giant cells

Summary

Summary: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor
    Y Feng
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 272:872-7. 1996
  2. pmc DC-STAMP is essential for cell-cell fusion in osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells
    Mitsuru Yagi
    Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    J Exp Med 202:345-51. 2005
  3. ncbi Expansins are involved in the formation of nematode-induced syncytia in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Krzysztof Wieczorek
    Institute of Plant Protection, Department of Applied Plant Sciences and Plant Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    Plant J 48:98-112. 2006
  4. doi A root-knot nematode-secreted protein is injected into giant cells and targeted to the nuclei
    Maëlle Jaouannet
    INRA UMR 1301, CNRS UMR 6243, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, 400 Route des Chappes, F 06903 Sophia Antipolis, France INRA, Universite Aix Marseille, UMR1163 Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, F 13288 Marseille, France
    New Phytol 194:924-31. 2012
  5. pmc Macrophage fusion: the making of osteoclasts and giant cells
    AGNES VIGNERY
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Exp Med 202:337-40. 2005
  6. doi Development and function of trophoblast giant cells in the rodent placenta
    Dong Hu
    Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Int J Dev Biol 54:341-54. 2010
  7. ncbi Role of DC-STAMP in cellular fusion of osteoclasts and macrophage giant cells
    Mitsuru Yagi
    Department of Cell Differentiation, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo, 160 8582, Japan
    J Bone Miner Metab 24:355-8. 2006
  8. pmc N-substituted pyrrole derivatives as novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry inhibitors that interfere with the gp41 six-helix bundle formation and block virus fusion
    Shibo Jiang
    Lindsley F Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th St, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4349-59. 2004
  9. pmc Replication, neurotropism, and pathogenicity of avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1-9 in chickens and ducks
    Shin Hee Kim
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e34927. 2012
  10. pmc Extensive syncytium formation mediated by the reovirus FAST proteins triggers apoptosis-induced membrane instability
    Jayme Salsman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4H7, Canada
    J Virol 79:8090-100. 2005

Detail Information

Publications275 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor
    Y Feng
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 272:872-7. 1996
    ..Fusin messenger RNA levels correlated with HIV-1 permissiveness in diverse human cell types. Fusin acted preferentially for T cell line-tropic isolates, in comparison to its activity with macrophagetropic HIV-1 isolates...
  2. pmc DC-STAMP is essential for cell-cell fusion in osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells
    Mitsuru Yagi
    Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    J Exp Med 202:345-51. 2005
    ..Osteoclasts form large multinuclear giant cells by fusion of mononuclear osteoclasts. How cell fusion is mediated, however, is unclear...
  3. ncbi Expansins are involved in the formation of nematode-induced syncytia in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Krzysztof Wieczorek
    Institute of Plant Protection, Department of Applied Plant Sciences and Plant Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    Plant J 48:98-112. 2006
    ..We conclude that syncytium formation involves the specific regulation of expansin genes, indicating that the encoded expansins take part in cell growth and cell wall disassembly during syncytium formation...
  4. doi A root-knot nematode-secreted protein is injected into giant cells and targeted to the nuclei
    Maëlle Jaouannet
    INRA UMR 1301, CNRS UMR 6243, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, 400 Route des Chappes, F 06903 Sophia Antipolis, France INRA, Universite Aix Marseille, UMR1163 Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, F 13288 Marseille, France
    New Phytol 194:924-31. 2012
    ..The protein Mi-EFF1 injected within the feeding cells is targeted at the nuclei where it may manipulate nuclear functions of the host cell...
  5. pmc Macrophage fusion: the making of osteoclasts and giant cells
    AGNES VIGNERY
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Exp Med 202:337-40. 2005
    ..Fusion is required for the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts and giant cells, although the mechanisms that govern these processes are poorly understood...
  6. doi Development and function of trophoblast giant cells in the rodent placenta
    Dong Hu
    Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Int J Dev Biol 54:341-54. 2010
    Trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) are the first cell type to terminally differentiate during embryogenesis and are of vital importance for implantation and modulation of post-implantation placentation...
  7. ncbi Role of DC-STAMP in cellular fusion of osteoclasts and macrophage giant cells
    Mitsuru Yagi
    Department of Cell Differentiation, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo, 160 8582, Japan
    J Bone Miner Metab 24:355-8. 2006
    ..Here, we show that the seven-transmembrane-region receptor dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) is required for cell-cell fusion of osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells.
  8. pmc N-substituted pyrrole derivatives as novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry inhibitors that interfere with the gp41 six-helix bundle formation and block virus fusion
    Shibo Jiang
    Lindsley F Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th St, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4349-59. 2004
    ..Therefore, NB-2 and NB-64 can be used as lead compounds toward designing and developing more potent small molecule HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting gp41...
  9. pmc Replication, neurotropism, and pathogenicity of avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1-9 in chickens and ducks
    Shin Hee Kim
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e34927. 2012
    ..The link between the presence of a furin cleavage site in the F protein, syncytium formation, systemic spread, and virulence that has been well-established with APMV-1 pathotypes was not evident with the other APMV serotypes...
  10. pmc Extensive syncytium formation mediated by the reovirus FAST proteins triggers apoptosis-induced membrane instability
    Jayme Salsman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4H7, Canada
    J Virol 79:8090-100. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus
    K B Chua
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya Medical Center, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Science 288:1432-5. 2000
    ..Like Hendra virus, Nipah virus is unusual among the paramyxoviruses in its ability to infect and cause potentially fatal disease in a number of host species, including humans...
  12. pmc Differentiation of trophoblast stem cells into giant cells is triggered by p57/Kip2 inhibition of CDK1 activity
    Zakir Ullah
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Genes Dev 22:3024-36. 2008
    ..Expression of p57 in TG cells was restricted to G-phase nuclei to allow CDK activation of S phase. Thus, endoreduplication in TS cells is triggered by p57 inhibition of CDK1 with concomitant suppression of the DNA damage response by p21...
  13. pmc MT1-MMP is required for myeloid cell fusion via regulation of Rac1 signaling
    Pilar Gonzalo
    Department of Vascular Biology and Inflammation, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, 28029 Madrid, Spain
    Dev Cell 18:77-89. 2010
    ....
  14. pmc Efficient activation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein by the transmembrane protease TMPRSS2
    Shutoku Matsuyama
    Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, 4 7 1 Gakuen, Musashi Murayama, Tokyo 208 0011, Japan
    J Virol 84:12658-64. 2010
    ..Our findings suggest that the TMPRSS2 expressed in lung tissues may be a determinant of viral tropism and pathogenicity at the initial site of SARS-CoV infection...
