adrenal cortex

Summary

Summary: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.

Top Publications

  1. pmc In search of adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells
    Alex C Kim
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2200, USA
    Endocr Rev 30:241-63. 2009
  2. ncbi SMAD3 inhibits SF-1-dependent activation of the CYP17 promoter in H295R cells
    Natalia Derebecka-Holysz
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University, 6 Swiecickiego St, Poznan, Poland
    Mol Cell Biochem 307:65-71. 2008
  3. ncbi Convergence of Wnt signaling and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) on transcription of the rat inhibin alpha gene
    Brian M Gummow
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:26572-9. 2003
  4. ncbi Adrenocortical cell lines
    William E Rainey
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390 9032, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 228:23-38. 2004
  5. ncbi Decreased expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated aldose reductase (AKR1B1) is associated with malignancy in human sporadic adrenocortical tumors
    Anne Marie Lefrançois-Martinez
    Unité Mixte de Recherche 6547 CNRS Université Blaise Pascal Clermont II, Génétique des Eucaryotes et Endocrinologie Moléculaire, Complexe Universitaire des Cézeaux, 63177 Aubiere, France
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3010-9. 2004
  6. ncbi Expression of N-type calcium channels in human adrenocortical cells and their contribution to corticosteroid synthesis
    Shizuka Aritomi
    Research Center, Ajinomoto Pharmaceuticals, Kanagawa, Japan
    Hypertens Res 34:193-201. 2011
  7. pmc Coactivation of SF-1-mediated transcription of steroidogenic enzymes by Ubc9 and PIAS1
    Noriko Suda
    Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjujku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Endocrinology 152:2266-77. 2011
  8. ncbi Identification of biomarkers of adrenocortical carcinoma using genomewide gene expression profiling
    Gustavo G Fernandez-Ranvier
    Department of Surgery, J David Gladstone Institutes Genomics Core Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1674, USA
    Arch Surg 143:841-6; discussion 846. 2008
  9. ncbi Serum-free cultures of murine adrenal cortical cells
    Yinting Chu
    Department of Bioengineering, Henry Samueli School of Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Pediatr Surg 41:2008-12. 2006
  10. ncbi Sex differences in the stress-induced release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and corticosterone from the adrenal cortex in rats
    Dai Mitsushima
    Department of Neuroendocrinology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawaku, Yokohama, Japan
    Neuroendocrinology 78:234-40. 2003

Research Grants

  1. ROLE OF MINERALOCORTICOIDS IN HYPERTENSION
    CELSO ENRIQUE GOMEZ-SANCHEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
  2. StAR expression: Integration of Transcription with regulation via the mRNA 3'UTR
    COLIN ROBERT JEFCOATE; Fiscal Year: 2012
  3. Primate Fetal Adrenal Development: Impact on Physiological Processes After Birth
    Eugene D Albrecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Nuclear Lipids in Steroidogenesis
    Marion B Sewer; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. Regulation of Adrenal Vascular Tone by Steroidogenic Cells
    WILLIAM BRYSON CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
  6. Regulation of Steroidogenic Genes by Trophic Hormones
    Marion B Sewer; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. TYPE II 3BETA HSD GENE--REGULATION OF DHEAS SYNTHESIS
    Peter Hornsby; Fiscal Year: 2009
  8. Mechanisms of BDNF and Glucocorticoid Action
    Michael J Garabedian; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Synaptic Changes by Stress in Prefrontal Cortex
    Zhen Yan; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. MECHANISMS LEADING TO ADRENAL ZONATION
    William E Rainey; Fiscal Year: 2012

Detail Information

Publications282 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc In search of adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells
    Alex C Kim
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2200, USA
    Endocr Rev 30:241-63. 2009
    ..Similar to other organ systems, it is widely believed that these rare cells of the adrenal cortex remain relatively undifferentiated and quiescent until needed to replenish the organ, at which time they ..
  2. ncbi SMAD3 inhibits SF-1-dependent activation of the CYP17 promoter in H295R cells
    Natalia Derebecka-Holysz
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University, 6 Swiecickiego St, Poznan, Poland
    Mol Cell Biochem 307:65-71. 2008
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that the inhibitory action of TGF-beta on CYP17 transcription involve at least two mechanisms: SMAD3 dependent inactivation of CYP17 promoter activity and repression of SF-1 expression...
  3. ncbi Convergence of Wnt signaling and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) on transcription of the rat inhibin alpha gene
    Brian M Gummow
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:26572-9. 2003
    ..for proper growth and differentiation of the urogenital ridge, which ultimately gives rise to the kidney, adrenal cortex, and gonad...
  4. ncbi Adrenocortical cell lines
    William E Rainey
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390 9032, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 228:23-38. 2004
    The human adrenal cortex is a complex endocrine organ that secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids arise from morphologically and biochemically distinct zones of the adrenal gland...
  5. ncbi Decreased expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated aldose reductase (AKR1B1) is associated with malignancy in human sporadic adrenocortical tumors
    Anne Marie Lefrançois-Martinez
    Unité Mixte de Recherche 6547 CNRS Université Blaise Pascal Clermont II, Génétique des Eucaryotes et Endocrinologie Moléculaire, Complexe Universitaire des Cézeaux, 63177 Aubiere, France
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3010-9. 2004
    ..tumors and compared the results with the expression of steroidogenic genes (StAR and CYP11A) and regulators of adrenal cortex development [steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita ..
  6. ncbi Expression of N-type calcium channels in human adrenocortical cells and their contribution to corticosteroid synthesis
    Shizuka Aritomi
    Research Center, Ajinomoto Pharmaceuticals, Kanagawa, Japan
    Hypertens Res 34:193-201. 2011
    ....
  7. pmc Coactivation of SF-1-mediated transcription of steroidogenic enzymes by Ubc9 and PIAS1
    Noriko Suda
    Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjujku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Endocrinology 152:2266-77. 2011
    ..inhibitors of activated STAT1 (PIAS1), in SF-1-mediated transcription of steroidogenic enzyme genes in the adrenal cortex. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that both Ubc9 and PIAS1 interacted with SF-1...
  8. ncbi Identification of biomarkers of adrenocortical carcinoma using genomewide gene expression profiling
    Gustavo G Fernandez-Ranvier
    Department of Surgery, J David Gladstone Institutes Genomics Core Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1674, USA
    Arch Surg 143:841-6; discussion 846. 2008
    ..The gene expression profiles of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors are different...
  9. ncbi Serum-free cultures of murine adrenal cortical cells
    Yinting Chu
    Department of Bioengineering, Henry Samueli School of Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Pediatr Surg 41:2008-12. 2006
    ..The feasibility of culturing murine adrenal cortical cells before transplantation was investigated in this study...
  10. ncbi Sex differences in the stress-induced release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and corticosterone from the adrenal cortex in rats
    Dai Mitsushima
    Department of Neuroendocrinology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawaku, Yokohama, Japan
    Neuroendocrinology 78:234-40. 2003
    ..in stress-induced acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus and corticosterone (CS) release from the adrenal cortex, an in vivo microdialysis study was performed in intact male (n = 6) and cycling female (diestrus 1, n = 5; ..
