gastrointestinal tract

Summary

Summary: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).

Top Publications

  1. pmc A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing
    Junjie Qin
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
    Nature 464:59-65. 2010
  2. pmc A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 457:480-4. 2009
  3. ncbi Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity
    Ruth E Ley
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 444:1022-3. 2006
  4. pmc Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes
    Gary D Wu
    Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 334:105-8. 2011
  5. ncbi Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine
    Fredrik Backhed
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 307:1915-20. 2005
  6. pmc Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa
    Carlotta De Filippo
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, 50139 Firenze, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14691-6. 2010
  7. pmc Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 320:1647-51. 2008
  8. pmc Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system
    Andrew L Kau
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 474:327-36. 2011
  9. pmc The pervasive effects of an antibiotic on the human gut microbiota, as revealed by deep 16S rRNA sequencing
    Les Dethlefsen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 6:e280. 2008
  10. pmc Diet drives convergence in gut microbiome functions across mammalian phylogeny and within humans
    Brian D Muegge
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 332:970-4. 2011

Detail Information

Publications253 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing
    Junjie Qin
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
    Nature 464:59-65. 2010
    ..We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively...
  2. pmc A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 457:480-4. 2009
    ....
  3. ncbi Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity
    Ruth E Ley
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 444:1022-3. 2006
    ..Our findings indicate that obesity has a microbial component, which might have potential therapeutic implications...
  4. pmc Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes
    Gary D Wu
    Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 334:105-8. 2011
    ..Thus, alternative enterotype states are associated with long-term diet...
  5. ncbi Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine
    Fredrik Backhed
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 307:1915-20. 2005
    ..We are also starting to understand how certain keystone members of the microbiota operate to maintain the stability and functional adaptability of this microbial organ...
  6. pmc Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa
    Carlotta De Filippo
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, 50139 Firenze, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14691-6. 2010
    ....
  7. pmc Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 320:1647-51. 2008
    ....
  8. pmc Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system
    Andrew L Kau
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 474:327-36. 2011
    ..The insights gleaned should help to address several pressing global health problems...
  9. pmc The pervasive effects of an antibiotic on the human gut microbiota, as revealed by deep 16S rRNA sequencing
    Les Dethlefsen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 6:e280. 2008
    ..The rapid return to the pretreatment community composition is indicative of factors promoting community resilience, the nature of which deserves future investigation...
  10. pmc Diet drives convergence in gut microbiome functions across mammalian phylogeny and within humans
    Brian D Muegge
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 332:970-4. 2011
    ..These results illustrate the value of characterizing vertebrate gut microbiomes to understand host evolutionary histories at a supraorganismal level...
  11. pmc Succession of microbial consortia in the developing infant gut microbiome
    Jeremy E Koenig
    Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4578-85. 2011
    ..This study revealed that seemingly chaotic shifts in the microbiome are associated with life events; however, additional experiments ought to be conducted to assess how different infants respond to similar life events...
  12. pmc Human oral, gut, and plaque microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis
    Omry Koren
    Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4592-8. 2011
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that bacteria from the oral cavity, and perhaps even the gut, may correlate with disease markers of atherosclerosis...
  13. pmc Evidence for a core gut microbiota in the zebrafish
    Guus Roeselers
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
    ISME J 5:1595-608. 2011
    ..The zebrafish intestinal habitat therefore selects for specific bacterial taxa despite radical differences in host provenance and domestication status...
  14. pmc Ab initio gene identification in metagenomic sequences
    Wenhan Zhu
    School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:e132. 2010
    ..Also, we show that as a result of application of the new method, several thousands of new genes could be added to existing annotations of several human and mouse gut metagenomes...
  15. ncbi Drosophila intestinal response to bacterial infection: activation of host defense and stem cell proliferation
    Nicolas Buchon
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Cell Host Microbe 5:200-11. 2009
    ..The Drosophila gut provides a powerful model to study the integration of stress and immunity with pathways associated with stem cell control, and this study should prove to be a useful resource for such further studies...
  16. pmc Recognition and degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides by two human gut symbionts
    Eric C Martens
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001221. 2011
    ....
  17. pmc Development and application of the human intestinal tract chip, a phylogenetic microarray: analysis of universally conserved phylotypes in the abundant microbiota of young and elderly adults
    Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Environ Microbiol 11:1736-51. 2009
    ....
  18. pmc Through ageing, and beyond: gut microbiota and inflammatory status in seniors and centenarians
    Elena Biagi
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    PLoS ONE 5:e10667. 2010
    Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modifications in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbiota, resulting in a greater ..
  19. pmc Metagenomic systems biology of the human gut microbiome reveals topological shifts associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease
    Sharon Greenblum
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:594-9. 2012
    ..The system-level approach presented here lays the foundation for a unique framework for studying the human microbiome, its organization, and its impact on human health...
  20. pmc Organismal, genetic, and transcriptional variation in the deeply sequenced gut microbiomes of identical twins
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7503-8. 2010
    ..g., predicted cellulases, dockerins), and transcriptional activities. These results provide an expanded perspective about features that make each of us unique life forms and directions for future characterization of our gut ecosystems...
  21. pmc Microbes in gastrointestinal health and disease
    Andrew S Neish
    Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Gastroenterology 136:65-80. 2009
    ..In humans, the interaction between animal and bacterial cells is especially important in the gastrointestinal tract. Technical and conceptual advances have enabled rapid progress in characterizing the taxonomic composition,..
  22. pmc Short pyrosequencing reads suffice for accurate microbial community analysis
    Zongzhi Liu
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCB 215, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0215, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:e120. 2007
    ....
  23. ncbi Interactions between gut microbiota and host metabolism predisposing to obesity and diabetes
    Giovanni Musso
    Gradenigo Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
    Annu Rev Med 62:361-80. 2011
    ....