  15. ncbi The molecular basis of macrophage fusion
    Laura Helming
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Immunobiology 212:785-93. 2007
    Multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), characteristic of granulomatous infections as well as multinucleated osteoclasts originate from fusion of macrophages...
  16. ncbi Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression is restricted to fetal trophoblast giant cells during murine gestation and is maternal genome specific
    Babak Baban
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia 1120, 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912 2600, USA
    J Reprod Immunol 61:67-77. 2004
    ..Here, we show that IDO expression is restricted to perinuclear regions of primary trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) of fetal origin at mid-gestation (E10.5)...
  17. pmc Distinct roles for tetraspanins CD9, CD63 and CD81 in the formation of multinucleated giant cells
    Varadarajan Parthasarathy
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK
    Immunology 127:237-48. 2009
    ..to investigate the role of specific members of this family in the fusion of monocytes to form multinucleated giant cells (MGC)...
  18. ncbi The human cytotrophoblastic cell, a mononuclear chameleon
    Paul Bischof
    Hormone Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Geneva, Maternity, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:1-16. 2005
    ..This review is intended to stimulate investigators not acquainted with the field of placental biology to use CTB as a model to study important biological functions in vitro, such as cell fusion, cell invasion and cell transformation...
  19. pmc Hypoxia-inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha regulate trophoblast differentiation
    Karen D Cowden Dahl
    The Center for Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Cell Biol 25:10479-91. 2005
    ..This novel genetic approach provides new insights into the role of O2 tension in the development of life-threatening pregnancy-related diseases such as preeclampsia...
  20. ncbi Langhans giant cells from M. tuberculosis-induced human granulomas cannot mediate mycobacterial uptake
    G Lay
    Department Molecular Mechanisms of Mycobacterial Infections, IPBS, CNRS UMR5089, Toulouse, France
    J Pathol 211:76-85. 2007
    ..tb triggers the differentiation of granuloma macrophages into very large multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) that are unable to mediate any bacterial uptake...
  21. ncbi Differentiation of placental trophoblast giant cells requires downregulation of p53 and Rb
    V Soloveva
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, 2153 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Placenta 25:29-36. 2004
    Trophoblast giant cells in the rodent placenta form the outermost layer of the extraembryonic compartment, establish direct contact with maternal cells, and produce a number of pregnancy-specific cytokine hormones...
  22. pmc Unusual topological arrangement of structural motifs in the baboon reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane protein
    Sandra Dawe
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Virol 79:6216-26. 2005
    ..The exceedingly small, myristoylated ectodomain and the unusual topological distribution of structural motifs in this nonenveloped virus membrane fusion protein necessitate alternate models of protein-mediated membrane fusion...
  23. pmc Membrane fusion-mediated autophagy induction enhances morbillivirus cell-to-cell spread
    Sebastien Delpeut
    INRS Institut Armand Frappier, University of Quebec, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
    J Virol 86:8527-35. 2012
    ....
  24. pmc Differential expression of mycobacterial antigen MPT64, apoptosis and inflammatory markers in multinucleated giant cells and epithelioid cells in granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Tehmina Mustafa
    Section for Microbiology and Immunology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Virchows Arch 452:449-56. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the epithelioid cells (ECs) and multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) in the granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms...
  25. doi Factors affecting cytotrophoblast cell viability and differentiation: Evidence of a link between syncytialisation and apoptosis
    Y X Chen
    Department of Pathophysiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 43:821-8. 2011
    ....
  26. ncbi Meltrin-alpha, a fusion protein involved in multinucleated giant cell and osteoclast formation
    E Abe
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, John L McClellan VA Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock 72205, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 64:508-15. 1999
    The formation of multinucleated cells such as myotubes, macrophage-derived giant cells (MGC), and osteoclasts is the result of cell-cell fusion of mononuclear precursors...
  27. pmc Reduced clearance of respiratory syncytial virus infection in a preterm lamb model
    David K Meyerholz
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University, 2740 Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA 50011 1250, USA
    Microbes Infect 6:1312-9. 2004
    ..This work suggests that perinatal RSV clearance is age-dependent, which may explain the severity of RSV infection in preterm infants. The preterm lamb model is useful for assessing age-dependent mechanisms of severe RSV infection...
  28. doi Developmental cell biology of human villous trophoblast: current research problems
    John D Aplin
    Maternal and Fetal Health Research Group, University of Manchester, UK
    Int J Dev Biol 54:323-9. 2010
    ..Maternally delivered insulin-like growth factors stimulate growth and might be therapeutically useful when endogenous growth pathways falter...
  29. ncbi Differential effects of inducers of syncytialization and apoptosis on BeWo and JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells
    S Al-Nasiry
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Hum Reprod 21:193-201. 2006
    ..The interactions of trophoblasts with the cytokine network at the fetomaternal interface determine the pathway the cell undertakes, e.g. proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis...
  30. pmc Mutations in the fusion protein cleavage site of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 increase cleavability and syncytium formation but do not increase viral virulence in chickens
    Madhuri Subbiah
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    J Virol 85:5394-405. 2011
    ..Furthermore, cleavage of the F protein is not a determinant of APMV-2 pathogenicity in chickens...
  31. pmc M2 polarized macrophages and giant cells contribute to myofibrosis in neuromuscular sarcoidosis
    Stefan Prokop
    Department of Neuropathology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Pathol 178:1279-86. 2011
    ..Monocytes/macrophages and giant cells in granulomas of muscle tissue from patients with sarcoidosis show a status of alternative activation (M2) ..
  32. pmc Structure-based mutagenesis of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D defines three critical regions at the gD-HveA/HVEM binding interface
    Sarah A Connolly
    Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 77:8127-40. 2003
    ..The results demonstrate that of the 35 gD and HveA contact residues that comprise the gD-HveA interface, only a handful are critical for complex formation...
  33. pmc Metabolic profiling reveals local and systemic responses of host plants to nematode parasitism
    Julia Hofmann
    Department of Applied Plant Sciences and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Plant Protection, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A 1190 Vienna, Austria
    Plant J 62:1058-71. 2010
    ..Our studies open the door towards understanding the complex remodelling of plant metabolism in favour of the parasitizing nematode...
  34. pmc The transcriptome of syncytia induced by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots
    Dagmar Szakasits
    Department of Applied Plant Sciences and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Plant Protection, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    Plant J 57:771-84. 2009
    ..This analysis revealed that syncytia are transcriptionally clearly different from roots (and all other organs), as well as from other root tissues...
