sputum

Summary

Summary: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Mucins, mucus, and sputum
    Judith A Voynow
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Chest 135:505-12. 2009
  2. pmc Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance
    Catharina C Boehme
    Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland
    N Engl J Med 363:1005-15. 2010
  3. pmc Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study
    Catharina C Boehme
    Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet 377:1495-505. 2011
  4. pmc Mepolizumab and exacerbations of refractory eosinophilic asthma
    Pranabashis Haldar
    Institute for Lung Health, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester National Health Service Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 360:973-84. 2009
  5. ncbi Mepolizumab for prednisone-dependent asthma with sputum eosinophilia
    Parameswaran Nair
    Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health, St Joseph s Healthcare and Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    N Engl J Med 360:985-93. 2009
  6. pmc Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance by use of on-demand, near-patient technology
    Danica Helb
    Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:229-37. 2010
  7. ncbi Biomarkers and diagnostics for tuberculosis: progress, needs, and translation into practice
    Robert S Wallis
    Pfizer, New London, CT, USA
    Lancet 375:1920-37. 2010
  8. ncbi Inflammatory subtypes in asthma: assessment and identification using induced sputum
    Jodie L Simpson
    School of Medical Practice and Population Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
    Respirology 11:54-61. 2006
  9. ncbi Liquid vs. solid culture for tuberculosis: performance and cost in a resource-constrained setting
    V N Chihota
    Aurum Institute for Health Research, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:1024-31. 2010
  10. pmc Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF with other nucleic acid technologies for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting: a prospective study
    Lesley E Scott
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Hematology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS Med 8:e1001061. 2011

Detail Information

Publications332 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Mucins, mucus, and sputum
    Judith A Voynow
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Chest 135:505-12. 2009
    ..In contrast to normal mucus, sputum production is the hallmark of chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and cystic ..
  2. pmc Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance
    Catharina C Boehme
    Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland
    N Engl J Med 363:1005-15. 2010
    ..Early detection is essential to reduce the death rate and interrupt transmission, but the complexity and infrastructure needs of sensitive methods limit their accessibility and effect...
  3. pmc Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study
    Catharina C Boehme
    Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet 377:1495-505. 2011
    ..We aimed to assess operational feasibility, accuracy, and effectiveness of implementation in such settings...
  4. pmc Mepolizumab and exacerbations of refractory eosinophilic asthma
    Pranabashis Haldar
    Institute for Lung Health, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester National Health Service Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 360:973-84. 2009
    ..Preventing exacerbations remains an important goal of therapy. There is evidence that eosinophilic inflammation of the airway is associated with the risk of exacerbations...
  5. ncbi Mepolizumab for prednisone-dependent asthma with sputum eosinophilia
    Parameswaran Nair
    Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health, St Joseph s Healthcare and Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    N Engl J Med 360:985-93. 2009
    ..effect of mepolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, in a rare subgroup of patients who have sputum eosinophilia and airway symptoms despite continued treatment with prednisone...
  6. pmc Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance by use of on-demand, near-patient technology
    Danica Helb
    Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:229-37. 2010
    ..and performed the first analysis of the Cepheid Gene Xpert System's MTB/RIF assay, an integrated hands-free sputum-processing and real-time PCR system with rapid on-demand, near-patient technology, to simultaneously detect M...
  7. ncbi Biomarkers and diagnostics for tuberculosis: progress, needs, and translation into practice
    Robert S Wallis
    Pfizer, New London, CT, USA
    Lancet 375:1920-37. 2010
    ..yielded some progress in development of new diagnostics, although the existing pipeline is limited for tests for sputum-smear-negative cases, childhood tuberculosis, and accurate prediction of reactivation of latent tuberculosis...
  8. ncbi Inflammatory subtypes in asthma: assessment and identification using induced sputum
    Jodie L Simpson
    School of Medical Practice and Population Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
    Respirology 11:54-61. 2006
    The authors sought to investigate the detection of non-eosinophilic asthma using induced sputum. Although this is an important subtype of clinical asthma, its recognition is not standardized.
  9. ncbi Liquid vs. solid culture for tuberculosis: performance and cost in a resource-constrained setting
    V N Chihota
    Aurum Institute for Health Research, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:1024-31. 2010
    ..National Health Laboratory Services tuberculosis (TB) laboratory, South Africa...
  10. pmc Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF with other nucleic acid technologies for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting: a prospective study
    Lesley E Scott
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Hematology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS Med 8:e1001061. 2011
    ..validation study we compared the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF, MTBDRplus (Hain Lifescience), LightCycler Mycobacterium Detection (LCTB) (Roche), with acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and liquid culture on a single sputum specimen.
  11. ncbi Ultrastructural characterization of cystic fibrosis sputum using atomic force and scanning electron microscopy
    Reinhard Manzenreiter
    School of Applied Health and Social Sciences, Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences, Linz, Austria
    J Cyst Fibros 11:84-92. 2012
    ..However, the structural contribution of NETs to the matrix composition of CF airway fluid remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that CF airway fluids consist of distinct DNA-NETs that are associated to subcellular structures...
  12. pmc Neutrophil elastase enhances sputum solubilization in cystic fibrosis patients receiving DNase therapy
    Venizelos Papayannopoulos
    Department of Cellular Microbiology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e28526. 2011
    Cystic fibrosis patients suffer from chronic lung infection and inflammation due to the secretion of viscous sputum. Sputum viscosity is caused by extracellular DNA, some of which originates from the release of neutrophil extracellular ..
  13. pmc Early detection of lung adenocarcinoma in sputum by a panel of microRNA markers
    Lei Yu
    Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 1192, USA
    Int J Cancer 127:2870-8. 2010
    ..We have previously shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) were stably present in sputum and could be applied to diagnosis of lung cancer...
  14. pmc Microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay for the diagnosis of TB
    David A J Moore
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunity and the Wellcome Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine Hammersmith Campus, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 355:1539-50. 2006
    ..Rapid, sensitive detection of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in sputum has been demonstrated in proof-of-principle studies of the microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) ..
  15. pmc Phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of bacteria associated with cystic fibrosis
    Adam M Guss
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
    ISME J 5:20-9. 2011
    ..culturing and pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA amplicons, the microbial communities present in CF patient sputum samples were examined...
  16. ncbi Approaches to tuberculosis screening and diagnosis in people with HIV in resource-limited settings
    Michael J A Reid
    Department of Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10467, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 9:173-84. 2009
    ..More widely available methods, such as symptom screening, sputum smear microscopy, chest radiography, and tuberculin skin testing have important shortcomings, especially in people ..
