thylakoids

Summary

Summary: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Photoprotective energy dissipation involves the reorganization of photosystem II light-harvesting complexes in the grana membranes of spinach chloroplasts
    Matthew P Johnson
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E14NS, United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 23:1468-79. 2011
  2. ncbi Dynamics of photosystem II: a proteomic approach to thylakoid protein complexes
    E M Aro
    Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN 20014 Turku, Finland
    J Exp Bot 56:347-56. 2005
  3. ncbi Galactolipids rule in seed plants
    Peter Dormann
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Muhlenberg 1, 14476, Golm, Germany
    Trends Plant Sci 7:112-8. 2002
  4. pmc Thylakoid DeltapH-dependent precursor proteins bind to a cpTatC-Hcf106 complex before Tha4-dependent transport
    K Cline
    Horticultural Sciences and Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Cell Biol 154:719-29. 2001
  5. ncbi Chlororespiration and cyclic electron flow around PSI during photosynthesis and plant stress response
    Dominique Rumeau
    Laboratoire d Ecophysiologie Moléculaire des Plantes, CEA Cadarache, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, UMR 6191 CNRS CEA Université Aix Marseilles, Saint Paul lez Durance F 13108, France
    Plant Cell Environ 30:1041-51. 2007
  6. ncbi State transitions and light adaptation require chloroplast thylakoid protein kinase STN7
    Stephane Bellafiore
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, 30, Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Nature 433:892-5. 2005
  7. ncbi New functions of the thylakoid membrane proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed by a simple, fast, and versatile fractionation strategy
    Jean Benoit Peltier
    Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:49367-83. 2004
  8. pmc Arrangement of photosystem II and ATP synthase in chloroplast membranes of spinach and pea
    Bertram Daum
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Plant Cell 22:1299-312. 2010
  9. ncbi The PsbS protein controls the macro-organisation of photosystem II complexes in the grana membranes of higher plant chloroplasts
    Sami Kereïche
    Biophysical Chemistry, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    FEBS Lett 584:759-64. 2010
  10. ncbi Role of chloroplast protein kinase Stt7 in LHCII phosphorylation and state transition in Chlamydomonas
    Nathalie Depège
    Department of Molecular Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Geneva, 30 Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Science 299:1572-5. 2003

Research Grants

  1. Development of an Algae-based Membrane Protein Expression System
    ALEXANDER ARAVANIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes Gordon Conference 2005
    Ross Dalbey; Fiscal Year: 2005
  3. Inner Membrane Protein Assembly in Bacteria
    Ross Dalbey; Fiscal Year: 2009
  4. Assembly and Functions of Photosynthetic Water Oxidases
    G Dismukes; Fiscal Year: 2006
  5. Singlet Oxygen Signaling
    Krishna Niyogi; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. ANTIOXIDANT METABOLISM IN CHLAMYDOMONAS
    Krishna Niyogi; Fiscal Year: 2008
  7. Reverse genetics of Chlamydomonas using TILLING
    Krishna Niyogi; Fiscal Year: 2008

Detail Information

Publications288 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Photoprotective energy dissipation involves the reorganization of photosystem II light-harvesting complexes in the grana membranes of spinach chloroplasts
    Matthew P Johnson
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E14NS, United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 23:1468-79. 2011
    ..It is demonstrated that these changes occur rapidly and reversibly within 5 min of illumination and dark relaxation, are dependent on ΔpH, and are enhanced by the deepoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin...
  2. ncbi Dynamics of photosystem II: a proteomic approach to thylakoid protein complexes
    E M Aro
    Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN 20014 Turku, Finland
    J Exp Bot 56:347-56. 2005
    ..paying particular attention to the damage, turnover, and assembly of the PSII complex in grana and stroma thylakoids during the photoinhibition-repair cycle of PSII...
  3. ncbi Galactolipids rule in seed plants
    Peter Dormann
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Muhlenberg 1, 14476, Golm, Germany
    Trends Plant Sci 7:112-8. 2002
    ..The ratio of MGDG to DGDG is also crucial for the physical phase of thylakoid membranes and might be regulated...
  4. pmc Thylakoid DeltapH-dependent precursor proteins bind to a cpTatC-Hcf106 complex before Tha4-dependent transport
    K Cline
    Horticultural Sciences and Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Cell Biol 154:719-29. 2001
    ..Blue native gel electrophoresis and coimmunoprecipitation of digitonin-solubilized thylakoids showed that Hcf106 and cpTatC are members of an approximately 700-kD complex that lacks Tha4...
  5. ncbi Chlororespiration and cyclic electron flow around PSI during photosynthesis and plant stress response
    Dominique Rumeau
    Laboratoire d Ecophysiologie Moléculaire des Plantes, CEA Cadarache, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, UMR 6191 CNRS CEA Université Aix Marseilles, Saint Paul lez Durance F 13108, France
    Plant Cell Environ 30:1041-51. 2007
    ..In response to severe stress conditions, PTOX associated to the NDH and/or the PGR5 pathway may also limit electron pressure on PSI acceptor and prevent PSI photoinhibition...
