ileum

Summary

Summary: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Induction and rescue of Nod2-dependent Th1-driven granulomatous inflammation of the ileum
    Amlan Biswas
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14739-44. 2010
  2. doi A pyrosequencing study in twins shows that gastrointestinal microbial profiles vary with inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes
    Ben P Willing
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    Gastroenterology 139:1844-1854.e1. 2010
  3. doi Bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) for microbiome studies: bacterial diversity in the ileum of newly weaned Salmonella-infected pigs
    Scot E Dowd
    USDA ARS Livestock Issues Research Unit, Lubbock, Texas 79403, USA
    Foodborne Pathog Dis 5:459-72. 2008
  4. pmc NOD2 (CARD15) mutations in Crohn's disease are associated with diminished mucosal alpha-defensin expression
    J Wehkamp
    Department of Internal Medicine I, Robert Bosch Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany
    Gut 53:1658-64. 2004
  5. pmc Intestinal adaptation after ileal interposition surgery increases bile acid recycling and protects against obesity-related comorbidities
    Rohit Kohli
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299:G652-60. 2010
  6. ncbi Culture independent analysis of ileal mucosa reveals a selective increase in invasive Escherichia coli of novel phylogeny relative to depletion of Clostridiales in Crohn's disease involving the ileum
    Martin Baumgart
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
    ISME J 1:403-18. 2007
  7. pmc Exacerbation of murine ileitis by Toll-like receptor 4 mediated sensing of lipopolysaccharide from commensal Escherichia coli
    M M Heimesaat
    Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Dorotheenstr 96, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Gut 56:941-8. 2007
  8. doi High temporal and inter-individual variation detected in the human ileal microbiota
    Carien C G M Booijink
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Environ Microbiol 12:3213-27. 2010
  9. doi Farnesoid X receptor activation inhibits inflammation and preserves the intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease
    Raffaella M Gadaleta
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Gut 60:463-72. 2011
  10. pmc Environmentally-acquired bacteria influence microbial diversity and natural innate immune responses at gut surfaces
    Imke E Mulder
    Gut Immunology Group, University of Aberdeen, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, Greenburn Road, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
    BMC Biol 7:79. 2009

Detail Information

Publications386 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Induction and rescue of Nod2-dependent Th1-driven granulomatous inflammation of the ileum
    Amlan Biswas
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14739-44. 2010
    ..with Helicobacter hepaticus, an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, developed granulomatous inflammation of the ileum, characterized by an increased expression of Th1-related genes and inflammatory cytokines...
  2. doi A pyrosequencing study in twins shows that gastrointestinal microbial profiles vary with inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes
    Ben P Willing
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    Gastroenterology 139:1844-1854.e1. 2010
    ..Interindividual variation and an inability to detect less abundant bacteria have made it difficult to correlate specific bacteria with disease...
  3. doi Bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) for microbiome studies: bacterial diversity in the ileum of newly weaned Salmonella-infected pigs
    Scot E Dowd
    USDA ARS Livestock Issues Research Unit, Lubbock, Texas 79403, USA
    Foodborne Pathog Dis 5:459-72. 2008
    ..To test this new methodology, we individually evaluated the bacterial diversity in the ileum of 21 pigs. Ubiquitous bacteria detected in the newly weaned pigs were Clostridium spp., Lactobacillus spp...
  4. pmc NOD2 (CARD15) mutations in Crohn's disease are associated with diminished mucosal alpha-defensin expression
    J Wehkamp
    Department of Internal Medicine I, Robert Bosch Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany
    Gut 53:1658-64. 2004
    ..alpha defensins (HD-5 and HD-6) are antibiotic effector molecules predominantly expressed in Paneth cells of the ileum. Paneth cells also express NOD2...
  5. pmc Intestinal adaptation after ileal interposition surgery increases bile acid recycling and protects against obesity-related comorbidities
    Rohit Kohli
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299:G652-60. 2010
    Surgical interposition of distal ileum into the proximal jejunum is a bariatric procedure that improves the metabolic syndrome...
  6. ncbi Culture independent analysis of ileal mucosa reveals a selective increase in invasive Escherichia coli of novel phylogeny relative to depletion of Clostridiales in Crohn's disease involving the ileum
    Martin Baumgart
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
    ISME J 1:403-18. 2007
    ..bacteria was used to examine the ileal mucosa-associated flora of patients with Crohn's disease involving the ileum (13), Crohn's disease restricted to the colon (CCD) (8) and healthy individuals (7)...
  7. pmc Exacerbation of murine ileitis by Toll-like receptor 4 mediated sensing of lipopolysaccharide from commensal Escherichia coli
    M M Heimesaat
    Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Dorotheenstr 96, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Gut 56:941-8. 2007
    ..In the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and acute murine ileitis following peroral Toxoplasma gondii infection, commensal Escherichia coli accumulate at inflamed mucosal sites and aggravate small intestinal immunopathology...
  8. doi High temporal and inter-individual variation detected in the human ileal microbiota
    Carien C G M Booijink
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Environ Microbiol 12:3213-27. 2010
    The diversity and temporal stability of the predominant bacteria in the human ileum was studied with the use of ileal effluent samples of seven individuals with Brooke ileostomies...
  9. doi Farnesoid X receptor activation inhibits inflammation and preserves the intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease
    Raffaella M Gadaleta
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Gut 60:463-72. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of FXR agonists in the treatment of intestinal inflammation in complementary in vivo and in vitro models...
  10. pmc Environmentally-acquired bacteria influence microbial diversity and natural innate immune responses at gut surfaces
    Imke E Mulder
    Gut Immunology Group, University of Aberdeen, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, Greenburn Road, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
    BMC Biol 7:79. 2009
    ..We addressed this important question using the pig as a model to evaluate the impact of early-life environment on microbe/host gut interactions during development...
  11. ncbi Epidermal growth factor reduces the development of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model
    Bohuslav Dvorak
    Department of Pediatrics and Steele Memorial Children s Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 282:G156-64. 2002
    ..Development of NEC was evaluated by gross and histological scoring of damage in the ileum. Ileal EGF receptor (EGF-R), EGF, and transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA expression was assessed by RT ..
  12. ncbi The bacteriology of biopsies differs between newly diagnosed, untreated, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients
    Rodrigo Bibiloni
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Med Microbiol 55:1141-9. 2006
    ..DGGE profiles generated from the terminal ileum and various colonic regions were characteristic of each individual but differed between subjects...
  13. pmc Nod2 is required for the regulation of commensal microbiota in the intestine
    Tanja Petnicki-Ocwieja
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15813-8. 2009
    ..Therefore, Nod2 and intestinal commensal bacterial flora maintain a balance by regulating each other through a feedback mechanism. Dysfunction of Nod2 results in a break-down of this homeostasis...