  17. pmc A polymicrobial perspective of pulmonary infections exposes an enigmatic pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients
    Christopher D Sibley
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4N1
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:15070-5. 2008
    ..If a given organism, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, becomes resistant to antibiotic therapy, an alternative treatment avenue may mediate the desired clinical response by effectively managing the composition of the microbial community...
  18. pmc Decade-long bacterial community dynamics in cystic fibrosis airways
    Jiangchao Zhao
    Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:5809-14. 2012
    ..We characterized the bacterial communities in 126 sputum samples representing serial collections spanning 8-9 y from six age-matched male CF patients...
  19. ncbi Xpert® MTB/RIF for national tuberculosis programmes in low-income countries: when, where and how?
    A Trebucq
    Institute of International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15:1567-72. 2011
    Xpert ® MTB/RIF offers new and important possibilities for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) and/or rifampicin (RMP) resistance, and many are encouraging rapid and widespread implementation...
  20. ncbi Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review
    Karen R Steingart
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:570-81. 2006
    Most of the world's tuberculosis cases occur in low-income and middle-income countries, where sputum microscopy with a conventional light microscope is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis...
  21. ncbi Detection of anaerobic bacteria in high numbers in sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis
    Michael M Tunney
    School of Pharmacy, Medical Biology Centre, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:995-1001. 2008
    ..Pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is polymicrobial and it is possible that anaerobic bacteria, not detected by routine aerobic culture methods, reside within infected anaerobic airway mucus...
  22. pmc Rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples by Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF assay--a clinical validation study
    Andrea Rachow
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of the University of Munich LMU, Munich, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e20458. 2011
    ..rapid diagnostic method, (Cepheid) Xpert MTB/RIF Assay, is an automated sample preparation and real-time PCR instrument, which was shown to have good potential as an alternative to current reference standard sputum microscopy and culture.
  23. pmc Intensive tuberculosis screening for HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in Durban, South Africa
    Ingrid V Bassett
    Division of Infectious Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:823-9. 2010
    ..Our objective was to assess the yield and cost of a more intensive tuberculosis screening in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Durban, South Africa...
  24. pmc Altered miRNA expression in sputum for diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer
    Ying Xie
    Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lung Cancer 67:170-6. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether aberrant miRNA expression can be used as a marker in sputum specimen for the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  25. ncbi Yield of acid-fast smear and mycobacterial culture for tuberculosis diagnosis in people with human immunodeficiency virus
    Patama Monkongdee
    Thailand Ministry of Public Health U S CDC Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:903-8. 2009
    The World Health Organization recently revised its recommendations for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in people with HIV. Most studies cited to support these policies involved HIV-uninfected patients and only evaluated sputum specimens.
  26. pmc High prevalence of subclinical tuberculosis in HIV-1-infected persons without advanced immunodeficiency: implications for TB screening
    Tolu Oni
    3 03 Wolfson Pavillion, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Thorax 66:669-73. 2011
    ..In addition, it is unclear if the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in these patients clearly represents an early asymptomatic phase leading to progressive disease or transient excretion of bacilli...
  27. pmc Analyses of asthma severity phenotypes and inflammatory proteins in subjects stratified by sputum granulocytes
    Annette T Hastie
    Center for Human Genomics, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:1028-1036.e13. 2010
    Patients with severe asthma have increased granulocytes in their sputum compared with patients with mild to moderate asthma.
  28. ncbi Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a cause of death in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in a rural area of South Africa
    Neel R Gandhi
    AIDS Program, Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Lancet 368:1575-80. 2006
    ..We assessed the prevalence and consequences of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis in a rural area in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa...
  29. ncbi Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome
    Christian Drosten
    Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, National Reference Center for Tropical Infectious Diseases, Hamburg, Germany
    N Engl J Med 348:1967-76. 2003
    ..The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently been identified as a new clinical entity. SARS is thought to be caused by an unknown infectious agent...
  30. ncbi Influence of DNA on the activities and inhibition of neutrophil serine proteases in cystic fibrosis sputum
    Alice V Dubois
    INSERM U Pathologies Respiratoires protéolyse and aérosolthérapie, Tours, France
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 47:80-6. 2012
    ..We have shown that the active neutrophil elastase, protease 3, and cathepsin G in CF sputum resist inhibition in part by exogenous protease inhibitors...
  31. pmc Resuscitation-promoting factors reveal an occult population of tubercle Bacilli in Sputum
    Galina V Mukamolova
    Department of Infection, Immunity, and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 9HN UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 181:174-80. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that tuberculous sputum might include a population of Rpf-dependent Mtb cells.
  32. pmc Culture enriched molecular profiling of the cystic fibrosis airway microbiome
    Christopher D Sibley
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    PLoS ONE 6:e22702. 2011
    ..Most significantly, using 20 growth conditions per specimen, half of which included anaerobic cultivation and extended incubation times we demonstrate that the majority of bacteria present can be cultured...
  33. pmc The penetration of fresh undiluted sputum expectorated by cystic fibrosis patients by non-adhesive polymer nanoparticles
    Jung Soo Suk
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Biomaterials 30:2591-7. 2009
    Highly viscoelastic and adhesive sputum has precluded efficient nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery to the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF)...
  34. ncbi Immunologic diagnosis of tuberculosis: a review
    E D Chan
    Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO, USA
    Tuber Lung Dis 80:131-40. 2000
    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) principally rests on the sputum examination and culture. However, the sensitivity of sputum smear for acid-fast bacteria is only approximately 50% and sputum culture has a relatively long turnaround time...
  35. pmc Comparison of three molecular techniques for typing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in sputum samples from patients with cystic fibrosis
    Timothy J Kidd
    Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Infectious Diseases, Royal Children s Hospital, Queensland Children s Medical Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    J Clin Microbiol 49:263-8. 2011
    ..CF clinics, we compared the discriminatory power and concordance of ERIC-PCR, PFGE, and MLST among 93 CF sputum and 11 control P. aeruginosa isolates...
  36. ncbi Persistent colonization by Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Timothy F Murphy
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York and the Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, New York 14215, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170:266-72. 2004
    ..Strain-specific H. influenzae DNA was detected in some of the sputum samples that had yielded negative cultures...
  37. pmc Feasibility of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for fluoroquinolone, amikacin-capreomycin, and ethambutol resistance testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and clinical specimens
    Doris Hillemann
    Forschungszentrum Borstel, Nationales Referenzzentrum für Mykobakterien, Parkallee 18, D 23845 Borstel, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 47:1767-72. 2009
    ..line (MTBDRsl) assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) was tested on 106 clinical isolates and directly on 64 sputum specimens for the ability to detect resistance to fluoroquinolones, injectable drugs (amikacin or capreomycin), ..
