by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium
    Yao Hui Sun
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:33897-901. 2007
    ..structural basis of TLR5-flagellin interaction is known, little is known about how flagellin enters the host cell cytosol to induce signaling via Birc1e/Naip5 and Ipaf...
  74. ncbi Analysis of mRNA partitioning between the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum compartments of mammalian cells
    Samuel B Stephens
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 419:197-214. 2008
    All eukaryotic cells display a dramatic partitioning of mRNAs between the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartments-mRNAs encoding secretory and integral membrane proteins are highly enriched on ER-bound ribosomes and mRNAs ..
  75. ncbi ER degradation of a misfolded luminal protein by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway
    M M Hiller
    Institut für Biochemie der Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
    Science 273:1725-8. 1996
    ..It is likely that CPY* entered the ER, was glycosylated, and was then transported back out of the ER lumen to the cytoplasmic side of the organelle, where it was conjugated with ubiquitin and degraded...
  76. pmc Activation of chaperone-mediated autophagy during oxidative stress
    Roberta Kiffin
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 1046, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 15:4829-40. 2004
    ....
  77. ncbi BAP31 and BiP are essential for dislocation of SV40 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol
    Roger Geiger
    Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Schafmattstrasse 18, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Cell Biol 13:1305-14. 2011
    ..after endocytosis and transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but before crossing the ER membrane to the cytosol, incoming simian virus 40 particles are structurally remodelled leading to exposure of the amino-terminal ..
  78. pmc Variable HIV peptide stability in human cytosol is critical to epitope presentation and immune escape
    Estibaliz Lazaro
    Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:2480-92. 2011
    ..Here, we have demonstrated that the half-lives of HIV-derived peptides in cytosol from primary human cells were highly variable and sequence dependent, and significantly affected the efficiency ..
  79. ncbi An orthogonal proteomic-genomic screen identifies AIM2 as a cytoplasmic DNA sensor for the inflammasome
    Tilmann Burckstummer
    Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Nat Immunol 10:266-72. 2009
    ..Reconstitution of unresponsive HEK293 cells with AIM2, ASC, caspase-1 and interleukin 1beta showed that AIM2 was sufficient for inflammasome activation. Our data suggest that AIM2 is a cytoplasmic DNA sensor for the inflammasome...
  80. ncbi X-linked IAP is a direct inhibitor of cell-death proteases
    Q L Deveraux
    The Burnham Institute, Program on Apoptosis and Cell Death Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 388:300-4. 1997
    ....
  81. pmc The cytotoxic necrotizing factors from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from Escherichia coli bind to different cellular receptors but take the same route to the cytosol
    Britta Blumenthal
    Institut fur Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Albert Strasse 25, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Infect Immun 75:3344-53. 2007
    ..Moreover, we compared the pathways of the toxins from receptor binding into the cytosol and showed that both toxins are taken up independent of the presence of clathrin or lipid rafts and are released ..
  82. pmc Demonstrated and inferred metabolism associated with cytosolic lipid droplets
    Joel M Goodman
    Department of Pharmacology University of Texas Southwestern Medical School Dallas TX 75390 9041, USA
    J Lipid Res 50:2148-56. 2009
    ....
  83. pmc The chlamydial plasmid-encoded protein pgp3 is secreted into the cytosol of Chlamydia-infected cells
    Zhongyu Li
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Infect Immun 76:3415-28. 2008
    ..We found that the pORF5 protein (also known as pgp3) was detected mainly in the cytosol of Chlamydia-infected cells, while the remaining seven proteins were found inside the chlamydial inclusions only...
  84. pmc The redox environment in the mitochondrial intermembrane space is maintained separately from the cytosol and matrix
    Jingjing Hu
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:29126-34. 2008
    ..These studies indicate that redox control in the cytosol and matrix are maintained separately by cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of GSSG reductase...