  24. pmc Telocytes express PDGFRα in the human gastrointestinal tract
    Maria Giuliana Vannucchi
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    J Cell Mol Med 17:1099-108. 2013
    ..In conclusion, in the human GI tract the TC are PDGFRα-positive and, therefore, might correspond to the FLC. We also hypothesize that in human gut, there are different TC subpopulations probably playing region-specific roles. ..
  25. pmc Structural segregation of gut microbiota between colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers
    Tingting Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
    ISME J 6:320-9. 2012
    ..01). Reduction of butyrate producers and increase of opportunistic pathogens may constitute a major structural imbalance of gut microbiota in CRC patients...
  26. pmc Energy-balance studies reveal associations between gut microbes, caloric load, and nutrient absorption in humans
    Reiner Jumpertz
    Obesity and Diabetes Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ 85016, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 94:58-65. 2011
    ..However, it remains uncertain as to what extent gut microbiota are an important regulator of nutrient absorption in humans...
  27. pmc The gut microbiota modulates host energy and lipid metabolism in mice
    Vidya R Velagapudi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, FI 02044 VTT, Finland
    J Lipid Res 51:1101-12. 2010
    ..Our findings show that the gut microbiota affects both host energy and lipid metabolism and highlights its role in the development of metabolic diseases...
  28. ncbi Obesity and the human microbiome
    Ruth E Ley
    Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Curr Opin Gastroenterol 26:5-11. 2010
    ..This review summarizes the latest research into the association between microbial ecology and host adiposity, and the mechanisms by which microbes in the gut may mediate host metabolism in the context of obesity...
  29. ncbi Cesarean delivery may affect the early biodiversity of intestinal bacteria
    Giacomo Biasucci
    Department of Paediatrics and Neonatology, Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, Piacenza, Italy
    J Nutr 138:1796S-1800S. 2008
    The gastrointestinal tract of neonates becomes colonized immediately after birth with environmental microorganisms, mainly from the mother; strong evidence suggests that the early composition of the microbiota of neonates plays an ..
  30. pmc Predicting a human gut microbiota's response to diet in gnotobiotic mice
    Jeremiah J Faith
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 333:101-4. 2011
    ..The approach is generally applicable, as shown by a follow-up study involving diets containing various mixtures of pureed human baby foods...
  31. ncbi New insights into peritrophic matrix synthesis, architecture, and function
    Dwayne Hegedus
    Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X2, Canada
    Annu Rev Entomol 54:285-302. 2009
    ..In this review, we have integrated recent structural and functional information to create a holistic model for the PM. We also show how this information may generate novel technologies for use in insect pest management...
  32. pmc Gut microbiome, obesity, and metabolic dysfunction
    Herbert Tilg
    Christian Doppler Research Laboratory for Gut Inflammation, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    J Clin Invest 121:2126-32. 2011
    ..As most findings in this field of research are based on mouse studies, the relevance to human biology requires further investigation...
  33. ncbi Composition and energy harvesting capacity of the gut microbiota: relationship to diet, obesity and time in mouse models
    E F Murphy
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Ireland
    Gut 59:1635-42. 2010
    ..Therefore, we explored the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet and genetically determined obesity (ob/ob) for changes in microbiota and energy harvesting capacity over time...
  34. ncbi The role of microbiota in infectious disease
    Bärbel Stecher
    Institute of Microbiology, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich, Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 10, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Trends Microbiol 16:107-14. 2008
    ..Thus, some pathogens can benefit from inflammatory defenses. This new paradigm will enable the study of host factors enhancing or inhibiting bacterial growth in health and disease...
  35. ncbi Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits
    Marcel Roberfroid
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    Br J Nutr 104:S1-63. 2010
    The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms...
  36. pmc Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior
    Rochellys Diaz Heijtz
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3047-52. 2011
    ..Hence, our results suggest that the microbial colonization process initiates signaling mechanisms that affect neuronal circuits involved in motor control and anxiety behavior...
  37. ncbi High-throughput diversity and functionality analysis of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota
    E G Zoetendal
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Gut 57:1605-15. 2008
    ....
  38. pmc Eating for two: how metabolism establishes interspecies interactions in the gut
    Michael A Fischbach
    Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences and California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 10:336-47. 2011
    ..We also discuss the metabolic considerations in maintaining the stability of host-associated microbial communities...
  39. ncbi Development of a real-time PCR method for Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in faeces and its application to quantify intestinal population of obese and lean pigs
    X Guo
    Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, Sichuan, China
    Lett Appl Microbiol 47:367-73. 2008
    ..To investigate whether the relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes divisions in pigs is different between obese and lean animals...
  40. ncbi Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet relevant to development of metabolic syndromes in mice
    Chenhong Zhang
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbial Ecology and Ecogenomics, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, PR China
    ISME J 4:232-41. 2010
    ..Thus, diet has a dominating role in shaping gut microbiota and changes of some key populations may transform the gut microbiota of Wt animals into a pathogen-like entity relevant to development of MS, despite a complete host genome...
  41. pmc Comparative metagenomics revealed commonly enriched gene sets in human gut microbiomes
    Ken Kurokawa
    Laboratory of Comparative Genomics, Graduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, Japan
    DNA Res 14:169-81. 2007
    ..In addition, we discovered a conjugative transposon family explosively amplified in human gut microbiomes, which strongly suggests that the intestine is a 'hot spot' for horizontal gene transfer between microbes...
  42. pmc Functional and comparative metagenomic analysis of bile salt hydrolase activity in the human gut microbiome
    Brian V Jones
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre and Department of Microbiology, and School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:13580-5. 2008
    ..we demonstrate the use of function-driven metagenomics to identify functional anchors in complex microbial communities, and dissect the gut microbiome according to activities relevant to survival in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.