  11. ncbi Food deprivation differentially modulates orexin receptor expression and signaling in rat hypothalamus and adrenal cortex
    Emmanouil Karteris
    Biomedical Research Institute, Univ of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Rd, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288:E1089-100. 2005
    ..However, in the adrenal cortex of the food-deprived animal, there was decreased coupling of orexin receptors to Gs, Go, and Gq and increased ..
  12. ncbi Variegated expression of a mouse steroid 21-hydroxylase/beta- galactosidase transgene suggests centripetal migration of adrenocortical cells
    S D Morley
    Centre for Genome Research, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Endocrinol 10:585-98. 1996
    ..gene directed appropriate cell-specific expression in cultured Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells and in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice...
  13. pmc The roles of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in steroidogenesis
    Li Chun Lisa Tsai
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 11:670-5. 2011
    ..In addition to cAMP-dependent pathways, cGMP signaling also can promote steroidogenesis, and PDE5 modulates this process. Finally, PDE mutations may lead to several human diseases characterized by abnormal steroid levels...
  14. ncbi Steroidogenic factor 1 gene transcription is inhibited by transforming growth factor beta
    Tomasz P Lehmann
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Medical Sciences, 6 Swiecickiego St, 60 781, Poznan, Poland
    Endocr Res 31:71-9. 2005
    ..TGF-beta inhibits the expression of SF-1 gene at a transcriptional level, and we postulate that the inhibitory effect of TGF-beta on steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex could be due to an attenuated transcription of Sf-1.
  15. ncbi Homeostatic responses in the adrenal cortex to the absence of aldosterone in mice
    Gene Lee
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina, 703 Brinkhous Bullitt Building, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7525, USA
    Endocrinology 146:2650-6. 2005
    ..Their plasma renin and angiotensin II concentrations are 45x and 4x wild type. The adrenal cortex is disorganized and has cells that contain marked accumulations of lipid...
  16. pmc Optimizing the conditions of a multiple reaction monitoring assay for membrane proteins: quantification of cytochrome P450 11A1 and adrenodoxin reductase in bovine adrenal cortex and retina
    Wei Li Liao
    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Anal Chem 82:5760-7. 2010
    ..Overall, the CYP11A1 and AdR quantified in this work ranged from 110 pmol to 10 fmol per milligram of tissue protein...
  17. ncbi The melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein exists as a homodimer and is essential for the function of the melanocortin 2 receptor in the mouse y1 cell line
    Sadani N Cooray
    Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary University of London, West Smithfield, London, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 149:1935-41. 2008
    ..1-kDa protein. Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectroscopy suggests that MRAP exists as a homodimer that is resistant to dissociation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and reducing agents...
  18. ncbi Adiponectin receptor expression in the human adrenal cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas
    Gian Paolo Rossi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padua, Italy
    Int J Mol Med 17:975-80. 2006
    ..This novel finding suggests that adiponectin could play a regulatory role in adrenocortical function and growth in humans...
  19. ncbi A comparison between the effects of low (1 microg) and standard dose (250 microg) ACTH stimulation tests on adrenal cortex functions with Behçet's disease
    R Colak
    Firat University Facuty of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Elazig, Turkey
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 20:721-5. 2006
    ..As in other chronic autoimmune diseases, Behçet's disease may show a subclinical adrenal failure and some changes in cortisol levels. We aimed to evaluate adrenal gland function in Behçet's disease patients...
  20. ncbi Eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts anxiolytic effects accompanied by changes in stress hormone release
    Natasa Hlavacova
    Laboratory of Pharmacological Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
    J Psychopharmacol 24:779-86. 2010
    ..In conclusions, chronic treatment with eplerenone (1) exerts anxiolytic effects and (2) influences corticosterone, oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations in a manner consistent with the anxiolytic outcome...
  21. pmc A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE8B) that is mutated in adrenal hyperplasia is expressed widely in human and mouse tissues: a novel PDE8B isoform in human adrenal cortex
    Anelia Horvath
    Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Eur J Hum Genet 16:1245-53. 2008
    ..or any other related genes (PRKAR1A, PDE11A) showed downregulated PDE8B expression (compared to normal adrenal cortex). Pde8b is detectable in the adrenal gland of newborn mice and is widely expressed in other mouse tissues...
  22. ncbi Mechanisms underlying off-target effects of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib involve L-type calcium channels
    Roger G Clerc
    F Hoffmann La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland
    J Hypertens 28:1676-86. 2010
    ..The increased mortality observed with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib is partly due to increased aldosterone production and blood pressure. The mechanisms underlying these effects were investigated...
  23. pmc Ablation of vimentin results in defective steroidogenesis
    Wen Jun Shen
    Division of Endocrinology, Gerontology, and Metabolism, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Endocrinology 153:3249-57. 2012
    ....
  24. pmc ADP-sensitive purinoceptors induce steroidogenesis via adenylyl cyclase activation in bovine adrenocortical fasciculata cells
    Haruhisa Nishi
    Department of Pharmacology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 105 8461, Japan
    Br J Pharmacol 137:177-84. 2002
    ....
  25. ncbi Mechanisms of adrenocorticotropin-induced activation of extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the human H295R adrenal cell line
    Mandy E Janes
    Centre for Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 149:1898-905. 2008
    ....
  26. ncbi Galanin stimulates cortisol secretion from human adrenocortical cells through the activation of galanin receptor subtype 1 coupled to the adenylate cyclase-dependent signaling cascade
    Anna S Belloni
    Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Padua, I 35121 Padua, Italy
    Int J Mol Med 20:859-64. 2007
    ..chain reaction detected the expression of GAL-R1 (but not GAL-R2 and GAL-R3) in the inner zones of the human adrenal cortex. The galanin concentration dependently enhanced basal, but not ACTH-stimulated secretion of cortisol from ..
  27. pmc Aldosterone production in human adrenocortical cells is stimulated by high-density lipoprotein 2 (HDL2) through increased expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2)
    Yewei Xing
    Department of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA 3094, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    Endocrinology 152:751-63. 2011
    ..Of the two subfractions of HDL, HDL2 was more potent than HDL3 in stimulating aldosterone and CYP11B2. Further studies are needed to identify the active components of HDL, which regulate aldosterone production...
  28. pmc The glucocorticoid receptor and its expression in the anterior pituitary and the adrenal cortex: a source of variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function; implications for pituitary and adrenal tumors
    George Briassoulis
    Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    Endocr Pract 17:941-8. 2011
    ..To review the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in anterior pituitary and adrenocortical cells and tumors derived from these tissues as well as factors that may influence its expression...