  6. ncbi State transitions and light adaptation require chloroplast thylakoid protein kinase STN7
    Stephane Bellafiore
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, 30, Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Nature 433:892-5. 2005
    ..In stn7 mutant plants the plastoquinone pool is more reduced and growth is impaired under changing light conditions, indicating that STN7, and probably state transitions, have an important role in response to environmental changes...
  7. ncbi New functions of the thylakoid membrane proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed by a simple, fast, and versatile fractionation strategy
    Jean Benoit Peltier
    Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:49367-83. 2004
    ..Mass spectrometry search results, ambiguities, and functional classifications can be searched via the Plastid Proteome Database...
  8. pmc Arrangement of photosystem II and ATP synthase in chloroplast membranes of spinach and pea
    Bertram Daum
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Plant Cell 22:1299-312. 2010
    ..We found that stroma and grana thylakoids are connected at the grana margins by staggered lamellar membrane protrusions...
  9. ncbi The PsbS protein controls the macro-organisation of photosystem II complexes in the grana membranes of higher plant chloroplasts
    Sami Kereïche
    Biophysical Chemistry, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    FEBS Lett 584:759-64. 2010
    ..It is proposed that PsbS controls the macro-organisation of the grana membrane, providing an explanation of its role in NPQ...
  10. ncbi Role of chloroplast protein kinase Stt7 in LHCII phosphorylation and state transition in Chlamydomonas
    Nathalie Depège
    Department of Molecular Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Geneva, 30 Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Science 299:1572-5. 2003
    ..Stt7 is required for the phosphorylation of the major light-harvesting protein (LHCII) and for state transition...
  11. ncbi Fine structure of granal thylakoid membrane organization using cryo electron tomography
    Roman Kouril
    Electron Microscopy Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1807:368-74. 2011
    ..The positions of individual dimeric PSII cores within an entire membrane layer indicates that about 23% supercomplexes must be of smaller size than full C(2)S(2)M(2) supercomplexes, to avoid overlap...
  12. pmc Light-induced dissociation of an antenna hetero-oligomer is needed for non-photochemical quenching induction
    Nico Betterle
    Dipartimento Scientifico e Tecnologico, Universita di Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I 37134 Verona, Italy
    J Biol Chem 284:15255-66. 2009
    ..These changes are reversible and do not require protein synthesis/degradation, thus allowing for changes in PSII antenna size and adaptation to rapidly changing environmental conditions...
  13. pmc Structure determination and improved model of plant photosystem I
    Alexey Amunts
    Biochemistry Department, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    J Biol Chem 285:3478-86. 2010
    ..Using the new crystal structure, we examine the network of contacts among the protein subunits from the structural perspective, which provide the basis for elucidating the functional organization of the complex...
  14. ncbi Proteome map of the chloroplast lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Maria Schubert
    Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, Huddinge SE 14186, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 277:8354-65. 2002
    ..As a complement to our experimental investigation, we made a theoretical prediction of the luminal proteins from the whole Arabidopsis genome and estimated that the thylakoid lumen of the chloroplast contains approximately 80 proteins...
  15. pmc A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria
    Manuela Zanetti
    Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    PLoS ONE 5:e10118. 2010
    ..Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies...
  16. pmc Chloroplast biogenesis. Regulation of lipid transport to the thylakoid in chloroplasts isolated from expanding and fully expanded leaves of pea
    M X Andersson
    , Department of Plant Physiology, P.O. Box 461, , Sweden
    Plant Physiol 127:184-93. 2001
    ..Furthermore, the results also indicate that more than one pathway exists for galactolipid transfer from the chloroplast envelope to the thylakoid...
  17. ncbi Lhca5--an LHC-type protein associated with photosystem I
    Ulrika Ganeteg
    Umea Plant Science Centre, Department of Plant Physiology, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Plant Mol Biol 54:641-51. 2004
    ..We propose that Lhca5 binds chlorophylls in a similar fashion to the other Lhca proteins and is associated with PSI only in sub-stoichiometric amounts...
  18. pmc Inhibition of plastocyanin to P(700)(+) electron transfer in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by hyperosmotic stress
    J A Cruz
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 289 Clark Hall, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6340, USA
    Plant Physiol 127:1167-79. 2001
    ..Comparison of estimated lumenal width with the x-ray structures of plastocyanin and PS I suggest that lumenal space contracts during HOS so as to hinder the movement of docking to PS I of plastocyanin or cytochrome c(6)...
  19. pmc In-depth analysis of the thylakoid membrane proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts: new proteins, new functions, and a plastid proteome database
    Giulia Friso
    Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Plant Cell 16:478-99. 2004
    ..All data are deposited in a new curated plastid proteome database (PPDB) with multiple search functions (http://cbsusrv01.tc.cornell.edu/users/ppdb/). This PPDB will serve as an expandable resource for the plant community...