  85. pmc Rapid accumulation of Akt in mitochondria following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation
    Gautam N Bijur
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Neurochem 87:1427-35. 2003
    ..These results demonstrate that signals emanating from plasma membrane receptors or generated by stress rapidly modulate Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in mitochondria...
  86. pmc The Hdj-2/Hsc70 chaperone pair facilitates early steps in CFTR biogenesis
    G C Meacham
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35209, USA
    EMBO J 18:1492-505. 1999
    ..stage at which Hdj-2/Hsc70 could bind CFTR translation intermediates coincided with the expression of NBD1 in the cytosol. Interestingly, complex formation between Hdj-2 and nascent CFTR was greatly reduced after expression of the R-..
  87. ncbi Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for systems biology
    Karen van Eunen
    Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    FEBS J 277:749-60. 2010
    ..8. The V(max) values of the glycolytic and fermentative enzymes of S. cerevisiae were measured in the new medium. For some enzymes, the results deviated conspicuously from those of assays done under enzyme-specific, optimal conditions...
  88. ncbi Aggregate-prone proteins are cleared from the cytosol by autophagy: therapeutic implications
    Andrea Williams
    Department of Medical Genetics Cambridge Institute for Medical Research Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2XY United Kingdom
    Curr Top Dev Biol 76:89-101. 2006
    ....
  89. ncbi Reactive oxygen species-mitochondria pathway involved in LYG-202-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG(2) cells
    Fei Hong Chen
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, People s Republic of China
    Cancer Lett 296:96-105. 2010
    ..in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) to cytosol, which induced apoptosis of the cells...
  90. ncbi The apoptosome: signalling platform of cell death
    Stefan J Riedl
    Program in Apoptosis and Cell Death Research, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:405-13. 2007
    ..The formation of the apoptosome and the activation of its effector, caspase-9, reveals a sophisticated mechanism that might be more common than was initially thought...
  91. pmc Virus induction of heat shock protein 70 reflects a general response to protein accumulation in the plant cytosol
    Frederic Aparicio
    John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom
    Plant Physiol 138:529-36. 2005
    ..steady-state levels of the individual proteins, it appeared that the HSP70 response reflected the ability of the cytosol to sense individual properties of particular proteins when expressed at high levels...
  92. ncbi Rosella: a fluorescent pH-biosensor for reporting vacuolar turnover of cytosol and organelles in yeast
    Carlos J Rosado
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Victoria, Australia
    Autophagy 4:205-13. 2008
    ..Here we demonstrate its utility in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by expression in the cytosol, and targeting to mitochondria or to the nucleus...
  93. ncbi Functions of mitochondrial ISCU and cytosolic ISCU in mammalian iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis
    Wing Hang Tong
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cell Metab 3:199-210. 2006
    ..These results provide evidence for a coordinated response to iron deficiency that includes activation of iron uptake, redistribution of intracellular iron, and decreased utilization of iron in Fe-S proteins...
  94. pmc A host type I interferon response is induced by cytosolic sensing of the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP
    Sarah M McWhirter
    Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1899-911. 2009
    ..We provide evidence that c-di-GMP is sensed in the cytosol of mammalian cells via a novel immunosurveillance pathway...
  95. ncbi Glucose 1-phosphate is efficiently taken up by potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber parenchyma cells and converted to reserve starch granules
    Joerg Fettke
    Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Mass Spectrometry of Biopolymers, University of Potsdam, Karl Liebknecht Str 24 25, Building 20, D 14476 Potsdam Golm, Germany
    New Phytol 185:663-75. 2010
    ..Two distinct paths of reserve starch biosynthesis are proposed that explain, at a biochemical level, the phenotype of several transgenic plant lines...
  96. ncbi Dual localization of fumarase is dependent on the integrity of the glyoxylate shunt
    Neta Regev-Rudzki
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, IMRIC, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    Mol Microbiol 72:297-306. 2009
    Fumarase and aconitase in yeast are dual localized to the cytosol and mitochondria by a similar targeting mechanism...
