germ cells

Summary

Summary: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation in mouse primordial germ cells is affected by AID deficiency
    Christian Popp
    Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 463:1101-5. 2010
  2. doi Parallel mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming in the germline
    Jamie A Hackett
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1QN, UK
    Trends Genet 28:164-74. 2012
  3. pmc Promoter DNA methylation couples genome-defence mechanisms to epigenetic reprogramming in the mouse germline
    Jamie A Hackett
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
    Development 139:3623-32. 2012
  4. ncbi Epigenetic reprogramming in mouse primordial germ cells
    Petra Hajkova
    Universitat des Saarlandes, FR 8 2 Genetik, Postfach 151150, 66041 Saarbrucken, Germany
    Mech Dev 117:15-23. 2002
  5. pmc Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Christian Frøkjaer-Jensen
    Department of Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    Nat Genet 40:1375-83. 2008
  6. doi Epigenetic events in mammalian germ-cell development: reprogramming and beyond
    Hiroyuki Sasaki
    Department of Integrated Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, School of Life Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Yata, Mishima, Japan
    Nat Rev Genet 9:129-40. 2008
  7. pmc Germline DNA demethylation dynamics and imprint erasure through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine
    Jamie A Hackett
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Science 339:448-52. 2013
  8. ncbi RNA-binding protein Dnd1 inhibits microRNA access to target mRNA
    Martijn Kedde
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division of Tumor Biology, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cell 131:1273-86. 2007
  9. doi Epigenetic reprogramming in mouse pre-implantation development and primordial germ cells
    Mitinori Saitou
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Development 139:15-31. 2012
  10. ncbi Testicular germ-cell tumours in a broader perspective
    J Wolter Oosterhuis
    Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Josephine Nefkens Institute, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Cancer 5:210-22. 2005

Detail Information

Publications307 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation in mouse primordial germ cells is affected by AID deficiency
    Christian Popp
    Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 463:1101-5. 2010
    Epigenetic reprogramming including demethylation of DNA occurs in mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) and in early embryos, and is important for the erasure of imprints and epimutations, and the return to pluripotency...
  2. doi Parallel mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming in the germline
    Jamie A Hackett
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1QN, UK
    Trends Genet 28:164-74. 2012
    b>Germ cells possess the extraordinary and unique capacity to give rise to a new organism and create an enduring link between all generations...
  3. pmc Promoter DNA methylation couples genome-defence mechanisms to epigenetic reprogramming in the mouse germline
    Jamie A Hackett
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
    Development 139:3623-32. 2012
    Mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) erase global DNA methylation (5mC) as part of the comprehensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs during PGC development...
  4. ncbi Epigenetic reprogramming in mouse primordial germ cells
    Petra Hajkova
    Universitat des Saarlandes, FR 8 2 Genetik, Postfach 151150, 66041 Saarbrucken, Germany
    Mech Dev 117:15-23. 2002
    Genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian germ cells, zygote and early embryos, plays a crucial role in regulating genome functions at critical stages of development...
  5. pmc Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Christian Frøkjaer-Jensen
    Department of Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    Nat Genet 40:1375-83. 2008
    ..We have successfully inserted transgenes as long as 9 kb and verified that single copies are inserted at the targeted site. Single-copy transgenes are expressed at endogenous levels and can be expressed in the female and male germlines...
  6. doi Epigenetic events in mammalian germ-cell development: reprogramming and beyond
    Hiroyuki Sasaki
    Department of Integrated Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, School of Life Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Yata, Mishima, Japan
    Nat Rev Genet 9:129-40. 2008
    The epigenetic profile of germ cells, which is defined by modifications of DNA and chromatin, changes dynamically during their development...
  7. pmc Germline DNA demethylation dynamics and imprint erasure through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine
    Jamie A Hackett
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Science 339:448-52. 2013
    Mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergo sequential epigenetic changes and genome-wide DNA demethylation to reset the epigenome for totipotency...
  8. ncbi RNA-binding protein Dnd1 inhibits microRNA access to target mRNA
    Martijn Kedde
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division of Tumor Biology, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cell 131:1273-86. 2007
    ..conserved RNA-binding protein (RBP), counteracts the function of several miRNAs in human cells and in primordial germ cells of zebrafish by binding mRNAs and prohibiting miRNAs from associating with their target sites...
  9. doi Epigenetic reprogramming in mouse pre-implantation development and primordial germ cells
    Mitinori Saitou
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Development 139:15-31. 2012
    ..During mouse development, the genome-wide epigenetic states of pre-implantation embryos and primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergo extensive reprogramming...
  10. ncbi Testicular germ-cell tumours in a broader perspective
    J Wolter Oosterhuis
    Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Josephine Nefkens Institute, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Cancer 5:210-22. 2005
    ..Recent progress begins to explain the apparent unpredictable development of germ-cell tumours and offers a basis for understanding their exquisite sensitivity to therapy...
  11. pmc Dynamic CpG island methylation landscape in oocytes and preimplantation embryos
    Sebastien A Smallwood
    Epigenetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Genet 43:811-4. 2011
    Elucidating how and to what extent CpG islands (CGIs) are methylated in germ cells is essential to understand genomic imprinting and epigenetic reprogramming...
  12. pmc The dynamics of genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming in mouse primordial germ cells
    Stefanie Seisenberger
    Epigenetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK
    Mol Cell 48:849-62. 2012
    Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming occurs in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) and preimplantation embryos, but the precise dynamics and biological outcomes are largely unknown...
  13. ncbi A conserved checkpoint pathway mediates DNA damage--induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in C. elegans
    A Gartner
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724, USA
    Mol Cell 5:435-43. 2000
    ..Here we show that genotoxic stress blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of germ cells in the nematode C. elegans...
  14. ncbi Regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans longevity protein DAF-16 by insulin/IGF-1 and germline signaling
    K Lin
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Genet 28:139-45. 2001
    ..Lifespan in C. elegans can be extended by perturbing sensory neurons or germ cells. In both cases, lifespan extension requires DAF-16...
  15. pmc Chromatin dynamics during epigenetic reprogramming in the mouse germ line
    Petra Hajkova
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute of Cancer and Developmental Biology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QN, UK
    Nature 452:877-81. 2008
    ..A critical event in this context is DNA demethylation and the erasure of parental imprints in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) on embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) after they enter into the developing gonads...
  16. ncbi Epigenetic inheritance at the agouti locus in the mouse
    H D Morgan
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia
    Nat Genet 23:314-8. 1999
    ..Because retrotransposons are abundant in mammalian genomes, this type of inheritance may be common...
  17. ncbi Retinoid signaling determines germ cell fate in mice
    Josephine Bowles
    Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    Science 312:596-600. 2006
    b>Germ cells in the mouse embryo can develop as oocytes or spermatogonia, depending on molecular cues that have not been identified...
  18. doi Reconstitution of the mouse germ cell specification pathway in culture by pluripotent stem cells
    Katsuhiko Hayashi
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Cell 146:519-32. 2011
    ..Our findings provide a paradigm for the first step of in vitro gametogenesis...