  43. ncbi The human gut microbiome: ecology and recent evolutionary changes
    Jens Walter
    Department of Food Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 0919, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 65:411-29. 2011
    The human gastrointestinal tract is divided into sections, allowing digestion and nutrient absorption in the proximal region to be separate from the vast microbial populations in the large intestine, thereby reducing conflict between host ..
  44. pmc Reproducible community dynamics of the gastrointestinal microbiota following antibiotic perturbation
    Dionysios A Antonopoulos
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 5623, USA
    Infect Immun 77:2367-75. 2009
    ....
  45. pmc Gut microbiome metagenomics analysis suggests a functional model for the development of autoimmunity for type 1 diabetes
    Christopher T Brown
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e25792. 2011
    ..In contrast, non-butyrate-producing lactate-utilizing bacteria prevent optimal mucin synthesis, as identified in autoimmune subjects...
  46. ncbi Interplay between weight loss and gut microbiota composition in overweight adolescents
    Arlette Santacruz
    Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos CSIC, Valencia, Spain
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:1906-15. 2009
    ..These findings indicate that calorie restriction and physical activity have an impact on gut microbiota composition related to body weight loss, which also seem to be influenced by the individual's microbiota...
  47. pmc Gut microbiota and inflammation
    Asa Håkansson
    Food Hygiene, Division of Applied Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, PO Box 124, SE 22100 Lund, Sweden
    Nutrients 3:637-82. 2011
    ..This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics...
  48. ncbi Influence of red wine polyphenols and ethanol on the gut microbiota ecology and biochemical biomarkers
    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño
    Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biomédicas del Hospital Virgen de la Victoria, Malaga, Spain
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:1323-34. 2012
    ..Few studies have investigated the effect of dietary polyphenols on the complex human gut microbiota, and they focused mainly on single polyphenol molecules and select bacterial populations...
  49. pmc Identification of a novel human polyomavirus in organs of the gastrointestinal tract
    Sarah Korup
    Division of Viral Infections, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 8:e58021. 2013
    ..These data indicate that the virus naturally infects humans and that primary infection may already occur in childhood...
  50. pmc Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake
    David E Cummings
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:13-23. 2007
    ..The increasingly nuanced understanding of the mechanisms mediating gut-peptide regulation and action provides promising targets for new strategies to combat obesity and diabetes...
  51. pmc Enteric salmonellosis disrupts the microbial ecology of the murine gastrointestinal tract
    Melissa Barman
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, The Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Infect Immun 76:907-15. 2008
    ..These data suggest that several Salmonella virulence factors, particularly those involved in the local mucosal host response, are required for disruption of the intestinal ecosystem...
  52. pmc Host-microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract and the Lactobacillus reuteri paradigm
    Jens Walter
    Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 0919, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4645-52. 2011
    ....
  53. pmc Extensive personal human gut microbiota culture collections characterized and manipulated in gnotobiotic mice
    Andrew L Goodman
    Center for Genome Science and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:6252-7. 2011
    ....
  54. ncbi Distinct composition of gut microbiota during pregnancy in overweight and normal-weight women
    Maria Carmen Collado
    Functional Foods Forum and Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:894-9. 2008
    ..The mother influences the original inoculum and the development of infant microbiota, which in turn is associated with later weight gain...
  55. pmc Mucosal glycan foraging enhances fitness and transmission of a saccharolytic human gut bacterial symbiont
    Eric C Martens
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:447-57. 2008
    ..Thus, PUL-mediated glycan catabolism is an important component in gut colonization and may impact microbiota ecology...
  56. pmc Bacteroides: the good, the bad, and the nitty-gritty
    Hannah M Wexler
    Wadsworth Anaerobe Laboratory, Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare Systems University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 20:593-621. 2007
    ..Clinically, Bacteroides species have exhibited increasing resistance to many antibiotics, including cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones (e.g., gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin)...
  57. pmc Bacteroides in the infant gut consume milk oligosaccharides via mucus-utilization pathways
    Angela Marcobal
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 10:507-14. 2011
    ..This indicates that the complex oligosaccharide mixture within HMOs attracts both mutualistic mucus-adapted species and HMO-adapted bifidobacteria to the infant intestine that likely facilitate both milk and future solid food digestion...
  58. pmc Metatranscriptomic approach to analyze the functional human gut microbiota
    María José Gosalbes
    Unidad Mixta de Investigación en Genómica y Salud Centro Superior Investigación en Salud Pública Generalitat Valenciana Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain
    PLoS ONE 6:e17447. 2011
    ..However, little is known about the active bacteria and their function(s) in the gastrointestinal tract. We performed a metatranscriptomic study on ten healthy volunteers to elucidate the active members of the ..
  59. ncbi Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-related injury to the gastrointestinal tract: clinical picture, pathogenesis, and prevention
    Carmelo Scarpignato
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy
    Gastroenterol Clin North Am 39:433-64. 2010
    ..The challenge is to develop safer NSAIDs by shifting from a focus on GI toxicity to the increasingly more appreciated cardiovascular toxicity...
  60. ncbi Sweet-talk: role of host glycosylation in bacterial pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract
    A P Moran
    Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Gut 60:1412-25. 2011
    ..In this review, the roles of host glycosylation in interactions with two prevalent bacterial pathogens, Campylobater jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, are discussed to illustrate important concepts in pathogenesis...
  61. ncbi Antagonistic activities of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria against microbial pathogens
    Alain L Servin
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, Unité 510, Pathogénes et Fonctions des Cellules Epithéliales Polarisées, Faculte de Pharmacie Paris XI, F 92296 Chatenay Malabry, France
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 28:405-40. 2004
    The gastrointestinal tract is a complex ecosystem that associates a resident microbiota and cells of various phenotypes lining the epithelial wall expressing complex metabolic activities...
