eukaryotic cells

Summary

Summary: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.

Top Publications

  1. pmc How do Cdc7 and cyclin-dependent kinases trigger the initiation of chromosome replication in eukaryotic cells?
    Karim Labib
    Cancer Research UK, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom
    Genes Dev 24:1208-19. 2010
  2. ncbi Improved prediction of signal peptides: SignalP 3.0
    Jannick Dyrløv Bendtsen
    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, BioCentrum DTU, Building 208, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    J Mol Biol 340:783-95. 2004
  3. ncbi The genome sequence of Schizosaccharomyces pombe
    V Wood
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 415:871-80. 2002
  4. pmc Apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necrosis: mechanistic description of dead and dying eukaryotic cells
    Susan L Fink
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Box 357110, Seattle, WA 98195 7110, USA
    Infect Immun 73:1907-16. 2005
  5. pmc The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes
    Roman L Tatusov
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 4:41. 2003
  6. ncbi Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life
    Francesca D Ciccarelli
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69012 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 311:1283-7. 2006
  7. ncbi The energetics of genome complexity
    Nick Lane
    Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London W1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 467:929-34. 2010
  8. ncbi Stochasticity in gene expression: from theories to phenotypes
    Mads Kaern
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8M5, Canada
    Nat Rev Genet 6:451-64. 2005
  9. pmc TRANSFAC: transcriptional regulation, from patterns to profiles
    V Matys
    BIOBASE GmbH, Halchtersche Strasse 33, D 38304 Wolfenbuttel, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:374-8. 2003
  10. pmc The archaebacterial origin of eukaryotes
    Cymon J Cox
    Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20356-61. 2008

Detail Information

Publications333 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc How do Cdc7 and cyclin-dependent kinases trigger the initiation of chromosome replication in eukaryotic cells?
    Karim Labib
    Cancer Research UK, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom
    Genes Dev 24:1208-19. 2010
    Chromosome replication occurs precisely once during the cell cycle of almost all eukaryotic cells, and is a highly complex process that is still understood relatively poorly...
  2. ncbi Improved prediction of signal peptides: SignalP 3.0
    Jannick Dyrløv Bendtsen
    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, BioCentrum DTU, Building 208, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    J Mol Biol 340:783-95. 2004
    ..The new method has been benchmarked against other available methods. Predictions can be made at the publicly available web server..
  3. ncbi The genome sequence of Schizosaccharomyces pombe
    V Wood
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 415:871-80. 2002
    ....
  4. pmc Apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necrosis: mechanistic description of dead and dying eukaryotic cells
    Susan L Fink
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Box 357110, Seattle, WA 98195 7110, USA
    Infect Immun 73:1907-16. 2005
  5. pmc The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes
    Roman L Tatusov
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 4:41. 2003
    ..Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies...
  6. ncbi Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life
    Francesca D Ciccarelli
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69012 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 311:1283-7. 2006
    ..For example, we place the phylum Acidobacteria as a sister group of delta-Proteobacteria, support a Gram-positive origin of Bacteria, and suggest a thermophilic last universal common ancestor...
  7. ncbi The energetics of genome complexity
    Nick Lane
    Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London W1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 467:929-34. 2010
    ..This vast leap in genomic capacity was strictly dependent on mitochondrial power, and prerequisite to eukaryote complexity: the key innovation en route to multicellular life...
  8. ncbi Stochasticity in gene expression: from theories to phenotypes
    Mads Kaern
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8M5, Canada
    Nat Rev Genet 6:451-64. 2005
    ..It can provide the flexibility needed by cells to adapt to fluctuating environments or respond to sudden stresses, and a mechanism by which population heterogeneity can be established during cellular differentiation and development...
  9. pmc TRANSFAC: transcriptional regulation, from patterns to profiles
    V Matys
    BIOBASE GmbH, Halchtersche Strasse 33, D 38304 Wolfenbuttel, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:374-8. 2003
    ..gbf.de. For CYTOMER free download versions are available at http://www.biobase.de:8080/index.html...
  10. pmc The archaebacterial origin of eukaryotes
    Cymon J Cox
    Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20356-61. 2008
    ..Our analyses favor a topology that supports the eocyte hypothesis rather than archaebacterial monophyly and the 3-domains tree of life...
  11. pmc The Acinetobacter baumannii 19606 OmpA protein plays a role in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and in the interaction of this pathogen with eukaryotic cells
    Jennifer A Gaddy
    Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA
    Infect Immun 77:3150-60. 2009
    ..in their apoptotic death, a response that depends on the direct contact of bacteria with these two types of eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, the bacterial adhesion phenotype correlates with the ability of bacteria to invade A549 ..
  12. ncbi The hydrogen hypothesis for the first eukaryote
    W Martin
    Institut fur Genetik, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Germany
    Nature 392:37-41. 1998
    A new hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotic cells is proposed, based on the comparative biochemistry of energy metabolism...
  13. pmc The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum
    L Eichinger
    Center for Biochemistry and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Str 52, 50931 Cologne, Germany
    Nature 435:43-57. 2005
    ....
  14. ncbi A molecular timeline for the origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes
    Hwan Su Yoon
    Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Comparative Genomics, University of Iowa, Iowa, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 21:809-18. 2004
    ..e., acritarchs) from the early Mesoproterozoic (1,500 MYA) and with a major eukaryotic diversification in the very late Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic, provide a molecular timeline for understanding algal evolution...
  15. ncbi Mitochondrial evolution
    M W Gray
    Department of Biochemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4H7, Canada
    Science 283:1476-81. 1999
    ..theory is a favored model for explaining the origin of mitochondria, a defining event in the evolution of eukaryotic cells. As usually described, this theory posits that mitochondria are the direct descendants of a bacterial ..
  16. pmc A comparison of mathematical models for polarization of single eukaryotic cells in response to guided cues
    Alexandra Jilkine
    Green Comprehensive Center for Computational and Systems Biology, Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 7:e1001121. 2011
    ....
  17. ncbi Comparative genomics, evolution and origins of the nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complex
    Ben J Mans
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cell Cycle 3:1612-37. 2004
    ..A primitive NPC with approximately 20 proteins and a Src1p-Man1-like membrane protein with a DNA-tethering HEH domain are inferred to have been integral perinuclear components in the las common ancestor of modern eukaryotes...