  38. pmc Patient and provider delay in tuberculosis suspects from communities with a high HIV prevalence in South Africa: a cross-sectional study
    Graeme Meintjes
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 8:72. 2008
    ..The aim was to describe patient and provider delay in the diagnosis of TB in patients with suspected TB requiring admission, and to determine the risk factors for this delay and the consequences...
  39. pmc Moraxella catarrhalis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: burden of disease and immune response
    Timothy F Murphy
    Buffalo Veterans Affairs Medical Center 151, 3495 Bailey Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:195-9. 2005
    Moraxella catarrhalis is frequently present in the sputum of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about the role of M. catarrhalis in this common disease.
  40. pmc Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in hospitalized patients in a High HIV prevalence setting
    Maunank Shah
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University Center for Tuberculosis Research, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 52:145-51. 2009
    ..Effective tuberculosis (TB) control in HIV-prevalent settings is hindered by absence of accurate, rapid TB diagnostic tests. We evaluated the accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB diagnosis in South Africa...
  41. ncbi Early detection of squamous cell lung cancer in sputum by a panel of microRNA markers
    Lingxiao Xing
    Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 1192, USA
    Mod Pathol 23:1157-64. 2010
    ..We have previously shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) were stably present in sputum and potentially useful in diagnosis of lung cancer...
  42. pmc Epidemiology of tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced diagnosis of symptomatic disease
    Elizabeth L Corbett
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 4:e22. 2007
    ..We investigated the epidemiology of prevalent and incident TB in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced primary health care...
  43. pmc Diagnostic accuracy of commercial urinary lipoarabinomannan detection in African tuberculosis suspects and patients
    R Mutetwa
    Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:1253-9. 2009
    ..To evaluate a commercially available antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on detecting lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB)...
  44. ncbi Sputum processing methods to improve the sensitivity of smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review
    Karen R Steingart
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:664-74. 2006
    In low-income and middle-income countries, direct (unconcentrated) sputum smear microscopy is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis...
  45. pmc The adult cystic fibrosis airway microbiota is stable over time and infection type, and highly resilient to antibiotic treatment of exacerbations
    Anthony A Fodor
    Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS ONE 7:e45001. 2012
    ..samples, obtained from a subset of patients, showed a nearly identical distribution of taxa as expectorated sputum, indicating that aspiration may contribute to colonization of the lower airways...
  46. pmc A multi-country non-inferiority cluster randomized trial of frontloaded smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
    Luis Eduardo Cuevas
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 8:e1000443. 2011
    More than 50 million people around the world are investigated for tuberculosis using sputum smear microscopy annually. This process requires repeated visits and patients often drop out.
  47. ncbi Predictors of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients, Battambang, Cambodia
    A Tamhane
    Department of Medicine, Gorgas Tuberculosis Initiative, Division of Infectious Diseases, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:347-54. 2009
    ..Retrospective data analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients attending an HIV clinic (referral hospital), Cambodia. Chest X-rays (CXRs) were read independently by onsite and offsite physicians...
  48. pmc Increased sputum and bronchial biopsy IL-13 expression in severe asthma
    Shironjit K Saha
    Institute for Lung Health, Clinical Sciences Wing, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 121:685-91. 2008
    ..The importance of IL-13 in the asthma paradigm is supported by increased expression in human subjects, particularly in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma. However, the role of IL-13 in severe asthma needs to be further defined...
  49. pmc IgE sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with reduced lung function in asthma
    Abbie Fairs
    Institute for Lung Health, Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:1362-8. 2010
    ..The importance of Aspergillus fumigatus sensitization and colonization of the airways in patients with asthma is unclear...
  50. ncbi Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Ethiopia
    M Agonafir
    Infectious and Other Diseases Research Department, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia macagonafi
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:1259-65. 2010
    ..National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
  51. pmc Chest radiograph reading and recording system: evaluation for tuberculosis screening in patients with advanced HIV
    R Dawson
    University of Cape Town Lung Institute, Division of Pulmonology and E16 Respiratory Clinic, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:52-8. 2010
    ..An antiretroviral treatment (ART) service in Gugulethu township, Cape Town, South Africa...
  52. pmc Xpert MTB/RIF: a new pillar in diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis?
    Viral Vadwai
    PD Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mahim, Mumbai, India
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2540-5. 2011
    ..In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the Xpert test also shows good potential for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB and that its ease of use makes it applicable for countries where TB is endemic...
  53. ncbi Biomarkers for tuberculosis disease activity, cure, and relapse
    Robert S Wallis
    Pfizer, New London, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 9:162-72. 2009
    ..These studies will benefit from multidisciplinary collaborations including microbiologists, immunologists, clinicians, tuberculosis control personnel, and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry...
  54. ncbi Detection of HOXA9 gene methylation in tumor tissues and induced sputum samples from primary lung cancer patients
    Sang Hyun Hwang
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, School of Medicine Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea
    Clin Chem Lab Med 49:699-704. 2011
    ..Unfortunately, no effective early screening modality exists for lung cancer. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HOXA9 promoter methylation in tissue and induced sputum samples from Korean patients with lung cancer.
  55. ncbi Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis
    Emer P Reeves
    Respiratory Research Division, Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183:1517-23. 2011
    ..Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking...
  56. ncbi Evaluation of the World Health Organization algorithm for the diagnosis of HIV-associated sputum smear-negative tuberculosis
    D Wilson
    Department of Medicine, Edendale Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15:919-24. 2011
    ..Outcomes from the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommendations for the diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis (SNTB) in high human immunodeficiency virus prevalence settings are unknown...
  57. ncbi The breathlessness, cough, and sputum scale: the development of empirically based guidelines for interpretation
    Nancy Kline Leidy
    Center for Health Outcomes Research, MEDTAP International Inc, 7101 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 600, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Chest 124:2182-91. 2003
    ..A patient report of respiratory symptoms in COPD is essential to successfully monitoring disease, adjusting treatment, and evaluating outcomes...
  58. ncbi The influence of age on induced sputum differential cell counts in normal subjects
    Rebecca A Thomas
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK
    Chest 126:1811-4. 2004
    b>Sputum induction is increasingly used as a research technique and as a clinical tool. In order to evaluate abnormal results, normal ranges need to be fully developed...