  62. pmc Obesity, diabetes, and gut microbiota: the hygiene hypothesis expanded?
    Giovanni Musso
    Gradenigo Hospital, Turin, Italy
    Diabetes Care 33:2277-84. 2010
    ....
  63. ncbi Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host-microbiota mutualism
    Benjamin P Willing
    Michael Smith Laboratories, The University of British Columbia
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:233-43. 2011
    ..A better understanding of both the changes in the microbiota as a result of antibiotic treatment and the consequential changes in host immune homeostasis is imperative, so that these effects can be mitigated...
  64. pmc The interplay between microbiome dynamics and pathogen dynamics in a murine model of Clostridium difficile Infection
    Angela E Reeves
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA
    Gut Microbes 2:145-58. 2011
    ..We demonstrate that altering the balance of these two opposing processes alters clinical outcome and thus may lead to novel preventative and therapeutic approaches for CDI...
  65. ncbi Molecular characterisation of the faecal microbiota in patients with type II diabetes
    Xiaokang Wu
    Department of Immunology and Pathogenic Biology, Molecular Bacteriology Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases of Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Xi an Jiaotong University, 710061, Xi an, Shaanxi Province, People s Republic of China
    Curr Microbiol 61:69-78. 2010
    ..Taken together, in this work we observed the characterisation of gut microbiota in diabetic patients, which suggests that the gut microbiota of diabetes patients have some changes associated with occurrence and development of diabetes...
  66. ncbi Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease
    Mélanie G Gareau
    Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
    Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:503-14. 2010
    ..An overview of recent in vitro and in vivo research related to potential mechanisms of action of various probiotic formulations is also considered...
  67. pmc Short-term antibiotic treatment has differing long-term impacts on the human throat and gut microbiome
    Hedvig E Jakobsson
    Department of Bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 5:e9836. 2010
    ..This highlights the importance of a restrictive antibiotic usage in order to prevent subsequent treatment failure and potential spread of antibiotic resistance...
  68. pmc Metabolomics analysis reveals large effects of gut microflora on mammalian blood metabolites
    William R Wikoff
    Department of Molecular Biology and Center for Mass Spectrometry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3698-703. 2009
    ..Together, these results suggest a significant interplay between bacterial and mammalian metabolism...
  69. ncbi The role of the gut microbiota in energy metabolism and metabolic disease
    Patrice D Cani
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology, Brussels, Belgium
    Curr Pharm Des 15:1546-58. 2009
    ..Thus, it would be useful to find specific strategies for modifying gut microbiota to impact on the occurrence of metabolic diseases...
  70. pmc The human gut mobile metagenome: a metazoan perspective
    Brian V Jones
    Centre for Biomedical and Health Science Research, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton, UK
    Gut Microbes 1:415-31. 2010
    ....
  71. ncbi Gastrointestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome: present state and perspectives
    Anne Salonen
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Veterinary Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 66, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Microbiology 156:3205-15. 2010
    ..Finally, we discuss the future outlook for research avenues and candidate microbial biomarkers that may eventually be used in IBS diagnosis...
  72. pmc Effects of the gut microbiota on host adiposity are modulated by the short-chain fatty-acid binding G protein-coupled receptor, Gpr41
    Buck S Samuel
    Center for Genome Sciences and Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16767-72. 2008
    ..These results reveal that Gpr41 is a regulator of host energy balance through effects that are dependent upon the gut microbiota...
  73. ncbi The gut microbiome as therapeutic target
    Patrice D Cani
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Brussels, Belgium
    Pharmacol Ther 130:202-12. 2011
    ....
  74. ncbi Innate immunity and gut-microbe mutualism in Drosophila
    Ji Hwan Ryu
    Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Life Science, Department of Bioinspired Science, and National Creative Research Initiative Center for Symbiosystem, Ewha Woman s University, Seoul 120 750, South Korea
    Dev Comp Immunol 34:369-76. 2010
    ....
  75. pmc Confocal laser endomicroscopy in the "in vivo" histological diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract
    Giovanni D De Palma
    Department of Surgery and Advanced Technologies, Center of Excellence for Technical Innovation in Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, School of Medicine, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
    World J Gastroenterol 15:5770-5. 2009
    ....
  76. ncbi Hydrogen sulphide synthesis in the rat and mouse gastrointestinal tract
    Gary R Martin
    Inflammation Research Network, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1
    Dig Liver Dis 42:103-9. 2010
    ..Little is known about H2S synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to characterize H2S synthesis throughout the gastrointestinal tract.
  77. ncbi The interaction between bacteria and bile
    Maire Begley
    Department of Microbiology and Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Ireland
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:625-51. 2005
    ..and pathogenic microorganisms must resist the deleterious actions of bile in order to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. Herein we review the current knowledge on the mechanisms by which Gram-positive and Gram-negative ..
  78. pmc Functional genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 reveals type IVb tight adherence (Tad) pili as an essential and conserved host-colonization factor
    Mary O'Connell Motherway
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11217-22. 2011
    ..microbiota commences at birth, with bifidobacteria being among the first colonizers of the sterile newborn gastrointestinal tract. To date, the genetic basis of Bifidobacterium colonization and persistence remains poorly understood...
  79. pmc Probiotics promote gut health through stimulation of epithelial innate immunity
    Cristiano Pagnini
    Digestive Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:454-9. 2010
    ..Furthermore, our findings provide the perspective that defects in innate immunity may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease...
  80. ncbi Probiotics and immunity
    Andrea T Borchers
    Department of Nutrition, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    J Gastroenterol 44:26-46. 2009
    ..that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, including the gastrointestinal tract. While this beneficial effect was originally thought to stem from improvements in the intestinal microbial ..