  18. ncbi Environmental genome shotgun sequencing of the Sargasso Sea
    J Craig Venter
    Institute for Biological Energy Alternatives, 1901 Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 304:66-74. 2004
    ..2 million previously unknown genes represented in these samples, including more than 782 new rhodopsin-like photoreceptors. Variation in species present and stoichiometry suggests substantial oceanic microbial diversity...
  19. ncbi DNA replication in eukaryotic cells
    Stephen P Bell
    Department of Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 71:333-74. 2002
    ..To achieve this coordination, eukaryotic cells use an ordered series of steps to form several key protein assemblies at origins of replication...
  20. pmc Study of genetic diversity of eukaryotic picoplankton in different oceanic regions by small-subunit rRNA gene cloning and sequencing
    B Diez
    Departament de Biologia Marina, Institut de Ciencies del Mar, CSIC, E 08039 Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
    Appl Environ Microbiol 67:2932-41. 2001
    ..Prasinophytes and novel stramenopile clones were very abundant in all of the libraries analyzed. These findings underscore the importance of attempts to grow the small eukaryotic plankton in pure culture...
  21. pmc Specific, sensitive, high-resolution detection of protein molecules in eukaryotic cells using metal-tagging transmission electron microscopy
    Cristina Risco
    Cell Structure Lab, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia CSIC, Darwin 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Structure 20:759-66. 2012
    ..The applicability and strength of METTEM is demonstrated by a study of Rubella virus replicase and capsid proteins, which revealed virus-induced cell structures not seen before...
  22. pmc Ccr4-Not complex: the control freak of eukaryotic cells
    Jason E Miller
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Eukaryotic Gene Regulation, Center for RNA Molecular Biology, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 47:315-33. 2012
    ....
  23. pmc Symbiosis as an adaptive process and source of phenotypic complexity
    Nancy A Moran
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:8627-33. 2007
    ..Multiple symbionts often coexist in the same host, resulting in coadaptation among several phylogenetically distant genomes...
  24. pmc Polymerase dynamics at the eukaryotic DNA replication fork
    Peter M J Burgers
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:4041-5. 2009
    ..In the more common short flap pathway, Pol delta coordinates with the flap endonuclease FEN1 to degrade initiator RNA, whereas in the long flap pathway, RNA removal is initiated by the Dna2 nuclease/helicase...
  25. ncbi The biology of intron gain and loss
    Daniel C Jeffares
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK, CB10 1SA
    Trends Genet 22:16-22. 2006
    ..In this article, we discuss the growing evidence that these differences are subject to selection acting on introns depending on the biology of the organism and the gene involved...
  26. pmc Persistent cell motion in the absence of external signals: a search strategy for eukaryotic cells
    Liang Li
    Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2093. 2008
    b>Eukaryotic cells are large enough to detect signals and then orient to them by differentiating the signal strength across the length and breadth of the cell. Amoebae, fibroblasts, neutrophils and growth cones all behave in this way...
  27. ncbi The ring of life provides evidence for a genome fusion origin of eukaryotes
    Maria C Rivera
    Molecular Biology Institute, MCD Biology, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA
    Nature 431:152-5. 2004
    ..The eubacterial organism is either a proteobacterium, or a member of a larger photosynthetic clade that includes the Cyanobacteria and the Proteobacteria...
  28. ncbi Evolution of DNA polymerase families: evidences for multiple gene exchange between cellular and viral proteins
    Jonathan Filee
    Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Bat 409, CNRS UMR 8621, Universite Paris Sud XI, F 91405 Orsay cedex, France
    J Mol Evol 54:763-73. 2002
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest a complex evolutionary history of the DNA replication apparatus that involved significant exchanges between viruses, plasmids, and their hosts...
  29. pmc Evidence for a shared nuclear pore complex architecture that is conserved from the last common eukaryotic ancestor
    Jeffrey A DeGrasse
    Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry and Gaseous Ion Chemistry, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Mol Cell Proteomics 8:2119-30. 2009
    ..These findings strongly support the hypothesis that NPCs share a common ancestry with vesicle coating complexes and that both were established very early in eukaryotic evolution...
  30. pmc Origin and evolution of the mitochondrial proteome
    C G Kurland
    Department of Molecular Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala SE 752 36, Lund University, Lund SE 223 62, Sweden
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64:786-820. 2000
    ..There are no indications of a specific alpha-proteobacterial origin to genes for glycolysis. In the absence of data to the contrary, it is assumed that the ancestral host cell was a heterotroph...
  31. ncbi Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities
    Susannah Green Tringe
    Department of Energy DOE Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
    Science 308:554-7. 2005
    ..The identification of environment-specific genes through a gene-centric comparative analysis presents new opportunities for interpreting and diagnosing environments...
  32. ncbi Genomic minimalism in the early diverging intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia
    Hilary G Morrison
    Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543 1015, USA
    Science 317:1921-6. 2007
    ..This genome sequence will not only be valuable for investigating the evolution of eukaryotes, but will also be applied to the search for new therapeutics for this parasite...
  33. ncbi Noise in eukaryotic gene expression
    William J Blake
    Center for BioDynamics, Center for Advanced Biotechnology, Bioinformatics Program, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 422:633-7. 2003
    Transcription in eukaryotic cells has been described as quantal, with pulses of messenger RNA produced in a probabilistic manner...
  34. pmc The origins of phagocytosis and eukaryogenesis
    Natalya Yutin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Biol Direct 4:9. 2009
    Phagocytosis, that is, engulfment of large particles by eukaryotic cells, is found in diverse organisms and is often thought to be central to the very origin of the eukaryotic cell, in particular, for the acquisition of bacterial ..
  35. ncbi Nuclear factor kappa B: an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor of eukaryotic cells (a review)
    R Schreck
    Laboratory for Molecular Biology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Martinsried, Germany
    Free Radic Res Commun 17:221-37. 1992
    ..In this review, we will discuss the evidences that NF-kappa B is an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor of higher eukaryotic cells.
  36. pmc The genome of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and the origin of metazoans
    Nicole King
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and the Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Nature 451:783-8. 2008
    ..The completion of the M. brevicollis genome allows us to reconstruct with increasing resolution the genomic changes that accompanied the origin of metazoans...