  97. pmc Mia40-dependent oxidation of cysteines in domain I of Ccs1 controls its distribution between mitochondria and the cytosol
    Christine Klöppel
    Cell Biology and University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
    Mol Biol Cell 22:3749-57. 2011
    ..Sod1 and Ccs1 are dually localized proteins that reside in the cytosol and in the intermembrane space of mitochondria...
  98. ncbi Hul5 HECT ubiquitin ligase plays a major role in the ubiquitylation and turnover of cytosolic misfolded proteins
    Nancy N Fang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre for High Throughput Biology, University of British Columbia, 2125 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Cell Biol 13:1344-52. 2011
    ..These findings indicate that Hul5 is involved in a cytosolic protein quality control pathway that targets misfolded proteins for degradation...
  99. pmc Eeyarestatin 1 interferes with both retrograde and anterograde intracellular trafficking pathways
    Mina Olga Aletrari
    School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e22713. 2011
    The small molecule Eeyarestatin I (ESI) inhibits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-cytosol dislocation and subsequent degradation of ERAD (ER associated protein degradation) substrates...
  100. ncbi Molecular chaperones in targeting misfolded proteins for ubiquitin-dependent degradation
    Franziska Kriegenburg
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    FEBS J 279:532-42. 2012
    ..Here, we review recent advances in understanding the interplay between molecular chaperones and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the cytosol, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria.
  101. pmc Reciprocal efficiency of RNQ1 and polyglutamine detoxification in the cytosol and nucleus
    Peter M Douglas
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7090, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 20:4162-73. 2009
    ..heat-shock protein 40 chaperone activity before Rnq1-GFP expression, shifted Rnq1-GFP aggregation from the cytosol to the nucleus...

Research Grants69

  1. Variation in M. tuberculosis in response to host selection
    Sarah Fortune; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In these studies, we expect to provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms and targets of diversifying immune selection in M. tuberculosis. ..
  2. Targeting Galectin-3 with novel drugs for treatment of eczema
    Fu Tong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Galectins have no signal sequence and no transmembrane domain and are found in the cytosol and nucleus, but also in extracellular spaces...
  3. Inhibition of human neutrophil function by Francisella tularensis
    Lee Ann H Allen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Later in infection, Ft breaches the phagosome membrane and resides in the nutrient-rich cytosol. Thus, we hypothesize that Ft disrupts both NADPH oxidase activity and phagosome-lysosome fusion as a means to ..
  4. Patient-Derived Stem Cells for Phosphoproteomic Profiling Neuropsychopathology
    Dieter A Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..in rat brains have also suggested that lithium administration reduces translocation of Protein Kinase C from the cytosol to the cell membrane {Hahn, 1999 #158}, &inhibits GSK3 activity in mice (Catapano &Manji, 2008)...
  5. Insulin Signaling and the Heart in Diabetes
    EVAN DALE ABEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Autophagy is a conserved process of bulk degradation of cytosol and organelles, which at low levels plays an important role in recycling damaged organelles and recycling ..
  6. Monitoring cellular redox signaling and oxidant stress in vivo
    Paul T Schumacker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Three lines will be generated, which target the RoGFP sensor to cytosol, mitochondrial matrix, or mitochondrial intermembrane space...
  7. Small Molecule targeting of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils
    Marie Dominique Filippi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..flavocytochrome b558 (cyt b) and a regulatory complex, termed p47phox-p67phox-p40phox, taht is located in the cytosol of neutrophils...
  8. Mechanism-Based Discovery of Protectants Against Iron-Dependant Oxidative Injury
    JUSTIN M SCHWARTZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..chemistry during oxidative stress leads to lysosomal membrane disruption and release of chelatable iron into the cytosol. Mitochondria then take up this iron via the electrogenic calcium uniporter to promote intramitochondrial OH7 ..