  81. ncbi The serotonin signaling system: from basic understanding to drug development for functional GI disorders
    Michael D Gershon
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Gastroenterology 132:397-414. 2007
    ..The initial success encountered with serotonergic agents holds promise for newer and more potent insights and therapies of brain-gut disorders...
  82. ncbi Better living through microbial action: the benefits of the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota on the host
    Thomas D Leser
    Chr Hansen A S Health and Nutrition Division, Discovery, Hørsholm, Denmark
    Environ Microbiol 11:2194-206. 2009
    ..Whereas such effects are local at the gut epithelium they may eventually have systemic consequences, e.g. on body weight and composition...
  83. ncbi Host-mediated inflammation disrupts the intestinal microbiota and promotes the overgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae
    Claudia Lupp
    Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Cell Host Microbe 2:204. 2007
    ..These findings underscore the importance of intestinal microbial ecosystems in infectious colitis and noninfectious intestinal inflammatory conditions,such as inflammatory bowel disease...
  84. ncbi Neurogenin 3-expressing progenitor cells in the gastrointestinal tract differentiate into both endocrine and non-endocrine cell types
    Susan E Schonhoff
    Division of Gastroenterology, GRASP Digestive Disease Center, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Dev Biol 270:443-54. 2004
    ..Thus, ngn3 expression occurs in mixed populations of immature cells that are not irreversibly committed to endocrine differentiation...
  85. ncbi The inflammatory status of old age can be nurtured from the intestinal environment
    Yves Guigoz
    Nestlé Nutrition, Nestec Ltd, Vevey, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 11:13-20. 2008
    ....
  86. ncbi The relationship between intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system in normal gastrointestinal function and disease
    Stephen M Collins
    The Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Gastroenterology 136:2003-14. 2009
    ..Gaining a better understanding of the relationship between behavior and the microbiota could provide insight into the pathogenesis of functional and inflammatory bowel disorders...
  87. pmc Ano1 is a selective marker of interstitial cells of Cajal in the human and mouse gastrointestinal tract
    Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla
    Enteric Neuroscience Program, Miles and Shirley Fiterman Center for Digestive Diseases and Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296:G1370-81. 2009
    ..Ano1 labels all classes of ICC and represents a highly specific marker for studying the distribution of ICC in mouse and human tissues with an advantage over Kit since it does not label mast cells...
  88. pmc Diet-induced metabolic improvements in a hamster model of hypercholesterolemia are strongly linked to alterations of the gut microbiota
    Inés Martínez
    Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 68583 0919, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:4175-84. 2009
    ..This study provides evidence that modulation of the gut microbiota-host metabolic interrelationship by dietary intervention has the potential to improve mammalian cholesterol homeostasis, which has relevance for cardiovascular health...
  89. pmc The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis reveals adaptations for milk utilization within the infant microbiome
    D A Sela
    Microbiology Graduate Group, Robert Mondavi Institute for Wine and Food Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18964-9. 2008
    Following birth, the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract is rapidly colonized by a microbial consortium often dominated by bifidobacteria. Accordingly, the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp...
  90. ncbi Diet- and colonization-dependent intestinal dysfunction predisposes to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs
    Per T Sangild
    Divisions of Nutrition and Reproduction, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
    Gastroenterology 130:1776-92. 2006
    ..Thus, structural, functional, and microbiologic indices were used to investigate the etiology of spontaneous NEC development in preterm pigs...
  91. ncbi Viscosity of oat bran-enriched beverages influences gastrointestinal hormonal responses in healthy humans
    Kristiina R Juvonen
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
    J Nutr 139:461-6. 2009
    ....
  92. ncbi Are the effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on cardiovascular events related to elevated levels of hydrogen gas in the gastrointestinal tract?
    Yoshihiko Suzuki
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Development and Aging Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki City, Japan
    FEBS Lett 583:2157-9. 2009
    ..attributable to their ability to neutralise oxidative stress via increased production of H(2) in the gastrointestinal tract. Acarbose, which is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, markedly increased H(2) production, with a weaker ..
  93. ncbi Differences between the gut microflora of children with autistic spectrum disorders and that of healthy children
    Helena M R T Parracho
    Food Microbial Sciences Unit, School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 226, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
    J Med Microbiol 54:987-91. 2005
    ..Strategies to reduce clostridial population levels harboured by ASD patients or to improve their gut microflora profile through dietary modulation may help to alleviate gut disorders common in such patients...
  94. ncbi Members of a novel gene family, Gsdm, are expressed exclusively in the epithelium of the skin and gastrointestinal tract in a highly tissue-specific manner
    Masaru Tamura
    Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 0845, Japan
    Genomics 89:618-29. 2007
    ..expression analysis revealed exclusive expression of Gsdm family genes in the epithelium of the skin and gastrointestinal tract in a highly tissue-specific manner...
  95. ncbi Transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within a colony of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and oviposition response to bacteria-containing water
    J M Lindh
    Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm S 10691, Sweden
    Acta Trop 107:242-50. 2008
    ..Further research is needed to determine if the bacteria are also transferred in the same way in nature...
  96. pmc Metagenomic analysis of the turkey gut RNA virus community
    J Michael Day
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory Agricultural Research Service United States Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Virol J 7:313. 2010
    ..Our analysis of this turkey gut RNA metagenome focuses in particular on the turkey-origin members of the Picornavirales, the Caliciviridae, and the turkey Picobirnaviruses...
  97. ncbi Human gut microbiota and bifidobacteria: from composition to functionality
    Francesca Turroni
    Department of Genetics, Anthropology and Evolution University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11A, 43100 Parma, Italy
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 94:35-50. 2008
    ....
  98. ncbi Reduced anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical change in germ-free mice
    K M Neufeld
    Brain Body Institute, St Joseph s Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 23:255-64, e119. 2011
    ..For example, the presence of gut microbiota regulates the set point for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity...