  19. ncbi Genetic control of programmed cell death in the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite germline
    T L Gumienny
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11743, USA and Program in Genetics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    Development 126:1011-22. 1999
    ..We describe here a previously uncharacterized cell fate in C. elegans: we show that germ cells, which in hermaphrodites can differentiate into sperm and oocytes, also undergo apoptotic cell death...
  20. pmc Environmentally induced transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells and the subsequent germ line
    Michael K Skinner
    Center for Reproductive Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e66318. 2013
    ..Interestingly, disruptions in DNA methylation patterns and altered transcriptomes were distinct between germ cells at the onset of gonadal sex determination at embryonic day 13 (E13) and after cord formation in the testis at ..
  21. pmc Naive pluripotency is associated with global DNA hypomethylation
    Harry G Leitch
    Wellcome Trust Medical Research Council Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 20:311-6. 2013
    Naive pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and embryonic germ cells (EGCs) are derived from the preimplantation epiblast and primordial germ cells (PGCs), respectively...
  22. ncbi Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells
    Keisuke Okita
    Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Nature 448:313-7. 2007
    ..Thus, iPS cells competent for germline chimaeras can be obtained from fibroblasts, but retroviral introduction of c-Myc should be avoided for clinical application...
  23. pmc Caenorhabditis elegans HIM-18/SLX-4 interacts with SLX-1 and XPF-1 and maintains genomic integrity in the germline by processing recombination intermediates
    Takamune T Saito
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000735. 2009
    ..elegans BLM homolog. We propose that HIM-18 facilitates processing of HR intermediates resulting from replication fork collapse and programmed meiotic DSBs in the C. elegans germline...
  24. pmc Divergent RNA-binding proteins, DAZL and VASA, induce meiotic progression in human germ cells derived in vitro
    Jose V Medrano
    Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    Stem Cells 30:441-51. 2012
    ..stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to differentiate to cells of all three embryonic germ layers, as well as germ cells in vitro, and thus may provide a model for the study of the genetics and epigenetics of human germline...
  25. doi Evidence that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is essential for male fertility
    Helene Royo
    Department of Stem Cell Research and Developmental Genetics, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Curr Biol 20:2117-23. 2010
    ..Our findings show that MSCI is essential for male meiosis and, as such, provide insight into the differential severity of meiotic mutations' effects on male and female meiosis...
  26. pmc Contribution of intragenic DNA methylation in mouse gametic DNA methylomes to establish oocyte-specific heritable marks
    Hisato Kobayashi
    Department of Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002440. 2012
    ..Here, we report single-base resolution DNA methylome and transcriptome maps of mouse germ cells, generated using whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing and cDNA sequencing (mRNA-seq)...
  27. ncbi A POU-domain transcription factor in early stem cells and germ cells of the mammalian embryo
    M H Rosner
    Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Nature 345:686-92. 1990
    ..The oct-3 gene is also expressed in primordial germ cells and in the female germ line.
  28. ncbi Dnmt3L cooperates with the Dnmt3 family of de novo DNA methyltransferases to establish maternal imprints in mice
    Kenichiro Hata
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Development 129:1983-93. 2002
    ..Together, our findings suggest that Dnmt3L may cooperate with Dnmt3 family methyltransferases to carry out de novo methylation of maternally imprinted genes in oocytes...
  29. pmc Direct conversion of C. elegans germ cells into specific neuron types
    Baris Tursun
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 331:304-8. 2011
    ..ectopic expression of single Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors, we found that the identity of mitotic germ cells can be directly converted into that of specific neuron types: glutamatergic, cholinergic, or GABAergic...
  30. pmc Licensing of gametogenesis, dependent on RNA binding protein DAZL, as a gateway to sexual differentiation of fetal germ cells
    Mark E Gill
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7443-8. 2011
    Mammalian oocytes and spermatozoa derive from fetal cells shared by the sexes. These primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate to the developing somatic gonad, giving rise to oocytes or spermatozoa...
  31. pmc Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation
    Colin D Meiklejohn
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001126. 2011
    ..These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila...
  32. ncbi The Drosophila fusome, a germline-specific organelle, contains membrane skeletal proteins and functions in cyst formation
    H Lin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Laboratories, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
    Development 120:947-56. 1994
    ..Our results imply that Drosophila fusomes are required for ovarian cyst formation and suggest that membrane skeletal proteins regulate cystocyte divisions...
  33. ncbi Mechanisms of germ cell specification across the metazoans: epigenesis and preformation
    Cassandra G Extavour
    Laboratory for Development and Evolution, University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Development 130:5869-84. 2003
    b>Germ cells play a unique role in gamete production, heredity and evolution. Therefore, to understand the mechanisms that specify germ cells is a central challenge in developmental and evolutionary biology...
  34. ncbi Controls of germline stem cells, entry into meiosis, and the sperm/oocyte decision in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Judith Kimble
    Department of Biochemistry and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 1544, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 23:405-33. 2007
    ..Parallels with controls in other organisms include the use of PUF proteins for stem cell maintenance and the prominence of mRNA regulation for the control of germline development...
  35. pmc Newer insights into premeiotic development of germ cells in adult human testis using Oct-4 as a stem cell marker
    Deepa Bhartiya
    Dept of Stem Cell Biology, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, JM Street, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India
    J Histochem Cytochem 58:1093-106. 2010
    ..Oct-4B eventually disappeared in mature germ cells, viz. spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperm...
  36. doi Critical function of Prdm14 for the establishment of the germ cell lineage in mice
    Masashi Yamaji
    Laboratory for Mammalian Germ Cell Biology, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe Institute, 2 2 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
    Nat Genet 40:1016-22. 2008
    ..Recent evidence indicates that in mice, specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs), the common source of both oocytes and spermatozoa, occurs through the integration of three key events: ..
  37. ncbi POU5F1 (OCT3/4) identifies cells with pluripotent potential in human germ cell tumors
    Leendert H J Looijenga
    Pathology Lab for Exp Patho Oncology, Josephine Nefkens Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Cancer Res 63:2244-50. 2003
    ..cells, as well as their precursor carcinoma in situ/gonadoblastoma cells, have the phenotype of early germ cells that can be activated to pluripotency...
  38. ncbi Distribution, silencing potential and evolutionary impact of promoter DNA methylation in the human genome
    Michael Weber
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Nat Genet 39:457-66. 2007
    ..Moreover, we observe that inactive unmethylated CpG island promoters show elevated levels of dimethylation of Lys4 of histone H3, suggesting that this chromatin mark may protect DNA from methylation...
  39. pmc Distinct requirements for somatic and germline expression of a generally expressed Caernorhabditis elegans gene
    W G Kelly
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Embryology, Baltimore, Maryland 21210, USA
    Genetics 146:227-38. 1997
    ..The resulting transgenes show robust expression in both germline and soma. Our results suggest the possibility of concerted mechanisms for silencing unwanted germiline expression of repetitive sequences...