  29. ncbi Mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in bovine adrenal cortex its purification, properties, nucleotide/amino acid sequences, and identification of selenocysteine
    S Watabe
    Radioisotope Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Japan
    Eur J Biochem 264:74-84. 1999
    Mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase was purified from bovine adrenal cortex. The enzyme is a first protein component in the mitochondrial thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase system...
  30. ncbi Tissue growth and remodeling of the embryonic and adult adrenal gland
    Michelle L Bland
    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0444, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 995:59-72. 2003
    ..the adrenogonadal primordia, separation of adrenal and gonadal precursors, and cell migration that unites the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla...
  31. pmc Basic fibroblast growth factor delivery enhances adrenal cortical cellular regeneration
    Yinting Chu
    Biomedical Engineering Interdepartmental Program, Department of Bioengineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7098, USA
    Tissue Eng Part A 15:2093-101. 2009
    ..Based on the increased number of cells that expressed adrenal cortical genes, the delivery of bFGF enhanced adrenal cortical cellular regeneration, possibly through an angiogenic response...
  32. ncbi Modeling of mosaic patterns in chimeric liver and adrenal cortex: algorithmic organogenesis?
    G Landini
    Oral Pathology Unit, School of Dentistry, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B4 6NN, England, UK
    FASEB J 14:823-7. 2000
    ..We propose that during organogenesis in both liver and adrenal cortex, the same basic mechanism is directed to organ mass enlargement, whereas the differences observed in mosaic ..
  33. ncbi Adrenal cortex remodeling and functional zona glomerulosa hyperplasia in primary aldosteronism
    Sheerazed Boulkroun
    INSERM U970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Paris, France
    Hypertension 56:885-92. 2010
    ..In peritumoral tissue, large remodeling of the adrenal cortex was observed with increased nodulation and decreased vascularization that were not correlated with CYP11B2 ..
  34. ncbi Changes of AT(2) receptor levels in the rat adrenal cortex and medulla induced by bilateral nephrectomy and its modulation by circulating ANG II
    B Peters
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Heidelberg, INF 366, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Histochem Cytochem 49:649-56. 2001
    ..J Histochem Cytochem 49:649-656, 2001)..
  35. ncbi Progressive loss of malignant behavior in telomerase-negative tumorigenic adrenocortical cells and restoration of tumorigenicity by human telomerase reverse transcriptase
    Beicheng Sun
    Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78245, USA
    Cancer Res 64:6144-51. 2004
    ....
  36. pmc Cooperation of hTERT, SV40 T antigen and oncogenic Ras in tumorigenesis: a cell transplantation model using bovine adrenocortical cells
    Michael Thomas
    Huffington Center on Aging, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neoplasia 4:493-500. 2002
    ..The use of cell transplantation techniques in a cell type that is able to form tissue structures with or without full neoplastic conversion allows the phenotypes produced by individual cooperating oncogenes to be observed...
  37. pmc Development and function of the human fetal adrenal cortex: a key component in the feto-placental unit
    Hitoshi Ishimoto
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Endocr Rev 32:317-55. 2011
    Continuous efforts have been devoted to unraveling the biophysiology and development of the human fetal adrenal cortex, which is structurally and functionally unique from other species...
  38. ncbi Genetic association of mutation at agouti locus with adrenal x zone morphology in BALB/c mice
    Shin Tanaka
    Animal Facility for Aging Research, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, 36 3 Gengo Morioka cho, Obu Aichi 474 8522, Japan
    Exp Anim 55:343-7. 2006
    ..However, the zona reticularis seemed to have no association with this locus...
  39. ncbi Therapeutic ratio of inhaled corticosteroids in adult asthma. A dose-range comparison between fluticasone propionate and budesonide, measuring their effect on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and adrenal cortex function
    L P Nielsen
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:2053-7. 2000
    ..Therapeutic ratio over a wide dose range, determined by impact on bronchial responsiveness and endogenous corticosteroid production, seems to favor FP...
  40. ncbi Up-regulation of adrenomedullin gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex
    Piera Rebuffat
    Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padua, I 35121 Padua, Italy
    Int J Mol Med 20:551-5. 2007
    ....
  41. ncbi Adrenal cortical cell transplantation
    James C Y Dunn
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Pediatr Surg 39:1856-8. 2004
    The adrenal cortex is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axis that coordinates the stress response and maintains homeostasis...
  42. ncbi c-Myc protein is stabilized by fibroblast growth factor 2 and destabilized by ACTH to control cell cycle in mouse Y1 adrenocortical cells
    Ana Paula Lepique
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Prof Lineu Prestes de Oliveira, 748, sala 924, Sao Paulo SP, 05508 900, Brazil
    J Mol Endocrinol 33:623-38. 2004
    ACTH is the hormone known to control adrenal cortex function and maintenance in the intact animal but, in culture, it inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical cells from different mammalian species, a puzzle that has remained unsolved for ..
  43. ncbi Genetic association between agouti locus and adrenal X zone morphology in SM/J mice
    S Tanaka
    Laboratory Animal Research Center, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Acta Anat (Basel) 149:170-3. 1994
    ..The a locus might have a novel function in the control of the adrenocortical X zone cell turnover in addition to the well-known function controlling the coat color...
  44. ncbi The adrenal cortex and life
    Gavin P Vinson
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 300:2-6. 2009
    The template for our understanding of the physiological role of the adrenal cortex was set by Hans Selye, who demonstrated its key involvement in the response to stress, of whatever origin, and who also introduced the terms glucocorticoid ..
  45. ncbi The effects of fasting and refeeding on adrenal cortex morphometry and serum concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone in young and old male rats
    Z Kmiec
    Department of Histology and Immunology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
    J Physiol Pharmacol 57:77-84. 2006
    ..In young rats refeeding reduced the volume of reticular zone. It is concluded that refeeding revealed ageing-dependent decline in the secretion of corticosterone, the key hormone of prolonged stress response...
  46. ncbi Zonal expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in sheep and rhesus adrenal cortex
    J K Peterson
    Perinatal Research Laboratories, Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA
    Endocrinology 142:5351-63. 2001
    ..Using immunohistochemistry, nitrotyrosine was detectable throughout the ovine adrenal cortex, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was further identified in zona glomerulosa (ZG) and at a higher level ..
  47. ncbi CREM confers cAMP responsiveness in human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in NCI-H295R cells rather than SF-1/Ad4BP
    Teruo Sugawara
    Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    J Endocrinol 191:327-37. 2006
    ..We conclude that inhibition of the function of SF-1/Ad4BP does not reduce the cAMP induction of StAR promoter activity and protein level. CREM is needed to confer cAMP responsiveness in human StAR protein expression...
  48. ncbi Transforming growth factor beta1 inhibits aldosterone and cortisol production in the human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295R through inhibition of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression
    P Liakos
    INSERM EMI 01 05, Department of Cell Regulation and Dynamics, Commissariat a l Energie Atomique Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    J Endocrinol 176:69-82. 2003
    ..CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 gene products thus appear as the major steroidogenic enzymes down-regulated by TGFbeta1 in the human adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI-H295R...
