intestinal mucosa

Summary

Summary: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol affects nutrient absorption in human intestinal epithelial cells
    Marc Maresca
    Institut Méditerranéen de Recherche en Nutrition, Unité Mixte de Recherche Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Faculté des Sciences de Saint Jérôme, Marseille, France
    J Nutr 132:2723-31. 2002
  2. pmc Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora
    Paul B Eckburg
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Room S 169, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford CA 94305 5107, USA
    Science 308:1635-8. 2005
  3. pmc Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria
    Ivaylo I Ivanov
    Molecular Pathogenesis Program, The Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine of the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell 139:485-98. 2009
  4. pmc Induction of colonic regulatory T cells by indigenous Clostridium species
    Koji Atarashi
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Science 331:337-41. 2011
  5. pmc Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome
    Steven R Gill
    Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 312:1355-9. 2006
  6. pmc Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients
    Harry Sokol
    Unité Ecologie et Physiologie du Système Digestif, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique U910, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16731-6. 2008
  7. ncbi Constitutive transcriptional activation by a beta-catenin-Tcf complex in APC-/- colon carcinoma
    V Korinek
    Department of Immunology, University Hospital, Post Office Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, Netherlands
    Science 275:1784-7. 1997
  8. ncbi Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease
    R J Xavier
    Gastrointestinal Unit and Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nature 448:427-34. 2007
  9. ncbi Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis
    Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 118:229-41. 2004
  10. ncbi Intestinal homeostasis and its breakdown in inflammatory bowel disease
    Kevin J Maloy
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Nature 474:298-306. 2011

Detail Information

Publications272 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol affects nutrient absorption in human intestinal epithelial cells
    Marc Maresca
    Institut Méditerranéen de Recherche en Nutrition, Unité Mixte de Recherche Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Faculté des Sciences de Saint Jérôme, Marseille, France
    J Nutr 132:2723-31. 2002
    ....
  2. pmc Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora
    Paul B Eckburg
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Room S 169, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford CA 94305 5107, USA
    Science 308:1635-8. 2005
    ..We discovered significant intersubject variability and differences between stool and mucosa community composition. Characterization of this immensely diverse ecosystem is the first step in elucidating its role in health and disease...
  3. pmc Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria
    Ivaylo I Ivanov
    Molecular Pathogenesis Program, The Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine of the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell 139:485-98. 2009
    ..Thus, manipulation of this commensal-regulated pathway may provide new opportunities for enhancing mucosal immunity and treating autoimmune disease...
  4. pmc Induction of colonic regulatory T cells by indigenous Clostridium species
    Koji Atarashi
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Science 331:337-41. 2011
    ....
  5. pmc Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome
    Steven R Gill
    Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 312:1355-9. 2006
    ..Thus, humans are superorganisms whose metabolism represents an amalgamation of microbial and human attributes...
  6. pmc Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients
    Harry Sokol
    Unité Ecologie et Physiologie du Système Digestif, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique U910, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16731-6. 2008
    ..These results suggest that counterbalancing dysbiosis using F. prausnitzii as a probiotic is a promising strategy in CD treatment...
  7. ncbi Constitutive transcriptional activation by a beta-catenin-Tcf complex in APC-/- colon carcinoma
    V Korinek
    Department of Immunology, University Hospital, Post Office Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, Netherlands
    Science 275:1784-7. 1997
    ..Constitutive transcription of Tcf target genes, caused by loss of APC function, may be a crucial event in the early transformation of colonic epithelium...
  8. ncbi Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease
    R J Xavier
    Gastrointestinal Unit and Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nature 448:427-34. 2007
    ..Third, murine models, which exhibit many of the features of ulcerative colitis and seem to be bacteria-driven, have helped unravel the pathogenesis/mucosal immunopathology of IBD...
  9. ncbi Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis
    Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 118:229-41. 2004
    ..These findings reveal a novel function of TLRs-control of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and protection from injury-and provide a new perspective on the evolution of host-microbial interactions...
  10. ncbi Intestinal homeostasis and its breakdown in inflammatory bowel disease
    Kevin J Maloy
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Nature 474:298-306. 2011
    ..Recent evidence suggests that several factors may tip the balance between homeostasis and intestinal inflammation, presenting future challenges for the development of new therapies for inflammatory bowel disease...
  11. ncbi Interleukin-22 mediates early host defense against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens
    Yan Zheng
    Department of Immunology, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Nat Med 14:282-9. 2008
    ..rodentium infection. Together, our data identify a new innate immune function for IL-22 in regulating early defense mechanisms against A/E bacterial pathogens...
  12. ncbi Stem cells, self-renewal, and differentiation in the intestinal epithelium
    Laurens G van der Flier
    Hubrecht Institute, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Annu Rev Physiol 71:241-60. 2009
    ..These studies describe a genetic hierarchy responsible for cell fate commitment in normal gut physiology. Where relevant we also mention aberrant deregulation of these molecular pathways that results in colon cancer...
  13. pmc Increased expression of interleukin 17 in inflammatory bowel disease
    S Fujino
    Department of Internal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tukinowa, Otsu 520 2192, Japan
    Gut 52:65-70. 2003
    ..Interleukin (IL) 17 is a cytokine which exerts strong proinflammatory activities. In this study we evaluated changes in IL-17 expression in the inflamed mucosa and in the serum of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  14. ncbi Retinoic acid imprints gut-homing specificity on T cells
    Makoto Iwata
    Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences, 11 Minamiooya, Machida shi, Tokyo 194 8511, Japan
    Immunity 21:527-38. 2004
    ..These findings revealed a novel role for retinoic acid in the imprinting of gut-homing specificity on T cells...
  15. pmc IL-6 and Stat3 are required for survival of intestinal epithelial cells and development of colitis-associated cancer
    Sergei Grivennikov
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, UCSD School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0723, USA
    Cancer Cell 15:103-13. 2009
    ..Thus, the NF-kappaB-IL-6-Stat3 cascade is an important regulator of the proliferation and survival of tumor-initiating IECs...
  16. ncbi Mucin dynamics and enteric pathogens
    Michael A McGuckin
    Immunity, Infection and Inflammation Program, Mater Medical Research Institute and The University of Queensland School of Medicine, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:265-78. 2011
    ..In addition, we describe dynamic alterations in the mucin barrier that are driven by host innate and adaptive immune responses to infection...