  40. pmc The ontogeny of cKIT+ human primordial germ cells proves to be a resource for human germ line reprogramming, imprint erasure and in vitro differentiation
    Sofia Gkountela
    Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 15:113-22. 2013
    ..and fetal samples from 6 to 20 developmental weeks and identified the stages at which cKIT(+) primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of gametes, undergo whole-genome epigenetic reprogramming with global depletion of 5mC, ..
  41. pmc DNA damage in germ cells induces an innate immune response that triggers systemic stress resistance
    Maria A Ermolaeva
    Cologne Excellence Cluster for Cellular Stress Responses in Aging Associated Diseases, Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Strasse 47a, 50674 Cologne, Germany
    Nature 501:416-20. 2013
    ..In adult Caenorhabditis elegans worms germ cells undergo mitotic and meiotic cell divisions, whereas somatic tissues are entirely post-mitotic...
  42. doi Combinatorial control of cell fate and reprogramming in the mammalian germline
    Erna Magnusdottir
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United Kingdom
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 22:466-74. 2012
    Development of mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) presents a unique example of a cell fate specification event that is intimately linked with epigenetic reprogramming...
  43. pmc Members of the H3K4 trimethylation complex regulate lifespan in a germline-dependent manner in C. elegans
    Eric L Greer
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 466:383-7. 2010
    ..These results indicate that the longevity of the soma is regulated by an H3K4 methyltransferase/demethylase complex acting in the C. elegans germline...
  44. pmc C. elegans piRNAs mediate the genome-wide surveillance of germline transcripts
    Heng Chi Lee
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 373 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Cell 150:78-87. 2012
    ..elegans piRNAs utilize their enormous repertoire of targeting capacity to scan the germline transcriptome for foreign sequences, while endogenous germline-expressed genes are actively protected from piRNA-induced silencing...
  45. ncbi Pin1 regulates the timing of mammalian primordial germ cell proliferation
    Fawn W Atchison
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Development 130:3579-86. 2003
    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to male and female germ cells to transmit the genome from generation to generation. Defects in PGC development often result in infertility...
  46. ncbi Regulation of life-span by germ-line stem cells in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Nuno Arantes-Oliveira
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0448, USA
    Science 295:502-5. 2002
    ..We propose that the germ-line stem cells affect life-span by influencing the production of, or the response to, a steroid hormone that promotes longevity...
  47. pmc Distinct argonaute-mediated 22G-RNA pathways direct genome surveillance in the C. elegans germline
    Weifeng Gu
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01606, USA
    Mol Cell 36:231-44. 2009
    ..These findings broaden our understanding of the biogenesis and diversity of 22G-RNAs and suggest additional regulatory functions for small RNAs...
  48. ncbi A niche maintaining germ line stem cells in the Drosophila ovary
    T Xie
    Department of Embryology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
    Science 290:328-30. 2000
    ..Our studies implicate one of the somatic cell types, the cap cells, as a key niche component...
  49. pmc MicroRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation is required for maintaining undifferentiated properties of blastoderm and primordial germ cells in chickens
    Sang In Lee
    World Class University Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 921, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:10426-31. 2011
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in determining the differentiation fate of pluripotent stem cells and germ cells in mammals...
  50. pmc Phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime microscopy distinguishes different metabolic states of germ cells in a live tissue
    Chiara Stringari
    Laboratory of Fluorescence Dynamics, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13582-7. 2011
    ..Our method is a promising noninvasive optical tool for monitoring metabolic pathways during differentiation or disease progression, and for cell sorting in unlabeled tissues...
  51. pmc Dicer functions in RNA interference and in synthesis of small RNA involved in developmental timing in C. elegans
    R F Ketting
    The Hubrecht Laboratory and Center for Biomedical Genetics, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Genes Dev 15:2654-9. 2001
    ..dcr-1 mutants show a defect in RNAi. Furthermore, a combination of phenotypic abnormalities and RNA analysis suggests a role for dcr-1 in a regulatory pathway comprised of small temporal RNA (let-7) and its target (e.g., lin-41)...
  52. ncbi A cell-specific nuclear receptor is essential for adrenal and gonadal development and sexual differentiation
    X Luo
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Cell 77:481-90. 1994
    ..Male and female Ftz-F1 null mice had female internal genitalia, despite complete gonadal agenesis. These studies establish that the Ftz-F1 gene is essential for sexual differentiation and formation of the primary steroidogenic tissues...
  53. doi The role of Tet3 DNA dioxygenase in epigenetic reprogramming by oocytes
    Tian Peng Gu
    Group of DNA Metabolism, The State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    Nature 477:606-10. 2011
    ..Therefore, Tet3-mediated DNA hydroxylation is involved in epigenetic reprogramming of the zygotic paternal DNA following natural fertilization and may also contribute to somatic cell nuclear reprogramming during animal cloning...
  54. doi Understanding transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the gametes in mammals
    Lucia Daxinger
    Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia
    Nat Rev Genet 13:153-62. 2012
    ..Interestingly, many cases of epigenetic inheritance seem to involve repeat sequences...
  55. ncbi Regulation of zygotic gene expression in Drosophila primordial germ cells
    M Van Doren
    Skirball Institute, NYU Medical Center, New York 10016, USA
    Curr Biol 8:243-6. 1998
    ..Therefore, either there is a general, low level activation of the genome in early germ cells, or specific classes of genes, such as those transcribed by RNA polymerase (RNAP) II, are repressed...
  56. ncbi DNA methylation is a primary mechanism for silencing postmigratory primordial germ cell genes in both germ cell and somatic cell lineages
    Danielle M Maatouk
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, PO Box 100266, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0266, USA
    Development 133:3411-8. 2006
    ..DNA demethylation in postmigratory primordial germ cells coincides with erasure of genomic imprints and reactivation of the inactive X chromosome, as well as ongoing ..
  57. doi Control of chemokine-guided cell migration by ligand sequestration
    Bijan Boldajipour
    Center for Molecular Biology of Inflammation, Von Esmarch Strasse 56, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Cell 132:463-73. 2008
    ....
  58. pmc Genome-wide analysis of GLD-1-mediated mRNA regulation suggests a role in mRNA storage
    Claudia Scheckel
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002742. 2012
    Translational repression is often accompanied by mRNA degradation. In contrast, many mRNAs in germ cells and neurons are "stored" in the cytoplasm in a repressed but stable form...
  59. pmc gld-1, a tumor suppressor gene required for oocyte development in Caenorhabditis elegans
    R Francis
    Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Genetics 139:579-606. 1995
    ..By contrast, gld-1 (null) males are unaffected. The hermaphrodite germline tumor appears to derive from germ cells that enter the meiotic pathway normally but then exit pachytene and return to the mitotic cycle...
  60. pmc MicroRNA biogenesis is required for mouse primordial germ cell development and spermatogenesis
    Katsuhiko Hayashi
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research United Kingdom Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 3:e1738. 2008
    ..Apart from miRNAs, mouse germ cells express another type of small RNA, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs)...