  35. ncbi The bacterial gene lfpA influences the potent induction of calcitonin receptor and osteoclast-related genes in Burkholderia pseudomallei-induced TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells
    Justin A Boddey
    Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
    Cell Microbiol 9:514-31. 2007
    ..Mutation of lfpA significantly reduced expression of the tested host genes, relative to the response to wild-type B. pseudomallei. We also show that lfpA is required for optimal virulence in vivo...
  36. doi Myo-inositol oxygenase genes are involved in the development of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots
    Shahid Siddique
    Institute of Plant Protection, Department of Applied Plant Sciences and Plant Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, A 1190 Vienna, Austria
    New Phytol 184:457-72. 2009
    ..Furthermore, syncytia in double mutants were significantly smaller than in wild-type plants. * Our data demonstrate an important role of the MIOX genes for syncytium development and for the development of female nematodes...
  37. pmc Direct involvement of HERV-W Env glycoprotein in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation
    Jean Louis Frendo
    Unité INSERM 427, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Rene Descartes, 75006 Paris, France
    Mol Cell Biol 23:3566-74. 2003
    ..Taken together, these results strongly support a direct role for Env-W in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation...
  38. ncbi The transition to endoreduplication in trophoblast giant cells is regulated by the mSNA zinc finger transcription factor
    H Nakayama
    Program in Development and Fetal Health, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Dev Biol 199:150-63. 1998
    ..This is striking in rodent trophoblast giant cells which contain up to 1000N of DNA...
  39. pmc Formation of multinucleated giant cells and microglial degeneration in rats expressing a mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene
    Sarah E Fendrick
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida College of Medicine and McKnight Brain Institute, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 4:9. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to provide a histopathological evaluation of the microglial neuroinflammatory response in a rodent model of ALS, the SOD1G93A transgenic rat...
  40. ncbi Expression of KiSS-1, a metastasis suppressor gene, in trophoblast giant cells of the rat placenta
    Yasuko Terao
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd, 17 85 Jusohonmachi 2 Chome, Yodogawa, Osaka 532 8686, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1678:102-10. 2004
    ..KiSS-1 and OT7T175 mRNAs were specifically detected in trophoblast giant cells at embryonic day 12.5, and the transcripts in the cells gradually decreased during placental maturation...
  41. pmc In vitro modeling of respiratory syncytial virus infection of pediatric bronchial epithelium, the primary target of infection in vivo
    Remi Villenave
    Centre for Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:5040-5. 2012
    ..As such, this model may provide insights into RSV pathogenesis in humans that ultimately lead to successful RSV vaccines or therapeutics...
  42. ncbi Induction of DC-STAMP by alternative activation and downstream signaling mechanisms
    Mitsuru Yagi
    Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    J Bone Miner Res 22:992-1001. 2007
    DC-STAMP is essential for fusion of osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells; however, it is not known whether dc-stamp expression in these two cell types is differentially regulated...
  43. pmc Low-dose exposure of C57BL/6 mice to burkholderia pseudomallei mimics chronic human melioidosis
    Laura Conejero
    Department of Immunology and Infection, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Pathol 179:270-80. 2011
    ..in humans, such as development of a collagen cord that encapsulates the lesions, the presence of multinucleated giant cells, and granulomas with a caseous necrotic center, which may explain why chronic melioidosis is often misdiagnosed ..
  44. pmc Differentiation of trophoblast giant cells and their metabolic functions are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta
    Karim Nadra
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 26:3266-81. 2006
    ..PPARbeta/delta activity is in fact essential for the differentiation of the Rcho-1 cells in giant cells, as shown by the severe inhibition of differentiation once PPARbeta/delta is silenced...
  45. ncbi Pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1, -6, -7, and -17 are major products of bovine binucleate trophoblast giant cells at midpregnancy
    Karl Klisch
    Microscopical Anatomy, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    Mol Reprod Dev 71:453-60. 2005
    ..Due to their specific glycosylation pattern, PAGs derived from binucleate trophoblast giant cells were highly enriched by this protocol...
  46. pmc Osteoclasts and giant cells: macrophage-macrophage fusion mechanism
    A Vignery
    Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Int J Exp Pathol 81:291-304. 2000
    ..differentiation of osteoclasts, cells which play a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also of giant cells that are present in chronic inflammatory reactions and in tumours...
  47. pmc Presence of osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells in the bone and nonostotic lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis
    Cristiana E T da Costa
    Department of Pediatric Immunology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands
    J Exp Med 201:687-93. 2005
    ..As osteoclast-derived enzymes play a major role in tissue destruction, the osteoclast-like nature of MGCs in all LCH lesions makes them a potential target for the treatment of this disease...
  48. ncbi Proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in villous trophoblast at 13-41 weeks of gestation (including observations on annulate lamellae and nuclear pore complexes)
    T M Mayhew
    School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Placenta 20:407-22. 1999
    ..We propose further that clustered nuclei (pre-apoptotic and apoptotic) in syncytial knots probably represent the extrusion component of normal continuous epithelial turnover...
  49. doi Functional characterization of transcripts expressed in early-stage Meloidogyne javanica-induced giant cells isolated by laser microdissection
    John Fosu-Nyarko
    Plant Biotechnology Research Group, Western Australian State Agricultural Biotechnology Centre SABC, School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Murdoch University, Perth, WA6150, Australia
    Mol Plant Pathol 10:237-48. 2009
    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica induces giant cells and feeds from them during its development and reproduction...
  50. ncbi Polyploid giant cells provide a survival mechanism for p53 mutant cells after DNA damage
    T M Illidge
    CRC Department of Oncology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton University, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK
    Cell Biol Int 24:621-33. 2000
    ..The cells then enter endoreduplication cycles resulting in the formation of polyploid giant cells. Subsequently the majority of the giant cells die, providing the main source of delayed apoptosis; however, a ..
  51. doi Syncytium gene expression in Glycine max([PI 88788]) roots undergoing a resistant reaction to the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines
    Vincent P Klink
    Department of Biological Sciences, Harned Hall, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA
    Plant Physiol Biochem 48:176-93. 2010
    ..The experiments presented here strongly implicate the jasmonic acid defense pathway as a factor involved in the localized resistant reaction of G. max([PI 88788]) to H. glycines([NL1-RHg/HG-type 7])...