  37. ncbi The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists
    Sina M Adl
    Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Canada
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:399-451. 2005
    ..quot; The multicellular lineages emerged from within monophyletic protist lineages: animals and fungi from Opisthokonta, plants from Archaeplastida, and brown algae from Stramenopiles...
  38. ncbi Effects of trichothecene mycotoxins on eukaryotic cells: a review
    O Rocha
    Molecular Plant Microbe interactions group, Department of Environmental Resource Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University College Dublin, Belfield, Ireland
    Food Addit Contam 22:369-78. 2005
    ..the major effects of such trichothecenes on the gross morphology, cytology and molecular signalling within eukaryotic cells. The gross toxic effects of select trichothecenes on animals include growth retardation, reduced ovarian ..
  39. ncbi Supertrees disentangle the chimerical origin of eukaryotic genomes
    Davide Pisani
    Department of Biology, The National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland, UK
    Mol Biol Evol 24:1752-60. 2007
    ..The results reject all but two of the current hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes: those assuming a sulfur-dependent or hydrogen-dependent syntrophy for the origin of mitochondria...
  40. ncbi Unconventional mechanisms of protein transport to the cell surface of eukaryotic cells
    Walter Nickel
    Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center BZH 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 24:287-308. 2008
    ..We then discuss soluble secretory proteins that are secreted from cells without any involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus...
  41. ncbi Global trends of whole-genome duplications revealed by the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia
    Jean Marc Aury
    Genoscope and CNRS UMR 8030, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux CP5706, 91057 Evry, France
    Nature 444:171-8. 2006
    ..The conclusion of this analysis is that many genes are maintained after whole-genome duplication not because of functional innovation but because of gene dosage constraints...
  42. ncbi Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic evolution
    Patrick J Keeling
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z, Canada
    Nat Rev Genet 9:605-18. 2008
    ..Major recent trends include the important role of HGT in adaptation to certain specialized niches and the highly variable impact of HGT in different lineages...
  43. pmc Focused ion beam micromachining of eukaryotic cells for cryoelectron tomography
    Alexander Rigort
    Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4449-54. 2012
    ..with today's intermediate voltage electron microscopes only small prokaryotic cells or peripheral regions of eukaryotic cells can be examined directly...
  44. ncbi Mavericks, a novel class of giant transposable elements widespread in eukaryotes and related to DNA viruses
    Ellen J Pritham
    The University of Texas at Arlington, The Department of Biology, Arlington, TX 76019, United States
    Gene 390:3-17. 2007
    ....
  45. ncbi Mitochondria of protists
    Michael W Gray
    Robert Cedergren Center, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Canada
    Annu Rev Genet 38:477-524. 2004
    ..This comparative genomics approach has also revealed unique and fascinating aspects of mitochondrial gene expression, highlighting the mitochondrion as an evolutionary playground par excellence...
  46. pmc Evolution of the vacuolar H+-ATPase: implications for the origin of eukaryotes
    J P Gogarten
    Department of Biology, University of California Santa Cruz 95064
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:6661-5. 1989
    ..The implication is that the vacuolar H+-ATPase of eukaryotes arose by the internalization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase of an archaebacterial-like ancestral cell...
  47. ncbi An unusually stable G-quadruplex within the 5'-UTR of the MT3 matrix metalloproteinase mRNA represses translation in eukaryotic cells
    Mark J Morris
    Department of Chemistry, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242, USA
    Biochemistry 48:5313-9. 2009
    ..stable intramolecular G-quadruplex structure and has an inhibitory role on translation of a reporter gene in eukaryotic cells. The formation of the G-quadruplex structure was indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and ..
  48. ncbi Endosome-associated complex, ESCRT-II, recruits transport machinery for protein sorting at the multivesicular body
    Markus Babst
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Dev Cell 3:283-9. 2002
    ..We propose that the ESCRT complexes perform a coordinated cascade of events to select and sort MVB cargoes for delivery to the lumen of the vacuole/lysosome...
  49. ncbi Metabolic symbiosis at the origin of eukaryotes
    P Lopez-Garcia
    Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Universite Paris Sud, Batiment 409, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
    Trends Biochem Sci 24:88-93. 1999
    ..Combined data from comparative genomics, microbial ecology and the fossil record should help to test their validity...
  50. pmc Archaeal ribosomal protein L7 is a functional homolog of the eukaryotic 15.5kD/Snu13p snoRNP core protein
    Jeffrey F Kuhn
    Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Box 7622, Raleigh, NC 27695 7622, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 30:931-41. 2002
    ..L7 functioning as both an sRNP core protein and a ribosomal protein could potentially regulate and coordinate sRNP assembly with ribosome biogenesis...
  51. ncbi A highly conserved eukaryotic protein family possessing properties of polypeptide chain release factor
    L Frolova
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, Denmark
    Nature 372:701-3. 1994
    ..The amino-acid sequence of the eRF1 family is highly conserved. We conclude that the eRF1 proteins are directly implicated in the termination of translation in eukaryotes...
  52. pmc Transcriptional regulatory code of a eukaryotic genome
    Christopher T Harbison
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 431:99-104. 2004
    ..We find that environment-specific use of regulatory elements predicts mechanistic models for the function of a large population of yeast's transcriptional regulators...
  53. pmc Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote
    Jonathan A Eisen
    The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 4:e286. 2006
    ..thermophila an ideal model for functional genomic studies to address biological, biomedical, and biotechnological questions of fundamental importance...
  54. ncbi Glucose-sensing mechanisms in eukaryotic cells
    F Rolland
    Laboratorium voor Moleculaire Celbiologie, Instituut voor Plantkunde en Microbiologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven-Heverlee, Flanders, Belgium
    Trends Biochem Sci 26:310-7. 2001
    ....
  55. ncbi Cellular control of actin nucleation
    Matthew D Welch
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, 301 LSA, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3200, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 18:247-88. 2002
    b>Eukaryotic cells use actin polymerization to change shape, move, and internalize extracellular materials by phagocytosis and endocytosis, and to form contractile structures...