  61. pmc Oct4 is required for primordial germ cell survival
    James Kehler
    Germline Development, Center for Animal Transgenesis and Germ Cell Research, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, 382 W Street Road, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania 19348, USA
    EMBO Rep 5:1078-83. 2004
    ..We have used the conditional Cre/loxP gene targeting strategy to assess Oct4 function in primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
  62. ncbi Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian development
    W Reik
    Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK
    Science 293:1089-93. 2001
    ..However, in mammals there are at least two developmental periods-in germ cells and in preimplantation embryos-in which methylation patterns are reprogrammed genome wide, generating cells with ..
  63. doi Oct4-induced pluripotency in adult neural stem cells
    Jeong Beom Kim
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Munster, NRW, Germany
    Cell 136:411-9. 2009
    ..Not only can these cells can be efficiently differentiated into NSCs, cardiomyocytes, and germ cells in vitro, but they are also capable of teratoma formation and germline transmission in vivo...
  64. ncbi The Oct4 homologue PouV and Nanog regulate pluripotency in chicken embryonic stem cells
    Fabrice Lavial
    Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, INRA, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, France
    Development 134:3549-63. 2007
    ..These findings show that the mechanisms by which Oct4 and Nanog regulate pluripotency and self-renewal are not exclusive to mammals...
  65. pmc Temporal transcriptional profiling of somatic and germ cells reveals biased lineage priming of sexual fate in the fetal mouse gonad
    Samantha A Jameson
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002575. 2012
    ..We analyzed supporting cells, interstitial/stromal cells, germ cells, and endothelial cells...
  66. ncbi Guidance of primordial germ cell migration by the chemokine SDF-1
    Maria Doitsidou
    Germ Cell Development, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37077, Gottingen, Germany
    Cell 111:647-59. 2002
    ..Finally, we show that the PGCs can be attracted toward an ectopic source of the chemokine, strongly suggesting that this molecule provides a key directional cue for the PGCs...
  67. doi FGF9 suppresses meiosis and promotes male germ cell fate in mice
    Josephine Bowles
    Division of Molecular Genetics and Development, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    Dev Cell 19:440-9. 2010
    Sex determination of mammalian germ cells occurs during fetal development and depends on signals from gonadal somatic cells...
  68. ncbi Long-term proliferation in culture and germline transmission of mouse male germline stem cells
    Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara
    Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan
    Biol Reprod 69:612-6. 2003
    ..Long-term spermatogonial stem cell culture will be useful for studying spermatogenesis mechanism and has important implications for developing new technology in transgenesis or medicine...
  69. ncbi Regulation of developmental rate and germ cell proliferation in Caenorhabditis elegans by the p53 gene network
    W B Derry
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Cell Death Differ 14:662-70. 2007
    ..Further, we find that CEP-1 and PHG-1 mediate the decreased developmental rate and embryonic viability of mutations in the clk-2/TEL2 gene, which regulates lifespan and checkpoint responses...
  70. pmc 3' UTRs are the primary regulators of gene expression in the C. elegans germline
    Christopher Merritt
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Cell Dynamics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Curr Biol 18:1476-82. 2008
    ..The C. elegans gonad is an excellent tissue to study gene regulation during development: In the adult, germ cells are arranged in order of differentiation, with undifferentiated progenitors at one end of the gonad, cells in ..
  71. pmc Antagonism between MES-4 and Polycomb repressive complex 2 promotes appropriate gene expression in C. elegans germ cells
    Laura J Gaydos
    Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Cell Rep 2:1169-77. 2012
    ..This antagonism ensures proper patterns of gene expression for germ cells, which includes repression of somatic genes and the X chromosomes.
  72. doi Ectopic expression of germline genes drives malignant brain tumor growth in Drosophila
    Ana Janic
    Cell Division Group, Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB Barcelona, PCB, c Baldiri Reixac 10 12, Barcelona, Spain
    Science 330:1824-7. 2010
    ..Our results demonstrate that germline traits are necessary for tumor growth in this Drosophila model and suggest that inactivation of germline genes might have tumor-suppressing effects in other species...
  73. doi Targets and dynamics of promoter DNA methylation during early mouse development
    Julie Borgel
    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS UMR 5535, Universite Montpellier 2, Universite Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France
    Nat Genet 42:1093-100. 2010
    ..Finally, we identify nonimprinted genes that inherit promoter DNA methylation from parental gametes, suggesting that escape of post-fertilization DNA methylation reprogramming is prevalent in the mouse genome...
  74. ncbi Telomere biology in mammalian germ cells and during development
    Sofie Bekaert
    Laboratory for Biochemistry and Molecular Cytology, Department for Molecular Biotechnology, FLTBW Ghent University, Belgium
    Dev Biol 274:15-30. 2004
    ....
  75. doi Expression of gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF) is spatially and temporally correlated with early testicular differentiation in medaka
    Yasushi Shibata
    Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Gene Expr Patterns 10:283-9. 2010
    ..When the XY embryos were treated with estradiol-17beta, in order to reverse their phenotypic sex, a decline was observed in the expression of Gsdf in these embryos by real-time PCR...
  76. ncbi The Drosophila RNA methyltransferase, DmHen1, modifies germline piRNAs and single-stranded siRNAs in RISC
    Michael D Horwich
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Curr Biol 17:1265-72. 2007
    ..2'-O-methylation of siRNAs may be the final step in assembly of the RNAi-enzyme complex, RISC, occurring after an Argonaute-bound siRNA duplex is converted to single-stranded RNA...
  77. ncbi Nanos maintains germline stem cell self-renewal by preventing differentiation
    Zhong Wang
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical School, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Science 303:2016-9. 2004
    ..we show that removing the translational repressor Nanos from either GSCs or their precursors, the primordial germ cells (PGCs), causes both cell types to differentiate into germline cysts...
  78. pmc The human VASA gene is specifically expressed in the germ cell lineage
    D H Castrillon
    Women s and Perinatal Pathology Division, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9585-90. 2000
    ..the VASA protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and characterized VASA protein expression in human germ cells at various stages of development...
  79. pmc Follistatin operates downstream of Wnt4 in mammalian ovary organogenesis
    Humphrey H C Yao
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Dev Dyn 230:210-5. 2004
    ..Fst inhibits formation of the XY-specific coelomic vessel in XX gonads. In addition, germ cells in the ovarian cortex are almost completely lost in both Wnt4 and Fst null gonads before birth...
  80. ncbi Conserved role of nanos proteins in germ cell development
    Masayuki Tsuda
    Division of Mammalian Development, National Institute of Genetics, SOKENDAI, Yata 1111, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 8540, Japan
    Science 301:1239-41. 2003
    In Drosophila, maternally supplied Nanos functions in the migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) into the gonad; in mice, zygotic genes are involved instead...
  81. doi Identification of germline stem cells in the ovary of the teleost medaka
    Shuhei Nakamura
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics for Reproduction, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8787, Japan
    Science 328:1561-3. 2010
    ..Early-stage germ cells were localized in clusters along interwoven threadlike cords of sox9b-expressing somatic cells (termed germinal ..
  82. ncbi Nanog expression in mouse germ cell development
    Shinpei Yamaguchi
    Laboratory of Stem Cell Engineering, Stem Cell Research Center, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Shogoin, Sakyo ku, Japan
    Gene Expr Patterns 5:639-46. 2005
    ..Importantly, Nanog expression is highly expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs) of E11.5 and E12.5 mouse embryos...