  99. ncbi Ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract in cattle
    Ueli Braun
    Department of Farm Animals, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 25:567-90, Table of Contents. 2009
    ..The normal findings are presented followed by a description of the most important diseases of these organs...
  100. ncbi RNA interference in the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) induced by double-stranded RNA feeding
    C T Turner
    The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand
    Insect Mol Biol 15:383-91. 2006
    ..The potential mechanisms involved in the initiation, movement and amplification of the silencing signal are discussed...
  101. ncbi The gastrointestinal tract stem cell niche
    Tzung Hai Yen
    Histopathology Unit, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London, UK
    Stem Cell Rev 2:203-12. 2006
    ..by which mutated stem cells or even cancer stem cell clones expand in the colon and in the entire gastrointestinal tract. Until recently, the differentiation potential of stem cells into adult tissues has been thought to be ..

Research Grants75

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. The gastric X/A-like (ghrelin) cell: A peripheral regulator of food intake
    NILS WG LAMBRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..While many food intake inhibitory peptides are released in the gastrointestinal tract, only one peptide, ghrelin, elicits feed-forward characteristics...
  3. ROLE OF Rac AND REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN KAPOSI'S SARCOMA VIRAL ONCOGENESIS
    Enrique A Mesri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..KS arises as multifocal lesions in the skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract characterized by intense blood microvessel and cellular proliferation...
  4. Hybrid Optical/Doppler Imaging of Ischemia in NEC - a multicenter trial
    David A Benaron; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..If successful, the health benefit will be large, as it is estimated that treating NEC alone (not including treating its later complications) adds $650 million to the annual health bill. ..
  5. Controlling Radiation Injury by TLR5 Agonists
    Andrei V Gudkov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed experiments will provide essential mechanistic insight into the previously observed radio-protective and -mitigative effects of CBLB502. ..
  6. Regulation of epithelial cell homeostasis by actin microfilaments
    Seema Khurana; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  7. Chronic Stress and Abdominal Pain: Novel Mechanisms
    John W Wiley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  8. Analysis of gene regulation of Vibrio cholerae during infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..infectious setting? The inside of the human body is a different niche world around it: in the case of the gastrointestinal tract, the oxygen tension is lower, there are high densities of other bacteria, an perhaps most important, there ..
  9. Present Homologous and Heterologous Antigen with Hepatitis E Virus
    R Holland Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This VLP is capable of encapsulating DNA vaccine in vitro, delivering DNA vaccine to epithelium cell at gastrointestinal tract, and inducing antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses...
  10. Systemic AA Amyloidosis Inhibitors
    ALAN D SNOW; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..protein in different organs throughout the body including heart, kidney, liver, spleen, lungs, skin and gastrointestinal tract, whereby such amyloid fibril accumulation leads to pronounced organ dysfunction...
  11. Regulation of Hepatic SphK2 by Bile Acids: Effects on Lipid Metabolism
    HUIPING ROSE ZHOU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR, TGR5), and multiple signaling pathways in cells of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. We have previously reported that conjugated bile acids activate the AKT and ERK1/2 pathways via G[..
  12. Intracellular Serpin Regulation of Intestinal Cell Necrosis
    GARY ARTHUR SILVERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abundantly expressed within the cytoplasm of metazoan epithelial cells, including those of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Since some of these intracellular serpins (serpinsIC) neutralize lysosomal cysteine and serine peptidases,..
  13. Developing Physics-Based Virtual Simulation Technology for Natural Orifice Transl
    DANIEL BOUGERE JONES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  14. Modeling TH17 Cells in Acute GVHD
    JONATHAN STUART SERODY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This work has the capacity to fundamentally alter our perceptions of the biology of GVHD and offer new avenues for therapy. ..
  15. Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Ceramidase Inhibitors
    Lynn W Maines; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..e. "drug-like", inhibitors of human ASAH2, which is the dominant ceramidase isozyme expressed in the human gastrointestinal tract. In this Phase 1 SBIR project, we will evaluate the pharmacology and anti-IBD activity of three novel ..
  16. GI Endotoxin as an Environmental Trigger in an alpha-Synuclein Transgenic Mouse
    Robert L Nussbaum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..increased risk for developing a mouse equivalent of Parkinson disease when exposed through their gastrointestinal tract to two different environmental agents thought to have a role in causing human PD: endotoxin made by normal ..
  17. The voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel in psoriatic disease: A novel therapeutic target
    Siba P Raychaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is most commonly restricted to the skin but can also involve the musculoskeletal system and rarely the gastrointestinal tract and the eyes...
  18. Anti-Fibrotic Therapy for Scleroderma/SSc
    Latha Paka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..localized in the skin, or it may become systemic with excess collagen collecting in the kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Scleroderma affects approximately 400,000 to 990,000 people in the US every year...
  19. Comparative Effectiveness of Medical Therapy vs. Bariatric Surgery for Obese T2DM
    DAVID BRADLEY contact LAUTZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..rate, were designed to maximize weight loss, and represent substantial life-long alterations to the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the optimal surgical procedure for less obese T2DM remains controversial...
  20. New drug VS-110 for treating inflammatory bowel diseases
    Jinshyun Ruth Wu-Wong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..9 billion in annual worldwide sales in 2011. Assuming VS- 110 has a 20% penetration into the IBD market, the estimated annual sales will be ~US$0.58 billion. ..
  21. Evolution of the Immune Response to Cytomegalovirus Transmitted via Breast Milk
    Lynn Puddington; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..antibodies, it is possible that these maternal antibodies can influence postnatal infection through the gastrointestinal tract. Specifically, maternal antibody:MCMV complexes could either aid in virus transport utilizing the FcRn ..