  56. ncbi TigrScan and GlimmerHMM: two open source ab initio eukaryotic gene-finders
    W H Majoros
    Bioinformatics Department, The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Bioinformatics 20:2878-9. 2004
    ..Both programs have been used at TIGR for the annotation of the Aspergillus fumigatus and Toxoplasma gondii genomes...
  57. ncbi Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges
    T Martin Embley
    School of Biology, The Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK
    Nature 440:623-30. 2006
    ..But the evolutionary gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is now deeper, and the nature of the host that acquired the mitochondrion more obscure, than ever before...
  58. ncbi First and last ancestors: reconstructing evolution of the endomembrane system with ESCRTs, vesicle coat proteins, and nuclear pore complexes
    Mark C Field
    University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QP, UK
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 21:4-13. 2009
    ..These studies, plus the realization of a role for the ESCRT complex as an alternate, but equally ancient, system for membrane deformation are providing insight into the earliest stages of endomembrane evolution...
  59. pmc Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups"
    Vladimir Hampl
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 1X5
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3859-64. 2009
    ..Our analyses indicate that Excavata forms a monophyletic suprakingdom-level group that is one of the 3 primary divisions within eukaryotes, along with unikonts and a megagroup of Archaeplastida, Rhizaria, and the chromalveolate lineages...
  60. ncbi Phenotypic alteration of eukaryotic cells using randomized libraries of artificial transcription factors
    Kyung Soon Park
    ToolGen, Inc, 461 6 Jeonmin Dong, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon, 305 390, South Korea
    Nat Biotechnol 21:1208-14. 2003
    ..Genes associated with the selected phenotypes were also identified. Our results show that randomized libraries of artificial transcription factors are useful tools for functional genomics and phenotypic engineering...
  61. ncbi Horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes: quantification and classification
    E V Koonin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 55:709-42. 2001
    ....
  62. pmc Eukaryotic organisms in Proterozoic oceans
    A H Knoll
    Harvard University, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361:1023-38. 2006
    ..Focus on character evolution permits inferences about the innovations in cell biology and development that underpin the taxonomic and morphological diversification of eukaryotic organisms...
  63. pmc Complex early genes
    Scott W Roy
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:1986-91. 2005
    ..Intron losses outnumber gains over a large range of eukaryotic lineages. These results show that early eukaryotic gene structures were very complex, and that simplification, not embellishment, has dominated subsequent evolution...
  64. ncbi The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification
    T Cavalier-Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:7-76. 2002
    ..The negibacterial outer membrane was lost once only in the history of life, when Posibacteria arose about 2800 My ago after their ancestors diverged from Cyanobacteria...
  65. ncbi Evolution of cytomotive filaments: the cytoskeleton from prokaryotes to eukaryotes
    Jan Lowe
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:323-9. 2009
    ..A possible evolutionary relationship of WACAs with eukaryotic septins is discussed...
  66. pmc How big is the iceberg of which organellar genes in nuclear genomes are but the tip?
    W F Doolittle
    Genome Atlantic, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1X5, Canada
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358:39-57; discussion 57-8. 2003
    ..We also consider evidence for, and implications of, LGT between prokaryotes and phagocytic eukaryotes...
  67. pmc Nanotubes, exosomes, and nucleic acid-binding peptides provide novel mechanisms of intercellular communication in eukaryotic cells: implications in health and disease
    Mattias Belting
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Oncology, Barngatan 2 1, SE 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    J Cell Biol 183:1187-91. 2008
    The prevailing view that eukaryotic cells are restrained from intercellular exchange of genetic information has been challenged by recent reports on nanotubes, exosomes, apoptotic bodies, and nucleic acid-binding peptides that provide ..
  68. pmc Prevention of DNA re-replication in eukaryotic cells
    Lan N Truong
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Mol Cell Biol 3:13-22. 2011
    ....
  69. ncbi A novel family of ubiquitous heavy metal ion transport proteins
    I T Paulsen
    Department of Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0116, USA
    J Membr Biol 156:99-103. 1997
    ..It allows functional predictions for some uncharacterized members of this family. A signature sequence specific for the CDF family is derived...
  70. ncbi Strength in numbers: preventing rereplication via multiple mechanisms in eukaryotic cells
    Emily E Arias
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 21:497-518. 2007
    In eukaryotic cells, prereplication complexes (pre-RCs) are assembled on chromatin in the G1 phase, rendering origins of DNA replication competent to initiate DNA synthesis...
  71. ncbi Evolution and diversity of the Golgi body
    Kevin Mowbrey
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2H7
    FEBS Lett 583:3738-45. 2009
    ....
  72. ncbi Iron hydrogenases--ancient enzymes in modern eukaryotes
    David S Horner
    Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica Generali, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Trends Biochem Sci 27:148-53. 2002
    ..These unique enzymes have thus moved from the margins of eukaryotic biology to become the focus of intense speculation and interest. This article summarizes current knowledge of their distribution, evolution and biochemistry...
  73. ncbi Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of photosynthesis by eukaryotes
    Eva C M Nowack
    Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Gyrhofstr 15, D 50931 Köln, Germany
    Curr Biol 18:410-8. 2008
    ..To clarify metabolic capabilities of the chromatophore and its state of integration into the host, we present here the complete genome sequence of the chromatophore...
  74. ncbi The archaeal homolog of the Imp4 protein, a eukaryotic U3 snoRNP component
    C Mayer
    Structural and Computational Biology Programme, EMBL, Meyerhofstr 1, 69012 Heidelberg, Germany
    Trends Biochem Sci 26:143-4. 2001
    ..These findings, together with the presence of other snoRNPs homologs in Archaea, provide evidence for similar RNA processing and folding in Eukarya and Archaea...
  75. ncbi The long journey: actin on the road to pro- and eukaryotic cells
    Brigitte M Jockusch
    Cell Biology, Zoological Institute, Technical University of Braunschweig, 38092 Braunschweig, Germany
    Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 161:67-85. 2011
    ..Various members have been identified in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, e.g. MreB, ParM and Ta0583, and actin and the actin-related proteins, ARPs, respectively...
  76. pmc The late domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p6 promotes virus release in a cell type-dependent manner
    Dimiter G Demirov
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 76:105-17. 2002
    ..The results described here define the role of p6 in virus replication in a wide range of cell types and reveal a strong cell type-dependent requirement for p6 in virus particle budding...