  17. ncbi Intestinal mucosal barrier function in health and disease
    Jerrold R Turner
    Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland, MC 1089, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:799-809. 2009
    ..Here I discuss these discoveries along with evidence that this regulation shapes mucosal immune responses in the gut and, when dysfunctional, may contribute to disease...
  18. ncbi Gut flora in health and disease
    Francisco Guarner
    Digestive System Research Unit, Hospital General Vall d Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
    Lancet 361:512-9. 2003
    ..Nevertheless, bacteria are also useful in promotion of human health. Probiotics and prebiotics are known to have a role in prevention or treatment of some diseases...
  19. ncbi Tissue-specific and inducible Cre-mediated recombination in the gut epithelium
    Fatima el Marjou
    Morphogenesis and intracellular signalling, Institut Curie CNRS, Paris, France
    Genesis 39:186-93. 2004
    ..The villin-Cre and villin-Cre-ERT2 mice provide valuable tools for studies of cell lineage allocation and gene function in the developing and adult intestine...
  20. pmc The Toll-like receptor 2 pathway establishes colonization by a commensal of the human microbiota
    June L Round
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 332:974-7. 2011
    ..We propose that the immune system can discriminate between pathogens and the microbiota through recognition of symbiotic bacterial molecules in a process that engenders commensal colonization...
  21. pmc Homeostasis and inflammation in the intestine
    Wendy S Garrett
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 140:859-70. 2010
    ..In this Review, we consider the many cellular and molecular methods by which inflammatory responses are regulated to maintain intestinal homeostasis and the disease states that can ensue when this balance is lost...
  22. pmc The gut flora as a forgotten organ
    Ann M O'Hara
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland
    EMBO Rep 7:688-93. 2006
    ..An improved understanding of this hidden organ will reveal secrets that are relevant to human health and to several infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic disease processes...
  23. pmc Origin of the lamina propria dendritic cell network
    Milena Bogunovic
    Department of Gene and Cell Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Immunity 31:513-25. 2009
    ..Altogether, these results underline the diverse origin of the lamina propria DC network and identify mucosal DCs that arise from pre-DCs as key sentinels of the gut immune system...
  24. pmc Microbes in gastrointestinal health and disease
    Andrew S Neish
    Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Gastroenterology 136:65-80. 2009
    ....
  25. ncbi Muc2-deficient mice spontaneously develop colitis, indicating that MUC2 is critical for colonic protection
    Maria Van Der Sluis
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC and Sophia Children s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Gastroenterology 131:117-29. 2006
    ..Expression of mucin MUC2, the structural component of the colonic mucus layer, is lowered in inflammatory bowel disease. Our aim was to obtain insight in the role of Muc2 in epithelial protection...
  26. ncbi Toll-like receptor signalling in the intestinal epithelium: how bacterial recognition shapes intestinal function
    Maria T Abreu
    Division of Gastroenterology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, P O Box 016960 D 49, Miami, Florida 33101, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 10:131-44. 2010
    ..Thus, dysregulated TLR signalling by intestinal epithelial cells may explain how colonic bacteria and inflammation promote colorectal cancer...
  27. pmc IL-23 is essential for T cell-mediated colitis and promotes inflammation via IL-17 and IL-6
    David Yen
    Department of Discovery Research, Schering Plough Biopharma, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:1310-6. 2006
    ..This pathway may be responsible for chronic intestinal inflammation as well as other chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases...
  28. pmc XBP1 links ER stress to intestinal inflammation and confers genetic risk for human inflammatory bowel disease
    Arthur Kaser
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 134:743-56. 2008
    ..Hence, intestinal inflammation can originate solely from XBP1 abnormalities in IECs, thus linking cell-specific ER stress to the induction of organ-specific inflammation...
  29. pmc The antibacterial lectin RegIIIgamma promotes the spatial segregation of microbiota and host in the intestine
    Shipra Vaishnava
    Department of Immunology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Science 334:255-8. 2011
    ..Together, our findings reveal that RegIIIγ is a fundamental immune mechanism that promotes host-bacterial mutualism by regulating the spatial relationships between microbiota and host...
  30. pmc The inner of the two Muc2 mucin-dependent mucus layers in colon is devoid of bacteria
    Malin E V Johansson
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:15064-9. 2008
    ..These findings show that the Muc2 mucin can build a mucus barrier that separates bacteria from the colon epithelia and suggest that defects in this mucus can cause colon inflammation...
  31. pmc Specific microbiota direct the differentiation of IL-17-producing T-helper cells in the mucosa of the small intestine
    Ivaylo I Ivanov
    Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine of the Skirball Institute, Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:337-49. 2008
    ..Our results suggest that composition of intestinal microbiota regulates the Th17:Treg balance in the LP and may thus influence intestinal immunity, tolerance, and susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases...
  32. ncbi Microbial influences in inflammatory bowel diseases
    R Balfour Sartor
    Department of Medicine, Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Gastroenterology 134:577-94. 2008
    ..Identification of these host and microbial alterations in individual patients should lead to selective targeted interventions that correct underlying abnormalities and induce sustained and predictable therapeutic responses...
  33. ncbi CX3CR1-mediated dendritic cell access to the intestinal lumen and bacterial clearance
    Jan Hendrik Niess
    Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Science 307:254-8. 2005
    ..Thus, CX3CR1-dependent processes, which control host interactions of specialized DCs with commensal and pathogenic bacteria, may regulate immunological tolerance and inflammation...
  34. ncbi Review article: the role of butyrate on colonic function
    H M Hamer
    TI Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 27:104-19. 2008
    ..Butyrate is an important energy source for intestinal epithelial cells and plays a role in the maintenance of colonic homeostasis...
  35. pmc Reversible microbial colonization of germ-free mice reveals the dynamics of IgA immune responses
    Siegfried Hapfelmeier
    DKF Maurice Müller Laboratories, MEM, Universitätsklinik für Viszerale Chirurgie und Medizin UVCM, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland
    Science 328:1705-9. 2010
    ....