  59. ncbi Microcolony formation: a novel biofilm model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the cystic fibrosis lung
    Dinesh D Sriramulu
    Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Med Microbiol 54:667-76. 2005
    ..An artificial sputum medium was developed to mimic growth of P...
  60. ncbi Airway and systemic inflammation and decline in lung function in patients with COPD
    Gavin C Donaldson
    Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, St Bartholomew s and Royal London Hospital School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Chest 128:1995-2004. 2005
    ..Patients with COPD experience lower airway and systemic inflammation, and an accelerated decline in FEV1. There is no evidence on whether this inflammation changes over time, or if it is associated with a faster decline in FEV1...
  61. ncbi Fluctuations in phenotypes and genotypes within populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the cystic fibrosis lung during pulmonary exacerbations
    Joanne L Fothergill
    Biomedical Research Centre, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    J Med Microbiol 59:472-81. 2010
    ..Using a series of phenotypic and genotypic tests on collections of 40 isolates per sputum sample, we analysed fluctuations within sputum populations of the P...
  62. ncbi Critical appraisal of current recommendations and practices for tuberculosis sputum smear microscopy
    C Gilpin
    International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11:946-52. 2007
    This report is the consensus-based, agreed position of the participants in a workshop for experts in sputum smear microscopy organised in August 2005 by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), and as ..
  63. pmc Microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay, a rapid, reliable diagnostic test for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis suitable for use in resource-poor settings
    David A J Moore
    Laboratorio de Investigación de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, San Martin de Porras, Lima, Peru
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4432-7. 2004
    ..MODS detected 94.0% of 1,908 positive sputum cultures, whereas Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture detected only 86.9% (P < 0.001)...
  64. ncbi A Phase II study of the sterilising activities of ofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin in pulmonary tuberculosis
    R Rustomjee
    Unit for Clinical and Biomedical TB Research, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 12:128-38. 2008
    ..Current treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) might be shortened by the incorporation of fluoroquinolones (FQs)...
  65. pmc Clinical utility of a commercial LAM-ELISA assay for TB diagnosis in HIV-infected patients using urine and sputum samples
    Keertan Dheda
    Lung Infection and Immunity Unit, Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonology and Clinical Immunology, UCT Lung Institute, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 5:e9848. 2010
    ..The utility of LAM in sputum samples has, hitherto, not been evaluated.
  66. pmc The role and performance of chest X-ray for the diagnosis of tuberculosis: a cost-effectiveness analysis in Nairobi, Kenya
    M R A van Cleeff
    KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, The Netherlands
    BMC Infect Dis 5:111. 2005
    ..TB suspects and 2) to compare the cost-effectiveness of the routine diagnostic pathway using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) sputum microscopy followed by CXR if case of negative sputum result (ZN followed by CXR) with an alternative pathway ..
  67. ncbi Genotypic diversity of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in South Africa
    C K Mlambo
    Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease, National Health Laboratory Services, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 12:99-104. 2008
    ..The epidemiology of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), an emerging threat to TB control, is not well understood...
  68. ncbi Cough and sputum production are associated with frequent exacerbations and hospitalizations in COPD subjects
    Pierre Regis Burgel
    Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Cochin, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, 27 rue du Faubourg St Jacques, Paris Cedex 14, France
    Chest 135:975-82. 2009
    Epidemiologic studies indicate that chronic cough and sputum production are associated with increased mortality and disease progression in COPD subjects...
  69. ncbi Baseline sputum time to detection predicts month two culture conversion and relapse in non-HIV-infected patients
    A C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:560-70. 2010
    Few biomarkers are available to identify tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk of delayed sputum conversion and relapse.
  70. ncbi Comparison of four culture systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Zambian National Reference Laboratory
    M Muyoyeta
    Zambia AIDS Related Tuberculosis Project ZAMBART, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:460-5. 2009
    ..National TB Reference Laboratory, Zambia...
  71. pmc Increased tachykinin levels in induced sputum from asthmatic and cough patients with acid reflux
    Robert N Patterson
    Department of Medicine, Queen s University Belfast, and Regional Respiratory Centre, Belfast City Hospital, Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6BJ, UK
    Thorax 62:491-5. 2007
    ..Acid reflux may aggravate airway disease including asthma and chronic cough. One postulated mechanism concerns a vagally-mediated oesophageal-tracheobronchial reflex with airway sensory nerve activation and tachykinin release...
  72. ncbi Gene expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a mucin-containing synthetic growth medium mimicking cystic fibrosis lung sputum
    Carina Fung
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    J Med Microbiol 59:1089-100. 2010
    ..aeruginosa pathobiology in the CF lung. In this study we produced a modified artificial-sputum medium (ASMDM) more closely resembling CF sputum than previous models, and extended previous work by using strain ..
  73. pmc Sputum monitoring during tuberculosis treatment for predicting outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis
    David J Horne
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:387-94. 2010
    WHO has previously recommended sputum-smear examination at the end of the second month of treatment in patients with recently diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis, and, if positive, extension of the intensive therapy phase...
  74. ncbi Substitution of moxifloxacin for isoniazid during intensive phase treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis
    Susan E Dorman
    Johns Hopkins University Center for Tuberculosis Research, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:273-80. 2009
    ..Moxifloxacin has potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and in a mouse model of antituberculosis (TB) chemotherapy, but data regarding its activity in humans are limited...
  75. pmc Gene expression changes linked to antimicrobial resistance, oxidative stress, iron depletion and retained motility are observed when Burkholderia cenocepacia grows in cystic fibrosis sputum
    Pavel Drevinek
    Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 8:121. 2008
    ..Their large genome (> 7000 genes) and multiple pathways encoding the same putative functions make virulence factor identification difficult in these bacteria...
  76. ncbi Clinical diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in low-income countries: the current evidence
    Kamran Siddiqi
    Public Health Medicine and Nuffield Institute for Health, University of Leeds, 71 75 Clarendon Road, LS2 9PL, Leeds, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:288-96. 2003
    b>Sputum smear examination for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) can diagnose up to 50-60% of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in well-equipped laboratories...
  77. ncbi Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Timothy F Murphy
    Medical Research 151, Buffalo Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3495 Bailey Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:853-60. 2008
    ..Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in cross-sectional studies. However, patterns of carriage and the role of P. aeruginosa in COPD are unknown...
  78. ncbi Sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase of Category-1 regimen in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus or HIV infection: An analysis of risk factors
    V V Banu Rekha
    Tuberculosis Research Centre ICMR, Chennai, India
    Indian J Med Res 126:452-8. 2007
    ..We undertook this retrospective analysis to compare sputum conversion rates (smear, culture) at the end of intensive phase (IP) of Category-1 regimen among patients admitted ..