  52. doi Toll-like receptor 2 and class B scavenger receptor type I are required for bacterial uptake by trophoblast giant cells
    Kenta Watanabe
    Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, 1677 1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi 753 8515, Japan
    Mol Immunol 47:1989-96. 2010
    ..These results suggested that the phagocytic activity of TG cells is mediated by both TLR2 and SR-BI...
  53. ncbi Monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells and sarcoidosis
    Hiroyuki Okamoto
    Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, 10 15 Fumizono, Moriguchi, 570 8507, Osaka, Japan
    J Dermatol Sci 31:119-28. 2003
    Multinucleated giant cells (MGC) are characteristic cells in granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis and also formed in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by stimulation with cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFN-..
  54. ncbi Macrophage fusion induced by IL-4 alternative activation is a multistage process involving multiple target molecules
    Laura Helming
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:33-42. 2007
    Multinucleated giant cells, characteristic of granulomatous infections, originate from fusion of macrophages, however, little is known about the underlying mechanism...
  55. doi RANK signalling in bone lesions with osteoclast-like giant cells
    Kyu Yeoun Won
    Department of Pathology, Kyung Hee Medical Center, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun Gu, Seoul, Korea
    Pathology 43:318-21. 2011
    ..Giant cell tumours, chondroblastomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts harbour osteolytic lesions containing osteoclast-like giant cells. We investigated the characteristics of the RANKL signalling pathway in each of these bone lesions.
  56. doi Macrophage fusion and multinucleated giant cells of inflammation
    Amy K McNally
    Department of Pathology, Wolstein Research Building, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 713:97-111. 2011
    Macrophages undergo fusion with other macrophages to form the hallmark multinucleated giant cells of chronic inflammation...
  57. pmc Mechanisms of varicella-zoster virus neuropathogenesis in human dorsal root ganglia
    Mike Reichelt
    Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Dr, Grant Bldg, Room S356, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Virol 82:3971-83. 2008
    ..These mechanisms of VZV neuropathogenesis help to account for the often severe neurologic consequences of herpes zoster...
  58. ncbi The Hand1 bHLH transcription factor is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis
    P Riley
    Program in Development and Fetal Health, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Genet 18:271-5. 1998
    ..Their heart tubes showed abnormal looping and ventricular myocardial differentiation. Therefore, Hand1 is essential for differentiation of both trophoblast and cardiomyocytes, which are embryologically distinct cell lineages...
  59. ncbi Phagocytosis as a potential mechanism for microbial defense of mouse placental trophoblast cells
    A Amarante-Paffaro
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Brazi
    Reproduction 128:207-18. 2004
    Trophoblast giant cells are active phagocytes during implantation and post-implantation...
  60. pmc Nipah virus infection and glycoprotein targeting in endothelial cells
    Stephanie Erbar
    Institute of Virology, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany
    Virol J 7:305. 2010
    ..Since endothelial cells share many characteristics with epithelial cells in terms of polarization and protein sorting, we wanted to elucidate the role of the NiV glycoprotein targeting signals in endothelial cells...
  61. doi Unusual chromatin status and organization of the inactive X chromosome in murine trophoblast giant cells
    Catherine Corbel
    Unité de génétique et biologie du développement, Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 3215, INSERM U934, 26 Rue d Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Development 140:861-72. 2013
    ..most lineages, with significant levels of escape from XCI mainly in one extra-embryonic cell type: trophoblast giant cells (TGCs)...
  62. pmc Syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells in teratocarcinoma-like tumors derived from Parp-disrupted mouse embryonic stem cells
    T Nozaki
    Division of Biochemistry, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1 1, Tsukiji 5 chome, Chuo Ku, Tokyo, 104 0045 Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13345-50. 1999
    ..c. into nude mice. Remarkably, all tumors derived from Parp(-/-) clones contained syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGCs), which possess single or multiple megalo-nuclei...
  63. doi Ossifying dermatofibroma with osteoclast-like giant cells: report of a case and literature review
    John A Papalas
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Am J Dermatopathol 31:379-83. 2009
    ..Ossifying dermatofibroma with osteoclast-like giant cells is an uncommon variant that has only rarely been reported...
  64. pmc N-glycans of F protein differentially affect fusion activity of human respiratory syncytial virus
    G Zimmer
    , , D-30559 Hannover, Germany
    J Virol 75:4744-51. 2001
    ..The single N-glycan of the F1 subunit attached to N500, however, is required for efficient syncytium formation...
  65. pmc Interleukin-4-induced β-catenin regulates the conversion of macrophages to multinucleated giant cells
    Flora Binder
    Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Mol Immunol 54:157-63. 2013
    ..IL-4 also induces macrophages to fuse together and form multinucleated giant cells (MGCs)...
  66. doi The Arabidopsis F-box/Kelch-repeat protein At2g44130 is upregulated in giant cells and promotes nematode susceptibility
    Rosane H C Curtis
    Rothamsted Research, Hertfordshire, UK
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 26:36-43. 2013
    ....
  67. ncbi Multinucleate giant cells and the control of chemokine secretion in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Xing Wu Zhu
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK
    Clin Immunol 120:10-20. 2006
    Multinucleate giant cells (MGC) are characteristic of tuberculous granulomas, but their function is not well understood...
  68. doi Lack of the trans-receptor mechanism of HIV-1 infection: CD4- and coreceptor-independent incorporation of HIV-1-resistant cells into syncytia induced by HIV-1
    Sheikh Ariful Hoque
    Department of Virology and Preventive Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371 8511, Japan
    Microbes Infect 14:357-68. 2012
    ..Our study demonstrates that HIV-1-resistant cells can be incorporated into syncytia induced by HIV-1 and this incorporation may partially be mediated through adhesion molecules...
  69. ncbi Early undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclastlike giant cells: direct evidence for ductal evolution
    Frank Bergmann
    Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    Am J Surg Pathol 31:1919-25. 2007
    ..To a variable degree, they may contain osteoclastlike giant cells and are then sometimes referred to as osteoclastlike giant cell tumors...
  70. pmc The companion cell-specific Arabidopsis disaccharide carrier AtSUC2 is expressed in nematode-induced syncytia
    Katja Juergensen
    Institut für Phytopathologie, Christian Albrechts Universitat Kiel, Hermann Rodewald Strasse 9, D 24098 Kiel, Germany
    Plant Physiol 131:61-9. 2003
    ..Results support the idea that AtSUC2 mediates the transmembrane transfer of Suc. AtSUC2 is the first disaccharide carrier described to be activated by pathogens...