  14. pmc Morphine tolerance in the mouse ileum and colon
    Gracious R Ross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 327:561-72. 2008
    ..In contrast, previous studies suggest that tolerance to opioids develops in the ileum of several species...
  15. ncbi High prevalence of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli associated with ileal mucosa in Crohn's disease
    Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud
    Pathogenie Bacterienne Intestinale, Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Universite d Auvergne, Clermont Ferrand, France
    Gastroenterology 127:412-21. 2004
    ..This study was performed to assess the prevalence of AIEC associated with intestinal mucosa of patients with CD, ulcerative colitis (UC), and of controls...
  16. doi Diagnostic value of terminal ileum intubation during colonoscopy
    Seong Hyun Jeong
    Department of Gastroenterology, Ajou University Hospital, Suwon, South Korea
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:51-5. 2008
    Since the diagnostic value of ileoscopy is not well documented, it is uncertain if terminal ileum intubation should be performed routinely in patients undergoing colonoscopy...
  17. ncbi Structures of withanosides I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII, new withanolide glycosides, from the roots of Indian Withania somnifera DUNAL. and inhibitory activity for tachyphylaxis to clonidine in isolated guinea-pig ileum
    H Matsuda
    Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8412, Kyoto, Japan
    Bioorg Med Chem 9:1499-507. 2001
    ..Principal constituents, withanoside VI (10 and 30 microM) and withaferin A (10 microM), attenuated the tachyphylaxis to clonidine on electrically stimulated guinea-pig ileum in vitro.
  18. pmc Ileal interposition surgery improves glucose and lipid metabolism and delays diabetes onset in the UCD-T2DM rat
    Bethany P Cummings
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Gastroenterology 138:2437-46, 2446.e1. 2010
    ..In this study we investigated effects of IT surgery on glucose tolerance and diabetes onset in UCD-T2DM (University of California at Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus) rats, a polygenic obese animal model of type 2 diabetes...
  19. ncbi Intestinal bile acid transport: biology, physiology, and pathophysiology
    B L Shneider
    Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 32:407-17. 2001
    ..This process is primarily localized to the terminal ileum and is mediated by a 48-kd sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter (SLC10A2 = ASBT)...
  20. doi IL-23/IL-17 immunity as a hallmark of Crohn's disease
    Veera Hölttä
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 14:1175-84. 2008
    ..We studied the balance between ileal T-effector cells versus T-regulatory cells in active and inactive Crohn's disease (CD)...
  21. doi Evidence for local expansion of IgA plasma cell precursors in human ileum
    Saravanan Yuvaraj
    Department of Cell Biology, Section Immunology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 183:4871-8. 2009
    ..Our data show evidence for the existence of two waves of expansion for IgA-producing cells in human ileum. The first wave occurs during initial stimulation in germinal centers as evidenced by somatic hypermutations...
  22. ncbi Pharmacological basis for the use of Fumaria indica in constipation and diarrhea
    Anwar H Gilani
    Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
    J Ethnopharmacol 96:585-9. 2005
    ..Fi.Cr (1.0-5.0 mg/mL) caused a moderate degree of atropine-sensitive spasmogenic effect in guinea-pig ileum. In spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum, Fi.Cr (0.03-0...
  23. doi Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of black pepper and piperine in gastrointestinal disorders
    Malik Hassan Mehmood
    Natural Product Research Division, Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan
    J Med Food 13:1086-96. 2010
    ..When tested in isolated guinea pig ileum, the crude extract of pepper (Pn...
  24. doi Characterization of intestinal gene expression profiles in Crohn's disease by genome-wide microarray analysis
    Colin L Noble
    Gastrointestinal Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 16:1717-28. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate differential intestinal gene expression in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and controls with subanalysis of confirmed CD susceptibility genes, associated pathways, and cell lineage...
  25. pmc Fatty acid- and cholesterol transporter protein expression along the human intestinal tract
    Christiaan J Masson
    Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 5:e10380. 2010
    ..Protein distribution profiles along the human intestinal tract of transporters involved in the absorption of cholesterol and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) have been scarcely evaluated...
  26. ncbi Cholesterol absorption is mainly regulated by the jejunal and ileal ATP-binding cassette sterol efflux transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 in mice
    Li ping Duan
    Department of Medicine, Liver Center and Gastroenterology Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Digestive Diseases Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, DA 601, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Lipid Res 45:1312-23. 2004
    ..We found that Abcg5 and Abcg8 in the jejunum and ileum, but not in the duodenum, were main factors in determining, in part, variations in Ch absorption efficiency...
  27. ncbi Characterization of myenteric sensory neurons in the mouse small intestine
    Yukang Mao
    Brain Brody Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    J Neurophysiol 96:998-1010. 2006
    ..The characterization of mouse myenteric sensory neurons opens the way for the study of their roles in normal and pathological physiology...
  28. pmc Corticotropin releasing factor signaling in colon and ileum: regulation by stress and pathophysiological implications
    M Larauche
    CURE, Digestive Diseases Research Center and Center for Neurobiology of Stress Digestive Diseases Division, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA and VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Angeles, California, USA
    J Physiol Pharmacol 60:33-46. 2009
    ..However, as shown in the brain, both CRF receptors and ligands are also widely expressed in the colon and the ileum of humans and rodents, and stress modulates their expression...
  29. ncbi Ultrasound assessment of vascularization of the thickened terminal ileum wall in Crohn's disease patients using a low-mechanical index real-time scanning technique with a second generation ultrasound contrast agent
    Carla Serra
    Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Italy
    Eur J Radiol 62:114-21. 2007
    To prospectively evaluate the vascularization of the thickened terminal ileum in Crohn's disease patients using contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and to compare the clinical activity measured by the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI)..
  30. doi Expression and localisation of insulin receptor substrate 2 in normal intestine and colorectal tumours. Regulation by intestine-specific transcription factor CDX2
    S Modica
    University of Bari, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Santa Maria Imbaro, Italy
    Gut 58:1250-9. 2009
    ..The insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling pathway may play an important role in intestinal epithelium homeostasis. Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is a poorly characterised component in this pathway...
  31. doi Wound trauma increases radiation-induced mortality by activation of iNOS pathway and elevation of cytokine concentrations and bacterial infection
    Juliann G Kiang
    Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20889 5603, USA
    Radiat Res 173:319-32. 2010
    ..Analyses of histopathology, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and serum cytokines were performed on mouse ileum and skin at various times after 9.75 Gy and/or wounding...
  32. pmc Inflammatory bowel diseases phenotype, C. difficile and NOD2 genotype are associated with shifts in human ileum associated microbial composition
    Ellen Li
    Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e26284. 2012
    ..disease (CD)-related genetic polymorphisms involved in host innate immunity are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition in a cross-sectional analysis of human ileal samples...