  36. pmc Loss of Apc in vivo immediately perturbs Wnt signaling, differentiation, and migration
    Owen J Sansom
    School of Biosciences, University of Cardiff, Cardiff CF10 3US, Wales
    Genes Dev 18:1385-90. 2004
    ..Critically, for the first time we confirm a series of Wnt target molecules in an in vivo setting and also identify a series of new candidate targets within the same setting...
  37. pmc Bacteria penetrate the inner mucus layer before inflammation in the dextran sulfate colitis model
    Malin E V Johansson
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 5:e12238. 2010
    ..In this model, the inflammation is observed after 3-5 days, but early events explaining why DSS causes this has not been described...
  38. ncbi Intestinal CD103(-) dendritic cells migrate in lymph and prime effector T cells
    V Cerovic
    Institute for Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Mucosal Immunol 6:104-13. 2013
    ..Therefore, these cells may prove to be valuable targets for the treatment of intestinal inflammation or in the development of effective oral vaccines...
  39. pmc Intestinal goblet cells and mucins in health and disease: recent insights and progress
    Young S Kim
    Genemed Biotechnologies, 458 Carlton Court, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Curr Gastroenterol Rep 12:319-30. 2010
    ..Further elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in mucin changes in cancer and inflammation may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches...
  40. pmc The two mucus layers of colon are organized by the MUC2 mucin, whereas the outer layer is a legislator of host-microbial interactions
    Malin E V Johansson
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4659-65. 2011
    ..This observation that normal human individuals carry a uniform MUC2 mucin glycan array in colon may indicate such a specific selection...
  41. pmc Interleukin 23 production by intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells in response to bacterial flagellin enhances mucosal innate immune defense
    Melissa A Kinnebrew
    Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Immunity 36:276-87. 2012
    ..Thus, CD103(+)CD11b(+) LPDCs, in addition to promoting long-term tolerance to ingested antigens, also rapidly produce IL-23 in response to detection of flagellin in the lamina propria...
  42. ncbi Intestinal stem cell replacement follows a pattern of neutral drift
    Carlos Lopez-Garcia
    Cancer Research UK, Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK
    Science 330:822-5. 2010
    ..Combined with long-term clonal fate data, we show that the rate of stem cell replacement is comparable to the cell division rate, implying that neutral drift and symmetrical cell divisions are central to stem cell homeostasis...
  43. pmc Interconversion between intestinal stem cell populations in distinct niches
    Norifumi Takeda
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 334:1420-4. 2011
    ..Conversely, CBCs can give rise to +4 Hopx-positive cells. These findings demonstrate a bidirectional lineage relationship between active and quiescent stem cells in their niches...
  44. pmc Mucosa-associated bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract are uniformly distributed along the colon and differ from the community recovered from feces
    Erwin G Zoetendal
    Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, Laboratory of Microbiology, Hesselink van Suchtelenweg 4, 6703 CT Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3401-7. 2002
    ..The observed host-specific DGGE profiles of the mucosa-associated bacterial community in the colon support the hypothesis that host-related factors are involved in the determination of the GI tract microbial community...
  45. ncbi Intestinal lamina propria dendritic cell subsets have different origin and functions
    Chen Varol
    Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 76100
    Immunity 31:502-12. 2009
    ..Our results highlight the critical importance of the lpDC subset balance for robust gut homeostasis...
  46. ncbi Generation of gut-homing IgA-secreting B cells by intestinal dendritic cells
    J Rodrigo Mora
    CBR Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 314:1157-60. 2006
    Normal intestinal mucosa contains abundant immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting cells, which are generated from B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT)...
  47. ncbi Colorectal cancer in mice genetically deficient in the mucin Muc2
    Anna Velcich
    Department of Oncology, Albert Einstein Cancer Center Montefiore Medical Center, 111 East 210 Street, Bronx, NY 10467, USA
    Science 295:1726-9. 2002
    ..Most notably, the mice frequently developed adenomas in the small intestine that progressed to invasive adenocarcinoma, as well as rectal tumors. Thus, Muc2 is involved in the suppression of colorectal cancer...
  48. ncbi Endothelial apoptosis as the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage in mice
    F Paris
    Laboratory of Signal Transduction and, Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 293:293-7. 2001
    ..This study provides a basis for new approaches to prevent radiation damage to the bowel...
  49. pmc The intestinal stem cell markers Bmi1 and Lgr5 identify two functionally distinct populations
    Kelley S Yan
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:466-71. 2012
    ..injury-induced regeneration...
  50. ncbi Cis elements of the villin gene control expression in restricted domains of the vertical (crypt) and horizontal (duodenum, cecum) axes of the intestine
    Blair B Madison
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0616, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:33275-83. 2002
    ....
  51. pmc Intestinal CD103+, but not CX3CR1+, antigen sampling cells migrate in lymph and serve classical dendritic cell functions
    Olga Schulz
    Institute of Immunology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover 30625, Germany
    J Exp Med 206:3101-14. 2009
    ....
  52. pmc Acute gastrointestinal infection induces long-lived microbiota-specific T cell responses
    Timothy W Hand
    Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 337:1553-6. 2012
    ....
  53. ncbi Emerging molecular insights into the interaction between probiotics and the host intestinal mucosa
    Peter A Bron
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Nieuwe Kanaal 9A, 6709 PA Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Microbiol 10:66-78. 2012
    ..These approaches may lead to improved stratification of consumers and to subpopulation-level probiotic supplementation to maintain or improve health, or to reduce the risk of disease...
  54. pmc Functional specializations of intestinal dendritic cell and macrophage subsets that control Th17 and regulatory T cell responses are dependent on the T cell/APC ratio, source of mouse strain, and regional localization
    Timothy L Denning
    Vaccine Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Immunol 187:733-47. 2011
    ..Thus, the functional specializations of APC subsets in the intestine are dependent on the T cell/APC ratio, regional localization, and source of the mouse strain...
  55. pmc Distinct cytokine patterns identified from multiplex profiles of murine DSS and TNBS-induced colitis
    Philip Alex
    Div of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 15:341-52. 2009
    ....
  56. pmc Microbial dysbiosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients
    Iradj Sobhani
    Department of Gastroenterology and LIC EA4393, APHP and UPEC Université Paris Est Créteil, Creteil, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e16393. 2011
    ..The composition of the human intestinal microbiota is linked to health status. The aim was to analyze the microbiota of normal and colon cancer patients in order to establish cancer-related dysbiosis...