  83. ncbi Reversal of histone lysine trimethylation by the JMJD2 family of histone demethylases
    Johnathan R Whetstine
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 125:467-81. 2006
    ..Our finding that this family of demethylases generates different methylated states at the same lysine residue provides a mechanism for fine-tuning histone methylation...
  84. ncbi Loss of the Suv39h histone methyltransferases impairs mammalian heterochromatin and genome stability
    A H Peters
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Vienna Biocenter, Dr Bohrgasse 7, A 1030, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 107:323-37. 2001
    ..These in vivo data assign a crucial role for pericentric H3-K9 methylation in protecting genome stability, and define the Suv39h HMTases as important epigenetic regulators for mammalian development...
  85. pmc piRNAs initiate an epigenetic memory of nonself RNA in the C. elegans germline
    Masaki Shirayama
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 373 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Cell 150:65-77. 2012
    ..These findings suggest how organisms can utilize RNAi-related mechanisms to detect foreign sequences not by any molecular signature, but by comparing the foreign sequence to a memory of previous gene expression...
  86. pmc A role for Lin28 in primordial germ-cell development and germ-cell malignancy
    Jason A West
    Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Children s Hospital Boston and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, MA 02115, USA
    Nature 460:909-13. 2009
    The rarity and inaccessibility of the earliest primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the mouse embryo thwart efforts to investigate molecular mechanisms of germ-cell specification...
  87. ncbi Zebrafish vasa homologue RNA is localized to the cleavage planes of 2- and 4-cell-stage embryos and is expressed in the primordial germ cells
    C Yoon
    Department of Biology and Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    Development 124:3157-65. 1997
    ..Although zebrafish has recently emerged as a model for vertebrate development, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) in this organism have not been previously described...
  88. pmc What is an epigenetic transgenerational phenotype? F3 or F2
    Michael K Skinner
    Center for Reproductive Biology, School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 4231, USA
    Reprod Toxicol 25:2-6. 2008
    ..The ability of an environmental compound (e.g. endocrine disruptor) to promote this reprogramming of the germ-line appears to be the causal factor in the epigenetic transgenerational phenotype...
  89. doi Transposable elements in the mammalian germline: a comfortable niche or a deadly trap?
    N Zamudio
    Inserm U934 UMR3215, Institut Curie, Paris, France
    Heredity (Edinb) 105:92-104. 2010
    ..What could be observed as risky behavior may turn out to be an insidious strategy developed by germ cells to sense retrotransposons and hold them back in check...
  90. ncbi Germ cell specification in mice
    Katsuhiko Hayashi
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Science 316:394-6. 2007
    Specification of germ cells in mice occurs relatively late in embryonic development. It is initiated by signals that induce expression of Blimp1, a key regulator of the germ cell, in a few epiblast cells of early postimplantation embryos...
  91. ncbi Vasa unveils a common origin of germ cells and of somatic stem cells from the posterior growth zone in the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii
    N Rebscher
    Institute of Zoology, Philipps University Marburg, Karl von Frisch Strasse 8, 35032 Marburg, Germany
    Dev Biol 306:599-611. 2007
    ..At 4 days of development, four primordial germ cells are singled out from within the MPGZ, and migrate into the anterior segments to colonise a newly discovered "..
  92. doi Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 2: changes in spermatid organelles associated with development of spermatozoa
    Louis Hermo
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2
    Microsc Res Tech 73:279-319. 2010
    ..During spermiogenesis, many genes/proteins have been implicated in the diverse dynamic events occurring at this time of development of germ cells and the absence of some of these have been shown to result in subfertility or infertility.
  93. ncbi Caenorhabditis elegans p53: role in apoptosis, meiosis, and stress resistance
    W B Derry
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Science 294:591-5. 2001
    ..These findings show that C. elegans p53 mediates multiple stress responses in the soma, and mediates apoptosis and meiotic chromosome segregation in the germ line...
  94. ncbi Cellular dynamics associated with the genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in migrating primordial germ cells in mice
    Yoshiyuki Seki
    Laboratory for Mammalian Germ Cell Biology, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe Institute, 2 2 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe, 650 0047, Japan
    Development 134:2627-38. 2007
    We previously reported that primordial germ cells (PGCs) in mice erase genome-wide DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), and instead acquire high levels of tri-methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) during their ..
  95. ncbi A vasa-like gene in zebrafish identifies putative primordial germ cells
    L C Olsen
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Norway
    Mech Dev 66:95-105. 1997
    ..Putative maternal vlg transcripts were detected shortly after fertilization and from the blastula stage onwards, expression was restricted to migratory cells most likely to be primordial germ cells.
  96. pmc Detection of nascent RNA, single-copy DNA and protein localization by immunoFISH in mouse germ cells and preimplantation embryos
    Satoshi H Namekawa
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Protoc 6:270-84. 2011
    ..This procedure (sample preparation and staining) requires 1-1.5 d to complete and will facilitate detailed examination of spatial relationships between chromatin epitopes, DNA and RNA during the dynamic transition from gamete to embryo...
  97. ncbi DNA methylation reprogramming in the germ line
    Diane J Lees-Murdock
    Stem Cells and Epigenetics Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, Centre for Molecular Bioscience, University of Ulster, Coleraine, North Ireland, UK
    Epigenetics 3:5-13. 2008
    ..Reprogramming methylation in the primordial germ cells establishes monoallelic expression of imprinted genes which exhibit monoallelic expression throughout the ..
  98. pmc Stra8 and its inducer, retinoic acid, regulate meiotic initiation in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice
    Ericka L Anderson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14976-80. 2008
    ..Stra8 is a vertebrate-specific, cytoplasmic factor expressed by germ cells in response to retinoic acid...
  99. doi Germline P granules are liquid droplets that localize by controlled dissolution/condensation
    Clifford P Brangwynne
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Science 324:1729-32. 2009
    In sexually reproducing organisms, embryos specify germ cells, which ultimately generate sperm and eggs...
  100. pmc Vasa promotes Drosophila germline stem cell differentiation by activating mei-P26 translation by directly interacting with a (U)-rich motif in its 3' UTR
    Niankun Liu
    Department of Biology, Developmental Biology Research Initiative, and Goodman Cancer Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada
    Genes Dev 23:2742-52. 2009
    ..Taken together, our data support the conclusion that Vas promotes germ cell differentiation by directly activating mei-P26 translation in early-stage committed cells...
  101. pmc Xenopus Nanos1 is required to prevent endoderm gene expression and apoptosis in primordial germ cells
    Fangfang Lai
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1011 NW 15th St, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Development 139:1476-86. 2012
    Nanos is expressed in multipotent cells, stem cells and primordial germ cells (PGCs) of organisms as diverse as jellyfish and humans. It functions together with Pumilio to translationally repress targeted mRNAs...

Research Grants116 found, 100 shown here

  1. Physiological role of PRDM16 in brown fat development and energy balance
    Patrick Seale; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..A number of candidate proteins that may be involved in the PRDM16-driven cell fate transition between myoblasts and brown fat cells were identified. ..