  20. ncbi The PsbS protein controls the organization of the photosystem II antenna in higher plant thylakoid membranes
    Anett Z Kiss
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 283:3972-8. 2008
    ..fluorescence amplitude associated with the Mg(2+)-dependent restacking of thylakoid membranes were measured in thylakoids prepared from wild-type plants, a PsbS-deficient mutant and a PsbS overexpresser...
  21. ncbi Arabidopsis plants lacking PsbS protein possess photoprotective energy dissipation
    Matthew P Johnson
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End, Bancroft Road, London E1 4NS, UK
    Plant J 61:283-9. 2010
    ....
  22. pmc Identification of the mobile light-harvesting complex II polypeptides for state transitions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Hiroko Takahashi
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, 3 1 1 Tsushima naka, Okayama 700 8530, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:477-82. 2006
    ....
  23. pmc Arabidopsis mutants deleted in the light-harvesting protein Lhcb4 have a disrupted photosystem II macrostructure and are defective in photoprotection
    Silvia de Bianchi
    Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Plant Cell 23:2659-79. 2011
    ..This suggests that Lhcb4 is unique among photosystem II antenna proteins and determinant for photosystem II macro-organization and photoprotection...
  24. pmc Evidence that putrescine modulates the higher plant photosynthetic proton circuit
    Nikolaos E Ioannidis
    Department of Biology, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    PLoS ONE 7:e29864. 2012
    ....
  25. pmc The delivery of copper for thylakoid import observed by NMR
    Lucia Banci
    Magnetic Resonance Center CERM and Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via Luigi Sacconi 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8320-5. 2006
    ..Contact with PacS(N) induces change to the ScAtx1 copper-coordination sphere that drives copper release for thylakoid import. These data also elaborate on the mechanism to keep copper(I) out of the ZiaA(N) ATPase zinc sites...
  26. pmc Two P-type ATPases are required for copper delivery in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts
    Salah E Abdel-Ghany
    Biology Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    Plant Cell 17:1233-51. 2005
    ..A paa1 paa2 double mutant was seedling-lethal, underscoring the importance of copper to photosynthesis. We propose that PAA1 and PAA2 function sequentially in copper transport over the envelope and thylakoid membrane, respectively...
  27. ncbi Thylakoid protein phosphorylation in dynamic regulation of photosystem II in higher plants
    Mikko Tikkanen
    Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Finland
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1817:232-8. 2012
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosystem II...
  28. pmc Multiple precursor proteins bind individual Tat receptor complexes and are collectively transported
    Xianyue Ma
    Horticultural Sciences Department and Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    EMBO J 29:1477-88. 2010
    ..These results imply a novel aspect of Tat systems, whereby multiple precursor-binding sites can act in concert to transport an interlinked oligo-precursor protein...
  29. ncbi The thylakoid proton gradient promotes an advanced stage of signal peptide binding deep within the Tat pathway receptor complex
    Fabien Gérard
    Horticultural Sciences Department and Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:5263-72. 2007
    ..This implies that translocation involves a very intimate association of the signal peptide with the receptor complex binding site...
  30. ncbi Light regulation of CaS, a novel phosphoprotein in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Julia P Vainonen
    Department of Biology, Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Finland
    FEBS J 275:1767-77. 2008
    ..subcellular fractionation, it was demonstrated that CaS localizes to the chloroplasts and is enriched in stroma thylakoids. The phosphorylation level of CaS responded strongly to light intensity...
  31. ncbi Carotenoid cation formation and the regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting
    Nancy E Holt
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Science 307:433-6. 2005
    ..These results indicate that energy transfer from chlorophyll molecules to a chlorophyllzeaxanthin heterodimer, which then undergoes charge separation, is the mechanism for excess energy dissipation during feedback deexcitation...
  32. ncbi Moderate heat stress reduces the pH component of the transthylakoid proton motive force in light-adapted, intact tobacco leaves
    Ru Zhang
    Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Plant Cell Environ 32:1538-47. 2009
    ..The results indicate that moderate heat stress can have very large effects on thylakoid reactions...
  33. ncbi Towards characterization of the chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex
    Marjaana Suorsa
    Department of Biology, Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, FI 20014 Turku, Finland
    Mol Plant 2:1127-40. 2009
    ..In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the subunit composition and assembly process of the chloroplast NDH complex. In addition, a novel oligomeric structure of NDH, the PSI/NDH supercomplex, is discussed...
  34. ncbi A proteomic approach for investigation of photosynthetic apparatus in plants
    Corrado Ciambella
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
    Proteomics 5:746-57. 2005
    The proteome of the photosynthetic apparatus of barley (Hordeum vulgare), obtained by analysis of thylakoids without any previous fractionation, was mapped by native electrophoresis followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel ..
  35. pmc Chloroplastic NAD(P)H dehydrogenase in tobacco leaves functions in alleviation of oxidative damage caused by temperature stress
    Peng Wang
    National Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Institute of Plant Physiology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
    Plant Physiol 141:465-74. 2006
    ....