  33. pmc Human ileal bile acid transporter gene ASBT (SLC10A2) is transactivated by the glucocorticoid receptor
    D Jung
    Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Gut 53:78-84. 2004
    ..Patients with Crohn's disease suffer from intestinal bile acid malabsorption. Intestinal bile acid absorption is mediated by the apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter ASBT/IBAT (SLC10A2). In rats, ASBT is induced by glucocorticoids...
  34. pmc Caspase and bid involvement in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and modulation of toxin A effects by glutamine and alanyl-glutamine in vivo and in vitro
    Benedito A Carneiro
    Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, MR4, Lane Road, Room 3148, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Infect Immun 74:81-7. 2006
    ..Glutamine and alanyl-glutamine inhibited the apoptosis of T84 cells by preventing caspase 8 activation and reduced TxA-induced intestinal secretion and disruption...
  35. pmc Gata4 is essential for the maintenance of jejunal-ileal identities in the adult mouse small intestine
    Tjalling Bosse
    GI Cell Biology, EN 720, Children s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 26:9060-70. 2006
    ..of GATA transcription factors, is highly expressed in duodenum and jejunum but is nearly undetectable in distal ileum of adult mice. We show here that the caudal reduction of Gata4 is conserved in humans...
  36. pmc Enhanced expression of interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 in ileal tissues of cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    Abraham D Aho
    Department of Animal Science and Center for Animal Functional Genomics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Infect Immun 71:6479-86. 2003
    ..In addition, enhanced levels of TRAF1 could result in cells within the lesions of Johne's disease-positive cattle that are highly resistant to TNF-alpha-induced signaling...
  37. pmc Genetic variants of Wnt transcription factor TCF-4 (TCF7L2) putative promoter region are associated with small intestinal Crohn's disease
    Maureen J Koslowski
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Tubingen, Stuttgart, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e4496. 2009
    ..Paneth cell antimicrobial alpha-defensins, human defensin (HD)-5 and -6, characterizes Crohn's disease (CD) of the ileum. TCF-4 (also named TCF7L2), a Wnt signalling pathway transcription factor, orchestrates Paneth cell ..
  38. pmc Augmented increase in tight junction permeability by luminal stimuli in the non-inflamed ileum of Crohn's disease
    J D Soderholm
    Department of Surgery and Clinical Research Centre, University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden
    Gut 50:307-13. 2002
    ..The luminal contents are important for development of neoinflammation following resection. Regulation of tight junctions by luminal factors has not previously been studied in Crohn's disease...
  39. doi Comparative studies of microbial populations in the rumen, duodenum, ileum and faeces of lactating dairy cows
    J C Frey
    Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 108:1982-93. 2010
    ..Comparisons of fingerprints of microbial populations were used to investigate the effects of gastrointestinal (GI) segment and animal on community structure...
  40. doi The NANETS consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, and Cecum
    J Philip Boudreaux
    Department of Surgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA
    Pancreas 39:753-66. 2010
    Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the jejunum, ileum, and appendix are also collectively known as midgut carcinoids. Similar to NETs in general, the diagnosed incidence of the midgut NETs is on the rise...
  41. ncbi Maternal milk reduces severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and increases intestinal IL-10 in a neonatal rat model
    Bohuslav Dvorak
    Department of Pediatrics and Steele Memorial Children s Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA
    Pediatr Res 53:426-33. 2003
    ..NEC was induced by exposure to asphyxia and cold stress and evaluated by histologic scoring of damage in ileum. Intestinal cytokine mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR...
  42. pmc Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CD14 in biopsy samples of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: upregulated expression of TLR2 in terminal ileum of patients with ulcerative colitis
    Lenka Frolova
    Department of Immunology and Gnotobiology, Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
    J Histochem Cytochem 56:267-74. 2008
    ..antibodies specific for TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 showed a significant increase in TLR2 expression in the terminal ileum of patients with inactive and active UC against controls...
  43. ncbi Upregulation of iNOS by COX-2 in muscularis resident macrophage of rat intestine stimulated with LPS
    M Hori
    Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 280:G930-8. 2001
    ..LPS-induced iNOS gene expression may be mediated by autocrine regulation of PGs through the induction of COX-2 gene expression...
  44. pmc Bifidobacterium bifidum improves intestinal integrity in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis
    Ludmila Khailova
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724 5073, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 297:G940-9. 2009
    ..levels, and composition of tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins were evaluated in the terminal ileum. B. bifidum decreased the incidence of NEC from 57 to 17%...
  45. ncbi Gram-negative bacteria aggravate murine small intestinal Th1-type immunopathology following oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii
    Markus M Heimesaat
    Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin and Campus Mitte, Hindenburgdamm 27, D 12203 Berlin, Germany
    J Immunol 177:8785-95. 2006
    Oral infection of susceptible mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in Th1-type immunopathology in the ileum. We investigated gut flora changes during ileitis and determined contributions of gut bacteria to intestinal inflammation...
  46. doi Reduced alpha-defensin expression is associated with inflammation and not NOD2 mutation status in ileal Crohn's disease
    L A Simms
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Laboratory, Royal Brisbane and Women s Hospital Foundation, Brisbane, Australia
    Gut 57:903-10. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to independently assess whether NOD2, alpha-defensins and Crohn's disease are linked...
  47. pmc Changes in intestinal Toll-like receptors and cytokines precede histological injury in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis
    Yuying Liu
    Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 297:G442-50. 2009
    ..cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) were significantly increased in NEC but also in nondamaged formula-fed rat ileum. In conclusion, the intestinal expression of TLRs and cytokines precedes histological injury in the experimental ..
  48. ncbi Up-regulation of IL-18 and IL-12 in the ileum of neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis
    Melissa D Halpern
    Department of Pediatrics and Steele Memorial Children s Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724 5073, USA
    Pediatr Res 51:733-9. 2002
    ..Dam-fed, asphyxia- and cold-stressed littermates were used as controls (DF). After 96 h, the distal ileum was removed from all animals and processed to determine expression and localization of IL-18, IL-12, and IFN-gamma ..
  49. ncbi The contribution of NOD2 gene mutations to the risk and site of disease in inflammatory bowel disease
    Andrew P Cuthbert
    Division of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Guy s, King s, and St Thomas School of Medicine, London, England, United Kingdom
    Gastroenterology 122:867-74. 2002
    ....
  50. doi Increased dietary zinc oxide changes the bacterial core and enterobacterial composition in the ileum of piglets
    W Vahjen
    Institute of Animal Nutrition, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universitat Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    J Anim Sci 89:2430-9. 2011
    ..This effect may help to stabilize the intestinal microbiota in the sensitive postweaning period...
  51. ncbi Recovery of mucosal barrier function in ischemic porcine ileum and colon is stimulated by a novel agonist of the ClC-2 chloride channel, lubiprostone
    Adam J Moeser
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292:G647-56. 2007
    ..Prostones such as lubiprostone may provide a selective and novel pharmacological mechanism of accelerating recovery of acutely injured intestine compared with the nonselective action of prostaglandins such as PGE(2)...