  71. ncbi Computerized video time-lapse (CVTL) analysis of the fate of giant cells produced by X-irradiating EJ30 human bladder carcinoma cells
    Geraldine Prieur-Carrillo
    Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of California San Francisco, 94103, USA
    Radiat Res 159:705-12. 2003
    This study was designed to examine the viability and proliferation of uninucleated and multinucleated giant cells formed after 6 Gy X irradiation...
  72. pmc The promoter of a plant defensin gene directs specific expression in nematode-induced syncytia in Arabidopsis roots
    Shahid Siddique
    Institute of Plant Protection, Department of Applied Plant Sciences and Plant Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Konrad Lorenz Str 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria
    Plant Physiol Biochem 49:1100-7. 2011
    ..These results were supported by the analysis of promoter::GUS lines. After infection with H. schachtii all GUS lines showed a strong staining in syncytia at 5 and 15 dpi. This expression pattern was confirmed by in situ RT-PCR...
  73. pmc Location of Golgi membranes with reference to dividing nuclei in syncytial Drosophila embryos
    J Ripoche
    Department of Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:1878-82. 1994
    ....
  74. ncbi Involvement of the purinergic P2X7 receptor in the formation of multinucleated giant cells
    Irma Lemaire
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Immunol 177:7257-65. 2006
    Multinucleated giant cells (MGC), a hallmark of chronic inflammatory reactions, remain an enigma of cell biology. There is evidence implicating the purinergic P2X7 receptor in the fusion process leading to MGC...
  75. doi Growing evidence of the repopulation of regressed tumours by the division of giant cells
    Denys Wheatley
    Cell Biol Int 32:1029-30. 2008
  76. ncbi CD98 immunoreactivity in multinucleated giant cells of glioblastomas: an immunohistochemical double labeling study
    Hiroaki Takeuchi
    Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    Neuropathology 28:127-31. 2008
    ..To investigate the association between CD98 and multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) in glioblastomas, we investigate the CD98 immunoreactivity of MNGCs and the proliferative potential in ..
  77. ncbi Similarities between giant cell tumor of bone, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and pigmented villonodular synovitis concerning ultrastructural cytochemical features of multinucleated giant cells and mononuclear stromal cells
    Ukei Anazawa
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Ultrastruct Pathol 30:151-8. 2006
    ..In GCTB and GCTTS, multinucleated cells, including some relatively small giant cells, showed TRAP activity and cytoplasmic features characteristic of osteoclasts, and also sometimes abundant rough ..
  78. ncbi Tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 modulate HIV-1-induced membrane fusion
    Mónica Gordón-Alonso
    Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    J Immunol 177:5129-37. 2006
    ..Accordingly, overexpression of CD81 and CD9 rendered cells less susceptible to Env-mediated syncytia formation. These data indicate that CD9 and CD81 have an important role in membrane fusion induced by HIV-1 envelope...
  79. ncbi The expression of osteoclast markers on foreign body giant cells
    Y Kadoya
    Department of Histopathology, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London, UK
    Bone Miner 27:85-96. 1994
    ..phosphatase (TRAP), macrophage associated antigens (M phi Ag), and vitronectin receptor (VNR) on foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) was investigated in peri-implant tissues of loosened total joint arthroplasties...
  80. ncbi The influence of CD4 and CXCR4 on maedi-visna virus-induced syncytium formation
    Arnt Ove Hovden
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen High Technology Centre, Bergen, Norway
    APMIS 110:697-708. 2002
    ..This potential accessory role for CXCR4 in MW receptor interactions may reflect the distant relationship between the ovine (MVV) and the human/feline lentiviruses (HIV/FIV)...
  81. pmc Generation of multinucleated giant cells in vitro by culture of human monocytes with Mycobacterium bovis BCG in combination with cytokine-containing supernatants
    A Gasser
    Institute of Hygiene, University of Innsbruck, Austria
    Infect Immun 67:395-402. 1999
    Multinucleated giant cells (MGC), a characteristic feature of tuberculous granulomas, form by fusion of monocytes or macrophages, but little is known about the mechanism of the fusion process itself...
  82. pmc Endopolyploidy in irradiated p53-deficient tumour cell lines: persistence of cell division activity in giant cells expressing Aurora-B kinase
    Jekaterina Erenpreisa
    Latvia Biomedicine Research and Study Centre, Riga, Latvia
    Cell Biol Int 32:1044-56. 2008
    ..We observed that endopolyploid giant cells are formed via different means in irradiated p53 tumours, by: (1) division/fusion of daughter cells creating ..
  83. pmc Cell wall ingrowths in nematode induced syncytia require UGD2 and UGD3
    Shahid Siddique
    Division of Plant Protection, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    PLoS ONE 7:e41515. 2012
    ..schachtii resulting in smaller syncytia, lower number of developing nematodes, and smaller females...
  84. doi Atypical presentation of idiopathic granulomatous myocarditis mimicking idiopathic giant cell myocarditis: diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic insights
    Daniela Miani
    Transpl Int 21:505-7. 2008
  85. doi Multinucleated floret-like giant cells in sporadic and NF1-associated neurofibromas: a clinicopathologic study of 94 cases
    Gaetano Magro
    Dipartimento G F Ingrassia, Policlinico Universitario G Rodolico, Anatomia Patologica, Universita di Catania, Via S Sofia 87, Catania, Italy
    Virchows Arch 456:71-6. 2010
    Multinucleated floret-like giant cells (MNFGCs), similar to those commonly observed in pleomorphic lipoma and giant cell fibroblastoma, have been occasionally reported in gynecomastia and neurofibromas from patients affected by ..
  86. ncbi Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with syncytial giant cells: a case report and review of the literature
    Rulong Shen
    Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus 43210, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 128:1435-8. 2004
    Renal cell carcinoma with syncytial giant cells (SGCs) is rare; to our knowledge, there are only 3 cases reported in the English literature...
  87. ncbi Selective alterations in glutamate and GABA receptor subunit mRNA expression in dysplastic neurons and giant cells of cortical tubers
    R White
    PENN Epilepsy Center and Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA
    Ann Neurol 49:67-78. 2001
    ..and uptake sites may contribute to seizure initiation and may occur selectively in dysplastic neurons and giant cells. Arrays containing GABA A (GABAAR), GluR, NMDA receptor (NR) subunits, GAD65, the vesicular GABA transporter (..
  88. ncbi Giant cells in pyoderma gangrenosum
    S Sanders
    Department of Dermatology, Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Cutan Pathol 28:97-100. 2001
    ..Immunostaining with PGM1, a macrophage marker, revealed well-formed giant cells with three or more nuclei in biopsies from 6 of 13 patients with IBD...