  36. pmc Central functions of the lumenal and peripheral thylakoid proteome of Arabidopsis determined by experimentation and genome-wide prediction
    Jean Benoit Peltier
    Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Plant Cell 14:211-36. 2002
    ..Many of the predicted lumenal proteins must be present at concentrations at least 10,000-fold lower than proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus...
  37. ncbi Is PsbS the site of non-photochemical quenching in photosynthesis?
    Krishna K Niyogi
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3102, USA
    J Exp Bot 56:375-82. 2005
    ..What is known about PsbS in relation to the hypothesis that this protein is the site of qE is reviewed here...
  38. ncbi Arrangement of photosystem II supercomplexes in crystalline macrodomains within the thylakoid membrane of green plant chloroplasts
    E J Boekema
    Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, Groningen, 9747 AG, The Netherlands
    J Mol Biol 301:1123-33. 2000
    ..The implications of this type of organization for the efficient transfer of excitation energy from LHCII to PSII and for the stacking of grana membranes are discussed...
  39. pmc Role of plastid protein phosphatase TAP38 in LHCII dephosphorylation and thylakoid electron flow
    Mathias Pribil
    Plant Molecular Biology Botany, Department Biology I, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munich, Germany
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000288. 2010
    ....
  40. pmc Antisense inhibition of the photosynthetic antenna proteins CP29 and CP26: implications for the mechanism of protective energy dissipation
    J Andersson
    Umea Plant Science Centre, Department of Plant Physiology, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Plant Cell 13:1193-204. 2001
    ..High-light-induced violaxanthin deepoxidation to zeaxanthin was not affected, although the pool size of these pigments was decreased slightly. We conclude that CP29 and CP26 are unlikely to be sites for nonphotochemical quenching...
  41. ncbi Nitrogen metabolism and remobilization during senescence
    Stefan Hortensteiner
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH 3013 Bern, Switzerland
    J Exp Bot 53:927-37. 2002
    ..The degradation pathways for chlorophylls and chloroplast proteins are partially interconnected...
  42. ncbi Dynamics of reversible protein phosphorylation in thylakoids of flowering plants: the roles of STN7, STN8 and TAP38
    Paolo Pesaresi
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari e Biotecnologie, Universita degli Studi di Milano, I 20133 Milano, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1807:887-96. 2011
    ..Three of the enzymes involved in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles in thylakoids, the protein kinases STN7 and STN8 and the phosphatase TAP38/PPH1, have been characterised in the model species ..
  43. pmc A twin arginine signal peptide and the pH gradient trigger reversible assembly of the thylakoid [Delta]pH/Tat translocase
    Hiroki Mori
    Horticultural Sciences and Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Cell Biol 157:205-10. 2002
    ..Interactions among components were examined by chemical cross-linking of intact thylakoids followed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting...
  44. ncbi Botany. State transitions--a question of balance
    John F Allen
    Department of Plant Biochemistry, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Box 124, Lund University, SE 221 00 Lund, Sweden
    Science 299:1530-2. 2003
  45. pmc The nucleus-encoded HCF107 gene of Arabidopsis provides a link between intercistronic RNA processing and the accumulation of translation-competent psbH transcripts in chloroplasts
    S Felder
    Institut für Entwicklungs und Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Universitatstrasse 1, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Plant Cell 13:2127-41. 2001
    ....
  46. pmc The stromal chloroplast Deg7 protease participates in the repair of photosystem II after photoinhibition in Arabidopsis
    Xuwu Sun
    Photosynthesis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    Plant Physiol 152:1263-73. 2010
    ..These results suggest that Deg proteases on both the stromal and luminal sides of the thylakoid membranes are important for the efficient PSII repair in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
  47. pmc The PPH1 phosphatase is specifically involved in LHCII dephosphorylation and state transitions in Arabidopsis
    Alexey Shapiguzov
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneve 4, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4782-7. 2010
    ..These two proteins emerge as key players in the adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to changes in light quality and quantity...
  48. ncbi Peroxiredoxin Q of Arabidopsis thaliana is attached to the thylakoids and functions in context of photosynthesis
    Petra Lamkemeyer
    Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
    Plant J 45:968-81. 2006
    ..Apparently Prx Q attaches to photosystem II and has a specific function distinct from 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in protecting photosynthesis. Its absence causes metabolic changes that are sensed and trigger appropriate compensatory responses...
  49. pmc Arabidopsis STN7 kinase provides a link between short- and long-term photosynthetic acclimation
    Paolo Pesaresi
    Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Università degli studi di Milano c o Parco Tecnologico Padano Via Einstein, 26900 Lodi, Italy
    Plant Cell 21:2402-23. 2009
    ....
  50. ncbi Quality control of photosystem II. Cleavage of reaction center D1 protein in spinach thylakoids by FtsH protease under moderate heat stress
    Miho Yoshioka
    Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700 8530, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:21660-9. 2006
    When spinach thylakoids were subjected to moderate heat stress (40 degrees C for 30 min), oxygen evolution was inhibited, and cleavage of the reaction center-binding protein D1 of photosystem II took place, producing 23-kDa N-terminal ..