  52. doi Soy-derived di- and tripeptides alleviate colon and ileum inflammation in pigs with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis
    Denise Young
    Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada
    J Nutr 142:363-8. 2012
    ..05) in both the POS and SOY groups than in NEG controls. Soy-derived peptides exert antiinflammatory activity in vivo, suggesting their usefulness for the treatment of inflammatory disorders...
  53. doi Increased serotonin transporter immunoreactivity intensity in the ileum of patients with irritable bowel disease
    Ingvild Wendelbo
    Section for Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Stord Helse Fonna Hospital, Stord 5416, Norway
    Mol Med Rep 9:180-4. 2014
    ..In a previous study, the density of serotonin cells in the ileum of IBS patients was lower compared with control subjects...
  54. ncbi ClC-2 chloride secretion mediates prostaglandin-induced recovery of barrier function in ischemia-injured porcine ileum
    Adam J Moeser
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
    Gastroenterology 127:802-15. 2004
    ..In the present study, we investigated the contributory role of individual Cl - channels in the recovery of barrier function in ischemia-injured porcine ileum.
  55. ncbi Spasmolytic effect of citral and extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on isolated rabbit ileum
    Ramachandran Chitra Devi
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur
    J Smooth Muscle Res 47:143-56. 2011
    ..citratus (leaves, stems and roots) and citral on the visceral smooth muscle activity of rabbit ileum. The effect of the test substances were tested on the spontaneous contraction, acetylcholine (ACh)- and KCl-..
  56. ncbi The presence of cholinomimetic and calcium channel antagonist constituents in Piper betle Linn
    A H Gilani
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan
    Phytother Res 14:436-42. 2000
    ..Pb.Cr at doses of 1-10 mg/mL caused a moderate spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum and this activity was concentrated in the aqueous fraction, which was found to be about 5 times more potent...
  57. doi Mucosal microfolds augment mixing at the wall of the distal ileum of the brushtail possum
    R G Lentle
    Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 25:881-e700. 2013
    ..However, while movements of villi have been described, the mechanisms by which peripheral mixing are engendered remain unclear...
  58. ncbi Staining patterns for actin and villin distinguish M cells in bovine follicle-associated epithelium
    Takashi Kanaya
    Laboratory of Functional Morphology, Tohoku University, 1 1 Tsutsumidori, Amamiyamachi, Aoba ku, 981 8555 Sendai, Japan
    Res Vet Sci 82:141-9. 2007
    ..In ileum of the calf, actin and villin were clearly and continuously immunostained in the brush border of the villous ..
  59. ncbi The diagnostic value of endoscopic terminal ileum biopsies
    Jonathan B McHugh
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Am J Gastroenterol 102:1084-9. 2007
    Biopsy of the terminal ileum (TI) is commonly performed during colonoscopy. The primary utility of this is to diagnose or rule out Crohn's disease in patients with symptoms and/or radiographic findings suggesting this diagnosis...
  60. pmc Reduced Paneth cell alpha-defensins in ileal Crohn's disease
    Jan Wehkamp
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18129-34. 2005
    ..reduced expression of PC alpha-defensins compromises mucosal host defenses and predisposes patients to CD of the ileum. We report that patients with CD of the ileum have reduced antibacterial activity in their intestinal mucosal ..
  61. doi Localization and function of adenosine receptor subtypes at the longitudinal muscle--myenteric plexus of the rat ileum
    Cátia Vieira
    Laboratório de Farmacologia e Neurobiologia UMIB, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar Universidade do Porto ICBAS UP, Portugal
    Neurochem Int 59:1043-55. 2011
    ..the current understanding of adenosine receptor distribution and function in the myenteric plexus of the rat ileum, and should be taken into consideration for data interpretation regarding the pathophysiological implications of ..
  62. doi Bile high-mobility group box 1 contributes to gut barrier dysfunction in experimental endotoxemia
    Runkuan Yang
    Dept of Critical Care Medicine, Univ of Pittsburgh Medical School, 1055 Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace St, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297:R362-9. 2009
    ..The increase in permeability and bacterial translocation was reversible following removal of HMGB1 from the endotoxemic rat bile. These findings document that bile HMGB1 mediates gut barrier dysfunction in experimental endotoxemia...
  63. ncbi Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions
    H Sadraei
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
    Fitoterapia 74:445-52. 2003
    The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M...
  64. pmc Ciprofloxacin modulates cytokine/chemokine profile in serum, improves bone marrow repopulation, and limits apoptosis and autophagy in ileum after whole body ionizing irradiation combined with skin-wound trauma
    Risaku Fukumoto
    Radiation Combined Injury Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e58389. 2013
    ..CIP treatment led to LD(0/10) compared to LD(20/10) for vehicle-treated group after CI. Given the multiple beneficial activities of CIP shown in our experiments, CIP may prove to be a useful therapeutic drug for CI...
  65. ncbi Expression of CYP3A isoforms and P-glycoprotein in human stomach, jejunum and ileum
    Roberto Canaparo
    Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Medicine, Division of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 34:1138-44. 2007
    ..genes were quantified in five normal samples from the human stomach, seven from the jejunum and eight from the ileum by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. 2...
  66. doi Reduced chromogranin A cell density in the ileum of patients with irritable bowel syndrome
    Magdy El-Salhy
    Section for Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Stord Helse Fonna Hospital, Stord, Norway
    Mol Med Rep 7:1241-4. 2013
    ..This study was undertaken to investigate CgA cell density in the ileum of these patients...
  67. pmc Effects of dietary fat source and subtherapeutic levels of antibiotic on the bacterial community in the ileum of broiler chickens at various ages
    Ane Knarreborg
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele, Denmark
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:5918-24. 2002
    ..of avilamycin at 10 mg kg of feed(-1) and salinomycin at 40 mg kg of feed(-1)) on the bacterial community in the ileum of broiler chickens at different ages (7, 14, 21, and 35 days) was studied using PCR with denaturing gradient gel ..
  68. pmc A randomised trial of sheathed versus standard forceps for obtaining uncontaminated biopsy specimens of microbiota from the terminal ileum
    Maneesh Dave
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Medical Science Research Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0682, USA
    Gut 60:1043-9. 2011
    ..Microbiota studies of Crohn's disease patients have examined samples from stool or from the neoterminal ileum with a standard biopsy forceps, which could be contaminated by colonic bacteria when the forceps passes through ..
  69. ncbi Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders
    Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur
    Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan
    Dig Dis Sci 50:1889-97. 2005
    ..In addition, the presence of a spasmolytic constituent(s) of the calcium antagonist type may explain its use in hyperactive states of gut like colic and diarrhea...
  70. doi Exposure of different bacterial inocula to newborn chicken affects gut microbiota development and ileum gene expression
    Yeshi Yin
    CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China
    ISME J 4:367-76. 2010
    ..Microarray analysis showed that each group presented a distinct pattern of gene expression in the ileum. In group A, the most obvious changes were noted in genes controlling the function of ion transport, cell cycle ..