  89. doi Sensitivity and specificity of finding of multinucleate trophoblastic giant cells in decidua in placentas from high-risk pregnancies
    Jerzy Stanek
    Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Hum Pathol 43:261-8. 2012
    ..analysis of sensitivity and specificity of clustered placental basal plate multinucleate trophoblastic giant cells for various clinical conditions and placental lesions associated with fetal and placental hypoxia...
  90. ncbi What is the role of giant cells in AL-amyloidosis?
    K E Olsen
    Division of Molecular and Immunological Pathology, Linkoping University, Sweden
    Amyloid 6:89-97. 1999
    ..is shown that that there is a difference between localized and systemic amyloidosis in respect to accompanying giant cells which constantly are found associated with amyloid deposits in localized AL-amyloidosis...
  91. ncbi Trophoblast giant cells express NF-kappa B2 during early mouse development
    A Muggia
    Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia dei Microrganismi dell Università di Milano, Italy
    Dev Genet 25:23-30. 1999
    ..Our study shows that nfkb2 mRNA and protein are specifically localized in trophoblast giant cells throughout the stages analyzed. Trophoblast giant cells obtained upon in vitro cultures of 7...
  92. ncbi Differential expression of transforming growth factor-alpha and macrophage colony-stimulating factor/colony-stimulating factor-1R (c-fins) by multinucleated giant cells involved in pathological bone resorption at the site of orthopaedic implants
    N Al-Saffar
    Department of Histopathology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Hampstead, London, England
    J Orthop Res 18:800-7. 2000
    ..biomaterial particles is characterized by macrophage-rich inflammatory infiltrate, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and aseptic loosening at the site of arthroplasty...
  93. doi A gene expression analysis of syncytia laser microdissected from the roots of the Glycine max (soybean) genotype PI 548402 (Peking) undergoing a resistant reaction after infection by Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode)
    Vincent P Klink
    Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Harned Hall, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
    Plant Mol Biol 71:525-67. 2009
    ..max genotype, Peking...
  94. ncbi Release of mitotic descendants by giant cells from irradiated Burkitt's lymphoma cell line
    J A Erenpreisa
    Laboratory Tumor Cell Biology, Latvian University Biomedicine Centre, Riga, Latvia
    Cell Biol Int 24:635-48. 2000
    Polyploid giant cells are produced as part of the response of p53 mutant Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines to high doses of irradiation...
  95. doi Tanycytic ependymoma of the filum terminale with pleomorphic giant cells
    Masayuki Shintaku
    Department of Pathology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Tennoji, Osaka, 543 8555, Japan
    Brain Tumor Pathol 26:79-82. 2009
    ..The most prominent finding was an appearance of many atypical and pleomorphic, often monstrous, giant cells, which was not associated with an increase in proliferative activity...
  96. ncbi Multinucleated giant cell formation by microglia: induction by interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13
    A Suzumura
    Department of Neurology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo Cho, Kashihara, Nara, Japan
    Brain Res 849:239-43. 1999
    ..T helper 2 (Th2)-derived cytokines can induce MGC formation even in the absence of infectious agents...
  97. ncbi Simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis: analysis of envelope sequences from individual brain multinucleated giant cells and tissue samples
    Elena V Ryzhova
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Virology 297:57-67. 2002
    ..that is pathologically virtually indistinguishable from that associated with HIV infection, with multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) being the principal histopathological manifestation...
  98. ncbi Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland with osteoclast-like giant cells
    Fernando A Candanedo-Gonzalez
    National Medical Center Century XXI, IMSS, Oncology Hospital, Mexico, D F
    Endocr Pathol 16:75-81. 2005
    ..The tumor measured 16 cm in diameter, showed markedly pleomorphic and osteoclast-like giant cells, necrosis, and high mitotic activity (average 15 per 10 high-power fields)...
  99. ncbi Enhanced expression of myeloid-related protein complex (MRP8/14) in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in granulomas of patients with active cardiac sarcoidosis
    Fumio Terasaki
    Department of Internal Medicine III, Osaka Medical College, 2 7 Daigaku machi, Takatsuki 569 8686, Japan
    Circ J 71:1545-50. 2007
    ..The expression of MRP8/14 in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was investigated...
  100. ncbi Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells showing various degree of pancreas duct involvement. A case report and literature review
    Vlad Maksymov
    Department of Pathology, Health Sciences Centre St John s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
    JOP 12:170-6. 2011
    Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells is exceedingly rare...
  101. ncbi Origin of stellate giant cells in oral fibrous lesions determined by immunohistochemical expression of vimentin, HHF-35, CD68 and factor XIIIa
    Lélia B Souza
    Laboratory of Oral Pathology, Dentistry School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, 1787 CEP 59056 000 Natal, Brazil
    Pathology 36:316-20. 2004
    To determine the origin of mono-, bi- and multinucleate stellate giant cells in giant cell fibroma, fibrous hyperplasia and fibroepithelial polyp of the oral mucosa.

Research Grants64

  1. Serpin Modulation of Inflammatory Vasculitis; Potential for Immunomodulatory Ther
    ALEXANDRA ROSE LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and medial dendritic cells, macrophage, T lymphocytes, specifically T helper 1 (TH1) subpopulations, and giant cells, with attendant elastic layer degradation...
  2. Varicella zoster virus: molecular controls of cell fusion-dependent pathogenesis
    Ann Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  3. Purinergic Regulation of Bone Metabolism
    Bruce Neil Cronstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We had previously observed that adenosine A1 receptors regulate the stimulated formation of multinucleated giant cells by cultured human peripheral blood monocytes and therefore determined whether adenosine A1 receptors also ..
  4. Characterization of a novel rabbit herpes simplexvirus: a possible model for unde
    LING J JIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of this research is to characterize the latency associated transcript gene (LAT) region and investigate the role of LAT during latency in a natural host model system. . ..
  5. Measles Virotherapy and radiovirotherapy in the Treatment of recurrent gliomas
    Evanthia Galanis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This application proposes to investigate strategies optimizing the use of measles vaccine strains as novel antitumor agents in the treatment of recurrent gliomas. ..
  6. Structural consequences of TSC gene mutations in brain
    Peter B Crino; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Then, we will determine whether P-S6 labeled giant cells in tubers and non- tuber brain lesions express a single or multiple somatic second hit mutations to test the ..
  7. Mechanisms of host-bacterial interactions, ileitis and granuloma formation in Agr
    Steven M Lipkin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These Agr2-/- mouse models develop dramatic ileitis, colitis, multinucleated giant cells and granulomas, a characteristic Crohn's disease patient feature that has not been previously observed in ..