  22. Validation of a Novel NF-kB Inhibitor in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Anthony Blikslager; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is our hope that the work performed in this application will lead to clinical development in humans in the next phase. ..
  23. K-Mg-citrate as a BP lowering agent in African Americans; role of natriuresis
    ROBERT FRANKLIN REILLY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Its components are well absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract and it has minimal side effects...
  24. Real-Time Optical Diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease using SFDI
    Sylvain Gioux; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  25. Localization and characterization of the Clostridium difficile biofilm
    Adam Driks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 2, we will examine possible mechanisms by which C. difficile biofilms may contribute to CDI. ..
  26. Myosin phosphatase autoinhibition in gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction
    Avril V Somlyo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This contractile machinery also functions in cell migration, such as occurs during development of the gastrointestinal tract and in tumor metastasis...
  27. Zot, Zonulin, and Pathophysiology of Intestinal Tight Junctions
    Alessio Fasano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract traditionally include digestion and absorption of nutrients, and electrolytes and water homeostasis...
  28. UT GASTROENTEROLOGY / HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH TRAINING PROGRAM
    Ezra Burstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Altogether, this program is designed to train individuals who will be effective investigators and academic leaders in the fields of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. ..
  29. Development of Montelukast Delivery System for Childhood Asthma
    Je Phil Ryoo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Upon completion of the PK and irritation studies, we will file IND to initiate the phase I clinical trial to prove safety and detrmine best dose for NAL6336 ODF. ..
  30. Intestinal Inflammation Induced by Pathogens
    Beth A McCormick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic recurrent inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that are of unkown etiology...
  31. Functional Bowel Disorders in Chinese Medicine
    Brian Berman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Serotonin (5-HT) is abundant in gastrointestinal tract and one of the major neuropeptides involved in pathogenesis of IBS...
  32. Anti- IL5 therapy for Churg-Strauss Syndrome: a double blind randomized, placebo-
    Michael E Wechsler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..antibodies, and eosinophilic vasculitis involving multiple organs including the lungs, heart, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system...
  33. Epigenetic regulation of stem cell senescence in aging
    DAVID TOCHUKWU ASUZU; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The results of this study may uncover new tools to restore gastrointestinal function in aged individuals and may lead to new therapies to slow or manage general effects of aging. ..
  34. Mechanism and therapy for arteriovenous malformation
    Suk Paul Oh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results from this study map provide important novel insights for developing therapeutic reagents for controlling development of AVMs. ..
  35. HYPONATREMIA-INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS
    Joseph G Verbalis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..contributed to bone loss in 53%, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities in 44%, and chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, genetic diseases, and ..
  36. GI-Safer Formulation of Indomethacin for use in Preterm Neonates
    UPENDRA K MARATHI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This grant proposal will partially fund the development of a new molecular complex of indomethacin and phosphatidylcholine, a new formulation of indomethacin that significantly reduces GI injury. ..
  37. Antimicrobial Peptides and Innate Immunity in Otitis Media
    Lauren O Bakaletz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the molecular crosstalk that occurs between the normal microbiota and the epithelial cells that line the gastrointestinal tract has been well- studied...
  38. Neuroendocrine Response to Gastric Bypass in Nonhuman Primates
    Randy J Seeley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  39. GI-Safer Formulation of Indomethacin for use in Preterm Neonates
    UPENDRA K MARATHI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  40. Targeting Tight Junctions To Treat Mucositis
    FREDERICK GARY TOBACK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This project is aimed at learning how this protein fragment exerts its biological effects because when it is given to mice or hamsters with experimental oral mucositis, it protects against and speeds recovery from injury. ..
  41. Development of a Univalent Vaccine Against Group B Streptococci Infection
    Stephen K Hunter; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Clearly, GBS is a very prevalent infection which colonizes the genital and gastrointestinal tract of healthy adults...
  42. Organic Cation Transporter PMAT: Physiological Function and Role in Drug Disposit
    Joanne Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PMAT is highly expressed in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract, and has overlapping substrate specificity with organic cation transporters 1- 3 (OCT1-3)...
  43. The development of probiotic yeast as an inexpensive vaccine delivery platform
    TRACEY JANE LAMB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are a significant cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the developing world...
  44. PLCgamma regulates HNE3 activity through direct binding and dynamic complexes
    NICHOLAS CONSTANTINE ZACHOS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In the gastrointestinal tract, the absorption of water and nutrients occurs as normal part of digestion. In the intestine, impaired sodium absorption results in decreased water absorption and diarrhea...
  45. Modeling oxidative stress and DNA damage using GI organotypic culture systems
    John P Lynch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Acute and chronic inflammatory environments of the gastrointestinal tract like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), intestinal graft vs...
  46. The Thrifty Microbiome: The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Obesity in the Amish
    Alan R Shuldiner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RELEVANCE: This study aims to unravel the contribution of the bacteria that normally inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract to the development of obesity, and its more severe metabolic consequences including cardiovascular disease,..
  47. TAM receptor tyrosine kinases in inflammatory bowel disease
    Carla Rothlin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): IBD is a group of chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by diarrhea, bleeding, abdominal pain, and weight loss...
  48. Molecular mechanism of regulation of mI(CAT) in intestinal smooth muscle cells
    Michael X Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It plays a central role in the control of motility of the gastrointestinal tract. The excitatory input is received by G protein-coupled muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) ..
  49. OPTICAL BIOPSY USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY
    James G Fujimoto; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..4. Clinical Endoscopic Imaging of the Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Tract. The hypothesis of this aim is that 3D-OCT and OCM imaging in the gastrointestinal tract can identify ..
  50. Central Mechanisms Modulating Visceral Sensitivity
    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our findings may identify targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies directed at the brain, to improve the treatment or even reduce the risk for the development of anxiety-linked visceral pain in Veterans. ..