  77. pmc Moving in the right direction: how eukaryotic cells migrate along chemical gradients
    Huaqing Cai
    The Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 22:834-41. 2011
    ..Recent studies in Dictyostelium discoideum and mammalian neutrophils have revealed a complex signaling network that enables cells to migrate in chemical gradients...
  78. pmc The deep archaeal roots of eukaryotes
    Natalya Yutin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 25:1619-30. 2008
    ..Thus, the archaeal genes in eukaryotes appear to descend from a distinct, ancient, and otherwise uncharacterized archaeal lineage that acquired some euryarchaeal and crenarchaeal genes via early horizontal gene transfer...
  79. pmc Evolution and diversity of the Golgi
    Mary J Klute
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H7, Canada
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 3:a007849. 2011
    ..the repertoire, processes, and level of complexity of membrane-trafficking machinery present in early eukaryotic cells. This article serves as a review of the literature on the topic of Golgi evolution and diversity and reports ..
  80. pmc Gene loss, protein sequence divergence, gene dispensability, expression level, and interactivity are correlated in eukaryotic evolution
    Dmitri M Krylov
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA
    Genome Res 13:2229-35. 2003
    ..Thus, propensity of a gene to be lost during evolution seems to be a direct reflection of its biological importance...
  81. ncbi A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites
    Robert B Moore
    School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Darlington, New South Wales 2006, Australia
    Nature 451:959-63. 2008
    ..The discovery of this organism provides a powerful model with which to study the evolution of parasitism in Apicomplexa...
  82. pmc Genomic and proteomic adaptations to growth at high temperature
    Donal A Hickey
    Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6, Canada
    Genome Biol 5:117. 2004
    ..We review the evidence for direct temperature-dependent natural selection acting on genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes...
  83. pmc Archaea and the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition
    J R Brown
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Biochemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61:456-502. 1997
    ..One horizontal gene exchange might have involved the gram-positive Bacteria and the Archaea, while the other might have occurred between proteobacteria and eukaryotes and might have been mediated by endosymbiosis...
  84. ncbi Translocation of YopE and YopN into eukaryotic cells by Yersinia pestis yopN, tyeA, sycN, yscB and lcrG deletion mutants measured using a phosphorylatable peptide tag and phosphospecific antibodies
    James B Day
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    Mol Microbiol 47:807-23. 2003
    ..pestis, the causative agent of plague, exports a set of virulence proteins called Yops upon contact with eukaryotic cells. A subset of these Yops is translocated directly into the cytosol of host cells...
  85. ncbi The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa
    T Cavalier-Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:297-354. 2002
    ....
  86. ncbi Automatic clustering of orthologs and in-paralogs from pairwise species comparisons
    M Remm
    Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 314:1041-52. 2001
    ..cgb.ki.se/inparanoid/. This is the first comprehensive resource with orthologs of all fully sequenced eukaryotic genomes. Programs and tables of orthology assignments are available from the same location...
  87. pmc A 100%-complete sequence reveals unusually simple genomic features in the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae
    Hisayoshi Nozaki
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    BMC Biol 5:28. 2007
    ..is important for many aspects of biology, complete chromosomal structures are fundamental for understanding eukaryotic cells. Our earlier, nearly complete genome sequence of the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae revealed ..
  88. ncbi The bacterial cytoskeleton: an intermediate filament-like function in cell shape
    Nora Ausmees
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cell 115:705-13. 2003
    ..We propose that IF-like filaments of crescentin assemble into a helical structure, which by applying its geometry to the cell, generates a vibrioid or helical cell shape depending on the length of the cell...
  89. ncbi The spectrin-ankyrin-4.1-adducin membrane skeleton: adapting eukaryotic cells to the demands of animal life
    Anthony J Baines
    School of Biosciences and Centre for Biomedical Informatics, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NJ, UK
    Protoplasma 244:99-131. 2010
    ..The spectrin-ankyrin-4.1-adducin complex represents a remarkable system that underpins animal life; it has been adapted to many different functions at different times during animal evolution...
  90. ncbi LapB, a novel Listeria monocytogenes LPXTG surface adhesin, required for entry into eukaryotic cells and virulence
    Olga Reis
    Group of Molecular Microbiology, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
    J Infect Dis 202:551-62. 2010
    ..Our results highlight LapB as a new L. monocytogenes virulence adhesin with a function that is supported by its unique N-terminal domain through the probable interaction with a cellular receptor...
  91. ncbi Patch coalescence as a mechanism for eukaryotic directional sensing
    A Gamba
    Politecnico di Torino and CNISM, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10121 Torino, Italy and INFN, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy
    Phys Rev Lett 99:158101. 2007
    b>Eukaryotic cells possess a sensible chemical compass allowing them to orient toward sources of soluble chemicals...
  92. ncbi Spontaneous cell polarization: undermining determinism
    Roland Wedlich-Soldner
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 5:267-70. 2003
  93. pmc Bacterial tubulin distinct loop sequences and primitive assembly properties support its origin from a eukaryotic tubulin ancestor
    Antonio J Martin-Galiano
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    J Biol Chem 286:19789-803. 2011
    ....
  94. ncbi Genomics. Deep questions in the tree of life
    Patrick J Keeling
    Botany Department, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 Canada
    Science 317:1875-6. 2007
  95. ncbi The eukaryotic genome as an RNA machine
    Paulo P Amaral
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 4072, Australia
    Science 319:1787-9. 2008
    ..In parallel, it is increasingly evident that many of these RNAs have regulatory functions. Here, we highlight recent advances that illustrate the diversity of ncRNA control of genome dynamics, cell biology, and developmental programming...
  96. pmc DNA transposons and the evolution of eukaryotic genomes
    CEDRIC FESCHOTTE
    Department of Biology, University of Texas, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 41:331-68. 2007
    ..Finally, we highlight how the distinctive biological features of DNA transposons have contributed to shape genome architecture and led to the emergence of genetic innovations in different eukaryotic lineages...
  97. pmc Eukaryotic genes of archaebacterial origin are more important than the more numerous eubacterial genes, irrespective of function
    James A Cotton
    Department of Biology, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17252-5. 2010
    ..life shows eukaryotes as a distinct lineage of living things, but many studies have suggested that the first eukaryotic cells were chimeric, descended from both Eubacteria (through the mitochondrion) and Archaebacteria...