  57. pmc HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system
    J M Brenchley
    Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Mucosal Immunol 1:23-30. 2008
    ..Assessment of gut mucosal immune system has provided novel directions for therapeutic interventions that modify the consequences of acute HIV infection...
  58. ncbi Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine
    L V Hooper
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 291:881-4. 2001
    ..These findings provide perspectives about the essential nature of the interactions between resident microorganisms and their hosts...
  59. pmc Co-adjuvant effects of retinoic acid and IL-15 induce inflammatory immunity to dietary antigens
    R W Depaolo
    Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nature 471:220-4. 2011
    ..Altogether, these findings reveal an unexpected role for retinoic acid and IL-15 in the abrogation of tolerance to dietary antigens...
  60. ncbi High prevalence of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli associated with ileal mucosa in Crohn's disease
    Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud
    Pathogenie Bacterienne Intestinale, Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Universite d Auvergne, Clermont Ferrand, France
    Gastroenterology 127:412-21. 2004
    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathovar has been identified in the intestinal mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease (CD)...
  61. pmc STAT3 links IL-22 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells to mucosal wound healing
    Geethanjali Pickert
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
    J Exp Med 206:1465-72. 2009
    ..In summary, our data suggest that intestinal epithelial STAT3 activation regulates immune homeostasis in the gut by promoting IL-22-dependent mucosal wound healing...
  62. ncbi The immune geography of IgA induction and function
    A J MacPherson
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University Medical Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Mucosal Immunol 1:11-22. 2008
    ..We also review the functionality of secretory IgA directed against both commensal organisms and pathogens...
  63. pmc Complex phenotype of mice lacking occludin, a component of tight junction strands
    M Saitou
    Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto University Faculty of Medicine, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 11:4131-42. 2000
    ..These phenotypes suggested that the functions of TJs as well as occludin are more complex than previously supposed...
  64. ncbi Accelerated intestinal epithelial cell turnover: a new mechanism of parasite expulsion
    Laura J Cliffe
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    Science 308:1463-5. 2005
    ..This host protective mechanism against intestinal pathogens has implications for our wider understanding of the multifunctional role played by intestinal epithelium in mucosal defense...
  65. pmc Soluble proteins produced by probiotic bacteria regulate intestinal epithelial cell survival and growth
    Fang Yan
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Gastroenterology 132:562-75. 2007
    ..Here, we purify and characterize 2 secreted LGG proteins that regulate intestinal epithelial cell antiapoptotic and proliferation responses...
  66. ncbi Isolation and in vitro expansion of human colonic stem cells
    Peter Jung
    Oncology Program, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Barcelona, Spain
    Nat Med 17:1225-7. 2011
    ..Moreover, using culturing conditions that recreate the ISC niche, a substantial proportion of EPHB2-high cells can be expanded in vitro as an undifferentiated and multipotent population...
  67. pmc Targeted deletion of MyD88 in intestinal epithelial cells results in compromised antibacterial immunity associated with downregulation of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, mucin-2, and antibacterial peptides
    A L Frantz
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
    Mucosal Immunol 5:501-12. 2012
    ..These physical, immunological, and microbial defects resulted in increased susceptibility of MyD88(ΔIEC) mice to experimental colitis. We conclude that MyD88 signaling in IECs is crucial for maintenance of gut homeostasis...
  68. ncbi Reciprocal TH17 and regulatory T cell differentiation mediated by retinoic acid
    Daniel Mucida
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 317:256-60. 2007
    ..These findings indicate that a common metabolite can regulate the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immunity...
  69. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 controls mucosal inflammation by regulating epithelial barrier function
    E Cario
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital of Essen and Medical School University of Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany
    Gastroenterology 132:1359-74. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the functional relevance of TLR2 to control tight junction (TJ)-associated intestinal epithelial barrier integrity to balance mucosal homeostasis against inflammatory stress-induced damage...
  70. pmc Gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal evolutionarily conserved responses to the gut microbiota
    John F Rawls
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4596-601. 2004
    ..Together, these studies establish gnotobiotic zebrafish as a useful model for dissecting the molecular foundations of host-microbial interactions in the vertebrate digestive tract...
  71. pmc Reduction in diversity of the colonic mucosa associated bacterial microflora in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease
    S J Ott
    Department of General Internal Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany
    Gut 53:685-93. 2004
    ..As most of the colonic bacteria cannot be identified by culture techniques, genomic technology can be used for analysis of the composition of the microflora...
  72. ncbi Regulatory lymphocytes and intestinal inflammation
    Ana Izcue
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RE, UK
    Annu Rev Immunol 27:313-38. 2009
    ....
  73. pmc RORgammat and commensal microflora are required for the differentiation of mucosal interleukin 22-producing NKp46+ cells
    Stephanie L Sanos
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Nat Immunol 10:83-91. 2009
    ..IL-22 released by these cells promoted the production of antimicrobial molecules important in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis...
  74. ncbi IL-22 is increased in active Crohn's disease and promotes proinflammatory gene expression and intestinal epithelial cell migration
    Stephan Brand
    Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Munich Grosshadern, University of Munich, Germany
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290:G827-38. 2006
    ..IL-22 is increased in active Crohn's disease and promotes proinflammatory gene expression and IEC migration...
  75. ncbi Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria
    M Rescigno
    Department of Biotechnology and Bioscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy
    Nat Immunol 2:361-7. 2001
    ..In addition, because DCs express tight-junction proteins such as occludin, claudin 1 and zonula occludens 1, the integrity of the epithelial barrier is preserved...
  76. ncbi Ethanol modulation of intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier
    T Y Ma
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Long Beach 90822, USA
    Am J Physiol 276:G965-74. 1999
    ..The results of this study indicate that ethanol at low noncytotoxic doses causes a functional and structural opening of the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial TJ barrier by activating MLCK...
  77. pmc Communicable ulcerative colitis induced by T-bet deficiency in the innate immune system
    Wendy S Garrett
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 131:33-45. 2007
    ..These findings reveal a novel function for T-bet as a peacekeeper of host-commensal relationships and provide new perspectives on the pathophysiology of IBD...
  78. ncbi Sweet-talk: role of host glycosylation in bacterial pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract
    A P Moran
    Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Gut 60:1412-25. 2011
    ..In this review, the roles of host glycosylation in interactions with two prevalent bacterial pathogens, Campylobater jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, are discussed to illustrate important concepts in pathogenesis...