  49. ncbi Aldosterone-producing adenoma formation in the adrenal cortex involves expression of stem/progenitor cell markers
    Sheerazed Boulkroun
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 970, PARCC, 56 rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France
    Endocrinology 152:4753-63. 2011
    ..Similarly, Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated in the majority of APA as well as in the entire peritumoral adrenal cortex; however, no mutation was identified in the CTNNB1 gene that could account for β-catenin activation...
  50. ncbi The ontogenesis of the steroidogenic tissues
    K Morohashi
    Laboratory of Gene Expression and Regulation, National Institute for Basic Biology, Myodaiji cho, Okazaki, Japan
    Genes Cells 2:95-106. 1997
    ..function of steroid hormone-producing tissues and homologous regulation by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, the adrenal cortex and the gonads have been suggested to have an intimate ontogenic relationship...
  51. ncbi Prolonged zidovudine administration induces a moderate increase in the growth and steroidogenic capacity of the rat adrenal cortex
    Cinzia Tortorella
    Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padua, I 35121 Padua, Italy
    Int J Mol Med 23:799-804. 2009
    ..Hence, we studied in vivo and in vitro, the effects of AZT on the rat adrenal cortex. The prolonged AZT administration (100 mg/kg per day for 4 months) did not cause overt qualitative ..
  52. ncbi The fetal and adult adrenal cortex
    Ken ichirou Morohashi
    Department of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3 1 1, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 336:193-7. 2011
    ..Our transgenic studies have identified the tissue-specific enhancers for the fetal adrenal cortex, ventromedial hypothalamus, and pituitary in Ad4BP/Sf-1 gene...
  53. ncbi Circadian clock signals in the adrenal cortex
    Takumi Ota
    Department of Systems Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606, Japan
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 349:30-7. 2012
    Circadian secretion of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex is required to maintain whole body homeostasis and to adequately respond to or anticipate environmental changes...
  54. ncbi Different pathways of neurohormonal hypothalamic control of the adrenal cortex function in young and old rats
    E D Bazhanova
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Thorez ave, 44, 194223, St Petersburg, Russia
    Mech Ageing Dev 118:91-102. 2000
    The pathways of hypothalamic control of the adrenal cortex function were studied in the experiments on young and old male Wistar rats. Immunohistochemical, morphometric, densitometric and radioimmunoassay methods were used...
  55. pmc Clonality as expression of distinctive cell kinetics patterns in nodular hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex
    S J Diaz-Cano
    Department of Pathology, Tufts University New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Am J Pathol 156:311-9. 2000
    ..57). We concluded that only simultaneous down-regulated apoptosis and high proliferation result in selective kinetic advantage, dominant clone expansion, and unbalanced methylation patterns of androgen receptor alleles in ACNHs and ACAs...
  56. ncbi Coregulatory protein-orphan nuclear receptor interactions in the human adrenal cortex
    Sinead N Kelly
    Department of Surgery, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    J Endocrinol 186:33-42. 2005
    ..presence of secretagogues, SF-1 and nur77 may differentially interact with coregulatory proteins in the human adrenal cortex. Both coregulatory proteins, steroid receptor coactivator (SRC-1) and silencing mediator for retinoid and ..
  57. pmc Adrenocortical cell transplantation reverses a murine model of adrenal failure
    Tatiana Zupekan
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7098, USA
    J Pediatr Surg 46:1208-13. 2011
    ..Although adrenal insufficiency can be managed with steroid replacement, transplantation of adrenocortical cells may represent a more definitive therapy...
  58. ncbi Effect of aging on stress reactivity of the adrenal cortex in laboratory primates. Dependence on the time of day
    N D Goncharova
    Institute of Medical Primatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Sochi
    Bull Exp Biol Med 141:368-71. 2006
    ..The reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system during immobilization at 15.00 was lower in old animals, while at 9.00 there were no age-specific differences or the reactivity was higher in old animals...
  59. ncbi Characterization of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in human adrenal cortex
    J G LeHoux
    Endocrinology 117:1462-8. 1985
    ..In three normal adrenal glands we found values of 23.4, 48.1, and 36 pmol. We concluded that the expression of HMG-CoA reductase activity was elevated in human adrenal carcinoma...
  60. pmc Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex
    Leonardo Guasti
    Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 336:117-22. 2011
    Sonic hedgehog signaling was recently demonstrated to play an important role in murine adrenal cortex development...
  61. ncbi The human fetal adrenal cortex and the window of sexual differentiation
    Neil A Hanley
    Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 17:391-7. 2006
    ..In this setting, in vitro research of normal human development complements clinical investigation of patients born with congenital disorders...
  62. ncbi Blockade of T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels by benidipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, inhibits aldosterone production in human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295R
    Osamu Akizuki
    Pharmaceutical Research Center, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co, Ltd, Shizuoka 411 8731, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 584:424-34. 2008
    ..T-type Ca2+ channels may contribute to additional benefits of this drug for treating renal and cardiovascular diseases, beyond its primary anti-hypertensive effects from blocking L-type Ca2+ channels...
  63. ncbi The effects of proopiomelanocortin deficiency on murine adrenal development and responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin
    Anthony P Coll
    Department of Medicine, Box 232, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QR, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 145:4721-7. 2004
    The mature adrenal cortex is dependent upon proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides for the maintenance of its size, structure, and endocrine function...
  64. ncbi Urotensin-II and UII-receptor expression and function in the rat adrenal cortex
    Giovanna Albertin
    Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Section of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Padua, Italy
    Int J Mol Med 17:1111-5. 2006
    ....
  65. ncbi Characterization of a serine protease that cleaves pro-gamma-melanotropin at the adrenal to stimulate growth
    A B Bicknell
    School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 228, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6AJ, United Kingdom
    Cell 105:903-12. 2001
    ..hypothesis by the cloning and characterization of a serine protease that is upregulated during growth of the adrenal cortex. It is expressed exclusively in the outer adrenal cortex, the site of cell proliferation, and in the Y1 ..
  66. ncbi The undifferentiated cell zone is a stem cell zone in adult rat adrenal cortex
    Fumiko Mitani
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, 160 8582, Tokyo, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1619:317-24. 2003
    The adrenal cortex of mammals has been known to consist of three morphologically and functionally distinct zones, i.e...
  67. ncbi Cross-talk between adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex in stress
    Monika Ehrhart-Bornstein
    Department of Medicine, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1148:112-7. 2008
    ..by the concomitant release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Therefore, the activity of these two embryologically different endocrine organs that are united under one ..
  68. ncbi Growth hormone secretagogue receptor subtypes 1a and 1b are expressed in the human adrenal cortex
    Gianni Carraro
    Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Section of Anatomy, University of Padua, I 35121 Padua, Italy
    Int J Mol Med 13:295-8. 2004
    ..Since previous studies showed that ghrelin does not affect steroid-hormone secretion, the present findings suggest that ghrelin via the GHS-R1a could be involved in the autocrine-paracrine control of human-adrenal growth...