  51. ncbi Determining the limitations and regulation of photosynthetic energy transduction in leaves
    Neil R Baker
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, Essex, UK
    Plant Cell Environ 30:1107-25. 2007
    ..Regulation of these electron and proton fluxes is required for the thylakoids to meet the fluctuating metabolic demands of the cell...
  52. pmc Three-dimensional architecture of grana and stroma thylakoids of higher plants as determined by electron tomography
    Jotham R Austin
    Department of Molecular Genetics, and Cell Biology and Advance Electron Microscopy Facility, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Plant Physiol 155:1601-11. 2011
    ..Higher-plant thylakoids are differentiated into two interconnected and functionally distinct domains, the photosystem II/light-..
  53. pmc LOW PSII ACCUMULATION1 is involved in efficient assembly of photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Lianwei Peng
    Photosynthesis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    Plant Cell 18:955-69. 2006
    ..Thus, LPA1 appears to be an integral membrane chaperone that is required for efficient PSII assembly, probably through direct interaction with the PSII reaction center protein D1...
  54. ncbi Quality control of photosystem II: impact of light and heat stresses
    Yasusi Yamamoto
    Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700 8530, Japan
    Photosynth Res 98:589-608. 2008
    ..We suggest that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the D1 protein, as well as the binding of the extrinsic PsbO protein to Photosystem II, play regulatory roles in directing the damaged D1 protein to the two alternative pathways...
  55. pmc Deletion of the chloroplast-localized Thylakoid formation1 gene product in Arabidopsis leads to deficient thylakoid formation and variegated leaves
    Qin Wang
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA
    Plant Physiol 136:3594-604. 2004
    ..The data indicate that the Thf1 gene product plays a crucial role in a dynamic process of vesicle-mediated thylakoid membrane biogenesis...
  56. pmc Thylakoid membrane remodeling during state transitions in Arabidopsis
    Silvia G Chuartzman
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Plant Cell 20:1029-39. 2008
    ..Based on our results and on the recently determined three-dimensional structure of higher-plant thylakoids trapped in one of the two major light-adapted states, we propose a model for the transitions in membrane ..
  57. ncbi Structural characterization of a complex of photosystem I and light-harvesting complex II of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Roman Kouril
    Department of Biophysical Chemistry, GBB, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Biochemistry 44:10935-40. 2005
    ..The PSI-LHCII complex could be averaged with a resolution of 16 A, showing that LHCII has a specific binding site at the PSI-A, -H, -L, and -K subunits...
  58. ncbi The thylakoid proton motive force in vivo. Quantitative, non-invasive probes, energetics, and regulatory consequences of light-induced pmf
    Kenji Takizawa
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 6340, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1767:1233-44. 2007
    ..In contrast to tobacco, Arabidopsis showed substantial variations in the fraction of pmf (0.1-0.7) stored as Deltapsi, allowing a more sensitive qE response, possible as an adaptation to life at lower light levels...
  59. ncbi Molecular recognition in thylakoid structure and function
    J F Allen
    Plant Biochemistry, Lund University, Box 117, SE 221 00, Lund, Sweden
    Trends Plant Sci 6:317-26. 2001
    ..High-resolution structural description of membrane protein-protein interactions is now required to understand thylakoid structure and regulation of photosynthesis...
  60. pmc Clustering of C-terminal stromal domains of Tha4 homo-oligomers during translocation by the Tat protein transport system
    Carole Dabney-Smith
    Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program and Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 20:2060-9. 2009
    ..This possibly involves accretion of additional Tha4 into a larger transport-active homo-oligomer...
  61. pmc The high light-inducible polypeptides stabilize trimeric photosystem I complex under high light conditions in Synechocystis PCC 6803
    Qiang Wang
    Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, Arkansas 72204, USA
    Plant Physiol 147:1239-50. 2008
    ..These results suggest that the HLIPs stabilize PSI trimers, interact with Slr1128, and protect cells under HL conditions...
  62. pmc Galactolipid synthesis in chloroplast inner envelope is essential for proper thylakoid biogenesis, photosynthesis, and embryogenesis
    Koichi Kobayashi
    Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Center for Biological Resources and Informatics, and Research Center for the Evolving Earth and Planets, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B 65 Nagatsuta cho, Midori ku, Yokohama 226 8501, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17216-21. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of galactolipids not only in photosynthetic growth but also in embryogenesis...
  63. pmc An Arabidopsis mutant with high cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (hcef) involving the NADPH dehydrogenase complex
    Aaron K Livingston
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 6340, USA
    Plant Cell 22:221-33. 2010
    ....
  64. pmc Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol deficiency in Arabidopsis affects pigment composition in the prolamellar body and impairs thylakoid membrane energization and photoprotection in leaves
    Henrik Aronsson
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Plant Physiol 148:580-92. 2008
    ..Thus, the pH-dependent activation of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and of the PsbS protein is impaired...