  79. pmc Intestinal alkaline phosphatase detoxifies lipopolysaccharide and prevents inflammation in zebrafish in response to the gut microbiota
    Jennifer M Bates
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 2:371-82. 2007
    ..Thus, by preventing inflammatory responses, Iap plays a crucial role in promoting mucosal tolerance to resident gut bacteria...
  80. pmc Primary HIV-1 infection is associated with preferential depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes from effector sites in the gastrointestinal tract
    Saurabh Mehandru
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Ave, 7th Fl, New York, NY 10016, USA
    J Exp Med 200:761-70. 2004
    ..Given the importance of the mucosal compartment in HIV-1 pathogenesis, further study to elucidate the significance of the changes observed here is critical...
  81. ncbi Twin study indicates loss of interaction between microbiota and mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis
    Patricia Lepage
    Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    Gastroenterology 141:227-36. 2011
    ..We analyzed the interaction between gastrointestinal mucosal microbiota and host genes in twin pairs discordant for ulcerative colitis (UC) to study the functional interaction between microbiota and mucosal epithelium...
  82. pmc Mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase (mTert) expression marks slowly cycling intestinal stem cells
    Robert K Montgomery
    Division of Gastroenterology, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:179-84. 2011
    ..Consistent with other highly regenerative tissues, our results demonstrate that a slowly cycling stem cell population exists within the intestine...
  83. ncbi gp130-mediated Stat3 activation in enterocytes regulates cell survival and cell-cycle progression during colitis-associated tumorigenesis
    Julia Bollrath
    2nd Department of Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    Cancer Cell 15:91-102. 2009
    ....
  84. pmc Developmental regulation of intestinal angiogenesis by indigenous microbes via Paneth cells
    Thaddeus S Stappenbeck
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:15451-5. 2002
    ....
  85. pmc The zinc-finger transcription factor Klf4 is required for terminal differentiation of goblet cells in the colon
    Jonathan P Katz
    Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 560 Clinical Research Building, 415 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia 19104 6145, USA
    Development 129:2619-28. 2002
    ..All other epithelial cell types are present in the colon of Klf4(-/-) mice. In summary, Klf4 plays a crucial role in colonic epithelial cell differentiation in vivo...
  86. ncbi Intestinal barrier dysfunction in inflammatory bowel diseases
    Michael A McGuckin
    Mucosal Diseases Program, Mater Medical Research Institute, University of Queensland, Aubigny Place, Mater Health Services, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 15:100-13. 2009
    ....
  87. pmc Epithelial-derived IL-33 and its receptor ST2 are dysregulated in ulcerative colitis and in experimental Th1/Th2 driven enteritis
    Luca Pastorelli
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8017-22. 2010
    ..Taken together, the IL-33/ST2 system plays an important role in IBD and experimental colitis, is modulated by anti-TNF therapy, and may represent a specific biomarker for active UC...
  88. ncbi War and peace at mucosal surfaces
    Philippe J Sansonetti
    Unite de Pathogenie Microbienne Moleculaire, U389 INSERM and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Nat Rev Immunol 4:953-64. 2004
    ..This review discusses the mechanisms for establishing and controlling the 'dialogue' between unresponsiveness and initiation of active immune defences in the gut. Si vis pacem, para bellum. (If you wish for peace, prepare for war.)...
  89. pmc The integrin alpha4beta7 forms a complex with cell-surface CD4 and defines a T-cell subset that is highly susceptible to infection by HIV-1
    Claudia Cicala
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20877-82. 2009
    ..The specific affinity of gp120 for alpha(4)beta(7) provides a mechanism for HIV-1 to target activated cells that are critical for efficient virus propagation and dissemination following sexual transmission...
  90. ncbi Activated mast cells in proximity to colonic nerves correlate with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome
    Giovanni Barbara
    Departmentof Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, and CRBA, University of Bologna, Italy
    Gastroenterology 126:693-702. 2004
    ..We assessed colonic mast cell infiltration, mediator release, and spatial interactions with mucosal innervation and their correlation with abdominal pain in IBS patients...
  91. pmc Muc2 protects against lethal infectious colitis by disassociating pathogenic and commensal bacteria from the colonic mucosa
    Kirk S B Bergstrom
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000902. 2010
    ..Such actions limit tissue damage and translocation of pathogenic and commensal bacteria across the epithelium...
  92. ncbi Presence of adherent Escherichia coli strains in ileal mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease
    A Darfeuille-Michaud
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Clermont Ferrand Cedex, France
    Gastroenterology 115:1405-13. 1998
    ..This study was designed to look for the presence of virulent Escherichia coli strains associated with the ileal mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease...
  93. pmc The intestinal stem cell
    Nick Barker
    Hubrecht Institute and University Medical Center Utrecht, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Genes Dev 22:1856-64. 2008
    ..This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of four decades of research on crypt stem cells...
  94. ncbi The intestinal epithelium: sensors to effectors in nematode infection
    D Artis
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Mucosal Immunol 1:252-64. 2008
    ....
  95. ncbi Influence of the transcription factor RORgammat on the development of NKp46+ cell populations in gut and skin
    Carmelo Luci
    Centre d immunologie de Marseille Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, U631, 13288 Marseille, France
    Nat Immunol 10:75-82. 2009
    ..Our data show that lymphoid tissue-inducer cells and natural killer cells shared unanticipated similarities and emphasize the heterogeneity of NKp46+CD3- cells in innate immunity, lymphoid organization and local tissue repair...
  96. pmc Life in the inflamed intestine, Salmonella style
    Renato L Santos
    Departamento de Clinica e Cirurgia Veterinarias, Escola de Veterinaria, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
    Trends Microbiol 17:498-506. 2009
    ..This strategy enables NTS to exploit inflammation to outcompete the intestinal microbiota, and promotes the Salmonella transmission by the fecal/oral route...
  97. pmc Improved outcome in shigellosis associated with butyrate induction of an endogenous peptide antibiotic
    Rubhana Raqib
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9178-83. 2006
    ....