  69. pmc Transplantation of adrenal cortical progenitor cells enriched by Nile red
    James C Y Dunn
    Department of Surgery and Department of Bioengineering, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Biomedical Engineering Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 7098, USA
    J Surg Res 156:317-24. 2009
    The adrenal cortex may contain progenitor cells useful for tissue regeneration. Currently there are no established methods to isolate these cells.
  70. pmc High-flux mitochondrial cholesterol trafficking, a specialized function of the adrenal cortex
    Colin Jefcoate
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Clin Invest 110:881-90. 2002
  71. ncbi Cord-like mosaic patches in the adrenal cortex are fractal: implications for growth and development
    Philip Iannaccone
    Children s Memorial Institute for Education and Research, Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    FASEB J 17:41-3. 2003
    ..In the liver, the pattern appears as islands of one cell type in a sea of the other cell type, while in the adrenal cortex the pattern is one of alternating cords of one cell type adjacent to the other cell type...
  72. ncbi Expression of activin/inhibin receptor and binding protein genes and regulation of activin/inhibin peptide secretion in human adrenocortical cells
    Teemu Vänttinen
    Department of Pediatrics, Kuopio University and University Hospital, Kuopio FIN 70211, Finland
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4257-63. 2002
    ..This, together with the adrenocortical activin/ inhibin receptor and binding protein expression, suggests a physiological role for activins and inhibins in the human adrenal gland...
  73. pmc The rapid release of corticosterone from the adrenal induced by ACTH is mediated by nitric oxide acting by prostaglandin E2
    Claudia E Mohn
    Centro de Estudios Farmacologicos y Botanicos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Serrano 669, 1414 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6213-8. 2005
    The adrenal cortex is a major stress organ in mammals that reacts rapidly to a multitude of external and internal stressors...
  74. ncbi Adrenocorticotropin/cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-mediated transcription of the human CYP17 gene in the adrenal cortex is dependent on phosphatase activity
    Marion B Sewer
    Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 606 Light Hall, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
    Endocrinology 143:1769-77. 2002
    ....
  75. ncbi cAMP-dependent transcription of steroidogenic genes in the human adrenal cortex requires a dual-specificity phosphatase in addition to protein kinase A
    M B Sewer
    Department of Biochemistry and Center in Toxicology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
    J Mol Endocrinol 29:163-74. 2002
    Steroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex is controlled by the peptide hormone adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), which acts to increase intracellular cAMP and results in the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and ..
  76. ncbi Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency in mice causes lipid storage in the adrenal cortex and impaired corticosterone response to corticotropin stimulation
    Hong Li
    Service de Genetique Medicale, Hopital Ste Justine, Montreal, Canada H3T 1C5
    Endocrinology 143:3333-40. 2002
    ..C.3.1.1.3, gene designation Lipe) is reportedly the major cholesteryl esterase of adrenal cortex. Because of the potential importance of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in steroidogenesis, gene-targeted HSL-..
  77. ncbi Angiotensin II-mediated protein kinase D activation stimulates aldosterone and cortisol secretion in H295R human adrenocortical cells
    Damian G Romero
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Montgomery Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and The University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA
    Endocrinology 147:6046-55. 2006
    ..These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in angiotensin II-induced physiological and pathophysiological events in adrenal cells...
  78. ncbi Recent insights into organogenesis of the adrenal cortex
    Catherine E Keegan
    Dept Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, 5552 MSRB II, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0678, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 13:200-8. 2002
    The primary endocrine organs responsible for steroid hormone biosynthesis--the adrenal cortex and gonads--are derived from the urogenital ridge...
  79. ncbi Reciprocal regulation of a glucocorticoid receptor-steroidogenic factor-1 transcription complex on the Dax-1 promoter by glucocorticoids and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the adrenal cortex
    Brian M Gummow
    University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2200, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 20:2711-23. 2006
    ..Glucocorticoid products of the adrenal cortex provide negative feedback to the production of hypothalamic CRH and pituitary ACTH...
  80. ncbi Inhibins differentially antagonize activin and bone morphogenetic protein action in a mouse adrenocortical cell line
    Paul G Farnworth
    Prince Henry s Institute, P O Box 5152, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Endocrinology 147:3462-71. 2006
    ..In conclusion, inhibins A and B differentially antagonize the actions of activins and BMPs to control adrenocortical C(19) steroid production...
  81. ncbi Estimated risk for developing autoimmune Addison's disease in patients with adrenal cortex autoantibodies
    Graziella Coco
    Endocrine Unit, University of Padua Medical School, Italy
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1637-45. 2006
    Patients with adrenal cortex autoantibodies (ACA) without overt autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) are at risk of adrenal failure.
  82. ncbi Adrenocorticotropin-dependent changes in SF-1/DAX-1 ratio influence steroidogenic genes expression in a novel model of glucocorticoid-producing adrenocortical cell lines derived from targeted tumorigenesis
    Bruno Ragazzon
    Unité Mixte de Recherche 6547 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université Blaise Pascal Clermont II, Génétiques des Eucaryotes et Endocrinologie Moléculaire, Complexe Universitaire des Cézeaux, Aubiere, France
    Endocrinology 147:1805-18. 2006
    ....
  83. ncbi Dual hormonal regulation of endocrine tissue mass and vasculature by adrenocorticotropin in the adrenal cortex
    Michael Thomas
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Equipe Mixte 105, DRDC ANGIO, Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Endocrinology 145:4320-9. 2004
    ..During the first 4 d of treatment, adrenal weight and adrenal cortex cellularity decreased rapidly...
  84. ncbi Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease: paradoxical responses of cortisol secretion to dexamethasone occur in vitro and are associated with increased expression of the glucocorticoid receptor
    Isabelle Bourdeau
    Division of Endocrinology and Pathology, Hôtel Dieu du Centre Hospitalier de l Université de Montréal and Department of Biochemistry, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada H2W 1T7
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3931-7. 2003
    ....
  85. ncbi Lack of an adrenal cortex in Sf1 mutant mice is compatible with the generation and differentiation of chromaffin cells
    Philipp Gut
    Neuroanatomy and Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences IZN of Heidelberg, INF 307, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 132:4611-9. 2005
    ..Alternative cues from the adrenal cortex that may promote chromaffin cell determination and differentiation have not been identified...
  86. ncbi N-terminal proopiomelanocortin acts as a mitogen in adrenocortical tumor cells and decreases adrenal steroidogenesis
    Martin Fassnacht
    Department of Medicine, Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg 97080, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2171-9. 2003
    ..The distinct roles of 1-28-POMC and ACTH in the regulation of adrenal growth and steroidogenesis suggest that the adrenal cortex is under the dual opposing control of fragments from the same mother peptide POMC.
  87. ncbi The adrenal cortex and steroidogenesis as cellular and molecular targets for toxicity: critical omissions from regulatory endocrine disrupter screening strategies for human health?
    Philip W Harvey
    Covance Laboratories Ltd, Otley Road, Harrogate, North Yorkshire HG3 1PY, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 23:81-7. 2003
    ....