  65. ncbi Transversal and lateral exciton energy transfer in grana thylakoids of spinach
    Helmut Kirchhoff
    Institut fur Botanik, Schlossgarten 3, Wilhelm Klemm Strasse 10, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Biochemistry 43:14508-16. 2004
    The excitation energy transfer between photosystem (PS) II complexes was studied in isolated grana disks and thylakoids using chlorophyll a fluorescence induction measurements in the presence of DCMU under stacked and destacked conditions...
  66. ncbi Supermolecular organization of photosystem II and its associated light-harvesting antenna in Arabidopsis thaliana
    A E Yakushevska
    Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Biochem 268:6020-8. 2001
    ..amp; Dekker, J.P. (2000) J. Mol. Biol. 301, 1123-1133]. It is concluded from both the single particle analysis and the crystal analysis that the M-type trimers bind more strongly to PSII core complexes in Arabidopsis than in spinach...
  67. pmc Molecular architecture of plant thylakoids under physiological and light stress conditions: a study of lipid-light-harvesting complex II model membranes
    Ewa Janik
    Department of Biophysics, Institute of Physics, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, 20 031 Lublin, Poland
    Plant Cell 25:2155-70. 2013
    ....
  68. pmc A structural basis for the pH-dependent xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Pascal Arnoux
    Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Institut de Biologie Environementale et de Biotechnologie, Laboratoire de Bioenergetique Cellulaire, Saint Paul lez Durance, F 13108, France
    Plant Cell 21:2036-44. 2009
    ....
  69. ncbi Supramolecular photosystem II organization in grana thylakoid membranes: evidence for a structured arrangement
    Helmut Kirchhoff
    Institut fur Botanik, Schlossgarten 3, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Biochemistry 43:9204-13. 2004
    The distribution of photosystem (PS) II complexes in stacked grana thylakoids derived from electron microscopic images of freeze-fractured chloroplasts are examined for the first time using mathematical methods...
  70. pmc Jumping mode atomic force microscopy on grana membranes from spinach
    Kinga Sznee
    Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 286:39164-71. 2011
    ..These observations illustrate the possibility for diffusion of proteins and smaller molecules within these densely packed membranes...
  71. ncbi Kinetic analyses of the OJIP chlorophyll fluorescence rise in thylakoid membranes
    David Joly
    Groupe de Recherche en Biologie Végétale GRBV, Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, Trois Rivieres, Quebec, Canada G9A 5H7
    Photosynth Res 84:107-12. 2005
    ..In control thylakoids, MV suppressed the I-P rise of FI by about 60...
  72. pmc DAC is involved in the accumulation of the cytochrome b6/f complex in Arabidopsis
    Jianwei Xiao
    Photosynthesis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    Plant Physiol 160:1911-22. 2012
    ..DAC appears to be a novel factor involved in the assembly/stabilization of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex, possibly through interaction with the PetD protein...
  73. pmc The ultrastructure of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant strain lacking phytoene synthase resembles that of a colorless alga
    William Inwood
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3102, USA
    Mol Plant 1:925-37. 2008
    ..body, the accumulation of starch, and the disorganization of the eyespot may all result from the absence of thylakoids. The ultrastructure of lts1 mutant strains is similar to but distinct from that of previously described white ..
  74. ncbi Absence of the Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 proteins of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II - effects on photosynthesis, grana stacking and fitness
    Jenny Andersson
    Umea Plant Science Centre, Department of Plant Physiology, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Plant J 35:350-61. 2003
    ....
  75. ncbi A Pentatricopeptide repeat protein is required for RNA processing of clpP Pre-mRNA in moss chloroplasts
    Mitsuru Hattori
    Center for Gene Research, Nagoya University, Furo cho 1, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8602
    J Biol Chem 282:10773-82. 2007
    ..This is the first evidence of a PPR protein controlling the protein expression level of ClpP...
  76. ncbi Visualizing the mobility and distribution of chlorophyll proteins in higher plant thylakoid membranes: effects of photoinhibition and protein phosphorylation
    Tomasz K Goral
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
    Plant J 62:948-59. 2010
    ..We conclude that protein phosphorylation switches the membrane system to a more fluid state, thus facilitating the photosystem-II repair cycle...
  77. ncbi Functional domain size in aggregates of light-harvesting complex II and thylakoid membranes
    Petar H Lambrev
    Max Volmer Laboratory for Biophysical Chemistry PC 14, Berlin Institute of Technology, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1807:1022-31. 2011
    ..Therefore our results imply that the physical size of an antenna system beyond the numbers of a functional domain size has little or no effect on improving the light-harvesting efficiency...
  78. pmc Copper transport across pea thylakoid membranes
    Richard Shingles
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 2685, USA
    Plant Physiol 135:145-51. 2004
    ..0. Cu2+ transport was inhibited by Zn2+ but was largely unaffected by Mn2+ and Cu+. Zn2+ inhibited Cu2+ transport to a maximum of 60%, indicating that there may be more than one transporter for copper in pea thylakoid membranes...