  8. Lectin Resistant Tumor Cells And Functional Glycomics
    PAMELA M STANLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..spermatogonia blocks spermatogenesis beyond the spermatocyte stage, causing spermatids to form multinucleated giant cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that complex N-glycans are required in spermatids for differentiation into ..
  9. The role of Burkholderia in giant cell arteritis
    Curry Koening; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..can be isolated from the blood of subjects with GCA and whether it can induce the formation of multinucleated giant cells and cause vasculitis in a humanized-mouse chimeric model...
  10. Regulation of Myeloid Development and Function by II-4
    Achsah D Keegan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..as dendritic cells and macrophages, while others fall into the multinucleated category including multinucleated-giant cells (MNG), and osteoclasts. These cells can play critical roles in granuloma formation and in bone homeostasis...
  11. Role of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein in Airway Mucus Induction
    MARTIN LAWRENCE MOORE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mechanisms of RSV-induced mucus are unknown and the focus of this proposal. Elucidation of these mechanisms will identify targets for therapies ..
  12. Endogenous Retroviruses and Placental Morphogenesis
    Thomas E Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Successful completion of the experiments is expected to elucidate regulatory mechanisms controlling fundamental processes essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy that are regulated by endogenous retroviruses. ..
  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic brain
    Gerald A Dienel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Molecular imaging and system dynamics of tumor virotherapy
    DAVID J DINGLI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Brn3 Transcription Factor Family in Osteoclastogenesis
    ULRIKE CAROLINE SCHULZE-SPATE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Resorption is mediated by osteoclasts, multinucleated giant cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage...
  16. Optimizing Measles Virotherapy in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer
    Kah Whye Peng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. OOCYTE DEVELOPMENT IN DROSOPHILA
    Lynn Cooley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  18. LYMPHOCYTE/MACROPHAGE INTERACTIONS ON BIOMATERIALS
    JAMES MORLEY ANDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..role(s) of lymphocytes in modulating recognized critical activities of adherent macrophages and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) at the host/biomaterial interface...
  19. Macrophages and Biosensor Function in Vivo
    Don Kreutzer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..role of Monocyte Related Cells (MRCs) including macrophages (MQs), dendritic cells (DCs), and multi-nucleated giant cells (GCs) in controlling inflammation, angiogenesis, fibrosis and vessel regression in "foreign body reactions" is ..
  20. Molecular mechanism of exocyst-centriolin complexes in abscission
    Heidi Hehnly; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involving centriolin may provide a functional link between cytokinetic abnormalities and cancer predisposition. ..
  21. Significance of Notch1 and Tribbles-2 in macrophage fusion and granuloma formatio
    Andras Schaffer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..focuses on the role of Notch and its target gene Trib2 in the differentiation of macrophages to multinucleate giant cells, a critical cell type in granulomas...
  22. Mechanism of Mitochondrial Fusion
    JODI M NUNNARI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This critical mitochondrial function and others depend on mitochondrial fusion and defects in mitochondrial fusion in humans cause neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. ..
  23. Magnesium Channel Cation Selectivity
    Michael E Maguire; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of selectivity of CorA for Mg2+ through i) electrophysiological analysis of site-directed mutants expressed in giant cells or reconstituted in lipid, ii) hydrogen-deuterium exchange primarily of loop and pore residues, and iii) X-ray ..
  24. Development of an HSV-2 based oncolytic virus
    Xiaoliu Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. LYMPHOCYTE/MACROPHAGE INTERACTIONS ON BIOMATERIALS
    James Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..role(s) of lymphocytes in modulating recognized critical activities of adherent macrophages and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) at the host/biomaterial interface...
  26. Osteoclast Exosomes
    AGNES VIGNERY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Macrophages also fuse in chronic inflammatory reactions and in tumors where they form multinucleate giant cells. Fusion is a regulated developmental event that allows macrophages to become multinucleate and acquire a new ..
  27. CYCLOPENTANNELATION IN TOTAL SYNTHESIS
    MARCUS ANTONIUS TIUS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Each of the natural product total syntheses referred to above uses a cyclization reaction in the key step that my research group developed. ..
  28. Cardiac Optogenetics: A Cell Delivery Approach
    Emilia Entcheva; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  29. Nipah Virus Pathobiology and Effects on Innate Immunity
    Linda Baum; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The co-investigators have a unique combination of expertise, and propose an innovative set of studies into the glycobiology of NiV pathogenesis. ..
  30. C6ORF32, AN HDAC6-BINDING PROTEIN THAT REGULATES MYOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION
    Emanuela Gussoni; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will constitute the groundwork for understanding whether future pharmacological therapies targeting the regulatory interaction between C6ORF32 and HDAC6 are amenable to enhance myogenic repair. ..
  31. BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS
    DON GRAVES; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..It is also possible that there exists more than one strain of BLV and these studies may give suggestive evidence of this...
  32. Foreign Body Response as a Performance Metric for Implanted Scaffolds
    David W Grainger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..profiles, fibrous capsule thickness, vascularity, degradation, and numbers of resident macrophages/foreign body giant cells in a murine subcutaneous pocket model...
  33. MCP-1 and attenuation of the foreign body response
    Themis R Kyriakides; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Biomaterials elicit an inflammatory response leading to the formation of destructive foreign giant cells (FBGC) that participate in the encapsulating foreign body response (FBR)...
  34. REGULATION OF BONE RESORPTION
    Julie Glowacki; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These cells can be distinguished from foreign body giant cells elicited by particulate polymethylmethacrylate because only the former express tartrate-resistant acid ..
  35. HIV-1 Env Microglial Tropism and Neurovirulence
    Ruth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our work will provide important information for developing a better treatment strategies aimed at protecting the brain from HIV-1 attack. ..
  36. ENDOTHELIAL CELLS AND OSTEOCLAST DEVELOPMENT
    Patricia Collin Osdoby; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..1), both capable of forming osteoclast-like giant cells in vitro...
  37. FAILURE MECHANISMS OF REVISION JOINT REPLACEMENT
    Joan Bechtold; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Four hypotheses will be tested: 1): the density of foreign body giant cells in a revision cavity depends on the size of the polyethylene particles in the model; 2) bone ingrowth and ..
  38. CALCITONIN RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION
    Steven Goldring; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..g. Paget's disease of bone and other granulomatous diseases and tumors in which the phenotype of the giant cells and their relationship to osteoclasts is not well established...