  9. Identification of Proteins Important for Male Osteoporosis
    Hong Wen Deng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A NOVEL approach to this problem is subcellular proteome extraction to stepwise isolate proteins from membrane, cytosol, nucleus, and cytoskeleton E fractions followed by sensitive 2D-nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS for fractioning and identifying ..
  10. Growth Hormone Regulation of SH2B1
    Christin Carter-Su; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..three specific aims: 1) Elucidate the mechanism by which SH2B1 reversibly localizes to the plasma membrane, cytosol and nucleus...
  11. The PKCepsilon-regulated oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles of ATF2 in melanoma
    ERIC KIRK LAU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, I have observed ATF2 in the cytosol during contexts other than genotoxic stress. Its precise function and biological ramifications (e.g...
  12. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Modulators for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinom
    Siva Kumar Kolluri; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Upon binding to a ligand, the AhR translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus, where it mediates the transcription of a wide range of gene targets...
  13. Inhibitors of isoprenoid synthesis for antibacterial therapy
    Donald T Moir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..reaction will be identified for pathway-validated non-cytotoxic hits in biochemical assays utilizing bacterial cytosol and radiolabeled substrates for each enzymatic step...
  14. Nanoelectrode arrays for study of the molecular mechanisms, triggers, and inhibit
    Peter J Burke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..membrane polarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane disappears and ions equilibrate between the matrix and cytosol resulting in mitochondrial swelling...
  15. Prevention of Retinal Degeneration by Crystallins in Experimental Uveitis
    Narsing A Rao; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..c (cyto c) in the photoreceptors from mitochondrial oxidative stress, and the release of nitrated cyto c into the cytosol. Such cyto c release is known to cause apoptosis...
  16. Effect of HIV protease inhibitor on alcohol induced ER stress and liver injury.
    Cheng Ji; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanisms of ER stress response by HIV PIs and by alcohol through monitoring calcium releasing into the cytosol in primary mouse and human hepatocytes and through examining proteasome activities and expression and activities ..
  17. Visualization of ototoxic mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian hair cells
    Shelley A Batts; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..c is released from the space between the mitocondrion's inner and outer membrane, which once in the cytosol, activate caspases that destroy the cell...
  18. FUNCTIONAL AND TARGETING POLYMERIC GENE CARRIERS
    Sung Wan Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This has been attributed to the reducible nature of the polymer once it enters the cytosol. Physiochemical properties of the synthesized polymer will be ascertained using established methods such as ..
  19. REGULATION OF PHOSPHOLIPID SYNTHESIS
    George M Carman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Phosphorylated Pah1p in the cytosol is translocated to the nuclear/ER membrane, which is controlled by the Nem1p-Spo7p phosphatase complex...
  20. Biomarkers of Fusarium biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo
    PRANAB KUMAR MUKHERJEE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..biofilms, (8) biofilms contained higher number of apoptotic cells, and (9) GAPDH is translocated from the cytosol to the nucleus in fungal biofilms...
  21. Understand and Improve Iron Distribution and Erythropoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia
    Yelena Ginzburg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..levels and regulators of heme and globin production, measure levels of zinc protoporphyrin and free heme in the cytosol, and characterize the effect on FLVCR and FPN-1B, heme and iron exporters, respectively, during erythroid ..
  22. Development of an effective therapy against post-exposure Anthrax
    Maurizio Pellecchia; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Once in the cytosol, LF is able to cleave several members of the MAPKK family near their N-terminus preventing interaction with, and ..
  23. Mechanisms for cell specific modulation of proliferation and migration
    Thomas S Monahan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the myristolated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), a membrane bound protein that translocates to the cytosol upon phosphorylation by protein kinase C...
  24. Mitochondrial Metabolism and ROS Regulate Lung Cancer
    Navdeep S Chandel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The major form of ROS that participates in signaling in the cytosol is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is generated by its conversion from superoxide (O2-) by copper-zinc superoxide ..