  71. doi Cyclic AMP in rat ileum: evidence for the presence of an extracellular cyclic AMP-adenosine pathway
    Maria Cecilia Giron
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Gastroenterology 134:1116-26. 2008
    ..Our purpose was to assess the existence of a functional extracellular cAMP-adenosine pathway in intestinal tissue, obtaining evidence for CD73 expression and evaluating the effect of cAMP on ileum motility.
  72. ncbi Expression cloning and characterization of the hamster ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter
    M H Wong
    Department of Internal Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157
    J Biol Chem 269:1340-7. 1994
    ..By Northern blot analysis, mRNA for the cloned transporter was readily detected in ileum and kidney but was absent from liver and proximal small intestine...
  73. pmc Interactions with M cells and macrophages as key steps in the pathogenesis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections
    Lucie Etienne-Mesmin
    Clermont Universite, Universite d Auvergne, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Auvergne, JE 2526 Evolution des bactéries pathogènes et susceptibilité génétique de l hôte, Clermont Ferrand, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e23594. 2011
    ..A new model for EHEC infection in humans is proposed that could help in a fuller understanding of EHEC-associated diseases...
  74. ncbi The adherent gastrointestinal mucus gel layer: thickness and physical state in vivo
    C Atuma
    Department of Physiology, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 572, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 280:G922-9. 2001
    ..In conclusion, the adherent gastrointestinal mucus gel in vivo is continuous and can be divided into two layers: a loosely adherent layer removable by suction and a layer firmly attached to the mucosa...
  75. doi Effect of fat saturation on satiety, hormone release, and food intake
    Jeroen Maljaars
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology Hepatology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1019-24. 2009
    ..Ileal delivery of fat reduces hunger and food intake through activation of the ileal brake. Physicochemical properties of fat have been shown to affect satiety and food intake...
  76. pmc Host genes related to paneth cells and xenobiotic metabolism are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition
    Tianyi Zhang
    Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e30044. 2012
    ..Ex-vivo ileal mucosal biopsies were collected from the disease unaffected proximal margin of the ileum resected from patients who were undergoing initial intestinal surgery...
  77. ncbi Species differences in the prokinetic effects of ginger
    Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur
    Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi, Sind, Pakistan
    Int J Food Sci Nutr 57:65-73. 2006
    ..for saponins, terpenes, phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids, showed a spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum with 8-50 times more potency than in rabbit jejunum and ileum and rat stomach fundus and ileum...
  78. ncbi Gastrointestinal persorption and tissue distribution of differently sized colloidal gold nanoparticles
    J F Hillyer
    Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Pharm Sci 90:1927-36. 2001
    ..To our knowledge this is the first report, at the ultrastructural level, of gastrointestinal uptake of particulates by persorption through holes created by extruding enterocytes...
  79. doi Early anastomotic repair in the rat intestine is affected by transient preoperative mesenteric ischemia
    L A E Posma
    Department of Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Gastrointest Surg 13:1099-106. 2009
    ..Recent preclinical studies reveal that the strength of intestinal anastomoses can be compromised after reperfusion. So far, this phenomenon has not been investigated in the very first days of healing when wound strength is lowest...
  80. pmc CCR2 expressing CD4+ T lymphocytes are preferentially recruited to the ileum in Crohn's disease
    S J Connor
    Department of Medicine, St George Clinical School, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia
    Gut 53:1287-94. 2004
    ..Animal studies have suggested potential roles for CCR2 and CCR5 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to understand the role of CCR2 in human IBD...
  81. pmc Active transport of bile acids decreases mucin 2 in neonatal ileum: implications for development of necrotizing enterocolitis
    Nina A Martin
    Department of Pediatrics and Steele Children s Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA
    PLoS ONE 6:e27191. 2011
    ..both in vivo and ex vivo techniques, we determined that BAs decrease Muc2 positive cells in neonatal but not older ileum. However, Tff3 positive cells are not decreased by BAs...
  82. doi Changes in abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning
    Yong Su
    Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 66:546-55. 2008
    ..and Streptococcus suis populations as potentially beneficial and harmful groups, in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning (21 days postpartum) by 16S rRNA gene-based methods...
  83. pmc Aquaporin-8 expression is reduced in ileum and induced in colon of patients with ulcerative colitis
    Alexandra Zahn
    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    World J Gastroenterol 13:1687-95. 2007
    ..To study susceptibility genes which may play a potential role in the pathogenesis and etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  84. pmc Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 alleviates food allergic manifestations in sensitized mice by reducing IL-13 expression specifically in the ileum
    Adrian W Zuercher
    Allergy Group, Department of Nutrition and Health, Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Clin Dev Immunol 2012:485750. 2012
    ..Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain...
  85. ncbi Distribution and chemical coding of intramural neurons in the porcine ileum during proliferative enteropathy
    Z Pidsudko
    Department of Functional Morphology, University of Warmia, Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego, Olsztyn, Poland
    J Comp Pathol 138:23-31. 2008
    ..However, further studies are required to determine the exact physiological relevance of the observed adaptive changes...
  86. pmc NOD2 status and human ileal gene expression
    Christina M Hamm
    Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University, St Louis School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 16:1649-57. 2010
    ..NOD2 single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk of ileal Crohn's disease (CD). This exploratory study was conducted to compare ileal mucosal gene expression in CD patients with and without NOD2 risk alleles...
  87. ncbi Changes in gelatinase activity in the gastrointestinal tract after anastomotic construction in the ileum or colon
    Ignace H J T de Hingh
    Department of Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Dis Colon Rectum 48:2133-41. 2005
    ..This study was designed to quantitate changes in gelatinolytic activity in the intestine after anastomotic construction in the ileum or colon.
  88. doi Predominance of a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarius component of a five-strain probiotic in the porcine ileum and effects on host immune phenotype
    Maria C Walsh
    Department of Animal Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 64:317-27. 2008
    Relative predominance of each of five probiotic strains was investigated in the ileum of weaned pigs, compared with that in feces, when administered in combination at c. 5 x 10(9) CFU day(-1) for 28 days...
  89. ncbi Adrenomedullin reduces Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin-induced rat ileum microcirculatory damage
    Bernhard Brell
    Department of Internal Medicine Infectious Diseases, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Crit Care Med 33:819-26. 2005
    ..Using alpha-toxin as a well-defined strong initiator of an inflammatory reaction, we tested the hypothesis that exogenously applied adrenomedullin stabilizes gut microcirculation...
  90. ncbi The intestinal mucus layer from patients with inflammatory bowel disease harbors high numbers of bacteria compared with controls
    C Schultsz
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Gastroenterology 117:1089-97. 1999
    ..We therefore studied the spatial distribution of bacteria in the mucosa of rectal biopsy specimens from patients with IBD and from controls...