  79. ncbi Uteroglobin-related protein 1 and clara cell protein in induced sputum of patients with asthma and rhinitis
    Claire de Burbure
    Unit of Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle aux Champs 30, bte 3054, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Chest 131:172-9. 2007
    ..Uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1) and Clara cell protein (CC16), members of the secretoglobin family, increasingly appear to play a role in airway inflammatory response...
  80. ncbi Initial default from tuberculosis treatment: how often does it happen and what are the reasons?
    E Botha
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 12:820-3. 2008
    ..The 18 subjects who were interviewed indicated reasons for initial default that were (56%) or were not (44%) directly linked to services. High initial default rates require improvement in the quality of health services...
  81. ncbi Comparison of Lumin LED fluorescent attachment, fluorescent microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen for AFB diagnosis
    Alexander Trusov
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:836-41. 2009
    Cross-sectional studies in Russia (n = 502) and Macedonia (n = 205), with fluorochrome-stained sputum examined by 1) the new Lumin light emitting diode (LED) fluorescent attachment on a light microscope, and 2) conventional fluorescent ..
  82. ncbi Surveillance of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the state of Gujarat, India
    R Ramachandran
    Tuberculosis Research Centre, Chennai, India
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:1154-60. 2009
    ..We conducted a representative state-wide survey in the state of Gujarat (2005 population: 56 million)...
  83. pmc Performance of three LED-based fluorescence microscopy systems for detection of tuberculosis in Uganda
    Heidi Albert
    Tuberculosis Research Laboratory, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 5:e15206. 2010
    ....
  84. ncbi Exhaled nitric oxide thresholds associated with a sputum eosinophil count ≥3% in a cohort of unselected patients with asthma
    Florence N Schleich
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, CHU Sart Tilman, Liege, I GIGA Research Group, University of Liege, Belgium
    Thorax 65:1039-44. 2010
    It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma...
  85. ncbi Improvement of tuberculosis case detection and reduction of discrepancies between men and women by simple sputum-submission instructions: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial
    Mishal Sameer Khan
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 369:1955-60. 2007
    ..Submission of poor-quality sputum specimens by women might be one reason for the difference between the sexes...
  86. ncbi Rapid molecular screening for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-volume public health laboratory in South Africa
    Marinus Barnard
    Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, 71 av Louis Casai, 1216 Cointrin, Switzerland
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:787-92. 2008
    ..Conventional methods for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance take weeks to months to produce results. Rapid molecular testing for drug resistance is available but has not been implemented in high-TB-burden settings...
  87. ncbi Heterogeneity of airway inflammation in persistent asthma : evidence of neutrophilic inflammation and increased sputum interleukin-8
    P G Gibson
    Airways Research Centre, Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW, Australia
    Chest 119:1329-36. 2001
    ..To identify the characteristics of airway inflammation in persistent asthma and to examine the role of neutrophilic inflammation in noneosinophilic persistent asthma...
  88. pmc Reduction in sputum neutrophil and eosinophil numbers by the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast in patients with COPD
    Diana C Grootendorst
    Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Thorax 62:1081-7. 2007
    ..Results from in vitro studies with roflumilast indicate that it has anti-inflammatory properties that may be applicable for the treatment of COPD...
  89. pmc Moxifloxacin versus ethambutol in the initial treatment of tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomised, controlled phase II trial
    Marcus B Conde
    Instituto de Doencas do Torax Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Lancet 373:1183-9. 2009
    ..The fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin is a promising new agent that might have additive activity to existing antituberculosis agents. We assessed the activity and safety of moxifloxacin in the initial stage of tuberculosis treatment...
  90. ncbi Strain-specific immune response to Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Sanjay Sethi
    Department of Medicine, University of Buffalo SUNY and the Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 169:448-53. 2004
    ..influenzae after exacerbations. We collected clinical information, sputum, and serum monthly and during exacerbations from 81 patients with COPD over 56 months. Serum antibodies to H...
  91. pmc Sputum neutrophils as a biomarker in COPD: findings from the ECLIPSE study
    Dave Singh
    University of Manchester, Medicines Evaluation Unit, South Manchester University Hospitals Trust, Southmoor Road, Manchester M23 9QZ, UK
    Respir Res 11:77. 2010
    The percentage of neutrophils in sputum are increased in COPD patients, and may therefore be a biomarker of airway inflammation...
  92. ncbi Factors influencing sputum smear and culture conversion time among patients with new case pulmonary tuberculosis
    M Guler
    Department of Chest Diseases, Ataturk Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
    Int J Clin Pract 61:231-5. 2007
    b>Sputum smear and culture conversion are important indicators for the effectiveness of treatment and the infectivity of the patient...
  93. pmc Multi analyte profiling and variability of inflammatory markers in blood and induced sputum in patients with stable COPD
    Shawn D Aaron
    Department of Medicine, The Ottawa Health Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Respir Res 11:41. 2010
    We analyzed serial concentrations of multiple inflammatory mediators from serum and induced sputum obtained from patients with stable COPD and controls...
  94. ncbi Effect of cigarette smoking on sputum smear conversion in adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis
    A T Abal
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, P O Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait
    Respir Med 99:415-20. 2005
    Although factors influencing sputum smear conversion in tuberculosis have been studied well, the effect of smoking is largely unknown...
  95. ncbi Utility of pneumococcal urinary antigen detection in diagnosing exacerbations in COPD patients
    Felipe Andreo
    Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Fundació Institut d Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, corrected Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Badalona, Spain
    Respir Med 104:397-403. 2010
    ..Forty-six patients with S. pneumoniae isolation in sputum culture were studied (29 collected in stable period and 17 collected during exacerbation)...
  96. ncbi Metalloproteinase-9 is increased after toluene diisocyanate exposure in the induced sputum from patients with toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma
    H S Park
    Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
    Clin Exp Allergy 33:113-8. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate MMPs and TIMP involvement in toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma...
  97. ncbi Diagnosing smear-negative tuberculosis using case definitions and treatment response in HIV-infected adults
    D Wilson
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:31-8. 2006
    ..To assess the diagnostic utility of expanded case definitions for HIV-associated smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB), and to derive objective criteria for response to anti-tuberculosis treatment...
  98. ncbi High frequency of chronic cough and sputum production with lowered exercise capacity in young smokers
    Anna Hamari
    Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Division, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Ann Med 42:512-20. 2010
    ..The aim was to evaluate how cigarette smoking is associated with respiratory symptoms, fitness, and anthropometric measures in young smokers...