  98. ncbi TLR4 and MD-2 expression is regulated by immune-mediated signals in human intestinal epithelial cells
    Maria T Abreu
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:20431-7. 2002
    ..Th1 cytokines may initiate or perpetuate intestinal inflammation by altering toll-like receptor expression and bacterial reactivity...
  99. ncbi Biodiversity of the mucosa-associated microbiota is stable along the distal digestive tract in healthy individuals and patients with IBD
    Patricia Lepage
    National Institute for Agromonic Research, Digestive Tract Ecology and Physiology Unit, Research Center, Jouy en Josas, France
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 11:473-80. 2005
    ..We used a culture-independent method to analyze the mucosa-associated microbiota in IBD patients at various points of the distal digestive tract...
  100. ncbi Mechanisms involved in the immunostimulation by probiotic fermented milk
    Carolina Maldonado Galdeano
    Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos CERELA CONICET, Chacabuco 145, San Miguel de Tucumán T4000ILC Tucumán, Argentina
    J Dairy Res 76:446-54. 2009
    The intestinal ecosystem contains a normal microbiota, non-immune cells and immune cells associated with the intestinal mucosa. The mechanisms involved in the modulation of the gut immune system by probiotics are not yet completely ..
  101. pmc Regulation of TH17 cells in the mucosal surfaces
    Daniel Mucida
    Division of Developmental Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, Calif 92037, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:997-1003. 2009
    ..This review addresses the protective and pathogenic roles of T(H)17 cells in the mucosal surfaces and potential regulatory mechanisms that control their development...

Research Grants71

  1. Mucosal Immunity, Vaccines and Microbiota Interplay in Humans and Animal
    Marcelo B Sztein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..improved vaccines against major human pathogens, particularly those that enter the human host through the intestinal mucosa, this field is impeded by insufficient knowledge of the determinants of protective gut immunity...
  2. MOLECULAR BASIS OF REOVIRUS PATHOGENESIS
    Terence S Dermody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Following peroral inoculation of newborn mice, reovirus infects intestinal mucosa, disseminates via hematogenous or neural routes, and targets the heart, liver, and central nervous system (..
  3. Regulation of the Vibrio cholerae intestinal exit plan
    ANISIA J SILVA BENITEZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Infecting Vibrios that overcome the gastric acid barrier swim toward and adhere to the intestinal mucosa and express major virulence factors such as the toxin co-regulated pilus and cholera toxin, which is largely ..
  4. Folate and S-adenosyimethionine in Methyl Group and One-carbon Metabolism
    Conrad Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..N-methyltransferase, which is abundant in liver, exocrine pancreas and prostate as well as in kidney and intestinal mucosa in lower amounts...
  5. Dietary Risk for Colon Cancer in the Mouse
    Leonard H Augenlicht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of sporadic colon cancer is a stochastic process the probability of which is determined by adaptation of the intestinal mucosa to patterns of nutrient intake...
  6. MUCOSAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    David R Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The intestinal mucosa contains, in addition to epithelial cells, an extensive nervous system capable of pre-programmed behavior, ..
  7. Real-Time Optical Diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease using SFDI
    Sylvain Gioux; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..guiding this study is that near-infrared (NIR) light, which penetrates several millimeters into the intestinal mucosa, combined with recent advances in structured illumination, will permit real-time quantification of tissue ..
  8. Stem Cell Based Therapy For Radiation Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome
    Chandan Guha; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The mammalian intestinal mucosa is a rapidly proliferating tissue and is a model for tissue parenchymal cells originating via hierarchical ..
  9. Chemokine Decoy Receptor: a novel therapy of IBD
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that mR-421 attenuates preexisting colitis via its suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal mucosa. Specific Aims: Establish the pharmacodynamic profile of mR-421 in mice utilizing 1) a dextran sulfate ..
  10. Probiotic-Induced Elimination of Oxalate to treat Hyperoxaluria
    Marguerite Hatch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..excretion in humans and in rats;however, it is not known whether these bacteria can interact with the intestinal mucosa to promote changes in oxalate transport similar to Oxalobacter...
  11. Redox regulation of intestinal T cells
    ALAN DAVID LEVINE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..alters the threshold at which engagement of the T cell receptor initiates an immune response in the normal intestinal mucosa. This hypothesis will be addressed in the following two specific aims: Aim 1...
  12. Th2 Cytokines and Signaling in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Michael J Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Classically, the intestinal mucosa in CD has been associated with Th1 and Th17 inflammatory responses, while the mucosa in UC is associated ..
  13. Adipose Stem Cell Therapy for Krabbe Disease
    Bruce Bunnell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..by engrafted cytotoxic T lymphocytes destruction of host tissues including the skin epithelium, intestinal mucosa, and kidneys...
  14. Modulation of TLR4 and TLR9 Signaling in NEC
    David J Hackam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NEC through its previously unrecognized effects on the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the intestinal mucosa of the premature infant...
  15. A Novel Oral Combination Pediatric HIV and TB Vaccine
    Michelle H Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..vaccine schedule and (2) the rapid induction of antiviral immunity in local tissues of the oral and intestinal mucosa and their draining lymph nodes...
  16. MODULATION OF INTESTINAL HOMEOSTASIS AND CANCER
    Leonard H Augenlicht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, by 9 months there is a very large inflammatory response in the intestinal mucosa of 100% of the mice, and evidence for development of dysplasia and adenoma formation...
  17. Cannabinoid Epigenomic and miRNA mechanisms impact HIV/SIV disease progression
    Patricia E Molina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..immune activation and anti-inflammatory properties (based on predicted targets) in CD4+ T lymphocytes, intestinal mucosa, and brain of THC-treated SIV-infected animals...
  18. RovA regulon and virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica
    Virginia L Miller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the RovA regulon during infection? Recently our understanding of how enteric pathogens interact with the intestinal mucosa and spread systemically has changed significantly but questions still remain...
  19. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Intestinal Homeostasis
    Vincent W Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The intestinal mucosa maintains its integrity through spatiotemporal regulation of proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell death along the crypt-luminal axis of the intestine...
  20. Regulation of Vibrio cholerae motility, stress response and detachment from intes
    ANISIA J SILVA-BENITEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..infection have focused on identifying factors that promote initial adherence and colonization of the intestinal mucosa and enterotoxicity...
  21. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Oxidized Curcumin
    Claus Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In preliminary experiments we have detected the major oxidative metabolite of curcumin in plasma and intestinal mucosa after oral administration of curcumin to mice...