  91. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 and 9 are expressed and functional in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of presuckling newborn swine
    Masanori Tohno
    Laboratory of Animal Products Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Aobaku, Sendai, 981 8555, Japan
    Vet Res 37:791-812. 2006
    ..levels in all tested tissues (heart, thymus, lung, spleen, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileal Peyer patches (Pps), and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN))...
  92. pmc Electrical stimulation of the mucosa evokes slow EPSPs mediated by NK1 tachykinin receptors and by P2Y1 purinoceptors in different myenteric neurons
    Rachel M Gwynne
    Department of Physiology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 297:G179-86. 2009
    ..Segments of ileum or jejunum were dissected to allow access to the myenteric plexus adjacent to intact mucosa, in vitro...
  93. doi Dieulafoy lesion in the ileum of a child: a case report
    Shintaro Shibutani
    Department of Surgery, Kawasaki Municipal Hospital, Kawasaki ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210 0013, Japan
    J Pediatr Surg 46:e17-9. 2011
    A 14-year-old girl had massive bleeding from a Dieulafoy lesion of the ileum. A preoperative dynamic computed tomography scan detected the point of bleeding...
  94. ncbi Effects of transforming growth factor-beta and formula feeding on systemic immune responses to dietary beta-lactoglobulin in allergy-prone rats
    Irmeli Penttila
    Child Health Research Institute, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia 5006
    Pediatr Res 59:650-5. 2006
    ..Importantly, this immune profile persisted after weaning when TGF-beta was no longer present in the diet...
  95. ncbi The +1059G/C polymorphism in the C-reactive protein (CRP) gene is associated with involvement of the terminal ileum and decreased serum CRP levels in patients with Crohn's disease
    D Thalmaier
    Department of Medicine II Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 24:1105-15. 2006
    ..Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels influence the response to anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapies...
  96. pmc Identification of a Campylobacter jejuni protein that cross-reacts with cholera toxin
    M John Albert
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat 13110, Kuwait
    Infect Immun 75:3070-3. 2007
    ..Our results indicate that C. jejuni does not produce a functional CTLT, but the reactivity of PorA with CT antibody would lead to the erroneous conclusion that C. jejuni produces a functional CTLT...
  97. doi A moderate threonine deficiency affects gene expression profile, paracellular permeability and glucose absorption capacity in the ileum of piglets
    Alice Hamard
    INRA, UMR1079, SENAH, F 35590 Saint Gilles, France
    J Nutr Biochem 21:914-21. 2010
    ..The paracellular permeability was significantly increased in the ileum of LT compared to C piglets (P=.017)...
  98. ncbi Characterization of microbial populations and volatile fatty acid concentrations in the jejunum, ileum, and cecum of pigs weaned at 17 vs 24 days of age
    M A Franklin
    Department of Animal Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37901 1071, USA
    J Anim Sci 80:2904-10. 2002
    ..aerobic and anaerobic microflora, lactate, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in the jejunum, ileum, and cecum of weanling pigs...
  99. pmc Decreased development of necrotizing enterocolitis in IL-18-deficient mice
    Melissa D Halpern
    Dept of Pediatrics, Univ of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 5073, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 294:G20-6. 2008
    ..born infants, characterized in its severest from by extensive hemorrhagic inflammatory necrosis of the distal ileum and proximal colon...
  100. ncbi Species differences in the gut stimulatory effects of radish seeds
    Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur
    Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi 74800, Sind, Pakistan
    J Pharm Pharmacol 57:1493-501. 2005
    ..terpenes, flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids and saponins, showed a spasmogenic effect in isolated rabbit jejunum and ileum, rat stomach fundus and ileum, and guinea-pig ileum and jejunum. Rs...
  101. ncbi Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the terminal ileum: differentiation of activity of Crohn's disease
    Riccardo Del Vescovo
    Department of Radiology, University Campus Bio Medico, Rome, Italy
    Abdom Imaging 33:417-24. 2008
    ..To prospectively investigate a new high resolution MRI technique for dynamic evaluation of the enhancement kinetics of bowel parietal layers and to correlate it with CDAI, CRP, endoscopic activity and histologic features...

Research Grants64

  1. Mucosal Immunity, Vaccines and Microbiota Interplay in Humans and Animal
    Marcelo B Sztein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., the stomach, ileum and colon, respectively)...
  2. Myosin phosphatase autoinhibition in gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction
    Avril V Somlyo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We expect that fundus and ileum SM will be dominated by different pathways, reflecting their different functional roles...
  3. NPC1L1 and Metabolic Diseases
    Liqing Yu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between WT and L1KO mice on HFD because we found that many bile acid sensitive genes were upregulated in the ileum of L1KO mice and bile acids can function as signaling molecules to stimulate energy expenditure via a D2- ..
  4. Validation of a Novel NF-kB Inhibitor in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Anthony Blikslager; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In-vivo, TLX1423 inhibited LPS-activated NF??B in the ileum, but did not inhibit basal NF??B in Peyer's patches...
  5. Adherent Escherichia coli and associated virulence genes in children with IBD
    Sandra C Kim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..coli, and E. coli - associated virulence factors from mucosal biopsy samples (a) in the ileum and different regions of the colon of children with Crohn's disease versus children with ulcerative colitis, ..
  6. Role of Selectins in Burns and Inhalation Injury
    Daniel Traber; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..L-selectin will prevent the activation of blood PMNs, PARP and NF-kappaB and limit tissue damage seen in the lung, ileum, pancreas, skeletal muscle and liver after burn and inhalation injury...
  7. Structural Biology of the Apical Bile Acid Transporter.
    Peter W Swaan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..bile acid pool is efficiently conserved through recirculation by bile acid transporters expressed in the distal ileum and the liver...
  8. Intestinal Calcium Absorption: Molecular Mechanism
    James C Fleet; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..intestinal vitamin D resistance (subaim1a) and we will determine whether the deletion of VDR specifically from the ileum, cecum, and colon can alter whole body calcium metabolism (subaim1b), (2) To determine whether the apical membrane ..
  9. Mechanisms of host-bacterial interactions, ileitis and granuloma formation in Agr
    Steven M Lipkin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, we have cultured mucosally adherent and invasive E. coli (which we and others have found in the ileum of Crohn's patients) from Agr2-/- ileal microflora...
  10. Using Electrochemical Methods to Probe Neuronal Signaling in the GI Tract
    Greg M Swain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will conduct these studies in vitro in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the small intestine (ileum and duodenum) and colon of guinea pigs and a new SERT-KO rat animal model...
  11. Identification of Lactobacillus Secreted Factors in Regulation of Pgp
    Seema Saksena; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also, in parallel studies in mice demonstrated a significant increase in Pgp expression in the ileum and colon in response to live L. acidophilus bacteria. L...