  25. A Targeted Preemptive Approach to Addressing Mitochondrial Toxicity of Nucleoside
    John K Buolamwini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the metabolites that inhibit Pol g can be synthesized inside mitochondria from imported NRTIs from the cytosol. Imported nucleosides are sequentially phosphorylated starting with rate-limiting monophosphorylation by ..
  26. Dysregulation of the inflammatory response by Francisella tularensis
    Lee Ann H Allen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We were also the first to show that F. tularensis can escape the phagosome and replicate in neutrophil cytosol, confirming its ability to successfully infect multiple phagocytes types...
  27. White Matter Protection in Cerebral Ischemia
    Guodong Cao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) primarily localizes in the cytosol and functions as the rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)14...
  28. Mechanistic Studies of HCV E2
    Joseph Marcotrigiano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..requires fusion between viral and host cell membrane before the viral genome can be released into the host cell cytosol. This critical step is thought to occur in the endosomal compartment, is triggered by low pH, and likely requires ..
  29. Nrf2 as a Master Regulator in Liver Disease Prevention and Therapy
    Curtis D Klaassen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In quiescent hepatocytes, Nrf2 is sequestered in cytosol by kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1);in Keap1-knockdown mice, nuclear translocation of Nrf2 increases, ..
  30. Identification of Inhibitors that Stabilize ER Degradation Substrates
    Domenico Tortorella; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..ER proteins that cannot reach their native state due to genetic defects are exported out of the ER and into the cytosol by a multi- step process referred to as dislocation, followed by proteasome degradation generally referred to as ..
  31. Molecular Mechanism of cell-cell spread of Listeria in polarized epithelial cells
    KEITH PATRICK IRETON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..an actin-dependent motility process that allows bacteria to remain within the protective environment of the host cytosol. Cell-cell spread of Listeria occurs in a variety of host cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells (..
  32. Mechanisms of Cell Death after Photodynamic Therapy
    Anna Liisa Nieminen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Similarly, we will assess protease release into the cytosol and investigate the protection conferred by specific cathepsin indicators and knock-out cells...
  33. Retroviral Subversion of ERAD and Intrinsic Immunity
    JAQUELIN PAGE DUDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In an unprecedented pathway, Rem-SP is retrotranslocated to the cytosol, where it avoids proteasomal degradation prior to nuclear import...
  34. Molecular mechanisms of pathogen recognition by the Nod-like receptor NLRC4
    Fayyaz S Sutterwala; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..if NLRC4 serves as a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor for bacterial compounds that gain entry into the cytosol of the host cell through T3SS or T4SS, or if it indirectly senses the consequences of plasma membrane damage ..
  35. MEPRINS-METALLOPROTEINASES OF THE KIDNEY AND INTESTINE
    Judith S Bond; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..meprin knockout mice to identify specific targets of meprin interaction and hydrolysis in brush border membrane, cytosol and extracellular compartments...
  36. Ethanol Regulates Vacuolar ATPase &PEDF
    Chuhan Chung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5) Ethanol or leptin challenge results in translocation of soluble v-ATPase (V1E) from cytosol to plasma membranes in stellate cells...
  37. MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CHLAMYDIA PATHOGENICITY
    Anthony T Maurelli; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Aim 3 will characterize transport systems used by Chlamydia to acquire iron and biotin from the host cytosol. Mechanisms of iron acquisition by Chlamydia are completely unknown and our innovative approach will use a ..
  38. Role of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein in the survival and death of leukemia cells
    Ameeta Kelekar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..its binding partner, pro-survival Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1L, to facilitate the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Noxa/Mcl-1L interactions play a crucial role in the survival and death of cells of the immune system and Noxa is ..
  39. Endocannabinoid Intracellular Transporters
    Dale G Deutsch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Water-soluble neurotransmitters diffuse unassisted in the cytosol to their respective catabolic enzyme for breakdown, after being transported into cells...