  88. ncbi Lipopolysaccharide directly stimulates cortisol secretion by human adrenal cells by a cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanism
    K Vakharia
    Department of Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, Suite 12, Dominion House, Bartholomew Close, London EC1A 7BE, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 146:1398-402. 2005
    ....
  89. ncbi Vitamin C is an important cofactor for both adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
    P Patak
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Rheumatology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Endocr Res 30:871-5. 2004
    ..Interestingly, both the adrenal cortex and the medulla accumulate such high levels of ascorbate...
  90. ncbi Zebrafish dax1 is required for development of the interrenal organ, the adrenal cortex equivalent
    Y Zhao
    Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 LeConte Avenue, Room 22 412 MDCC, Los Angeles, California 90095 1752, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 20:2630-40. 2006
    ..Based on these results, we propose that dax1 is the mammalian DAX1 ortholog, functions downstream of ff1b in the regulatory cascades, and is required for normal development and function of the zebrafish interrenal organ...
  91. ncbi Wnt-4 deficiency alters mouse adrenal cortex function, reducing aldosterone production
    Minna Heikkilä
    Biocenter Oulu and Department of Biochemistry, Faculties of Science and Medicine, University of Oulu, FIN 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
    Endocrinology 143:4358-65. 2002
    ..In summary, these results point to a role for Wnt-4 in adrenal gland development and function...
  92. ncbi Molecular evidence of organic ion transporters in the rat adrenal cortex with adrenocorticotropin-regulated zonal expression
    E Beery
    Abteilung Nephrologie und Rheumatologie, Universitat Gottingen, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    Endocrinology 144:4519-26. 2003
    ..The zonated distribution of transporters furthermore suggest that oatp1-3 and OCT2 may be important for the endocrine function of rat adrenocortical cells...
  93. ncbi Immunoelectron microscopic localization of three key steroidogenic enzymes (cytochrome P450(scc), 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450(c17)) in rat adrenal cortex and gonads
    G Pelletier
    Oncology and Molecular Endocrinology Research Center, Laval University Medical Center CHUL, and Laval University, Quebec, Canada G1V 4G2
    J Endocrinol 171:373-83. 2001
    ..steroidogenic enzymes has been mostly studied following subcellular fractionation, performed in placenta and adrenal cortex. In order to determine in situ the intracellular distribution of some steroidogenic enzymes, we have ..
  94. ncbi Aldosterone secretion by the rat adrenal cortex is stimulated by the activation of protease-activated receptor 1
    P W Raven
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, UCL, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK
    J Endocrinol 169:581-5. 2001
    ..These data suggest that the actions of trypsin on aldosterone secretion are mediated by PAR-1...
  95. ncbi Induction of interferon-gamma inducing factor in the adrenal cortex
    B Conti
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Cornell University Medical College at the W M Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, New York 10605, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:2035-7. 1997
    ..In situ hybridization analysis showed that IGIF is synthesized in the adrenal cortex, specifically in the zona reticularis and fasciculata that produce glucocorticoids...
  96. ncbi Novel environment induced inhibition of corticosterone secretion: physiological evidence for a suprachiasmatic nucleus mediated neuronal hypothalamo-adrenal cortex pathway
    R M Buijs
    Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, Amsterdam
    Brain Res 758:229-36. 1997
    ..secretion was not accompanied by any change in plasma ACTH, suggesting a direct neuronal control of the adrenal cortex. (2) In contrast, novel environment at 2 h after light onset (ZT2) results in a rapid increase in plasma ACTH...
  97. ncbi The cloning of a family of genes that encode the melanocortin receptors
    K G Mountjoy
    Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201
    Science 257:1248-51. 1992
    ..The murine and human MSH receptors (MSH-Rs) and a human ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) were cloned. These receptors define a subfamily of receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that may include the cannabinoid receptor...
  98. ncbi Targeted disruption of beta-catenin in Sf1-expressing cells impairs development and maintenance of the adrenal cortex
    Alex C Kim
    Department of Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0678 USA
    Development 135:2593-602. 2008
    ..To investigate the role of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex, we used two Sf1/Cre transgenes to inactivate conditional beta-catenin alleles...
  99. pmc Adrenocortical cells with stem/progenitor cell properties: recent advances
    Alex C Kim
    University of Michigan Medical School, Cell and Molecular Biology Training Program, 1502 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2200, United States
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 265:10-6. 2007
    The existence and location of undifferentiated cells with the capability of maintaining the homeostasis of the adrenal cortex have long been sought...
  100. ncbi Induction of nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase activities by endotoxin in the rat adrenal cortex: involvement of both signaling systems in the modulation of ACTH-dependent steroid production
    N Grion
    Departmento de Bioquímica Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155 5, Buenos Aires C1121ABG, Argentina
    J Endocrinol 194:11-20. 2007
    ..We conclude that adrenal NOS and HO can be induced by a non-lethal dose of endotoxin supporting a modulatory role for these activities in the adrenal response to immune challenges...
  101. ncbi Developmental changes in steroidogenic enzymes in human postnatal adrenal cortex: immunohistochemical studies
    T Suzuki
    Department of Pathology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 53:739-47. 2000
    ..transfer system hypothesized to regulate the 17-20 lyase activity of P450c17, was weak in all three zones of adrenal cortex from 7 months to 5 years, and became more marked in the zona reticularis after age 5 years...

Research Grants63

  1. ROLE OF MINERALOCORTICOIDS IN HYPERTENSION
    CELSO ENRIQUE GOMEZ-SANCHEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Cells of the adrenal cortex, like many endocrine and endocrine hormone-driven organs, must proliferate, regulate hormone synthesis and ..
  2. StAR expression: Integration of Transcription with regulation via the mRNA 3'UTR
    COLIN ROBERT JEFCOATE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Cortisol synthesis in the adrenal cortex plays a central role in stress responses, in dietary control, and in cardiovascular regulation...
  3. Primate Fetal Adrenal Development: Impact on Physiological Processes After Birth
    Eugene D Albrecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..density lipoprotein (LDL)R and enzymes required for DHA/DHAS synthesis by the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex. To accomplish Aim 1, components of the ACTHR signaling, IGF-II/cell cycle and steroidogenesis pathways will ..
  4. Nuclear Lipids in Steroidogenesis
    Marion B Sewer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by which the pituitary-derived hormone adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) regulates cortisol production by the adrenal cortex. Our research has identified a key role for bioactive sphingolipids and phospholipids...
  5. Regulation of Adrenal Vascular Tone by Steroidogenic Cells
    WILLIAM BRYSON CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..II (AII), a vasoconstrictor, stimulates aldosterone release from the zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone regulates sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure...
  6. Regulation of Steroidogenic Genes by Trophic Hormones
    Marion B Sewer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by which the pituitary-derived hormone adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) regulates cortisol production by the adrenal cortex. Our research has identified an integral role lipid ligands in regulating the transactivation potential of the ..
