cell wall

Summary

Summary: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Growth of the plant cell wall
    Daniel J Cosgrove
    Department of Biology, 208 Mueller Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:850-61. 2005
  2. ncbi Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components
    O Takeuchi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan
    Immunity 11:443-51. 1999
  3. ncbi Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins
    D J Cosgrove
    Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA
    Nature 407:321-6. 2000
  4. pmc Regulation of cell wall biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the cell wall integrity signaling pathway
    David E Levin
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    Genetics 189:1145-75. 2011
  5. pmc Recognition and degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides by two human gut symbionts
    Eric C Martens
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001221. 2011
  6. pmc A battery of transcription factors involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis
    Ruiqin Zhong
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Plant Cell 20:2763-82. 2008
  7. ncbi Hemicelluloses
    Henrik Vibe Scheller
    Feedstocks Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:263-89. 2010
  8. ncbi Transcriptional networks for lignin biosynthesis: more complex than we thought?
    Qiao Zhao
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 16:227-33. 2011
  9. ncbi Unique aspects of the grass cell wall
    John Vogel
    USDA Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA 94710, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 11:301-7. 2008
  10. pmc Identification of novel genes in Arabidopsis involved in secondary cell wall formation using expression profiling and reverse genetics
    David M Brown
    Faculty of Life Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 17:2281-95. 2005

Detail Information

Publications383 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Growth of the plant cell wall
    Daniel J Cosgrove
    Department of Biology, 208 Mueller Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:850-61. 2005
    ..The plant cell wall is also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the Earth...
  2. ncbi Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components
    O Takeuchi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan
    Immunity 11:443-51. 1999
    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are implicated in the recognition of various bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate in vivo roles of TLR2, we generated TLR2-deficient mice...
  3. ncbi Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins
    D J Cosgrove
    Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA
    Nature 407:321-6. 2000
    ..The cell wall is secreted by each cell in the plant body, forming a thin fibreglass-like network with remarkable strength and ..
  4. pmc Regulation of cell wall biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the cell wall integrity signaling pathway
    David E Levin
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    Genetics 189:1145-75. 2011
    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle...
  5. pmc Recognition and degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides by two human gut symbionts
    Eric C Martens
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001221. 2011
    ..inhabiting the human gut have evolved under intense pressure to utilize complex carbohydrates, primarily plant cell wall glycans in our diets...
  6. pmc A battery of transcription factors involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis
    Ruiqin Zhong
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Plant Cell 20:2763-82. 2008
    ....
  7. ncbi Hemicelluloses
    Henrik Vibe Scheller
    Feedstocks Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:263-89. 2010
    ..The most important biological role of hemicelluloses is their contribution to strengthening the cell wall by interaction with cellulose and, in some walls, with lignin...
  8. ncbi Transcriptional networks for lignin biosynthesis: more complex than we thought?
    Qiao Zhao
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 16:227-33. 2011
    ..In this review, we assess how these transcriptional activators and repressors modulate lignin biosynthesis, and discuss crosstalk between the lignin biosynthesis pathway and other physiological processes...
  9. ncbi Unique aspects of the grass cell wall
    John Vogel
    USDA Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA 94710, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 11:301-7. 2008
    ....
  10. pmc Identification of novel genes in Arabidopsis involved in secondary cell wall formation using expression profiling and reverse genetics
    David M Brown
    Faculty of Life Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 17:2281-95. 2005
    Forward genetic screens have led to the isolation of several genes involved in secondary cell wall formation. A variety of evidence, however, suggests that the list of genes identified is not exhaustive...
  11. ncbi Toward a systems approach to understanding plant cell walls
    Chris Somerville
    Carnegie Institution, Department of Plant Biology, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 306:2206-11. 2004
    ..However, progress in integrating biophysical, developmental, and genetic information into a useful model will require a system-based approach...
  12. ncbi Peptidoglycan structure and architecture
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:149-67. 2008
    The peptidoglycan (murein) sacculus is a unique and essential structural element in the cell wall of most bacteria...
  13. ncbi An integrated model of the recognition of Candida albicans by the innate immune system
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine and Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:67-78. 2008
    ..In this Review, we use the fungal pathogen Candida albicans as a model for the complex interaction that exists between the host pattern-recognition systems and invading microbial pathogens...