  2. Mechanisms of Sex Determination in Zebrafish
    JOHN HARVEY POSTLETHWAIT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The zebrafish gonad initially develops as a bipotential organ, with a few primordial germ cells in all juveniles initially developing as oocytes...
  3. Intracellular Phase Diagram Creation Using a Micro-Differential Scanning Calorime
    GARY L SOLBREKKEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The advent of artificial tissues, cord blood therapies, cell transplantation procedures, and the desire to bank germ cells have driven the need to establish a means to reliably store biological materials...
  4. Functional Analysis of the Dual Specificity Kinase NEK1 in Mammalian Meiosis
    JOANNA KIM HOLLOWAY; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..NEK1 is a dual activity serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase, and is highly expressed in germ cells, particularly the narrow window encompassing the entry into, and progression through, Prophase I...
  5. Targeting Cell Death to Prevent Ventricular Remodeling and Heart Failure
    Abhinav Diwan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. THE EFFECT OF DIOXINS ON GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS IN MURINE TESTES
    KENAN RIFAT OMURTAG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition we seek to determine if dioxin exposure affects gene expression in the germ cells and perhaps stem cells at different stages of spermatogenesis...
  7. Germ Cell Migration in Drosophila.
    Ruth Lehmann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Primordial germ cells provide an excellent model system for the analysis of directed cell migration...
  8. Inactivation of Hdac3 in the cause, prevention, and treatment of HCC
    Scott W Hiebert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This application addresses the role of this key gene in the cause, prevention, and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  9. The biology of blood-testis barrier dynamics
    C Yan Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since both TNF? and TGF-?3 are products of Sertoli and germ cells, and testosterone is a product of Leydig cells (but the androgen receptor resides mostly on the Sertoli cell), ..
  10. MRNA PROCESSING IN REPRODUCTION AND FERTILIZATION
    Clinton C MacDonald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of polyadenylation-the RNA signals used, the sites chosen, and the proteins involved-are different in male germ cells than in any other tissue...
  11. Functional Analysis of the Dual Specificity Kinase NEK1 in Mammalian Meiosis
    JOANNA KIM HOLLOWAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NEK1 is a dual activity serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase, and is highly expressed in germ cells, particularly the narrow window encompassing the entry into, and progression through, Prophase I...
  12. Model of the Human Testis for Reproductive Toxicology
    PAUL JACOB TUREK; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..to isolate and propagate primary Sertoli cells from adult human donors (hSertCs) and to manipulate primordial germ cells (PGCs), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro to produce ..
  13. Creation of hyperactive transposons for mutagenesis in rodents
    Eric M Ostertag; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Thus, if successful, this project would benefit many goals of public health by making the production of mutations in the rat that model human diseases readily accessible to the research community. ..
  14. Generation of Site-Specific Recombinase-Expressing Transgenic Rats using an Enhan
    Eric M Ostertag; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..driver and donor lines, such that the PB transposase mobilizes the Cre-EGFP gene trap transposon within germ cells in double transgenic animals, designated as "seed" rats...
  15. Epigenetic Changes in the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Due to Arsenic Exposure
    Andrea M Allan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our investigation will use a prenatal arsenic-exposed mouse model to explore the epigenetic changes to the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. ..
  16. Drug Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier
    Nathan J Cherrington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The BTB protects the developing germ cells from the effects of potentially disruptive chemical interactions as well as immunological influences...
  17. Germ Cell Migration in Drosophila.
    Ruth Lehmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Primordial germ cells provide an excellent model system for the analysis of directed cell migration...
  18. PTIP as an epigenetic regulator in male meiosis
    Guo Zhang Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Despite recent progress, our comprehension of the dynamic epigenome in developing male germ cells remains largely to be defined...
  19. Laser Spinning Disc Confocal System for live-cell and live-organism microscopy
    Martha C Soto; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of meiosis in the McKim lab have identified molecules required for proper fertility through the development of germ cells, while C...
  20. Factors for Epigenetic Silencing of Lung Cancer Genes
    Steven Belinsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally we will describe the gene-specific promoter hypermethylation patterns at study entry and at 18-month follow-up. ..
  21. Paternal Environmental Exposures and Reproductive Outcomes: A Comparison of in Vi
    DEBORAH ANN HANSEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of toxins and the exposure of the embryo to these toxins post conception from any genetic effects on the male germ cells. The secondary objective is to determine if aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation affects glucose ..
  22. Mitochondrial Inborn Errors in Metabolism
    Douglas C Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus our mtDNA mutant mouse model of LHON has provided new insight into the pathophysiology of LHON and new avenues for therapeutics. ..
  23. Regulation of Immunoglobulin Class Switch in Aged Mice
    Bonnie B Blomberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies of protein and mRNA stability, post translational regulation, and signal transduction pathways including MAPK, will determine key molecular elements in the control of Ig class switch in aged mice. ..
  24. CONTROL OF MEIOSIS AND GERMLINE PROLIFERATION
    DAVID IRWIN GREENSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..elegans will define the signaling mechanisms controlling late events in oogenesis and provide insights into how they may go awry when signaling is perturbed. ..
  25. Catenins: A role in spertmatogenesis and sperm maturation
    MANJEET KUMAR RAO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..actin-based adherens junctional complexes formed between Sertoli cells (basal ES) and between Sertoli and germ cells (apical ES) in the testis...
  26. Polymorphism and mutation spectrum in minorities with non-small cell lung cancer
    David P Carbone; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results should provide tremendous insight into the genomic factors which influence susceptibility, pathogenesis, drug sensitivity, and survival in African-Americans with non-small cell lung cancer. ..
  27. Germ cell specifications and differentiation in planarians.
    Phillip A Newmark; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Germ cells serve as a link between generations, producing gametes that propagate genetic material from parent to offspring...
  28. Regulation and Function of the Rhox5 Homeobox Gene
    MILES FROME WILKINSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells that directly respond to the androgenic signal (Sertoli cells) and the cells that ultimately become sperm (germ cells)...
  29. TRANSPLANTATION OF TESTIS STEM CELLS IN LARGE ANIMALS
    Ina Dobrinski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  30. Role of Kruppel-Like Factor 4 in Wnt and Notch Signaling in the Intestinal Tract
    Amr Ghaleb; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The further elucidation of the functions of KLF4 in CRC may lead to new insights into the mechanism of intestinal tumorigenesis. ..
  31. Towards a Model of Fanconi Anemia
    BEVERLY JO TOROK STORB; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the relationship of cell dose and the resultant effect on contribution to donor derived sperm, and whether non-germ cells play a role in SSC engraftment and expansion post transplantation...
  32. Characterization of TGR5-D2-WSB1 signaling in metabolic homeostasis in vivo
    ANTONIO C contact BIANCO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2. Tissue-specific TGR5 and WSB1 expression is critical in metabolic control. 3. Signaling through the TGR5-D2-WSB1 pathway affects cellular metabolic profile and gene expression profiles. ..
  33. Regulation and Function of Germline RNP Granules
    JENNIFER SCHISA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The long-term objectives of this application are to understand the function of RNPs in germ cells and resolve the question if they function as a cause or consequence of altered RNA metabolism...