  7. TYPE II 3BETA HSD GENE--REGULATION OF DHEAS SYNTHESIS
    Peter Hornsby; Fiscal Year: 2009
    In humans and a few other primates, the adrenal cortex in the adult individual secretes androgen precursors, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), as well as glucocorticoids and mineral-corticoids...
  8. Mechanisms of BDNF and Glucocorticoid Action
    Michael J Garabedian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glucocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex exert many effects in the central nervous system ranging from spatial learning and cognition to stress and depression...
  9. Synaptic Changes by Stress in Prefrontal Cortex
    Zhen Yan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The function of PFC is strongly influenced by corticosterone, the major stress hormone released from adrenal cortex in response to stressful events, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive...
  10. MECHANISMS LEADING TO ADRENAL ZONATION
    William E Rainey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The human adrenal cortex can be divided into distinct zones that have both morphologic and biochemical differences...
  11. Regulation of Steroid Hormone Production by Inter-Organelle Substrate Exchange
    Marion B Sewer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies will provide valuable information about a largely unexplored facet of steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex. Our findings may also provide insight into the mechanism by which substrates are transferred between the ER ..
  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Adrenarche
    William E Rainey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..because their synthesis requires CYP11B1 (112-hydroxylase), an enzyme expressed almost solely in the human adrenal cortex. Our proposed research will test the overall hypothesis that adrenarche is marked by the production of ..
  13. Leptin and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function in the long-term hypoxic fetus
    Charles A Ducsay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The adrenal cortex of the LTH fetus also adapts in response to LTH including a reduced expression of key steroidogenic enzymes (..
  14. Striatin, Aldosterone and Hypertension
    Gordon H Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we have documented that striatin: 1) is present in several cardiovascular tissues, mononuclear cells and the adrenal cortex;2) is an important regulator of aldosterone's non-genomic mechanism of action in human vascular ..
  15. Roles of Stress and Glucocorticoids in Dopaminergic Projections and Behaviors
    Minae Niwa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated, resulting in the release of glucocorticoids from adrenal cortex. Functional and circuitry disturbances of dopaminergic neurons underlie many psychiatric disorders...
  16. Instacortisol: A realtime and continuous assessment of cortisol in ISF
    MANJU GROVER VENUGOPAL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Cortisol is the primary steroid produced and secreted by the adrenal cortex and is used as a reliable indicator of stress...
  17. Molecular regulation of adrenal cortex homeostasis and remodeling
    EDWARD LAUFER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones throughout postnatal life in response to stress and other physiological inputs...
  18. Wnt-responsive adrenocortical cells in organ maintenance and cancer
    Gary D Hammer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by which Wnt/?-catenin target genes control the normal and dysregulated growth and differentiation of the adrenal cortex. To that end we propose to determine whole genome targets of Wnt-mediated SF1 transcription in adrenocortical ..
  19. Mechanisms of Adrenal Differentiation
    Gary D Hammer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..architecture of the adrenal capsular/cortical unit required to maintain the homeostatic integrity of the adrenal cortex in humans and mice...
  20. "Innate intestinal responses in murine toxoplasmosis"
    Fernando Monroy; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..axis and the sympathetic nervous system leading to the release of glucocorticoids (corticosterone) from the adrenal cortex, and release of catecholamines (epinephrine, nor-epinephrine) from sympathetic nerve terminals and the adrenal ..
  21. Investigation of the Molecular Determinants of DAX-1 Mediated X-Linked Adrenal Hy
    Christina Tzagarakis Foster; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..AHC manifests as the abnormal development of the adult zone of the adrenal cortex and results in low serum concentrations of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and androgens...
  22. STEROID SECRETORY MIXTURES OF ADRENAL CORTEX
    EDWARD BIGLIERI; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..A likely source for other regulators of the adrenal cortex would be the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)...
  23. Biochemical Basis of Cortisone Reductase Deficiency
    Perrin White; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..is a human disease in which the metabolic clearance of cortisol is increased, leading to over activity of the adrenal cortex, increased secretion of adrenal androgens, and a phenotype similar to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)/..
  24. InstaCortisol:A realtime and continuous assessment of Cortisol in ISF
    MANJU GROVER VENUGOPAL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Cortisol is the primary steroid produced and secreted by the adrenal cortex and is used as a reliable indicator of stress...
  25. MECHANISMS OF TCDD TOXICITY
    Diane Russell; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..and secretion since prolactin is known to affect the development and function of endocrine organs such as the adrenal cortex, thyroid, pancreas and perhaps the adrenal medulla...
  26. REGULATION OF CHOLESTEROL ESTERASE IN STEROIDOGENESIS
    FREDRIC KRAEMER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    The presence of substantial pools of cholesteryl esters in the adrenal cortex and ovary, and the recognition that this potential substrate enters the steroidogenic pathway as free cholesterol, signifies the important role of cholesterol ..
  27. Stress stimulated peptides in forced use neuroprotection
    Amanda Smith; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosterone (CORT)...
  28. METABOLISM OF DIGITALIS LIKE FACTORS
    Roland Valdes; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The human adrenal synthesizes and secretes a variety of important regulatory hormones. The adrenal cortex secretes an endogenous digoxin- like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) into the circulation...
  29. POTENTIAL TUMOR OR ORGAN IMAGING AGENTS
    RAYMOND COUNSELL; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..g. cholesterol-adrenal cortex, phospholipid ethers-tumors...
  30. Mechanisms of Adrenal Lineage Development
    David T Breault; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To investigate this we are studying the adrenal cortex, which is composed of functionally distinct concentric layers that develop postnatally, the outer zona ..
  31. ACTH INDUCTION OF CYTOCHROME P450 IN ADRENAL CELLS
    Michael Waterman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The chronic action of ACTH maintains optimal steroidogenic capacity in the adrenal cortex, assuring production of adrenal steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone) on demand...
  32. MECHANISMS OF ADRENAL CORTEX GROWTH/DIFFERENTIATION
    Gary Hammer; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..A functional adrenal cortex is essential for life as evidenced by the early death of patients with congenital adrenal hypoplasia or ..
  33. Nitric Oxide Regulation of Adrenal Steroidogenesis
    William Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In the adrenal cortex, as adrenal arteries get smaller and divide into capillaries and sinusoids, the smooth muscle layer is lost ..
  34. IMMUNIZATION AGAINST ACTH AND PARTURITION
    Dean Myers; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The primate fetal adrenal cortex is the essential source of androgen for placental aromatization to estrogen...
  35. ORPHAN NUCLEAR RECEPTORS IN DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE
    Gary Hammer; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..A functional adrenal cortex is essential for life as evidenced by the early death of patients with congenital adrenal hypoplasia or ..
  36. ANGIOTENSIN II IN ENDOCRINE ORGANS
    Christian Deschepper; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..there is strong evidence for local renin- angiotensin systems (RAS), namely, the anterior pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex and the testicular Leydig cells in the rat...