  12. Opioid tolerance and bowel dysfunction
    William L Dewey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is that differences in the cellular signaling properties of morphine determine the development of tolerance in the ileum but not the colon...
  13. Claudin-2, Claudin-12 and Cadherin-17: Novel Targets of Vitamin D Action
    ANGELA R PORTA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Proposed studies will examine (1) levels of these proteins in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of vitamin D deficient mice and after 1,25(OH)2D3 administration, and (2) under conditions of high and low dietary ..
  14. Signal transduction mechanisms to myosin phosphatase
    James T Stull; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Gross pathology will be assessed in phasic (ileum) and tonic (trachea) smooth muscles, including histological analyses and expression of contractile and signaling ..
  15. Transporter Trafficking Mechanisms in Infectious Diarrhea
    Pradeep K Dudeja; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this regard, electroneutral NaCl absorption is the predominant route for Na+ and Cl- absorption in the human ileum and colon...
  16. Understanding the role of bile as a mechanism for improved glucose homeostasis fo
    APRIL DAWN STRADER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..With this model a portion of the lower intestine, or ileum, is relocated into a region within the jejunum and is therefore prematurely exposed to higher concentrations of ..
  17. Regulation of Intestinal Bile Acid Transport
    Waddah A Alrefai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Apical Sodium Dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) absorbs majority of the bile acids in the ileum and is essential for maintaining bile acid pool in the enterohepatic circulation...
  18. The influence of diabetes on M2 muscarinic receptor contractile function
    KIRK JIHYON PAK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..shown to enhance MS-mediated contraction and to inhibit relaxation mediated by the Gs-linked li-adrenoceptor in ileum, colon and bladder...
  19. Ethanol increases post-burn intestinal permeability: IL-6-induced MLCK activation
    Anita Zahs; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Movement of a fluorescent- tagged protein out of the ileum lumen to the bloodstream along with immunofluorescent staining for tight junction protein localization will be ..
  20. SUSCEPTIBILILTY GENE-VIRUS INTERACTIONS IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
    Herbert W Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Susceptibility to Crohn's disease, an inflammatory disease involving the ileum, is controlled in part by a T300A mutation in ATG16L1, a gene homologous to the essential yeast autophagy gene ..
  21. Extrinsic Neural Control of Gastrointestinal Function in the Disordered Bowel
    David R Linden; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that the expression and function of 12A adrenergic receptors (ARs) on the terminal fields of PVG neurons in the ileum is increased following the onset of TNBS or acetic acid induced colitis...
  22. Regulation of gut differentiation and defensin genes by transcription factor lsx
    MICHAEL YOONSUK CHOI; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Studies on the Isx-null ileum reveal massively elevated levels of cryptdin 4 and selected cryptdin-related sequences (Defcr-rs's)...
  23. Regulation of Intestinal Gene Expression
    Stephen D Krasinski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Gata4, a transcription factor that is expressed in the proximal small intestine but not in the distal ileum, determines jejuno-ileal identities by activating and repressing specific absorptive enterocyte genes within the ..
  24. Role of Ileum in Reducing Obesity Related Comorbidities
    Rohit Kohli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..He will also investigate the role of adaptation of the transposed segment of the ileum in reduction of cholesterol. These studies build on Dr...
  25. How glycans shape gut microbiota function and assembly
    Eric C Martens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in chemical structure and digestibility, a feature that likely dictates the particular region of the gut (ileum, proximal or distal colon) in which each glycan is metabolized...
  26. NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF PEPTIDE INDUCED SATIETY
    Robert C Ritter; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..I cells" of the upper small intestine, while GLP-1 is secreted by the "L-cells" of the distal jejunum, ileum and colon...
  27. Molecular Mechanisms of Intrahepatic Cholestasis
    Benjamin L Shneider; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Farnesoid X-Receptor (FXR) mediated signaling is abnormal in ileum of children with FIC1 disease. We have modeled FIC1 disease in cell culture...
  28. Role of Paneth Cells in Development of Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    STEVEN JAMES MCELROY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cell loss, and the role of Paneth cell secretions to establish how Paneth cell disruption renders the immature ileum susceptible to injury. 2: Establish the role of TLR4 signaling in Paneth cell ablation-induced NEC...
  29. Development of Intestinal Immune Regulation in Human Infants
    JOERN HENDRIK WEITKAMP; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypothesis that a relative absence or reduced function of lamina propria F0XP3^ T regulatory cells (Treg) in the ileum of predisposed preterm infants is a risk factor for NEC...
  30. Role of Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue in HIV Persistence
    Joseph K Wong; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..preliminary data using short-term treatment intensification with Raltegravir suggest that some sites like terminal ileum could be supporting low level HIV replication...
  31. Netrin-1 Regulation of T cell trafficking in chronic intestinal inflammation
    CAROL AHERNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..completely reversed histological disease and dramatically decreased the number of effector CD4 T cells in the ileum of mice with Crohn's-like ileitis (TNF[unreadable]ARE)...
  32. Quantification of HIV Reservoirs in the Gut-Associated Lymphatic System
    Steven Yukl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..populations and subpopulations in both the gut and peripheral blood;2) to assess for ongoing replication in the ileum by testing for markers that are associated with recent infection;3) to measure the proportion of each gut cell ..
  33. Selective MicoRNA modification to enhance regulatory T cell function in IBD
    Colm Collins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of Crohn's disease;demonstrated expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the inflamed ileum along the disease timecourse by both flow cytometry and RT-PCR...
  34. Targeting L-Selectin in Chronic Murine Ileitis
    Jesus Rivera-Nieves; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e. SAMP1/Yit, TNF?ARE) supports the novel concept that trafficking to the terminal ileum utilizes an overlapping yet distinct set of molecules, in part different from those that mediate traffic to the ..
  35. Mechanisms of Inhibition of Intestinal SERT by EPEC Infection.
    Ravinder K Gill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..inhibitio of SERT in response to EPEC infection by assessing the role of cellular phosphatases in the native mouse ileum. In addition, the effect of phosphatases on serotonergic machinery (5-HT synthesis and release) will be examined ..
  36. Dendritic Cell Manipulation: A Novel Therapeutic for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Jesus Rivera-Nieves; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, these studies will also examine the sources of retinoic acid (RA) in the terminal ileum of TNF-overproducing (i.e...
  37. C/EBP and IL-6 Production in Mucosa and Enterocytes
    Per Olof Hasselgren; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..C/EBP activity is determined in mucosa from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, ileum and colon)...
  38. NEUROENDOCRINE CONTROL OF SMALL INTESTINAL MOTILITY
    Thomas Nowak; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Segments of duodenum and ileum are mounted in baths of Krebs solution gassed with 95% 0/2 - 5% Co/2 at 37/0 and stretched to optimal lengths...