  14. pmc Using RNA-Seq for gene identification, polymorphism detection and transcript profiling in two alfalfa genotypes with divergent cell wall composition in stems
    S Samuel Yang
    USDA Agricultural Research Service, Plant Science Research Unit, St, Paul, MN 55108, USA
    BMC Genomics 12:199. 2011
    ..The recent advent of RNA-Seq, a massively parallel sequencing method for transcriptome analysis, provides an opportunity to expand the identification of alfalfa genes and polymorphisms, and conduct in-depth transcript profiling...
  15. ncbi Bacterial peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:259-86. 2008
    ..The physiological functions of these enzymes include the regulation of cell wall growth, the turnover of peptidoglycan during growth, the separation of daughter cells during cell division and ..
  16. ncbi Pectin structure and biosynthesis
    Debra Mohnen
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, DOE BioEnergy Science Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 4712, United States
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 11:266-77. 2008
    ..Manipulation of pectin synthesis is expected to impact diverse plant agronomical properties including plant biomass characteristics important for biofuel production...
  17. pmc Cell wall integrity signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    David E Levin
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:262-91. 2005
    The yeast cell wall is a highly dynamic structure that is responsible for protecting the cell from rapid changes in external osmotic potential. The wall is also critical for cell expansion during growth and morphogenesis...
  18. pmc The MYB46 transcription factor is a direct target of SND1 and regulates secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis
    Ruiqin Zhong
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Plant Cell 19:2776-92. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate that MYB46 is a direct target of SND1 and is another key player in the transcriptional network involved in the regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis...
  19. pmc Transcriptome profiling, molecular biological, and physiological studies reveal a major role for ethylene in cotton fiber cell elongation
    Yong Hui Shi
    National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    Plant Cell 18:651-64. 2006
    ..These results indicate that ethylene plays a major role in promoting cotton fiber elongation. Furthermore, ethylene may promote cell elongation by increasing the expression of sucrose synthase, tubulin, and expansin genes...
  20. pmc MYB58 and MYB63 are transcriptional activators of the lignin biosynthetic pathway during secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis
    Jianli Zhou
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Plant Cell 21:248-66. 2009
    ..that SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1) is a key transcription factor regulating secondary cell wall formation, including the biosynthesis of cellulose, xylan, and lignin...
  21. ncbi The plant cell wall-decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi
    Daniel C Eastwood
    College of Science, University of Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
    Science 333:762-5. 2011
    ..lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota...
  22. ncbi Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis for potent antibiotic activity
    I Wiedemann
    , D-53105 Bonn, Germany
    J Biol Chem 276:1772-9. 2001
    ..lantibiotic nisin is active in nanomolar concentrations, which results from its ability to use the lipid-bound cell wall precursor lipid II as a docking molecule for subsequent pore formation...
  23. ncbi Processive movement of MreB-associated cell wall biosynthetic complexes in bacteria
    Julia Domínguez-Escobar
    Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany
    Science 333:225-8. 2011
    The peptidoglycan cell wall and the actin-like MreB cytoskeleton are major determinants of cell shape in rod-shaped bacteria...
  24. ncbi Evolutionary conservation of the transcriptional network regulating secondary cell wall biosynthesis
    Ruiqin Zhong
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 15:625-32. 2010
    ..There is evidence to suggest that the secondary wall NAC-mediated transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis is a conserved mechanism throughout vascular plants...
  25. ncbi How does plant cell wall nanoscale architecture correlate with enzymatic digestibility?
    Shi You Ding
    Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401, USA
    Science 338:1055-60. 2012
    ..imaging in real time to assess the impact of pretreatment, as well as the resulting nanometer-scale changes in cell wall structure, upon subsequent digestion by two commercially relevant cellulase systems...
  26. ncbi RHO1 and RHO2 share partially overlapping functions in the regulation of cell wall integrity and hyphal polarity in Neurospora crassa
    Corinna Richthammer
    Institute for Microbiology and Genetics, University of Gottingen, Grisebachstr 8, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 85:716-33. 2012
    ..rho-1 mutants, we dissected the function of the essential GTPase RHO1 in cell polarization and maintenance of cell wall integrity in Neurospora crassa...
  27. ncbi Importance of the Candida albicans cell wall during commensalism and infection
    Neil A R Gow
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 15:406-12. 2012
    ..Many of the fungal genes that have been the focus of this co-evolutionary process encode cell wall components...
  28. ncbi Teichoic acids and related cell-wall glycopolymers in Gram-positive physiology and host interactions
    Christopher Weidenmaier
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:276-87. 2008
    ....