  99. pmc COPD exacerbations . 2: aetiology
    E Sapey
    Lung Investigation Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Thorax 61:250-8. 2006
    ..Important aetiologies, with their potential underlying mechanisms, are discussed and the significance of each aetiology is considered...
  100. ncbi A randomised controlled trial of high-dose isoniazid adjuvant therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College, Kanpur, India
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 12:139-45. 2008
    ..Tertiary care hospital in Kanpur, India...
  101. ncbi Increased levels of osteopontin in sputum supernatant in severe refractory asthma
    Vasiliki Delimpoura
    2nd Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Athens Medical School, Attikon Hospital, Smolika 2 16673, Athens, Greece
    Thorax 65:782-6. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of OPN in sputum supernatants of patients with SRA, to compare them with milder forms of the disease and to investigate their ..

Research Grants77

  1. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Screening Trial
    Mona Fouad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To date, randomized controlled trials of screening modalities such as chest x-ray and sputum cytology have not demonstrated any impact on lung cancer mortality...
  2. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Screening Trial
    BARBARA O'BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To date, randomized controlled trials of screening modalities such as chest x-ray and sputum cytology have not demonstrated any impact on lung cancer mortality...
  3. Comparison of Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions and Health Effects in Underground Mi
    Jefferey L Burgess; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Spirometry, symptoms, sputum, blood, urine, exhaled breath and ultrasonography will be collected on all subjects pre- and post-exposure...
  4. Neural mechanisms by which chronic stress regulates inflammation in asthma
    Melissa A Rosenkranz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Glucose metabolic rate will be examined in relation to measures of lung function (FEV1), inflammation (sputum and blood eosinophils, exhaled nitric oxide), sensitivity of immune cells to inhibition by glucocorticoids, stress ..
  5. Improving TB Diagnosis in Children with and without HIV in Kenya
    Rinn Song; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pediatric TB has no sensitive and specific "gold standard" diagnostic method. A positive culture of sputum, induced sputum, or gastric aspirate is probably grossly insensitive, albeit specific...
  6. Biomarkers to Assess Selenium Chemoprevention for NSCLC
    Steven A Belinsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..some of the more promising methylated genes identified in that study as biomarkers to evaluate methylation in the sputum and blood of persons participating in the Phase III selenium chemoprevention trial...
  7. The function and regulation of IL-33 in the airway epithelium in asthma
    ERIN D GORDON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the ST2 locus from a large number of asthmatics and identify SNPs associated with altered ST2 epithelial cell and sputum pellet gene expression...
  8. Statins for Pulmonary and Cardiac Complications of Chronic HIV (The SPARC Trial)
    Stephen R Wisniewski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..airway obstruction, lower pulmonary artery pressures and cardiac strain, lower peripheral cytokines, and decreased sputum neutrophils despite being older and having a similar smoking history to those not using statins...
  9. Factors for Epigenetic Silencing of Lung Cancer Genes
    Steven Belinsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..methylation of the pl6 and/or O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoters can be detected in DNA from sputum in 100% of squamous cell lung carcinomas (SCCs) up to 3 years before clinical diagnosis...
  10. Immunobiology of Acute Environmental Asthma
    David B Peden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Gene profiling of induced sputum from mildly asthmatic individuals suggests that the Monarch-1 gene is reduced in these individuals relative to ..
  11. Tb-FISH (Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization) Assay for Direct Detection of M. tube
    JYOTSNA S SHAH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Develop a simple, rapid and in-expensive TB-FISH test kit for culture confirmation and direct detection of MTB in sputum samples. The kit shall contain all the reagents and control smears. Tuberculosis is the disease of the poor...
  12. Hospital and Household Studies of Respiratory Cryptosporidiosis and Transmission
    Jeffrey K Griffiths; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We recently found that 35% of Ugandan children with Cr. diarrhea and cough were PCR sputum-positive, suggesting that respiratory tract (RT) infection occurs frequently in children with Cr...
  13. Development of Inhaled Vancomycin for Treatment of MRSA Infections in CF
    Taneli Jouhikainen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that pulmonary administration of vancomycin is safe and well tolerated, and reduces or eliminates MRSA from the sputum of CF patients suffering from MRSA lung infections...
  14. A New Pathway for Neutrophil-induced Airway Inflammation
    J Edwin Blalock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found that PGP is present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and/or sputum from virtually all CF, COPD or chronic lung transplant rejection patients but not controls or asthmatics...
  15. Proteome-wide screen for M. tuberculosis antigens
    Robert N Husson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In some, e.g. children and persons with HIV-TB co-infection, the low organism burden often limits the utility of sputum smear microscopy for diagnosis...
  16. Clinical trial of air cleaners to improve indoor air quality and COPD health
    Nadia N Hansel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with intermediate outcome measures known to be linked with long term outcomes in COPD, including airway (induced sputum) and systemic (serum and urine) markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (Specific Aim #2)...
  17. Effect of Macrolide Treatment on a Novel Pathway of Neutrophilic Inflammation in
    J Edwin Blalock; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have also found that PGP is present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and/or sputum from most COPD patients but not controls or asthmatics...
  18. Factors for Epigenetic Silencing of Lung Cancer Genes
    Steven A Belinsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Lovelace Smokers Cohort to identify SNPs significantly associated with extent of methylation of an 8-gene panel in sputum. SNPs across the genome;within microRNA coding and 3'untranslated regions of genes will be identified and ..
  19. Epidemiology of asthma: risk and prognosis in a cohort from birth to adolescence
    Syed Hasan Arshad; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..atopic markers using questionnaire, physical examination, spirometry, bronchial provocation, exhaled nitric oxide, sputum induction, skin prick test, and total IgE...
  20. Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia
    William N Rom; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..AIM 1 will enroll 200 HIV-1+ patients each at New York and Cape Town, collect questionnaires, blood, sputum, PFT, and follow them prospectively for 4 annual visits...
  21. NYU Lung Cancer Biomarker Center
    William N Rom; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Questionnaires, blood (100ml), spirometry, sputum, and CT-scans are obtained...
  22. Screening for inhibitors of M. tuberculosis persistence-related lipid metabolism
    Robert B Abramovitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These TAG inclusion bodies are also observed during infections and in clinical sputum samples from infected humans, supporting a role for TAG accumulation in the progression of TB during chronic ..