  39. TARGETABLE BACTERICIDAL PROTEINS TO SPECIFICALLY KILL CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE BACTE
    DAVID WILLIAM MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transit the GI tract to act as a specific bactericidal agent killing another bacterial pathogen in the terminal ileum and colon. Thus, after improving the lab scale production of this lead recombinant protein in B...
  40. DIARRHEAL DISEASES: CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORYLATION
    GEOFFREY SHARP; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Protein kinase activity and endogenous protein substrates for phosphorylation in epithelial cells of rabbit ileum a. in whole homogenates and b...
  41. Anion Transport in EPEC Induced Diarrhea
    Ravinder K Gill; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Specific Aim 3 will critically examine the effects of EPEC on CI'transport in ileum and colon utilizing the in vivo murine model of EPEC infection...
  42. Determining the Mechanisms Regulating Functional Regionalization of the Intestine
    Michele A Battle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..determine if GATA4 is sufficient to confer jejunal fate in the intestine, we will ectopically express GATA4 in the ileum, a site where GATA4 is normally absent (Aim 3)...
  43. WATER AND ELECTROLYTE TRANSPORT BY THE INTESTINE
    KENNETH HUBEL; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..shown that stimulation of the enteric nerves (probably submucous neurons) reduces chloride absorption in human ileum and sigmoid colon, and causes secretion of chloride in jejunum and cecum...
  44. ABSORPTION, SECRETION, MALABSORPTION AND DIARRHEA
    JOHN FORDTRAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..intestinal perfusion which allows detailed examination of mucosal absorption or secretion rate in the jejunum, ileum and colon. Observations in patients often lead to research ideas in volunteers and vice versa...
  45. STRUCTURE AND ROLE(S) OF GASTRIC AND THYMIC PEPTIDES
    Robert Carraway; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..and an ability to affect the contractility of the isolated rat duodenum, rat stomach strip, and guinea pig ileum. Structure-function studies indicate that the biological activity of NT resides primarily in its COOH-terminal ..
  46. Growth Factors in Gut Adaptation
    Saverio Bellusci; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our preliminary data indicate that Fgf10 is ectopically expressed in the crypts of ileum after small bowel resection, suggesting a significant role for this growth factor in the adaptation process...
  47. ANALYSIS TYPHIMURIUM ADHESION TO PEYERS PATCHES
    ANDREAS BAUMLER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..During this infection, Salmonella enters its host preferentially through the Peyer's patches of the terminal ileum. The Peyer's patches also serve as main port of entry during typhoid fever, a disease caused Salmonella typhi in ..
  48. REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE IN SMALL INTESTINE
    Dan Wiginton; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..variations in gene expression along two other axes in the small intestine, the cephalocaudal axis from duodenum to ileum and the developmental time axis...
  49. ROLE OF GALANIN RECEPTORS IN GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY
    Catia Sternini; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..on galanin inhibition of neurogenic transmission using the muscle-myenteric plexus preparations of the guinea pig ileum in vitro...
  50. BIOSYNTHESIS OF GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES
    Andrew Leiter; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Peptide YY, which is made in endocrine cells of the colon and ileum, also inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion...
  51. BRADYKININ RECEPTOR STUDIES--IMMUNOLOGICAL APPROACHES
    CHARLES ODYA; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..the immunological similarity of BK receptors from bovine uterine myometrium and those from rat uterus, guinea pig ileum, dog carotid artery and rabbit jugular and mesenteric veins and aorta...
  52. C. Perfringens to Induce Anti-HIV Mucosal Immunity
    Phalguni Gupta; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..a gram positive, anaerobic bacterium, as a vehicle to deliver HIV-1 proteins in large quantities to terminal ileum to induce strong mucosal immune responses. We have constructed a C...
  53. Absorption and Metabolism of Isoflavones
    Ming Hu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The aims of this study are abbreviated as: (1) to determine region-dependent (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) hydrolysis of glycosides; (2) to determine the role played by glucose transporters in the ..
  54. AUTONOMIC MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR SIGNALING MECHANISMS
    FRED EHLERT; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..proposal are to seek out the pharmacological and neurophysiological functions of the M2 muscarinic receptor in the ileum, trachea and urinary bladder...
  55. ETHANOL MODULATION OF ENTERIC NEUROTRANSMISSION
    Terence Smith; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..From their preliminary studies in the guinea-pig ileum the investigators have found EtOH to enhance enteric excitatory reflexes and peristalsis at low concentrations (0...
  56. MOTILITY OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    KEITH KELLY; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The specific aims are: 1) To determine whether retrograde pacing of the duodenum transposed to the distal ileum would slow gastrointestinal transit and improve absorption in dogs with ileostomy...
  57. ACCESSORY CHOLERA ENTEROTOXIN, ACE, MECHANISM OF ACTION
    Michele Trucksis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..initially described in 1993 as a toxin which increased short circuit current and potential difference in rabbit ileum mounted in Ussing chambers and caused fluid secretion in ligated rabbit ileal loops...
  58. NEUROHORMONAL CONTROL OF INTESTINAL APOLIPOPROTEIN A IV
    Theodore Kalogeris; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Preliminary studies show that 1) lipid in the ileum produces a signal which appears to act via the vagus nerve to stimulate synthesis of apo A-IV in the jejunum, and ..
  59. Development of a LH-PCR Based Diagnostic for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Patrick Gillevet; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our initial results indicate that there is little variation in this protective biofilm along the colon and ileum. Our initial observations also indicate that the lumen/stool microflora may be indicative of the disease state...
  60. MECHANISMS OF SLOW SYNAPTIC EXCITATION IN ENTERIC NERVES
    James Galligan; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The specific goals of these studies are to develop primary cultures of myenteric neurons from guinea pig ileum. Cultured neurons will be initially studied using conventional electrophysiological methods to establish that ..
  61. ONTOGENIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ILEAL BILE ACID TRANSPORT
    Frederick Suchy; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Sodium coupled, carrier mediated transport of bile acids cannot be demonstrated in the ileum of the neonate, but is expressed prior to weaning in several species of mammals...
  62. CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN THE NORMAL AND IMMUNODEFICIENT
    Robert Argenzio; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..In vivo perfusion studies of jejunum and ileum will determine alterations in mucosal permeability and quantify maldigestion/malabsorption components...
  63. ROLE OF PROXIMAL COLONIC LYMPHOID TISSUE IN IMMUNITY
    Greg Perry; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..This evidence includes: 1) A total lack of B cells in infants born without a terminal ileum, cecum and proximal colon, 2) Ly-1 immunoregulatory B cells are derived from an abdominal (not bone marrow) source,..
  64. MOLECULAR REGULATION AND FUNCTION OF NA/H EXCHANGER-2
    Chung Ming Tse; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Therefore, we propose studies to define the contribution of NHE2 and NHE3 to small intestinal (rabbit ileum) and colonic (rat descending colon) bb Na+/H+ exchange under basal conditions and using model conditions to mimic ..