  29. pmc A multifunctional mannosyltransferase family in Candida albicans determines cell wall mannan structure and host-fungus interactions
    Hector M Mora-Montes
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
    J Biol Chem 285:12087-95. 2010
    The cell wall proteins of fungi are modified by N- and O-linked mannosylation and phosphomannosylation, resulting in changes to the physical and immunological properties of the cell...
  30. pmc Loss-of-function mutation of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION2 in Arabidopsis leads to reduced cell wall acetylation and increased resistance to Botrytis cinerea
    Yuzuki Manabe
    Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Plant Physiol 155:1068-78. 2011
    ..mutants in one of the genes, designated REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION2 (RWA2), had decreased levels of acetylated cell wall polymers...
  31. pmc Isolation and proteomic characterization of the Arabidopsis Golgi defines functional and novel components involved in plant cell wall biosynthesis
    Harriet T Parsons
    Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Plant Physiol 159:12-26. 2012
    The plant Golgi plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of cell wall matrix polysaccharides, protein glycosylation, and vesicle trafficking...
  32. ncbi MAPMAN: a user-driven tool to display genomics data sets onto diagrams of metabolic pathways and other biological processes
    Oliver Thimm
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, Golm, Germany
    Plant J 37:914-39. 2004
    ..Many genes involved in photosynthesis, nutrient acquisition, amino acid, nucleotide, lipid and cell wall synthesis, cell wall modification, and RNA and protein synthesis were repressed...
  33. ncbi Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production
    Fang Chen
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 25:759-61. 2007
    ..Some transgenics yield nearly twice as much sugar from cell walls as wild-type plants. Lignin modification could bypass the need for acid pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation...
  34. pmc SQ109 targets MmpL3, a membrane transporter of trehalose monomycolate involved in mycolic acid donation to the cell wall core of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Kapil Tahlan
    Tuberculosis Research Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1797-809. 2012
    ..Here, we demonstrate that SQ109 disrupts cell wall assembly, as evidenced by macromolecular incorporation assays and ultrastructural analyses...
  35. ncbi SNARE-protein-mediated disease resistance at the plant cell wall
    Nicholas C Collins
    Sainsbury Laboratory John Innes Centre, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UH, UK
    Nature 425:973-7. 2003
    Failure of pathogenic fungi to breach the plant cell wall constitutes a major component of immunity of non-host plant species--species outside the pathogen host range--and accounts for a proportion of aborted infection attempts on '..
  36. pmc SND1, a NAC domain transcription factor, is a key regulator of secondary wall synthesis in fibers of Arabidopsis
    Ruiqin Zhong
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Plant Cell 18:3158-70. 2006
    ..Together, our results reveal that SND1 is a key transcriptional activator involved in secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers...
  37. pmc Disrupting two Arabidopsis thaliana xylosyltransferase genes results in plants deficient in xyloglucan, a major primary cell wall component
    David M Cavalier
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Plant Cell 20:1519-37. 2008
    ..to form a three-dimensional network that functions as the principal load-bearing structure of the primary cell wall. To determine whether two Arabidopsis thaliana genes that encode xylosyltransferases, XXT1 and XXT2, are ..
  38. ncbi Developmental patterning by mechanical signals in Arabidopsis
    Olivier Hamant
    INRA, Laboratoire de Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, 46 allee d Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    Science 322:1650-5. 2008
    ....
  39. ncbi The structure and synthesis of the fungal cell wall
    Shaun M Bowman
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260, USA
    Bioessays 28:799-808. 2006
    The fungal cell wall is a dynamic structure that protects the cell from changes in osmotic pressure and other environmental stresses, while allowing the fungal cell to interact with its environment...
  40. pmc Regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis by outer-membrane proteins
    Athanasios Typas
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell 143:1097-109. 2010
    ..LpoA/LpoB and their PBP-docking regions are restricted to γ-proteobacteria, providing models for niche-specific regulation of sacculus growth...
  41. ncbi Transcriptional regulation of plant cell wall degradation by filamentous fungi
    Nina Aro
    VTT Biotechnology, Espoo, Finland
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:719-39. 2005
    Plant cell wall consists mainly of the large biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin. These biopolymers are degraded by many microorganisms, in particular filamentous fungi, with the aid of extracellular enzymes...
  42. ncbi Pectins: structure, biosynthesis, and oligogalacturonide-related signaling
    B L Ridley
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, 220 Riverbend Road, Athens, GA 30602-4712, USA
    Phytochemistry 57:929-67. 2001
    ..tertiary structure, and describe new methods that may be useful to study localized pectin structure in the plant cell wall. We also discuss progress in our understanding of how pectin is biosynthesized and review the biological ..