  23. Point-of-care telemedicine units for surveillance of infectious diseases
    Karin Nielsen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and can be used at extremely low cost by unskilled personnel for point-of-care testing of blood, urine, saliva, sputum or water by searching for unique holographic signatures of organisms...
  24. miRNA HD Array Platform
    Bruce E Seligmann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HD qNPA miRNA assay will be first validated for samples of cells, fixed tissues, whole blood, bronchial lavage, sputum, and tracheal aspirates...
  25. Geobiological approaches to understanding pulmonary infections in situ
    Dianne K Newman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A. and the USC Adult CF Clinic. Expectorated sputum will be used to gain insight into the temporal evolution of the lung microbiome, whereas explanted lungs will be ..
  26. CIRCADIAN-COUPLED CELLULAR AND LUNG FUNCTION IN COPD
    Irfan Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of BMAL1 and Per2 is increased in bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages and lungs of mice exposed to CS, and in sputum and lung cells from COPD patients associated with reduction in the activity/level of deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)...
  27. Development of high-throughput, commercially viable, Cell-CT instrument with init
    Thomas Neumann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., blood, sputum, cervical scrape, breast aspirate, urine, colon brushing, fine needle biopsy)...
  28. Microbiome in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Rubin M Tuder; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This technique offers significant potential advantages over traditional approaches including bacterial culture of sputum, induced sputum, or bronchoalveolar lavaged sampling...
  29. Impact of a New Molecular TB Test on TB/HIV Outcomes among HIV-Infected Malawians
    Richard E Chaisson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Cepheid GeneXpert System, a new diagnostic test for TB, is a self-contained sputum-processing and real-time PCR system to detect the M. tuberculosis complex as well as rifampin resistance...
  30. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)
    Cheryl Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To date, randomized controlled trials of screening modalities such as chest x-ray and sputum cytology have not demonstrated any impact on lung cancer mortality...
  31. Real-Time Reagent-Free Noninvasive Diagnosis of Tuberculosis
    Payam Nahid; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that suspected cases of TB be isolated in single bed, negative-pressure rooms until three consecutive daily sputum samples have been processed by direct smear and deemed negative for AFB [CDC 2005]...
  32. National Lung Study Trial
    Douglas Reding; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To date, randomized controlled trials of screening modalities such as chest x-ray and sputum cytology have not demonstrated any impact on lung cancer mortality...
  33. Biological Response to Air Quality Change in Beijing pre-, mid- and post-Olympics
    Lina Mu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..interview consisted of an in-person interview, physical examination, and biospecimen collection (blood, urine and sputum). Ambient PM concentration in the study area was measured throughout the study period...
  34. Epigenetic Changes Link COPD and Lung Cancer
    Yohannes Tesfaigzi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..double-strand break repair capacity and specific genes within this pathway as determinants for gene methylation in sputum and that the proline variant at codon 72 of p53 is protective from mucous cell hyperplasia and decline of ..
  35. Bacterial Infection in COPD
    Sanjay Sethi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At each visit the patient is evaluated clinically and sputum and serum sample are obtained. Specific Aims and planned experiments are as follows...
  36. Lipidated Mycobacterium tuberculosis biomarkers in clinical specimens
    Basil I Swanson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While incremental advances in sputum-based TB diagnostic tests have been made, the ability to rapidly detect M...
  37. Oral Wash for Nucleic Acid Diagnosis and Prognosis of TB in HIV-Infected Ugandans
    JOHN LUCIAN DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the oral wash, is more accurate for diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients than the current standard test, sputum smear microscopy (Aim 1);if quantitative amplification of antigen 85B mRNA, a transcript associated both with ..
  38. Inexpensive multiplexed ligation probe assay to genotype drug resistant M.tubberc
    HEATHER KOSHINSKY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The most widely used diagnostic test, sputum smear microscopy, is cumbersome, insensitive, involves multiple patient visits and cannot detect multi drug or ..
  39. A novel proteolytic system of pulmonary inflammation
    Amit Gaggar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of this proposal, we examine if clinically stable CF individuals have elevated levels of PGP and proteases in both sputum and serum...
  40. Construction and evaluation of next-generation reporter mycobacteriophages
    Graham F Hatfull; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of these optimized versions of Fluoromycobacteriophages will facilitate the testing of specific protocols for sputum processing to achieve efficient phage infection of mycobacterial cells directly in these samples...
  41. PGP, A Possible Biomarker for COPD Exacerbations and or Progression
    J Edwin Blalock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort represents an unprecedented opportunity to correlate PGP and LTA4H in sputum, plasma, and urine of COPD patients with numerous disease parameters, in particular exacerbations, degree of ..
  42. Inhalable Gallium Nitrate Anti-Infective Powder for CF
    Vu L Truong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that gallium is effective against bacterial resistant Pa strains as well as recent strains isolated from fresh sputum. In this application, we propose further preclinical development of gallium nitrate and testing the protective ..
  43. University of Maryland, Baltimore Biomarker Reference Laboratory
    Sanford A Stass; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a developmental study with the objective to develop diagnostic micro-RNA assays and a micro-RNA biomarker panel in sputum for the early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer...
  44. Eosinophils and lung immunity to Pneumocystis
    Chad Steele; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..murina lung clearance. Moreover, we provide new human data showing that CCL22 levels are higher in induced sputum from HIV+ patients colonized with Pneumocystis, which also correlated with higher eosinophil numbers...
  45. Depression and functional outcomes in COPD: Impact of genetics and inflammation
    Huong Q Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of death in the United States, is characterized by chronic, progressive worsening shortness-of-breath, cough and sputum production, and 25- 50% of patients will develop depressive symptoms...
  46. Development of human thioredoxin as a mucolytic therapy for Cystic Fibrosis
    Peter B Heifetz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Reduced recombinant human thioredoxin-1 (rhTrx) has been demonstrated to be a highly potent liquefier of human CF sputum in laboratory studies...
  47. Intra Cavitary Pharmacokinetics and Drug Resistance in Pulmonary Tuberculosis
    RUSSELL RYAN KEMPKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) To investigate phenotypic and genotypic drug resistance profiles of MTB isolates recovered from sputum, lung, and cavitary lung tissue...
  48. Modified DNA Aptamers and DNAzymes for Diagnosing TB in Resource-Poor Settings
    DAN FELDHEIM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..24 hrs or more), require specialized equipment, expertise, and power, have low sensitivities (50% in the sputum smear test), or do not work on HIV-positive patients or children (antigen tests)...