  22. Targeting Myofibroblast for Intestinal Epithelial Regeneration
    Hongmiao Sheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Given the special localization of ISEMF in the intestinal mucosa, Aim 3 will elucidate the functional roles of ISEMF in conversion of PGE2 signaling into EGFR activity in ..
  23. SURGICAL STUDIES OF FUNCTIONAL GENE EXPRESSION
    BERNARD MARK EVERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The mammalian intestinal mucosa is in a constant state of renewal that is characterized by active proliferation of stem cells localized in the crypts, progression of these cells up the crypt villus ..
  24. Role of Transforming Growth Factor-beta in Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    Akhil Maheshwari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are three specific aims: 1) to determine whether specific patterns of bacterial colonization of the neonatal intestinal mucosa affect the normal developmental downregulation of inflammatory pathways in the intestinal mucosa or ..
  25. INTESTINAL IMMUNE SYSTEM IN HOST-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
    MARTIN FREDERICK KAGNOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the Program Project Is focused on mechanisms that determine innate and acquired immune responses in the intestinal mucosa to enteric microbes and microbial products, and the consequent mucosal protective immune and inflammatory ..
  26. Oral Interleukin 11 as a Countermeasure against Radiation Injury to Gut
    Alexander Burnett; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..As the intestinal mucosa breaks down from the radiation, bacteria can be transported into the blood stream, leading to overwhelming ..
  27. Regulation of effector T cell function by Blimp-1 in a murine model of colitis
    GISLAINE APARECIDA MARTINS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Homeostasis in the intestinal mucosa is maintained by a delicate balance between physiological and pathophysiological inflammation that assures efficient response against pathogenic organisms and ..
  28. Molecular characterization of a hookworm Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor
    Jon J Vermeire; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..billion individuals worldwide are infected with these bloodfeeding nematode parasites, which attach to the intestinal mucosa and ingest blood and tissue...
  29. TGFBR1 Signaling in Colorectal Cancer
    Boris Pasche; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Decreased Smad signaling is associated with increased cell proliferation in the crypts of the intestinal mucosa and intestinal tumors...
  30. Cell Biology of Enterovirus Infection in Polarized Epithelial Cells
    Jeffrey M Bergelson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provided by applicant): Enteroviruses are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, and must cross the intestinal mucosa to initiate infection...
  31. PATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PERITONITIS
    Henri R Ford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Peritonitis can lead to impairment of the gut barrier resulting in translocation of pathogens across the intestinal mucosa, leading exacerbation of the systemic inflammation and establishment a vicious cycle of inflammation-..
  32. Mechanisms of HIV-associated Disruption of Intestinal Homeostasis
    Cara C Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in chronic HIV-1 infection, but whether this process impacts HIV-1 replication or pathogenesis in the intestinal mucosa is unknown...
  33. TLR4 signaling in the pathogenesis of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis
    David J Hackam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the intestinal stem cells (ISC's), and that ISC proliferation - a key determinant of the ability of the intestinal mucosa to heal - is reduced in NEC...
  34. Crohn's disease-associated NOD2 Mutants
    Xiaojing Ma; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..chronically impaired IL-lO production in these CD patients may contribute to persistent inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Our own data indicate that, in contrast to the prevalent view, 3020insC is not simply a loss-of-function ..
  35. Tpl2 in Intestinal Tumorigenesis
    Philip N Tsichlis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stimulates the activity of the canonical Wnt pathway in macrophages and that the levels of IL-10 in the intestinal mucosa of Tpl2-/- mice are decreased. The role of Tpl2 however, may not be restricted to tumor initiation...
  36. The function of the NKT cell determinant, PLZF, in mucosal lymphocytes.
    DEREK B SANT apos ANGELO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..aimed at gaining a better understanding of the consequences of PLZF expression in lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa in normal and pathological conditions...
  37. Mucosal dendritic cell function following enteric virus infection
    Christopher F Cuff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..adaptive immune responses to infection is controlled by multiple populations of dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestinal mucosa. Although it is widely accepted that microbial pathogen associated molecular patterns trigger pattern ..
  38. Host Interactions of Salmonella typhimurium
    Charles L Bevins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..but innate host responses observed in this species do not always reproduce accurately those in the human intestinal mucosa. As a result, some of the fundamental mechanisms leading to intestinal inflammation in humans have remained ..
  39. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 and intestinal inflammmation
    Dezheng Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..release of numerous inflammatory mediators which then cause infiltration of leukocytes from circulation into intestinal mucosa to kill pathogens. The process also inevitably causes intestinal mucosal damage...
  40. Training in the Molecular Basis of Skin/Mucosa Parthobiology
    Molly F Kulesz-Martin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This program studies cancer and inflammatory diseases of surface organs of the body (skin, oral and intestinal mucosa), to understand how they are caused at the tissue, cellular, molecular and biochemical levels, and to ..
  41. Butyrate regulation of intestinal barrier
    Jing Lin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..barrier is disrupted, the inflammatory cascade may be activated, which can induce further injury to the intestinal mucosa. Therefore overproduction/accumulation of SCFAs in the intestinal lumen may play a pivotal role in the ..
  42. Regulation of T cell differentiation during enteric viral infection
    Vesselin Tomov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in addition to being essential for initial clearance of infection, epitope- speciic T cell subsets in the intestinal mucosa can provide broad and long-lasting norovirus immunity~ conversely, loss of MNV-specific T cell function (..
  43. Orally bioactive exenatie and insulin for type II diabetes
    SAMIR S MITRAGOTRI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intestine, the capsule dissolves to release patches in the intestinal lumen, where the patches adhere to the intestinal mucosa due to their mucoadhesive nature and slowly release exenatide and insulin into the blood stream...
  44. Schlafen mediation of intestinal adaptation
    Marc D Basson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will study intestinal mucosa in patients fasting on TPN (atrophy) or after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (hypertrophy), rat and human ..
  45. Mechanisms Regulating Gastrointestinal Hormone Secretion
    Rodger A Liddle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Most GI hormone-containing cells reside within the intestinal mucosa and are often oriented with their apical region open to the lumen of the intestine...