  40. Direct Regulation of Mitochondrial Transcription by Thyroid Hormone and Receptor
    MEGAN LYNN BESTWICK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..complexes of this pathway, and the remaining protein subunits are encoded by the nucleus, translated in the cytosol and then imported into the mitochondrial inner membrane...
  41. Respiratory and Metabolic Adaptation to Hypoxia
    Paul T Schumacker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mitochondrial Complex III induced by hypoxia cause an increase in ROS release to the intermembrane space and the cytosol. These oxidants may trigger adaptive responses including the stabilization of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 alpha (..
  42. Kinase/Phosphatase-mediated Mitochondrial Restructuring in Neuroprotection
    Stefan Strack; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..assembles a signalosome at the outer mitochondrial membrane, which integrates death and survival signals from the cytosol and from within mitochondria to restructure the organelle via reversible phosphorylation of the Drp1::Mff fission ..
  43. Gene Networks Regulating Muscle Protein Degradation
    Nathaniel J Szewczyk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..kinase or phosphatase, to: (1) Identify genes whose products regulate muscle protein degradation in muscle cytosol, mitochondria, nuclei, and/or myofibers by (a) Conducting RNAi knockdown of "muscle mutant" genes, (b) Examining ..
  44. Role of the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases in Energy Metabolism
    SALIH JAWAD WAKIL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..ACC1 is located in the cytosol and generates malonyl-CoA for the synthesis of fatty acids...
  45. REDUCING LAPAROTOMY WOUND FAILURE
    Sufan Chien; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Noveratech has developed a new technique for the delivery of Mg-ATP directly to the cytosol (ATP-vesicles or VitaSolTM)...
  46. Cardiac metabolism and heart failure
    Rong Tian; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that specifically enhance fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria or decrease active lipid intermediates in the cytosol improves the outcome of heart failure...
  47. Inhibition of Fat Absorption as a Mechanism to Treat Obesity
    CHARLES MILTON MANSBACH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By contrast, intestinal cell cytosol, which has considerable FABP1, cannot generate PCTV without ATP...
  48. Oxidative damage and cone cell death in RP
    Peter A Campochiaro; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..there is co- expression of a superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a H2O2-detoxifying enzyme in mitochondria or in the cytosol. This suggests that in the setting of RP, there are excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both the cytosol ..
  49. Oxidative Lipidomics in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
    Hulya Bayir; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Upon extrusion into the cytosol, cyt c activates initiator and effector caspase cascades responsible for apoptosis...
  50. Multifunctional nanoparticles to improve treatment of human glioblastoma
    Miqin Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the NP tht is crosslinked by disulfide linkage and can be rapidly degraded by glutathione-mediated reduction in cytosol of target cells to release the payload but not in blood...
  51. GLUCOSE/SECRETAGOGUE METABOLISM IN PANCREATIC ISLETS
    MICHAEL JOHN MACDONALD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus acetoacetate, in addition to citric acid cycle intermediates, can transfer carbon to the cytosol for the synthesis of short chain acyl-CoAs, lipids and other factors...
  52. C. trachomatis-mediated signaling pathways required for Type I IFN responses
    JEFFREY RYAN BARKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The fractionated supernatants will be delivered by digitonin permeabilization to the host cytosol to identify the Type I IFN inducing bioactive molecule...
  53. Temporal Requirements for Intracellular Pathogenesis
    Darren E Higgins; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..During intracellular infection, Lm uses actin-based motility to move within the cytosol and spread from cell-to-cell...
  54. BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PEPTIDE AMIDATION
    ELIZABETH ANNE EIPPER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This knowledge will clarify how the linkers affect the ability of membrane PAM to signal to cytosol and nucleus...