  51. Green tea effects on gene expression in tobacco users
    Joel L Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By providing a testable method to detect GT induced changes that may be associated with tumor inhibition, it may be used to rapidly identify individuals who will likely benefit from GT consumption. ..
  52. Calcium-sensing receptor signaling in the regulation of colonic epithelial cells
    JUAN ENRIQUE ROZENGURT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The completion of the proposed studies will provide a robust intellectual framework for targeting the colonic CaSR in the chemoprevention of CRC in US veterans as well as in the US population at large. ..
  53. Stem cells for novel gene delivery of nitric oxide in the gut
    Hiroshi Mashimo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..focus for their use, but as a novel means of chronic and local drug delivery or gene therapy in the adult gastrointestinal tract. Our preliminary work has revealed that embryonic stem (ES) cells can be engineered for stable production ..
  54. An Innovative Endoscopic Instrument with Full-Field Viewing and Intelligent Imagi
    STEVEN YI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for the next generation cystoscopy, neuroendoscopy, laparoscopy, etc. Non-medical fields to benefit this technology include commercial perimeter surveillance, and water and gas pipe inspection - another multi-billion market. ..
  55. Heme trafficking and its impact on systemic iron homeostasis
    Janis L Abkowitz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together these studies should demonstrate that the physiologic regulation of iron is more intricate and complex than previously appreciated. ..
  56. Rational Development of Anti-Trypanosoma Cruzi Drugs
    Michael H Gelb; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Chagas disease, is widespread in Latin America and causes cardiomyopathy and pathological dilations of the gastrointestinal tract. The currently available treatments for this disease are inadequate because of poor efficacy and toxicity...
  57. Heme trafficking and its impact on systemic iron homeostasis
    Janis L Abkowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Together these studies should demonstrate that the physiologic regulation of iron is more intricate and complex than previously appreciated. ..
  58. MECHANISM OF PATHOGENIC ACTIVITY OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN
    Roman Dziarski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Bactericidal PGLYRPs are expressed on the skin, in the eyes, on mucous membranes in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and in sweat, sebum, saliva, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
  59. Targeting the DNA damage response pathway for the treatment of HSV esophagitis
    Oleg Alekseev; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will impact our understanding of the molecular pathways underlying HSV-1 infection and reactivation from latency, potentially identifying novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of herpes esophagitis. ..
  60. The Vaginal Microbiome: Disease, Genetics and the Environment
    GREGORY ALLEN BUCK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. Chronic stress-induced gene expression in colonic circular smooth muscle cells.
    Sushil K Sarna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The prolonged exposure of the cells of the peripheral organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract, to these mediators alters the gene expression of key cellular proteins, leading to alteration of their ..
  62. Development of the orally delivered, non-absorbable ACE inhibitor enalaprilat for
    ELKE LIPKA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose to characterize enalaprilat's absorption potential along the entire gastrointestinal tract in diseased and healthy mice to determine if simple oral tablet dosing could be a feasible delivery ..
  63. ORAL DRUG DELIVERY AND BIOAVAILABILITY--AIDS
    Gordon Amidon; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..This is undoubtedly due to the complexity of processes involved in drug absorption and metabolism from the gastrointestinal tract. The proposed research project has as its long-term objective the development of a comprehensive ..
  64. UV-induced collagen reduction: treating skin scleroderma
    Sewon Kang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of the connective tissue that can cause hardening of the skin, and damage to lungs, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract, The disease may also affect blood vessels, muscles and joints...
  65. Colon Barrier Breakdown in the Elderly
    James Mullin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Although cancers of the lower gastrointestinal tract have a pronounced dependence on age, very few studies have been performed on changes of gastrointestinal epithelial cell biology as a function of age...
  66. Improving Gastrointestinal Recovery after Radiation
    George Georges; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  67. The impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on inflammatory bowel disease suscept
    John Kao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract resulting from a dysregulation of host immune response to resident gut microbes...
  68. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS FOR MUCOSAL IMMUNITY
    Kohtaro Fujihashi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The seminal findings which have emanated from this grant effort since 1982 will again remain focused on the cellular and molecular events required for induction of mucosal immunity or oral tolerance in the GI tract. ..
  69. Using Electrochemical Methods to Probe Neuronal Signaling in the GI Tract
    Greg M Swain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  70. A Novel Wireless Capsule Camera with High Resolution Optically Unwrapped 360-Degr
    Jason Geng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., rearview mirrors and parking sensors, (~$13.4 billion). Key Words: Capsule endoscope, 360-degree imaging, panoramic view, unwrapping, medical imaging. ..
  71. NITRIC OXIDE AND GASTROINTESTINAL OXIDATIVE INJURY
    Walee Chamulitrat; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Inflammatory states in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) have been described to be associated with oxygen and nitrogen radicals...
  72. PATHOGENIC/IMMUNOGENIC/STUDIES/CRYPTOSPORIDIUM GENOTYPES
    Abhineet Sheoran; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): C. parvum is an enteric protozoan that infects the gastrointestinal tract of most mammalian species and is the major cause of cryptosporidiosis in humans. C...
  73. Maternal transfer of protection from allergic gastrointestinal disease
    Lynn Puddington; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and retinoic acid) to result in focused protection by Treg in the exact site where it is needed, the gastrointestinal tract. The goals of this grant application are to further the understanding of how breast milk transmission of ..
  74. BOMBESIN RECEPTORS IN NORMAL AND NEOPLASTIC TISSUES
    Eliot Spindel; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..cDNA's encoding the human GRP and NMB receptors will be identified by hybridization and their identities will be confirmed by expression in Xenopus oocytes...
  75. A Novel In-Vivo Capsule Camera with High Resolution Optically Unwarpped 360-Degre
    Jason Geng; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..