  39. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Nipah and Hendra Virus Infection
    Benhur Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The proposed studies, if successful, will lead to the development of effective anti-Nipah (and Hendra) therapeutics that can be used in response to an outbreak of these priority pathogens. ..
  40. An all titanium transcutaneous access device (TAD) for peritoneal dialysis
    Robert Whalen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Foreign body giant cells are not found adjacent to the material, which is encapsulated in a thin, collagenous tissue capsule whose ..
  41. LYMPHOCYTE/MACROPHAGE INTERACTIONS ON BIOMATERIALS
    James Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..cytokines that promote macrophage development, activation and fusion to form FBGC or Langhans giant cells (LGC), 4) to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of lymphokine-induced FBGC and LGC formation and the ..
  42. Gene Expression Profiling of the Kveim Siltzbach Test
    Michael Iannuzzi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..have revealed recruitment of CD4 lymphocytes and macrophages that gradually form the mature epithelioid cells, giant cells, and rim of lymphocytes that form the sarcoidal granuloma...
  43. SHIV ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..burdens, depletion of the CD4+ subset of T-cells, and a neuropathology (perivascular cuffing, multinucleated giant cells) similar to that seen in HIV-1 infected humans...
  44. HIV INDUCED SYNCYTIA AND THE ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF AIDS
    David Soll; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Furthermore, syncytium formation may serve as an indication of HIV progression. ..
  45. MOLECULAR PROPERTIES AND MODULATION OF BACTERIAL PORINS
    ANNE DELCOUR; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Channel activities will be studied in giant spheroplast or giant cells of E.coli, and in outer membrane fractions reconstituted into giant liposomes...
  46. DENDRITIC CELLS AND HIV-1 PATHOGENESIS
    Ralph Steinman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..By providing expertise in mucosal leukocyte isolate and dendritic cell isolation, the principal investigator will be able to work with the Race s to carry out a unique set of experiments that will extend area #1 above. ..
  47. Molecular Comparison of Macrophage Foreign Body Response
    David Grainger; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..monocyte/macrophage culture assays now common for biomaterials inflammatory assessments with foreign body giant cells. The following Specific Aims are proposed: (1) Determine selected cell-produced cytokines representing the Th1 ..
  48. Adrenomedullin and Human Trophoblast Invasion
    Yuan Lin Dong; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..AM mRNA has been identified in mouse trophoblast giant cells, which are derived from the concepius and are directly in contact with maternal tissues at the implantation ..
  49. Transcription Enhancer Factor Control of Placental Genes
    Shi Wen Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposal _ddresses specific hypotheses that will enhance our understanding of TEF-mediated placental gene expression and Irophoblast differentiation that are important for human fetal development. ..
  50. NITRIC OXIDE, OSTEOCLASTS AND METABOLIC BONE DISEASE
    Philip Osdoby; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..cytokines induce iNOS and NO in many other cell types, including avian non-resorptive marrow-derived giant cells (MAGC)...
  51. FASEB Summer Conference--Advance in Tetraspanin Research
    MARTIN HEMLER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..With the recent application of newly available genomic, proteomic, and genetic technologies, an abundance of new information should be forthcoming. ..
  52. A MODEL FOR INDUCTION OF CHORIOCARCINOMA IN THE RAT
    SHIRLEY MC CORMACK; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..placenta persists composed almost entirely of basal zone trophectoderm in which the percentage of trophoblast giant cells is also increased. Choriocarcinoma can be induced on this substratum by carcinogenic drugs...
  53. IMPORTANCE OF DENDRITIC CELLS IN SIV DELTA NEF VACCINES
    Melissa Robbiani; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..This may advance the design of vaccines, as well as provide more sensitive methods to monitor the efficacy of such vaccines. ..
  54. RAPID FLUOROMETRIC ASSAY OF HIV-INDUCED CELL FUSION
    PAUL MADDON; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, can fuse with cells expressing CD4, the HIV receptor, to form multi-nucleated giant cells or syncytia...
  55. TROPHOBLAST GENE EXPRESSION AND DIFFERENTIATION
    DANIEL LINZER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..the trophoblasts that form the perimeter of the embryonic compartment at the implantation site are called giant cells. These cells arise through an abrogation of the normal cell cycle and the establishment of a program of ..
  56. OSTEOCLASTS & GIANT CELLS: IMPLICATIONS OF CELL FUSION
    AGNES VIGNERY; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..regulation of the fusion on mononuclear phagocytes (MNP) leading to the formation of both osteoclasts (OC) and giant cells (GC) and 2) to characterize the function consequences of multinucleation in both normal and pathological bone ..
  57. GENETICS AND FUNCTION OF HSV GB AND GD IN VIRUS ENTRY
    Joseph Glorioso; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Together, these studies of gB and gD should genetically map and uncover essential structures that contribute to virus penetration and syncytia formation...
  58. INTRAPLACENTAL PATHWAY MODULATING TROPHOBLAST CELLS
    Guoli Dai; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It is expressed specifically in trophoblast giant cells and spongiotrophoblast cells of the rat placenta during the second half of gestation...
  59. TOPOGENIC REPERTOIRE OF AIDS VIRUS ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN
    M Jabbar; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Thus, the mutational analysis of the specific domains of ARV-2 envelope glycoprotein would help elucidate their contribution in the intracellular sorting process...
  60. Spread of HSV-1 mediated by the gD receptor nectin-1
    Robert Geraghty; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Results from these studies will contribute to the understanding of viral spread in human and animal herpesviruses. ..
  61. NEURO-AIDS IN OPIATE DEPENDENT RHESUS MACAQUES
    Paul Cheney; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and stereological studies in the same monkeys demonstrated microglial nodules and multinucleate giant cells, the hallmarks of HIV brain infection, as well as significant neuronal cell loss...
  62. EFFECTS OF H-2 HAPLOTYPES ON TROPHECTODERM DEVELOPMENT
    NINA HILLMAN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..In the latter embryos, the trophectoderm cells do not transform into giant cells. The exact cause(s) of these phenotypic expressions is not known...
  63. OPIOIDS EFFECTS ON HIV1 REPLICATION AND REACTIVATION
    Earl Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Furthermore, the role of specific opioid receptor types involved in the changes will be determined using highly selective agonists and antagonists. ..
  64. HIV INDUCED SYNCYTIA--MOTILITY AND CHEMOATTRACTANT
    David Soll; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Once the perimeters are established with cells in vitro , syncytia derived from lymph nodes of infected patients will be studied in a similar fashion. ..