  34. Mucosal innate immune defense to Rift Valley fever virus
    Amy G Hise; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Additionally, the research tools that we develop, including a murine inhalation model will have wider applicability to the study of viruses transmitted via a respiratory route. ..
  35. Role of Vav and Rac in KIT oncogenesis
    Reuben Kapur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ABSTRACT KIT is a unique receptor with important functional roles in melanocytes, germ cells, interstitial cells of Cajal, mast cells, and hematopoietic stem cells...
  36. Transgenerational Inheritance of Epigenetic Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls
    Charles V Vorhees; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Successful demonstration of transgenerational inheritance in response to in utero PCB exposure will transform our understanding of the health effects of these ubiquitous environmental pollutants. ..
  37. Epigenetic control of sex chromosome behavior in meiosis.
    JoAnne Engebrecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, these studies will also elucidate general mechanisms of DNA repair and checkpoint signaling, which play critical roles in monitoring and maintaining genome integrity in all cells. ..
  38. Biology of desmosome-gap junctions in the testis
    Dolores D Mruk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..junctions) between adjacent Sertoli cells at the blood-testis barrier, as well as between Sertoli cells and germ cells. Unfortunately, since this time there has not been a single report addressing the biology of desmosome-gap ..
  39. Hormonal and Paracrine Regulation of Spermatogenesis
    Barry R Zirkin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Its central hypothesis is that differentiated germ cells, via feedback effects, regulate the expression by Sertoli cells of growth factors that, in turn, regulate the ..
  40. Role of Cyclin A's in mammalian gametogenesis
    Debra J Wolgemuth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the effects of loss of cyclin A2 function in different stages of spermatogonial development and in primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
  41. DEVELOPMENT OF MAMMALIAN OOCYTE-GRANULOSA CELL COMPLEX
    John J Eppig; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Coordination of the development of oocytes, the female germ cells, with the non-germ cell, or somatic, components of ovarian follicles are essential for fertility and the ..
  42. Regulation of Spermatocyte Transcription by Testis TAFS
    Margaret T Fuller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  43. Regulation of Germ Cell Pluripotency Through The RNA-Binding Protein, DND1
    Blanche Capel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These unusual tumors reflect the close relationship between germ cells, embryonic stem cells, and tumor cells, and hold important clues about the mechanisms that program these cell ..
  44. Regulation of RNA Surveillance
    MILES FROME WILKINSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..UPF3B, is present on the X chromosome, which is known to be transcriptionally inactivated during meiosis in male germ cells. In this proposal, the function of UPF3A in male germ cells and other cell types is addressed...
  45. microRNA regulation of spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal and differentiation
    RALPH LAWRENCE BRINSTER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Abrogation of the miR processing protein, Dicer, in germ cells greatly reduces spermatogenesis, suggesting miRs are essential for the proliferation and differentiation of the ..
  46. Innate Immune Sensing of Rift Valley Fever Virus
    Amy G Hise; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  47. Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers for SCC of the Lung
    Steven A Belinsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ultimately approaches could be developed that modify the activity of the affected genes to prevent or treat lung cancer. ..
  48. Function of MTG16/ETO2 in acute leukemia
    SCOTT HIEBERT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, we will define the action of Mtg16 in the hematopoietic stem cell and determine the function of this key regulatory gene family in stem cell biology and cancer. ..
  49. Homolog orientation and segregation in acentrosomal meiosis
    Kim S McKim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, we will test the hypothesis that the bi-orientation of homologs depends on an interaction between chromosome associated and central spindle microtubules. ..
  50. Epigenetic Regulation in Self-Renewing and Differentiating Male Germ Cells
    CHRISTOPHER JESS PAYNE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Proteomic profiling will be performed after fractionating nuclear matrix proteins from FACS-sorted germ cells and identifying their composition by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
  51. An infrastructure for cancer virus discovery from next-generation sequencing data
    Matthew L Meyerson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This effort will enable discovery of viruses by the entire cancer research community. ..
  52. Cyclic AMP Action During Sperm Function
    George L Gerton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and calcium-responsive `soluble'adenylyl cyclase (SACY) is the predominant source of cAMP in both mouse germ cells and sperm. When the Sacy gene is ablated by homologous recombination, the result is male infertility...
  53. Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Germ Cells in Volvox carteri
    James Umen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, many human genetic diseases are linked to sex chromosomes or are impacted by gender, and this work will help elucidate the general principles that govern the etiology of such diseases. ! ..
  54. Derivation of Mature Oocytes from Human Primordial Follicles
    AARON JW HSUEH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ovarian failure or female cancer patients following chemo- or radiation therapy suffer from the loss of ovarian germ cells and infertility...
  55. STUDIES ON OVARIAN RING CANALS IN DROSOPHILA
    Lynn Cooley; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A phenotype associated with loss of follicle cells ring canals will likely provide the first insight into their function in epithelial cells. ..
  56. Targeted Manipulation of the Zebrafish Genome through Homologous Recombination
    Brian Ciruna; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the targeting vector such that recombination into the vasa locus will specifically drive GFP expression in germ cells. This will allow direct and efficient screening for heritable homologous recombination events...
  57. Genomic Stability Functions of SMC Proteins in Germ Cells
    Raymond C Chan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The loss of genomic stability in germ cells contributes to fertility and birth defects, and genomic disorders in human. Maintaining genomic stability requires accurate repair of DNA damage...
  58. The Cutaneous Biology of MAGE Transcription Factors
    B Jack Longley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): MAGE proteins are normally expressed only in developing germ cells but are aberrantly expressed in some nevi, most melanomas, and many malignancies...
  59. AHR signaling in Mammalian and Non-Mammalian Models
    Mark E Hahn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  60. Acquisition of a Leica TCS SP5 Confocal Microscope For A Multi-User Facility
    Patricia A Conrad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..health-related issues, including the factors affecting migration, differentiation, and development of primordial germ cells (mutations in which lead to testicular cancer), the role of Ca2+ transients in sudden cardiac death (germane to ..
  61. Manipulation of stem cell activity and cell death by intracellular bacteria
    Horacio M Frydman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Wolbachia maternal transmission is enhanced by bacterial inhibition of germ cells death during egg production...
  62. A high throughput screen for X-reactivation and reprogramming by small molecules
    Jeannie T Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  63. Parental exposure to ionizing radiation and birth defects
    DOROTHY KIM WALLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..exposure to ionizing radiation immediately prior to conception may induce chromosomal abnormalities in the germ cells of one or both parents, resulting in birth defects...
  64. Do we need Y chromosome for successful reproduction?
    Monika A Ward; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The precursor haploid germ cells (spermatids) are rare and often abnormal...
  65. Mechanisms of lack of senescence and inducible senescence in the genus Hydra
    Daniel E Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gametes, we will investigate the possibility that, as in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, germ cells in H. oligactis can reduce lifespan...
  66. Targeting nucleotide excision repair in combination cancer therapy
    John J Turchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our previous data identified two classes of RPA inhibitors, both of which decrease ..