  98. pmc Positive feedback in eukaryotic gene networks: cell differentiation by graded to binary response conversion
    A Becskei
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69012 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 20:2528-35. 2001
    ..These results have implications for understanding the graded and probabilistic mechanisms of enhancer action and cell differentiation...
  99. pmc Diffusion-limited phase separation in eukaryotic chemotaxis
    Andrea Gamba
    Department of Mathematics, Polytechnic of Turin, 10129 Turin, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16927-32. 2005
    ..The model is robust with respect to order-of-magnitude variations of the parameters...
  100. ncbi The expanding RNA polymerase III transcriptome
    Giorgio Dieci
    Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Viale G P Usberti 23 A, 43100 Parma, Italy
    Trends Genet 23:614-22. 2007
    ..The extent of the Pol III transcriptome, the complexity of its regulation and its influence on cell physiology, development and disease are emerging as new areas for future research...
  101. ncbi A two-step scaffolding model for mitotic chromosome assembly
    Kazuhiro Maeshima
    Department of Biochemistry, NCCR Frontiers in Genetics, University of Geneva, 30, Quai Ernest Ansermet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Dev Cell 4:467-80. 2003
    ..Condensin associates only during the pro- to metaphase transition. This two-step assembly process is proposed to generate the barber pole appearance of the native-like scaffolding...

Research Grants70

  1. Variation in M. tuberculosis in response to host selection
    Sarah Fortune; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In these studies, we expect to provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms and targets of diversifying immune selection in M. tuberculosis. ..
  2. Regulation of epithelial cell homeostasis by actin microfilaments
    Seema Khurana; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..There are very comprehensible data supporting links between actin and apoptosis in eukaryotic cells from studies using drugs that affect actin turnover...
  3. Mechanisms of Endothelin 1-Induced Sickle Cell Pathology
    Alicia Rivera; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..ET-1 regulates the activity of casein kinase II (CK2), a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase found in eukaryotic cells that phosphorylate acidic proteins...
  4. Roles for microRNA-122 in hepatitis C virus RNA amplification
    Peter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The outcomes from these studies will detail novel mechanisms of gene expression mediated by microRNAs in eukaryotic cells and will point to new venues for antiviral therapies...
  5. Analysis of the role of the VRK1 protein kinase in mammalian fertility
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..protein phosphorylation, mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases, is one of the major mechanisms used by eukaryotic cells to ensure that the phases of mitotic and meiotic cell division occur in the correct sequence and only when ..
  6. MEMBRANES OF THE DENTAL PATHOGEN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS
    L Jeannine Brady; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In other prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as mitochondria, the same enzyme works in reverse as an ATP synthase...
  7. MECHANISMS OF MILK LIPID SECRETION
    JAMES LEWIS MCMANAMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..recognition of the general importance of CLDs in storage and intracellular trafficking of lipids in eukaryotic cells. These cellular structures are the primary storage depots for triglycerides in liver, adipose and muscle ..
  8. The Effects of PP2A on TNF Signaling and Smoke-Induced Lung Injury
    Robert F Foronjy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This is significant since PP2A is the primary serine threonine protein phosphatase present in all eukaryotic cells. It dephosphorylates and inactivates both JNK and IKK;thus, PP2A is a major regulator of TNF signaling in the ..
  9. HTS development for targeted anti-fungal small molecules
    Paul D Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Because fungi are eukaryotic cells, development of antifungal therapeutic compounds that are non-toxic to humans is challenging...
  10. Nuclear Control of Mitochondrial Gene Expression
    Gerald Shadel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Mitochondria are multi-faceted organelles in eukaryotic cells that stand at the nexus of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and apoptosis...
  11. STRUCTURE OF THE VACUOLAR ATPase
    Stephan Wilkens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The vacuolar type H+ATPase (V1Vo- or V-ATPase) is a fundamental component of all eukaryotic cells. The complex is found in the membranes of a wide variety of intracellular compartments like clathrin-coated ..
  12. Mitochondrial Biomarkers of Cardiomyopathy and Cure in Chagas Disease
    Nisha Jain Garg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For this, we will utilize microparticles (MPs) that are released as fragments from the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, and play selective roles in intercellular communication;and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (i.e...
  13. A Systems Biology Approach to the Model Apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii
    William J Sullivan Jr; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These can be used to develop an integrated understanding of how eukaryotic cells regulate gene expression...
  14. Genetic and Molecular Studies of Drosophila Chromatin Remodeling Factors
    John W Tamkun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..less is known about how higher-order chromatin structure is regulated and used to control gene expression in eukaryotic cells. To address these important issues, our laboratory uses Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to study ..
  15. Role of Polyamine Oxidase in Apoptosis Studies with RNA Interference
    GLENN KUEHN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..catalyzed by the enzyme PAO is the major source of cellular H2O2 that causes H2O2-mediated apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. We have gained strong evidence that PAO catalysis is indeed the major source of H2O2 in a plant model system ..
  16. Identification and Analysis of Circadian Clock-Controlled Genes
    Jennifer J Loros; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..enriching in that they each rely on genetic and molecular techniques to dissect, and ultimately to understand, the response of cells to their environment and the organization of eukaryotic cells as a function of time.
  17. Novel Role of a Nucleoporin Gene in Atrial Fibrillation, the Most Common Cardiac
    Qing Kenneth Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Export of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm plays an important role in gene expression in eukaryotic cells. The NUP155 protein contains a binding domain that interacts directly with mRNA export factor Gle1, which may ..
  18. Symbiotic Rickettsia Species as a Model System for the Study of Folate Biosynthes
    Jianmin Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Bacteria that live within eukaryotic cells have allowed their hosts to acquire metabolic capabilities otherwise unavailable...
  19. Chemistry and biology of protein histidine phosphorylation
    Tom Muir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): A research program will be undertaken to study the role of histidine phosphorylation in eukaryotic cells. While protein phosphorylation is known to occur on several amino acids, it is fair to say that phosphoserine,..
  20. Exploration of the functions of the ciliopathy Arls in cilia.
    Jinghua Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cilia serve as motile or sensory devices on most eukaryotic cells surface and play an essential role in the proper formation of a diversity of organs in development...