  37. HYPOTHALAMIC DYSFUNCTION
    Patrick Tso; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Hyperplastic changes in the obese Zucker adrenal cortex, hypersecretion of adreocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone and abnormally low sensitivity to negative ..
  38. Functional Studies in Adrenomyeloneuropathy
    Gerald Raymond; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It affects primarily the nervous system, adrenal cortex, and the Leydig cells of the testes...
  39. BIOSYNTHESIS OF NOVEL ADRENOCORTICAL STEROIDS
    John Hamlyn; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Much evidence suggests that the adrenal cortex may be the primary source of the circulating isomer (i.e., an "adrenal derived endogenous ouabain, AEO)...
  40. NOVEL TUMOR ANTIGEN FOR ANTIBODY TARGETING
    Nai Kong Cheung; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..or marrow cells, brain, brainstem, spinal cord, normal organs except for faint staining of the cytoplasm of adrenal cortex, pancreas and liver...
  41. METABOLISM AND FUNCTION IN THE AGING ADRENAL GLAND
    JEROME KOWAL; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Studies from our laboratory and others have indicated that the adrenal cortex of aging rats accumulates cholesterol esters with diminished cholesterol utilization for steroidogenesis and decreased steroid production...
  42. Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Cardiovascular Biology
    IRIS JAFFE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aldosterone is synthesized by both the adrenal cortex and by vascular cells following angiotensin-2 (All) stimulation or vascular injury...
  43. STEROIDOGENESIS IN ADRENOCORTICAL & GONADAL TISSUE
    Robert Pedersen; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..and cAMP-responsive steroidogenesis activator polypeptide (SAP) previously identified by us in the rat adrenal cortex and gonads...
  44. SEROTONIN (5-HT) RECEPTORS AND SALIVARY GLAND FUNCTION
    GARY WEISMAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..in the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues including the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, adrenal cortex, and vasculature...
  45. REGULATION OF THE STEROIDOGENIC ACUTE REGULATORY PROTEIN
    Barbara Clark; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In addition, trophic hormone or electrolyte stimulation of the adrenal cortex activates different second messenger pathways which mediate the same response; namely, increases in steroid ..
  46. FOUR WEEK ORAL COMPARATIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY STUDIES
    Barry Levine; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a major steroid precursor secreted by the adrenal cortex. Inhibitory activity against glucose-6- phosphatedehydrogenase (G6DPH) and protein isoprenylation may help ..
  47. MATERNAL CORTICOSTEROIDS AND FETAL HOMEOSTASIS
    Maureen Keller Wood; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..cortisol may be necessary for fetal, as well as maternal, fluid homeostasis before maturation of the fetal adrenal cortex. Increased maternal cortisol concentrations may also indirectly contribute to fetal homeostasis by control of ..
  48. DEVELOPMENT OF MITOTANE ANALOGS FOR ADRENAL CANCER
    David Schteingart; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..species, an acyl chloride, which covalently binds to metabolically important macromolecules in the adrenal cortex. We plan to study this mechanism further using a dog model in which the adrenalytic effect will be assessed by ..
  49. Psychopathology of Alzheimer's: APOE and the HPA Axis
    Murray Raskind; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and to determine if the neuroendocrine mechanism for this phenomenon is increased responsiveness of the adrenal cortex in older persons with the E4 genotype...
  50. TISSUE-SPECIFIC EXPRESSION OF CRH TRANSGENES
    Sally Camper; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Glucocorticoids (GC) produced by the adrenal cortex mediate the body's adaptive response to stress. The synthesis and secretion of these steroids is regulated by the hypothalamic-anterior pituitary system...
  51. Regulation of Steroid Hormone Synthesis by MAP Kinases
    Robert Rybczynski; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..hormone (PTTH), in a system with considerable homology to vertebrate systems such as the ACT'H-adrenal cortex axis...
  52. CAMP-DEPENDENT TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF CYP51
    Michael Waterman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..DK28350) addresses ACTH (cAMP)-dependent transcription of genes (particularly encoding P450 enzymes) in the adrenal cortex, a process essential for maintenance of optimal steroidogenic capacity...
  53. IDENTIFICATION OF GENE FOR ACTH-RECEPTOR BY CLONING
    JANAKIRAMAN RAMACHANDRAN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..of ligand binding and functional assays for ACTH- R in Xenopus oocytes microinjected with mRNA from bovine adrenal cortex; b) size fractionation of mRNA to identify the active mRNA fraction which will be used for the construction of ..
  54. ORGAN PATTERNING OF B 16 MELANOMA SECONDARY METASTASIS
    CHRISTOPHER STACKPOLE; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..g., progesterone and beta-estradiol from the ovarian corpus luteum; various corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex) will be investigated...
  55. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF G-PROTEIN BETA-GAMMA SUBUNITS
    John Northup; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..potassium channels in isolated chick myocytes, and angiotensin II activation of phospholipase C of bovine adrenal cortex and rat hepatocytes will be probed using rabbit polyclonal antisera or affinity purified fractions therefrom...
  56. CHEMICAL AND BIOSYNTHETIC STUDIES OF STEROID HORMONES
    Masato Koreeda; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..the investigation of the mechanism of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage reactions between C-20 and 22 using adrenal cortex P-450; (2) to synthesize 20- or 22- aza derivatives of ecdysones, insect molting hormones, and study their ..
  57. CONTROL MECHANISMS IN ADRENAL STEROIDOGENESIS
    LEONARD SAUER; Fiscal Year: 1980
    The pathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex is composed of 5 to 6 different enzymatic steps...
  58. PHOSPHORYLATION AND DRUG TRANSPORT BY P-GLYCOPROTEIN
    Guillermo Altenberg; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Pgp is also expressed in normal tissues including adrenal cortex, proximal renal tubules of the kidney and endothelial cells, where it appears to be involved in secretion of ..
  59. PRENATAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE PITUITARY GLAND
    John Pintar; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..differentiation of these two cell POMC populations and also begin to investigate the differentiation of the adrenal cortex. We will determine the prenatal levels of the POMC primary transcript and mature mRNa by using probes spanning ..
  60. Identification of Genes Activated by Bile Acids
    Peter Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..evidence that FXR regulates a number of steroidogenic genes, suggesting a functional role for FXR in the adrenal cortex. Based on these data, generated during the current grant period, we propose to conduct mechanistic studies to ..
  61. The acd mouse: a model for congenital adrenal hypoplasia
    Catherine Keegan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    A functional adrenal cortex is essential for life as evidenced by the early death of patients with congenital adrenal hypoplasia...
  62. CARDIOTONIC STEROIDS FROM THE ADRENAL GLAND
    Peter Doris; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We have shown that this inhibitor is an endogenous substance synthesized by the adrenal cortex. The present studies will further refine our understanding of the function of adrenocortical cardiotonic ..
  63. A Rodent Model of Behavioral Inhibition
    SONIA CAVIGELLI; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..willingness to explore a novel environment and for which stress hormones (glucocorticoids) released by adrenal cortex are related to this trait...