  79. pmc Higher plant photosystem II light-harvesting antenna, not the reaction center, determines the excited-state lifetime-both the maximum and the nonphotochemically quenched
    Erica Belgio
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    Biophys J 102:2761-71. 2012
    ..Therefore, we conclude that the closed RCs do not cause quenching of excitation in the PSII antenna, and play no role in the formation of NPQ...
  80. ncbi Two members of the Arabidopsis CLC (chloride channel) family, AtCLCe and AtCLCf, are associated with thylakoid and Golgi membranes, respectively
    Anne Marmagne
    Institut des Sciences du Vegetal, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS UPR 2355, Bat 22, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
    J Exp Bot 58:3385-93. 2007
    ..The AtCLCf protein is localized in Golgi membranes and functionally complements the yeast gef1 mutant disrupted in the single CLC gene encoding a Golgi-associated protein...
  81. ncbi Light-harvesting and structural organization of Photosystem II: from individual complexes to thylakoid membrane
    Roberta Croce
    Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Photochem Photobiol B 104:142-53. 2011
    ..It is shown that it is still very difficult to combine all available results into one comprehensive picture...
  82. pmc Architectural switch in plant photosynthetic membranes induced by light stress
    Miroslava Herbstova
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:20130-5. 2012
    ..The PSII repair cycle requires a brisk lateral protein traffic between stacked grana thylakoids and unstacked stroma lamellae that is challenged by the tight stacking and low protein mobility in grana...
  83. pmc The Arabidopsis thylakoid protein PAM68 is required for efficient D1 biogenesis and photosystem II assembly
    Ute Armbruster
    Lehrstuhl für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen Botanik, Department Biologie I, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Martinsried, Germany
    Plant Cell 22:3439-60. 2010
    ..PAM68 is a conserved integral membrane protein found in cyanobacterial and eukaryotic thylakoids and interacts in split-ubiquitin assays with several PSII core proteins and known PSII assembly factors...
  84. ncbi Quantitative analysis of the experimental O-J-I-P chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics. Apparent activation energy and origin of each kinetic step
    Steve Boisvert
    Groupe de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, GRBV, Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, Quebec, Canada
    FEBS J 273:4770-7. 2006
    ....
  85. pmc LPA19, a Psb27 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, facilitates D1 protein precursor processing during PSII biogenesis
    Lili Wei
    Fr Photosynthesis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    J Biol Chem 285:21391-8. 2010
    ..Thus, these studies suggest that LPA19 is involved in facilitating the D1 precursor protein processing in Arabidopsis...
  86. ncbi Two short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases, NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 and NYC1-LIKE, are required for chlorophyll b and light-harvesting complex II degradation during senescence in rice
    Yutaka Sato
    Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Plant J 57:120-31. 2009
    ..These observations suggest that NOL and NYC1 are co-localized in the thylakoid membrane and act in the form of a complex as a chlorophyll b reductase in rice...
  87. ncbi Malondialdehyde generated from peroxidized linolenic acid causes protein modification in heat-stressed plants
    Yasuo Yamauchi
    Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
    Plant Physiol Biochem 46:786-93. 2008
    ..This modification was not observed in linolenic acid-deficient mutants (fad3fad7fad8 triple mutant), suggesting that linolenic acid is a major source of protein modification by MDA in heat-stressed plants...
  88. ncbi Tat subunit stoichiometry in Arabidopsis thaliana challenges the proposed function of TatA as the translocation pore
    Mario Jakob
    Institut für Biologie Pflanzenphysiologie, Martin Luther Universitat Halle Wittenberg, Weinbergweg 10, 06120 Halle Saale, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1793:388-94. 2009
    ..The implications of these findings on the currently existing models explaining the mechanism of Tat transport are discussed...
  89. ncbi The impact of high CO2 concentrations on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and the role of polyamines
    Konstantinos Logothetis
    Department of Biology, University of Crete, P O Box 2208, GR 71409 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    J Plant Physiol 161:715-24. 2004
    ..The possibility that polyamines influence the photoadaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus and its acclimation to high-CO2 concentrations through a common mechanism is discussed...
  90. pmc Cooperation of LPA3 and LPA2 is essential for photosystem II assembly in Arabidopsis
    Wenhe Cai
    Photosynthesis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    Plant Physiol 154:109-20. 2010
    ..Thus, the function of Alb3 in some PSII assembly processes is probably mediated through interactions with LPA2 and LPA3...
  91. ncbi Quality control of photosystem II under light stress - turnover of aggregates of the D1 protein in vivo
    Satoshi Ohira
    Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700 8530, Japan
    Photosynth Res 84:29-33. 2005
    ..35-40 degrees C); (2) aggregation of the D1 protein, as well as cleavage of the protein, was detected in thylakoids isolated from spinach leaves that had been subjected to heat/light stress; (3) aggregates of the D1 protein ..