  21. Post Translational Modifications in Tolerance and Autoimmunity
    Mark J Mamula; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The present studies focus on a protein modification termed `isoaspartyl'that occurs spontaneously in eukaryotic cells and is enhanced in conditions of cellular stress and inflammation...
  22. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BASAL BODY FUNCTION
    Susan K Dutcher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant: Microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs or centrosomes play important roles in all eukaryotic cells. MTOCs are involved in mitotic spindle organization and in an increasing number of other fundamental cellular ..
  23. Diphthamide biosynthesis
    Hening Lin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is a post-translationally modified histidine residue found in translation elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) in all eukaryotic cells. This single modification concentrates a lot of interesting chemistry and biology...
  24. Accessibility Control of Antigen Receptor Gene Assembly
    Eugene M Oltz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..accessibility during transcription, replication, and recombination of select genomic information in all eukaryotic cells. Public Health Relevance: Developing lymphocytes cut-and-paste together an enormous collection of antigen ..
  25. A Simple Cellular Model for Lipodystrophy
    Joel M Goodman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Fortunately, droplets are made in virtually all eukaryotic cells and can be studied in model organisms...
  26. The regulation and function of cytoplasmic foci in quiescent cells
    Paul K Herman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We are interested in the biology of the G0-like resting states that eukaryotic cells enter when conditions are not conducive to continued growth...
  27. Regulation of Antioxidant Genes and Oxidative Stress
    Yoshiaki Tsuji; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ferritin is the major iron-storage protein in eukaryotic cells and it plays a crucial role in regulation of iron metabolism by detoxifying and storing intracellular excess ..
  28. Reactivity epitopes of ribonuclease III substrates
    ALLEN WHITALL NICHOLSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of the ribonuclease III (RNase III) family of endoribonucleases, which are highly conserved in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic RNase III orthologs include Dicer and Drosha, which carry out the maturation of microRNAs and ..
  29. Molecular Mechanisms of Host Function Exploitation by Type IV effectors of Legion
    Zhao Qing Luo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In an independent line of study aiming at analyzing the impact of Dot/Icm substrates on eukaryotic cells, we found that SdeA strongly inhibits yeast growth and the secretory pathway in mammalian cell...
  30. MICROFILAMENTS IN THE YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE
    Anthony P Bretscher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The internal organization and dynamics of eukaryotic cells is largely determined by the framework of cytoskeletal elements and molecular motors that transport organelles and macromolecular complexes ..
  31. Structural and Mechanistic Characterization of the Histone Chaperone FACT
    Duane David Winkler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In eukaryotic cells, the repeating core subunit of chromatin is the nucleosome which is composed of 147 base pairs (bp) of DNA ..
  32. MECHANISMS OF ARP2/3 ACTIVATION AND FUNCTION
    R Dyche Mullins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A major goal of my laboratory to understand the molecular basis of how eukaryotic cells change their shape, controls their mechanical properties, and move...
  33. The genetic basis of singlet oxygen-mediated signaling in eukaryotic cells
    Klaus Apel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  34. Functions of 5'NCRs of picornavirus and cellular mRNAs
    Bert L Semler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these latter studies will provide important side-by-side comparisons with picornavirus IRES functions and new insights into how eukaryotic cells initiate translation from mRNAs with long, highly-structured 5'NCRs.
  35. Phytochrome A: Structure/Function and Signaling Pathways
    Peter H Quail; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Understanding the full spectrum of molecular and cellular mechanisms by which eukaryotic cells perceive and transduce extracellular informational signals remains a central goal of biomedical research...
  36. Cations and ROS in Modulating Mitochondrial Function in Normal and Ischemic Heart
    Ranjan K Dash; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Mitochondria are the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells such as cardiomyocytes. Besides their role in free energy transduction, they are responsible for maintaining intracellular ionic homeostasis (e.g...
  37. Preclinical Alzheimers Disease Drug Development of Novel MAPK Inhibitors
    DANIEL MARTIN WATTERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on the stress-related protein kinase p38[unreadable] MAPK, a key node in the signal transduction cascades of eukaryotic cells that amplify and transduce stress signals into physiological changes...
  38. Design of New Antimicrobials
    Robert S Hodges; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..major barrier to the use of antimicrobial peptides as antibiotics has been their toxicity or ability to lyse eukaryotic cells. We have taken an approach of systematic alteration in the amphipathicity, hydrophobicity and structure of ..
  39. Pathway Choice of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair
    David J Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To counteract the effects of DNA DSBs, two highly efficient DSB repair pathways have evolved in eukaryotic cells: non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR)...
  40. Genetic Analysis of the Nucleosome and RNA Polymerase II: A Systems Approach
    Nevan J Krogan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..described here will provide a more holistic view of chromatin function and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotic cells. Project Narrative/Relevance to Public Health The interplay between the gene expression machinery and the ..
  41. PHOSPHOINOSITIDE SIGNALING TO AND WITHIN THE NUCLEUS
    Richard A Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Phosphoinositide signaling regulates all eukaryotic cells. In the phosphoinositide cycle, phosphatidylinositol (PI) is sequentially phosphorylated on the fourth and fifth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring by PI kinases and then ..
  42. REGULATION OF DNA DAMAGE INDUCED GENES BY YEAST TAFIIS
    Joseph C Reese; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The long term goals of this project are to understand how this multi-functional complex regulates multiple steps in gene regulation to maintain normal development and the integrity of the genome in eukaryotic cells.
  43. Cellular Responses to Radiation and Other Types of Damage
    Gray F Crouse; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..understanding of the mechanisms by which oxidative damage to DNA is repaired, and mutation prevented, in eukaryotic cells. The proposed studies utilize S...
  44. Structure and mechanism of the dynein motor
    Ronald D Vale; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the nucleus, mRNAs, proteins, microtubules, and viruses) towards the microtubule minus end in most eukaryotic cells. Mutations in dynein or its regulatory proteins have been associated with congenital defects (e.g...
  45. IN VIVO ANALYSIS OF MOUSE H1 HISTONE FUNCTION
    Arthur I Skoultchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In most eukaryotic cells H1 linker histones are nearly as abundant as nucleosome core particles...