  49. Preventing fucose-dependent binding of aspergillus and pseudomonas to lung mucin
    John V Fahy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..AIM 2 will screen multivalent fucose structures for efficacy as mucolytic drugs in cystic fibrosis (CF). Sputum in CF is frequently infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus, and these organisms contribute ..
  50. Development of a Peptidomic Rapid Point-of-Care TB Diagnostic
    RAYMOND SAM NIEDBALA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..TB) in TB-endemic countries, where >90% of the global TB cases occur, depends upon microscopic examination of sputum smears made directly from the specimen...
  51. AMSA: ALXR/FBR Mediated Signaling in Severe Asthma
    Bruce D Levy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The stability of the ALX axis phenotype post-corticosteroids will be assessed In blood and sputum, and its relationship to airway remodeling will be assessed by comparing high resolution CT scans performed (after ..
  52. HDAC inhibition for the chemoprevention of lung cancer
    Johann Christoph Brandes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3: To determine if HDAC-I exposure can reverse DNA methylation in the sputum of high-risk subjects for lung cancer Significance: Should HDAC inhibition, as hypothesized, truly permanently ..
  53. Longitudinal Analysis of Transcriptomic Endophenotypes in Asthma
    Geoffrey L Chupp; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protocol to evaluate transcriptomic asthma endophenotypes using genome-wide gene expression measured in the sputum and circulation of asthmatics and has identified 3 transcriptional endophenotypes of asthma (sputum TEA clusters)...
  54. Antibody Biomarkers for Early Detection of Tuberculosis
    D Mitchell Magee; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In resource-poor regions, direct microscopic examination of sputum smears for acid fast bacilli (AFB) provides the prime diagnostic tool...
  55. Development of DNA Methylation Markers for Early Detection of Lung Cancer
    Ite A Laird Offringa; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the analysis of patient bodily fluids will be determined using a new quantitative technique to examine the plasma, sputum and/or bronchioalveloar wash of 300 lung cancer patients treated at University Hospital, Morris Cancer Center, and ..
  56. CLINICAL CENTER FOR MONITORING HEALTH IN WTC RESPONDERS
    IRIS G UDASIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Analysis of sputum of firefighters ten months after exposure showed an excess of these particles, thought to be causally related to ..
  57. Anaerobic shock as a novel treatment for tuberculosis
    Xilin Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..achievement of this line of work should provide a medical procedure that will achieve a positive to negative sputum bacilli conversion in hours, or perhaps even minutes, rather than the weeks required for traditional combination ..
  58. Early detection of lung cancer in veterans
    Feng Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the current diagnostic techniques are either invasive or have poor accuracy. Here we propose to develop sputum-based non-coding RNA (ncRNA) biomarkers that can combine with the genomic probes for NSCLC early detection in ..
  59. Targeting T lymphocyte potassium channels for the treatment of asthma--OLD
    Christine Beeton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Interestingly, T cells in the induced-sputum of patients with asthma up-regulate Kv1.3 channels upon activation. We therefore hypothesize that selective Kv1...
  60. TB- FISH Assay for Direct Detection of M. tuberculosis in unprocessed sputum
    Jyotsna Shah; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..tuberculosis complex (MTB) is by microscopic examination of acid-fast stained unprocessed sputum smears. Unfortunately the acid- fast smear prepared form unprocessed sputum lacks both sensitivity and specificity...
  61. Multiplex TB-M.avium complex Fluorescent in Situ hybridization Assay, direct from
    Jyotsna Shah; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and differentiates Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in culture and sputum. This assay uses fluorescent labeled MTB and MAC specific probes targeted to MTB and MAC ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ..
  62. Phase 2 Pharmacodynamic Study of High-dose Levofloxacin in MDR-TB Treatment
    C Robert Horsburgh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will have three Specific Aims: 1) To define in man the optimal pharmacodynamic parameters of FQ for achieving sputum culture conversion of MDR-TB...
  63. Transmission and the respiratory tract in cryptosporidiosis
    Jeffrey Griffiths; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..respiratory support, such as oxygen), and new measures to interrupt transmission (since pulmonary secretions [sputum] may be a source for transmission)...
  64. Applicability of smartDNA Rapid Detection of Priority Agents in Food
    RICHARD BLIDNER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Investigen currently has a smartDNA-based assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum. On a separate project Investigen is developing prototypes of smartDNA assays and instrumentation for use by first ..
  65. Development of anti-human TL1A monoclonal antibody for the treatment of human ast
    Vadim V Deyev; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..disease characterized by intermittent attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, cough and excess sputum/mucus production...
  66. Domestic endotoxin exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Nadia Hansel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..quality of life, lung function and pulmonary and systemic markers of inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide, induced sputum and serum markers)...
  67. Coaxial Everting Membrane Catheter Bronchoalveolar Lavag
    William Krause; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An important diagnostic procedure is a culture of the sputum or lung aspirate for accurate diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of the cause of the pneumonia...
  68. Strategies to Prevent COPD Exacerbation
    Fernando Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs), defined as the acute worsening of breathlessness, cough, sputum volume or sputum purulence, are associated with marked acute deteriorations of symptoms, health related quality of ..
  69. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND FUNCTIONS OF EOSINOPHIL PROTEINS
    Steven Ackerman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..secretion by activated eosinophils, elevated blood levels in patients with eosinophilia, and increased levels in sputum and BAL of asthmatics, all argue for an important role in eosinophil function...
  70. GOBLET CELL DYSFUNCTION IN ASTHMA
    John Fahy; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The mechanisms of mucus hypersecretion in asthma are poorly understood, even though sputum production is a prominent symptom of asthma exacerbations, and mucus plugging of the airways is prominent in the airways of patients who die from ..
  71. Oral Care and Respiratory Pathogen Colonization
    Ozan Akca; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Identical bacteria have been cultured from the mouth and sputum of VAP patients suggesting that the oropharynx of critically ill patients becomes colonized with respiratory ..
  72. Targeted DNA extraction for Tuberculosis PCR from sputum
    Eric Houpt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Acid fast staining and microscopy of sputum is insensitive, particularly in advanced AIDS when atypical smear- negative presentations increase...
  73. PHASE 2 & 3 TRIALS OF HIGH-DOSE ORAL N-ACETYLCYSTEINE IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS
    Carol Conrad; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Drug effects are assessed on sputum live neutrophil count (primary outcome measurement, measured by microscopy) and on four secondary outcome ..
  74. MULTIDAY EXPOSURE TO O3 IN ASTHMA
    John Balmes; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..While analysis if induced sputum has been validated for the investigation of effects of inhaled allergen, it has not been adequately validated for ..