  92. ncbi Dimeric and monomeric organization of photosystem II. Distribution of five distinct complexes in the different domains of the thylakoid membrane
    Ravi Danielsson
    Department of Biochemistry, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, P O Box 124, Lund University, S 221 00 Lund, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 281:14241-9. 2006
    ..PSII core monomers were heterogeneous, and a large fraction did not evolve oxygen. PSII monomers without the CP43 protein and PSII reaction centers showed no oxygen-evolving activity...
  93. ncbi The thylakoid delta pH-dependent pathway machinery facilitates RR-independent N-tail protein integration
    E J Summer
    Horticultural Sciences and Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:23483-90. 2000
    ..Finally, chloroplasts from the hcf106 null mutant were unable to integrate Pftf into their thylakoids. Thus, DeltapH pathway machinery facilitates both signal peptide-directed and N-tail-mediated membrane ..
  94. ncbi Photosynthetic acclimation: does the dynamic structure and macro-organisation of photosystem II in higher plant grana membranes regulate light harvesting states?
    Peter Horton
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, UK
    FEBS J 275:1069-79. 2008
    ....
  95. pmc Structural and mutational analysis of band 7 proteins in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803
    Marko Boehm
    Division of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 191:6425-35. 2009
    ..Overall, our results indicate that the band 7 proteins form large homo-oligomeric complexes but do not play a crucial role in the biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803...
  96. ncbi Identification, expression, and functional analyses of a thylakoid ATP/ADP carrier from Arabidopsis
    Sophie Thuswaldner
    Division of Cell Biology, Linkoping University, SE 581 85 Linkoping, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 282:8848-59. 2007
    ..translocator homologous to the bovine mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) was previously found in spinach thylakoids. Here we have identified and characterized a thylakoid ATP/ADP carrier (TAAC) from Arabidopsis...
  97. pmc The role of plastocyanin in the adjustment of the photosynthetic electron transport to the carbon metabolism in tobacco
    Mark Aurel Schöttler
    Institut fur Botanik, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat, 48 149 Munster, Germany
    Plant Physiol 136:4265-74. 2004
    ..The electron transport capacity, measured in thylakoids isolated from the different leaves, closely matched the leaf assimilation rate...
  98. pmc The three-dimensional network of the thylakoid membranes in plants: quasihelical model of the granum-stroma assembly
    Laszlo Mustardy
    Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H 6701 Szeged, Hungary
    Plant Cell 20:2552-7. 2008
    ..Here, we review the conventional EM data and present a critical discussion of the two electron tomography data sets in an attempt to establish a consensus model that accommodates all the information presently available...
  99. pmc Identification and characterization of the Na+/H+ antiporter Nhas3 from the thylakoid membrane of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
    Kenta Tsunekawa
    Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aobayama 6 6 07, Sendai 980 8579, Japan
    J Biol Chem 284:16513-21. 2009
    ..Our results suggested a role of NhaS3 in the maintenance of ion homeostasis of H+, Na+, and K+ in supporting the conversion of photosynthetic products and in the supply of energy in the dark...
  100. ncbi Zeaxanthin radical cation formation in minor light-harvesting complexes of higher plant antenna
    Thomas J Avenson
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 1460, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:3550-8. 2008
    ..vitro, whereas the fraction of minor complexes estimated to be engaged in charge transfer quenching in isolated thylakoids was more than 80 times higher...
  101. ncbi Molecular architecture of the thylakoid membrane: lipid diffusion space for plastoquinone
    H Kirchhoff
    Institut fur Botanik, Schlossgarten 3, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Biochemistry 41:4872-82. 2002
    We have determined the stoichiometric composition of membrane components (lipids and proteins) in spinach thylakoids and have derived the molecular area occupied by these components...

Research Grants7

  1. Development of an Algae-based Membrane Protein Expression System
    ALEXANDER ARAVANIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These chimeric recombinant proteins accumulate to relatively high levels in thylakoids, demonstrating that these membranes are capable of harboring engineered recombinant proteins...
  2. Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes Gordon Conference 2005
    Ross Dalbey; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Inner Membrane Protein Assembly in Bacteria
    Ross Dalbey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies should impact the field of bacterial membrane protein biogenesis and advance the knowledge of analogous pathways in eukaryotic cells. ..
  4. Assembly and Functions of Photosynthetic Water Oxidases
    G Dismukes; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Singlet Oxygen Signaling
    Krishna Niyogi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This investigation will help illuminate studies of singlet oxygen biology in other organisms and provide fundamental knowledge about how eukaryotic cells sense and respond to singlet oxygen. ..
  6. ANTIOXIDANT METABOLISM IN CHLAMYDOMONAS
    Krishna Niyogi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Reverse genetics of Chlamydomonas using TILLING
    Krishna Niyogi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This project will generate a resource that will enable the determination of gene function for many genes that have been discovered by sequencing the Chlamydomonas genome. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..