  46. Role of cofilin pathology in mouse models of cognitive impairment
    James R Bamburg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cofilin is a well-documented promoter of actin turnover in all eukaryotic cells. It undergoes dephosphorylation (activation) and oxidation to dimers when neurons are stressed by agents associated with ..
  47. Quantitative Analysis of Chemotactic Motility Cycle of Ameboid Cells
    JUAN CARLOS LASHERAS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Motility of eukaryotic cells is essential for many physiological processes such as embryonic development, and tissue renewal, as well as ..
  48. STRUCTURE-FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS OF IMMUNORECEPTORS
    Barbara A Baird; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The heterogeneous plasma membrane millieu of eukaryotic cells maintains a steady state of protein and lipid interactions that support basal cell function and, while ..
  49. Role of Adipose Autophagy in Metabolism
    Do Hyung Kim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Autophagy is an evolutionarily-conserved cellular process through which eukaryotic cells digest macromolecules, organelles or faulty cellular components under starvation or stress, and it has a ..
  50. Reconstitution of Poliovirus and HCV RNA Replication Complexes on Membranes
    JENNIFER BARBARA PTACEK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): It has been well established that all positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotic cells, including poliovirus and hepatitis C virus (HCV), replicate their genomes on the cytosolic surface of membranous ..
  51. Regulation of Forebrain Neurogenesis by the Energy Sensor AMP Kinase
    Biplab Dasgupta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor and plays a central role in energy and redox homeostasis in all eukaryotic cells. Recent studies show, that AMPK controls many fundamental processes including regulation of cell structures, ..
  52. In Vivo Regulation and Inhibition of Ribonucleotide Reductase
    Mingxia Huang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the yeast RNR will serve as a paradigm for understanding of RNR regulation and dNTP pool control in eukaryotic cells, and may also suggest new approaches for RNR inhibition and for antitumor and antiviral drug development...
  53. Ubiquitin and regulation of prion induction by a short-lived protein
    Keith D Wilkinson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..uncover the molecular mechanisms by which heterologous protein homeostasis participates in prion formation in eukaryotic cells. We will define the role of Lsb2 in the stress-induced formation of the [PSI+] prion...
  54. Kinase signaling analysis of iPS cell reprogramming and differentiation
    ELI ZUNDER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..cellular signaling by protein phosphorylation, even though this is the most prevalent signaling mechanism in eukaryotic cells. In order to illuminate the "black box" of kinase signaling during reprogramming and differentiation, we are ..
  55. Chromatin and Coactivators in HSV-1 gene regulation
    STEVEN TRIEZENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..DNA viruses that infect eukaryotic cells have served as useful experimental subjects for studying effects of chromatin on gene regulation and ..
  56. Virus-Cell Interaction Affecting HSV Gene Expression
    Neal A DeLuca; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In eukaryotic cells, different core promoter recognition factors/complexes may be involved in regulating the transcription of ..
  57. Regulation of Borealin Function by Mitotic Phosphorylation
    William Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Eukaryotic cells divide by a complicated process involving multiple, highly coordinated events...
  58. CpnA's role in cAMP signaling and the actin cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium
    Cynthia K Damer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to humans in which copines are found suggest that copines carry out fundamental functions important in most eukaryotic cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that copines act as regulatory proteins in signaling pathways...
  59. The RAN GTPase
    Ian G Macara; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It plays vital roles in all eukaryotic cells - in nuclear transport, spindle formation, nuclear envelope formation, and primary cilium formation...
  60. Commensal Bacteroides signal through sphingolipid rafts during intestinal stress
    Dennis L Kasper; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a distinct lipid component-sphingolipids, which are otherwise thought to only be present in the membranes of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic sphingolipids species have been well-established as key signal transduction molecules in response ..
  61. Investigating the Import Mechanism of Folded Proteins into Peroxisomes
    Angelyn Larkin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotic cells and are responsible for the oxidation of fatty acids, ether lipids, and certain steroids...
  62. Small Regulatory RNA Functions in the Nucleus
    Scott G Kennedy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We now know that most eukaryotic cells express a wide variety of endogenous small regulatory RNAs that function in a remarkably wide range of ..
  63. Therapeutic intervention for Brucella
    AMY RAMBOW LARSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The small peptide size coupled with its hydrophobicity and cationic charge suggests rapid penetration of eukaryotic cells. These experiments will give insight into the stage of infection at which TFX is likely to be most active...
  64. Mechanisms of Dinitroaniline Action, Selectivity and Resistance
    Naomi S Morrissette; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Microtubules (MTs) are essential components of all eukaryotic cells. Compounds that affect MT function are used to treat medical conditions including cancer, gout and helminth infection...
  65. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF TELOMERASE RNAS
    Daniel Romero; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The presence of telomeric sequences at the ends of linear chromosomes is a universal property of all eukaryotic cells. There is a direct correlation between the gradual shortening of telomere length in human somatic cells in ..
  66. Genomic Approaches to Neuronal Diversity and Plasticity
    Jingyue Ju; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..models we will study the role of asymmetric mRNA distribution in integrative functions and phenotypes of eukaryotic cells. We will use a hierarchical design to achieve structural resolution of single-cell profiling in a descending ..
  67. From Unfolded Proteins in the ER to Disease
    Linda Hendershot; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In eukaryotic cells, proteins destined for the cell surface or for the external milieu are first translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where initial protein folding and modifications occur ..
  68. Regulation of histone genes upon replication arrest and DNA damage
    HYERYUN PAIK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): RESEARCH ABSTRACT The genomic DNA in all eukaryotic cells is wrapped around basic proteins known as histones to form nucleoprotein filaments called chromatin...
  69. Computational and Experimental Analysis of RNA structures in mRNA polyadenylation
    BIN contact TIAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): mRNA polyadenylation is a key processing event for almost all mRNAs in eukaryotic cells. It involves cleavage of maturing mRNAs at the 3'end and addition of a poly(A) tail...
  70. G2/M DNA DAMAGE CHECKPOINT IN BUDDING YEAST
    Ted Weinert; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: In eukaryotic cells, DNA damage causes arrest of the cell cycle to allow repair of this damage. A number of genes, termed "checkpoint" genes, required for this arrest have been identified in yeast and in other organisms...