  55. The Role of the Cochaperone/E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP in Nuclear Stress Response
    SARAH MARIE RONNEBAUM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..While CHIP is thought to be predominantly active in the cytosol, evidence suggests that CHIP noncanonically ubiquitinates nuclear substrates and may exhibit enhanced chromatin ..
  56. Cardiac Dystrophy: Cellular Mechanisms
    NATALIA V SHIROKOVA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Na+-Ca2+ exchanger to extrude Ca2+ from dystrophic cardiac myocytes, thus promoting Ca2+ accumulation in the cytosol and consequently cellular damage. 2b)...
  57. Membrane Protein Trafficking in Photoreceptors
    Wolfgang Baehr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Prenylated or acylated peripheral membrane proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and become ER-associated...
  58. Copper Uptake from Plasma Ceruloplasmin
    Maria C Linder; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..internalization, including low pH washes and trypsinization of the cell surface, detection of 64Cu from Cp in the cytosol, monitoring of Cu entry by use of intracellular fluorescent copper probes, and rescue of SOD1 or cytochrome c ..
  59. MECHANISM OF INOSITOL TRISPHOSPHATE ACTION
    Suresh K Joseph; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Deletion of 60aa from the C-terminal tail or 10aa from the cytosol- exposed loop between TM domains 4 &5 cause loss of channel function...
  60. Kinase/Phosphatase-mediated Mitochondrial Restructuring in Neuroprotection
    Stefan Strack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..assembles a signalosome at the outer mitochondrial membrane, which integrates death and survival signals from the cytosol and from within mitochondria to restructure the organelle via reversible phosphorylation of Drp1 at S656...
  61. ROLE OF OXIDIZED CARDIOLIPIN TRANSLOCATION IN OXIDATIVE STRESS-INDUCED APOPTOSIS
    Albert W Girotti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Release of respiratory chain cytochrome c (cyt c) from the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) and movement into cytosol is known to be an early event in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway...
  62. Retrotranslocation of cholera toxin AI-chain from ER ot cytosol and cell response
    Jin Ah Cho; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of the cholera toxin (CT) A1-chain from within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of host cells to the cytosol. A second goal is to determine if host cells innately sense the toxin in the ER or during the process of retro-..
  63. ARF BINDING IN THE ACTION OF CHOLERA AND E COLI TOXINS
    Richard Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..to ER and back out to Golgi, where A and B subunits dissociate and the active A subunit presumably enters the cytosol. These surprising observations, that this regulator of membrane traffic, Arf, is required for ADP-ribosylation by ..
  64. REGULATORS OF IRON ABSORPTION
    MARCEL CONRAD; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Mobilferrin is a 56 kD cytosol protein which binds iron and other metal cations and is a homologue of calreticulin...
  65. DIARRHEAL DISEASES: CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORYLATION
    GEOFFREY SHARP; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..membranes (microvillus and basolateral), intracellular organelles (endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria) and cytosol. Each will be studied in the presence and absence of Ca++, calmodulin, cyclic AMP and combinations of the three...
  66. AREA: Synthesis and Evaluation of New Cathepsin B, D, and K Inhibitors
    Rose McConnell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, many researchers have found that under many diseased conditions cathepsins are released into the cytosol and appear in the serum...
  67. Simian Virus 40 (SV40) uncoating and penetration
    Daniel Hebert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recent data suggests that within the ER the virus disassembles and its genome is delivered to the cytosol/nucleus. This facilitates genome replication, the cytosolic synthesis of viral proteins, and viral assembly...
  68. High throughput screening assays to identify small molecules that target the ClpX
    Carolyn K Suzuki; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the cytosol and nucleus, the 26S proteasome is the only ATP-dependent protease, which functions to eliminate abnormal and ..
  69. Retro-translocation of cholera toxin in intestinal cells: from ER to cytosol
    NAOMI WERNICK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of the cholera toxin (CT) A1-chain from within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol. CT produced by Vibrio cholerae breeches the intestinal epithelial barrier and enters host epithelial cells to ..