  46. Oral Reovirus-Based Vaccines for Prevention of HIV-1 Disease
    Terence S Dermody; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Reovirus infects intestinal mucosa to stimulate potent immune responses, is naturally attenuated in humans, and can be manipulated to express ..
  47. Receptors and Signals in Coxsackievirus Pathogenesis
    Jeffrey M Bergelson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..enteroviruses, are transmitted by the fecal-oral route in humans, and initiate infection by crossing the intestinal mucosa;however, CAR is not expressed on the apical surface of the polarized epithelial cells that line the ..
  48. Function of human regulatory cells in the intestinal mucosa of humanized mice
    JEREMY ALLEN GOETTEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At the conclusion of the award period, the candidate will be well positioned as an applicant for an independent K01 award. ..
  49. Mucosal TGF-Beta/IL-6 Axis in the Regulation of T Cell Function
    Lesley E Smythies; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, we hypothesize that (1) Discordant CD4+ T cell proliferation in gastric and intestinal mucosa is due to different levels of TGF in these mucosal compartments in turn due to different bacterial loads in ..
  50. Initiation of allergic immunity by parasites
    Richard M Locksley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..homeostasis in animals with genetic deficiencies associated with mucosal inflammation of the lung and intestinal mucosa;and 3...
  51. Role of intraepithelial T cells in Toxoplasma gondii-induced inflammatory ileitis
    Eric Y Denkers; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are a major subset of T cells in the intestinal mucosa, the majority of which express the CD8 molecule...
  52. Role of TRIF-dependent TLR signaling in intestinal immunity
    Masayuki Fukata; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many pathogens use the intestinal mucosa as the primary site of entry...
  53. Netrin-1 Regulation of T cell trafficking in chronic intestinal inflammation
    CAROL AHERNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..number of patients in the USA1!"Inappropriate accumulation of CD4 T cells with a Th1 phenotype in the intestinal mucosa plays an indispensable role in maintaining disease pathology2-8...
  54. DEVELOPMENT OF INTESTINAL ION TRANSPORT
    Pawel R Kiela; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..although the resulting barrier defect is partially compensated by regulatory immune responses in the intestinal mucosa. The current proposal is aimed at expanding upon these observations to address the following hypothesis: ..
  55. Elucidating a G-protein signaling pathway in E. histolytica amoebic colitis
    Dustin E Bosch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Invasion of the intestinal mucosa by the infectious amoeba trophozoites depends on a dynamic cytoskeleton that is regulated by Rho family ..
  56. Myosin Functions in the Enterocyte
    Mark S Mooseker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..intestinal epithelial cell (enterocyte) plays critical roles in the absorptive and barrier functions of the intestinal mucosa. The apical brush border (BB) domain of the enterocyte is a complex, highly ordered array of actin filaments ..
  57. Defining the Pathogenesis of Immune Deficiency in Chronic HIV Infection
    MICHAEL MARCEL LEDERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..D. Case, will examine the integrity of the intestinal mucosa in HIV infection to document the mechanistic details underlying the enhanced translocation of microbial ..
  58. Role of TRIF-dependent TLR signaling in intestinal immunity
    Masayuki Fukata; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Many pathogens use the intestinal mucosa as the primary site of entry...
  59. Role of Blimp-1 in preventing chronic intestinal mucosal inflammation.
    GISLAINE APARECIDA MARTINS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Maintenance of the intestinal mucosa homeostasis is achieved by complex mechanisms, including active downregulation of immune responses1, 2...
  60. gd IEL migration and epithelial interactions in intestinal disease
    KAREN LEIGH EDELBLUM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disease depending on the context, but 34 IEL behavior and interactions with other cell types in the intestinal mucosa are largely undefined...
  61. Attenuating Inflammation via Protein-Calorie Restriction
    Todd W Rice; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Enteral nutrition has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve clinical outcomes by preserving the intestinal mucosa, decreasing bacterial translocation, and reducing systemic infections...
  62. NF-kB /Beta-catenin interaction during intestinal inflammation
    Jun Sun; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..It is clear that gut flora contribute to the elevated levels of activated NF-???in the intestinal mucosa of IBD patients...
  63. C/EBP and IL-6 Production in Mucosa and Enterocytes
    Per Olof Hasselgren; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Sepsis and endotoxemia are associated with increased production of IL-6 in intestinal mucosa and enterocytes, a response that is augmented by the heat shock response...
  64. PROSTANOIDS IN COLON CANCER--CELL/MOLECULAR MECHANISMS
    James Roche; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..IP, FP and TP; 2) A cDNA clone for a second (inducible) cyclo- oxygenase with potential importance in the intestinal mucosa, in addition to cyclo-oxygenase 1 already available; 3) Sequence information on a prostaglandin transporter ..
  65. REGULATORS OF IRON ABSORPTION
    MARCEL CONRAD; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Therefore, we searched for other iron binding proteins in intestinal mucosa. Using physical methods of separation and modern chromatographic methods, we found water- soluble iron ..
  66. The Critical Role of Bile Salts:Gut Protection in Critical Illness
    Eric Strauch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Our objective is to show that bile salts have significant beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa, through the activation of the transcription factors c-myc and NF-:B...
  67. IGF Signalling, Apoptosis and Adenoma Risk
    PAULINE LUND; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our recent studies demonstrate strong correlations between reduced apoptosis in the normal intestinal mucosa and risk of precancerous adenomatous lesions in humans...
  68. NEURAL CONTROL OF LARGE INTESTINAL MUCOSA
    Helen Cooke; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Understanding the regulation of 5-HT may be a key to management of functional bowel disease associated with an excess or reduced number of enterochromaffin cells. ..
  69. Glycolipid Trafficking of Cholera Toxin by Lipid Rafts
    David E Saslowsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The goal of this application is to understand how epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa sort membrane glycolipids into the retrograde trafficking pathway from the plasma membrane (PM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a route ..
  70. CYCLIC PRODRUGS OF OPIOID PEPTIDES
    RONALD BORCHARDT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..g. low permeation through the intestinal mucosa and the blood-brain barrier)...
  71. Signal Transduction and Pilus/Toxin Regulation by Vibrio cholerae
    KENNETH MILAN PETERSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding the mechanisms by which mucosal pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae colonize the human intestinal mucosa is key to the rational development of live-attenuated vaccine derivatives capable of inducing protective ..