  67. Epigenetic transgenerational effects of endocrine disruptors via female germ line
    Mehmet Uzumcu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  68. Generation of a Complement C3 Conditional Knockout Mouse
    Cynthia A Lemere; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This study will provide important data determining the role of C3 on brain wiring, which will lead ultimately to future studies in models of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  69. Meiotic Chromosome Segregation in C. elegans
    Anne M Villeneuve; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..chromosome dynamics during the homolog pairing process and identifies populations of tightly- synchronized germ cells for high resolution time course analyses...
  70. ERV3 Control of Human Placentation
    NEAL STEWART ROTE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Inheritable integrations into the genome of germ cells may have led to rapid evolutionary changes as the host accommodated and used advantageous retroviral proteins...
  71. NK cells in CNS inflammation and autoimmunity
    Fu Dong Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  72. IDENTIFYING GERMLINE GENES AS TARGETS FOR THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION IN CANCER
    Mary Lou King; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, blocking the expression of these genes suppressed tumor growth. Germ cells share at least three important characteristics of cancer, the ability to: sustain a proliferative state, resist ..
  73. Genomic Disorders in Neurodevelopmental Disease
    IAN MORGAN CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  74. Paternal preconception alcohol on epigenetics and offspring drinking
    Andrey Finegersh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..After mating, we will measure changes in DNA methylation in paternal germ cells. Offspring from these matings will be tested for changes in expression of enzymes that methylate DNA and modify ..
  75. Structure and Function of DNA Repair Enzymes
    Susan S Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition to bioinformatics for all projects, Core A will also perform kinetics analysis for Projects 2-4. Core C will provide the administrative underpinnings for the project. ..
  76. The age-dependence of synaptic deficits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome mouse models
    Laurie R Earls; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The career development award would be an important step in establishing this research program. ..
  77. Characterization of Age-related Changes in Stem Cell Behavior
    DANA LEANNE JONES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Imp and let-7 are also expressed in germ cells, albeit at lower levels, and let-7 is expressed in the midgut of young, but not old, animals...
  78. Rapid Multiplexed Nanoprobe Assays for Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation
    David Larocca; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Having developed probes for each germ line, we aim by the end of phase II to develop a simple differentiation propensity assay using color coded PTQDs that results in a different color readout for each of the 3 germ layers. ..
  79. Assessing transgenerational effects of Phthalates on primordial germ cells
    Diana J Laird; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the embryonic founders of the egg or sperm, undergo rapid epigenetic reprogramming during mid-gestation ..
  80. EPIGENETIC TRANSGENERATIONAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR ACTIONS
    Michael K Skinner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research will more thoroughly investigate this epigenetic transgenerational phenomenon and elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. ..
  81. Cancer Epidemiology Cohort in Male Health Professionals
    Walter C Willett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  82. Genetic Recombination of c. Elegans
    Anne M Villeneuve; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..advances that provide the means to visualize the sites of nascent meiotic CO events in both live and fixed germ cells using GFP:COSA-1, to screen directly for mutants with impaired CO interference, to experimentally induce ..
  83. Oxidation-specific nanoparticles for imaging atherosclerosis
    Sotirios Tsimikas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The ability to detect and quantify oxidation-specific epitopes in humans will allow detection of high risk plaques and provide the tools to allow surveillance following a variety of therapeutic interventions. ..
  84. Understanding genetics of spermatogenic failure by resequencing the sex chromosome
    RENEE GEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In spermatogenesis, undifferentiated male germ cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid spermatozoa...
  85. Regulation of p53 by BRCA1 in Breast Cancer
    JOY CHIEH YU LIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These novel links between BRCA1 and p53 will help identify those individuals at increased breast cancer risk and to devise more specific therapies. ..
  86. Regulation of NEMO modifications in radiation-induced NF-kB signaling
    Shigeki Miyamoto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Second, understanding the mechanisms of NF-kB activation by DNA damaging agents may help identify novel drug targets to improve the current methods of cancer therapy. ..
  87. Roles of small RNAs in guarding germ cell genomes
    Gregory J Hannon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Third, will probe the functions of maternally inherited piRNAs and their roles in germ cells and in the soma...
  88. Mechanisms of Ttemperature Buffering in C. Elegans
    LISA NICOLE PETRELLA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the synMuv B mutant lin-35, which shows loss of fertility and changes in chromatin structure in developing germ cells at high temperature but not at low temperature...
  89. Pathways of Mother to Child Transmission of Metabolic Risk
    ELVIRA MARIE ISGANAITIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 1, we will dissect the relative contribution of changes within F1 germ cells vs...
  90. Cell Clearance in Urogenital Tract
    Kodi S Ravichandran; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proliferation and differentiation of germ cells is intimately tied to the death and removal of "unfit" germ cells...
  91. Altered MHC ligand vaccine design
    Larry R Pease; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Maintenance of antigen specificity without needing to personalize each vaccine for a given patient or tumor type allows this platform to thereby be an "off the shelf" therapy to benefit a wide variety of cancer patients. ..
  92. VHL tumor suppressor gene and the initiation of renal cell carcinoma
    Tien Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3. To elucidate the mechanism of inflammation in VHL mutant kidney. Aim 4. To profile the gene expression pattern associated with VHL tumor progression. ..
  93. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin F Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and others are 'germline-joined,'meaning that the rearranging gene segments were joined by RAG in germ cells and perpetuated in the population as fixed genes...
  94. Utilizing TALEN technology to regulate human microRNA's
    RYAN O'CONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This technology has the potential to be used clinically to treat human disorders involving perturbed microRNA expression and/or function. ..
  95. The pluripotency regulator Prdm14 initiates cancer by epigenetic mechanisms
    MONICA JEAN JUSTICE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Normally, PRDM14 uses epigenetic mechanisms to establish the pluripotency of primordial germ cells, and its role in cancer is similar...
  96. To characterize nongenomic progestin receptors via knockouts in zebrafish
    Yong Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..competency, and changes in oocyte maturation, sperm activation and nongenomic progestin signaling in the germ cells. This proposed study will be the first to generate and characterize knockout models for purported nongenomic ..
  97. Molecular, immunological, and clinical dissection of STAT1 hypermorphic mutations
    Steven M Holland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The in-depth and integrated investigation of cells and patients with GOF STAT1 mutations has far- reaching and broad biological and clinical implications, for various physiological and pathological processes. ..
  98. Sex chromosome control of chromatin in the gametes
    BLUMA JESSICA LESCH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The sex chromosomes of mammalian germ cells must match those of the surrounding soma in order for the germ cells to successfully complete development as sperm or eggs...
  99. Transposons, RNA Interference and Heterochromatin
    Robert A Martienssen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Germ cells in plants arise from the products of meiosis by mitotic division, and a number of companion cells also ..
  100. A singular opportunity to determine the evolutionary genetics of retroviral invas
    ALFRED LOUIS ROCA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  101. Third International Meeting on Genetic Syndromes of the Ras/MAPK Pathway
    Bruce R Korf; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will encourage participation of trainees and junior faculty through a Young Investigator platform session and a poster presentation session and provide travel funds for up two young investigators. ..