  43. pmc Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi
    Zhongtao Zhao
    NWAFU PU Joint Research Center and State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
    BMC Genomics 14:274. 2013
    ..To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported...
  44. ncbi New insights into pectin methylesterase structure and function
    Jérôme Pelloux
    Groupe de Génomique Fonctionnelle des Plantes, EA 3900, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens, France
    Trends Plant Sci 12:267-77. 2007
    ..in pectin structure are associated with changes in cellular adhesion, plasticity, pH and ionic contents of the cell wall and influence plant development and stress responses...
  45. ncbi Disruption of the ESX-5 system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes loss of PPE protein secretion, reduction of cell wall integrity and strong attenuation
    Daria Bottai
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia ed Epidemiologia, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 83:1195-209. 2012
    ..Altogether these findings indicate an essential role of ESX-5 for transport of PPE proteins, cell wall integrity and full virulence of M...
  46. ncbi The structure, function, and biosynthesis of plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides
    Kerry Hosmer Caffall
    University of Georgia, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, Athens, 30602, United States
    Carbohydr Res 344:1879-900. 2009
    ..The identification of glycosyltransferases involved in pectin synthesis is essential to the study of cell wall function in plant growth and development and for maximizing the value and use of plant polysaccharides in ..
  47. ncbi Direct measurement of cell wall stress stiffening and turgor pressure in live bacterial cells
    Yi Deng
    Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Phys Rev Lett 107:158101. 2011
    ..intact and bulging Escherichia coli cells using atomic force microscopy to separate the contributions of the cell wall and turgor pressure to the overall cell stiffness...
  48. ncbi Comparative proteomics analysis of differentially expressed proteins in soybean cell wall during flooding stress
    Setsuko Komatsu
    National Institute of Crop Science, Kannondai 2 1 18, Tsukuba, 305 8518, Japan
    Amino Acids 39:1435-49. 2010
    ..To investigate the function of the soybean cell wall in the response to flooding stress, cell wall proteins were analyzed...
  49. pmc Contribution of Candida albicans cell wall components to recognition by and escape from murine macrophages
    C G J McKenzie
    College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 78:1650-8. 2010
    ..Using mutant strains that are defective in cell surface glycosylation, cell wall protein synthesis, and yeast-hypha morphogenesis, we have investigated three important aspects of C...
  50. pmc The MAP kinase MpkA controls cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, gliotoxin production and iron adaptation in Aspergillus fumigatus
    Radhika Jain
    Department of Molecular and Applied Microbiology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 82:39-53. 2011
    The saprophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne fungal pathogen. The cell wall of A. fumigatus has been studied intensively as a potential target for development of effective antifungal agents...
  51. ncbi Pectin-induced changes in cell wall mechanics underlie organ initiation in Arabidopsis
    Alexis Peaucelle
    Institut Jean Pierre Bourgin, UMR1318 INRA AgroParisTech, 78026 Versailles, France
    Curr Biol 21:1720-6. 2011
    ..requires a highly localized irreversible surface deformation, which depends on the demethylesterification of cell wall pectins [11]...
  52. ncbi Structure, function, and biogenesis of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    P J Brennan
    Department of Microbiology, B308 Microbiology Building, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 83:91-7. 2003
    Much of the early structural definition of the cell wall of Mycobacterium spp. was initiated in the 1960s and 1970s...
  53. pmc Bacterial cell wall synthesis: new insights from localization studies
    Dirk Jan Scheffers
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:585-607. 2005
    In order to maintain shape and withstand intracellular pressure, most bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall that consists mainly of the cross-linked polymer peptidoglycan (PG)...
  54. ncbi The cell wall: a carbohydrate armour for the fungal cell
    Jean Paul Latge
    Unite des Aspergillus, Institut Pasteur, 25, rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Mol Microbiol 66:279-90. 2007
    The cell wall is composed of a polysaccharide-based three-dimensional network...
  55. pmc Absence of branches from xylan in Arabidopsis gux mutants reveals potential for simplification of lignocellulosic biomass
    Jennifer C Mortimer
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QW, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17409-14. 2010
    ..The xylan in these plants shows improved extractability from the cell wall, is composed of a single monosaccharide, and requires fewer enzymes for complete hydrolysis...
  56. pmc Interactions among three distinct CesA proteins essential for cellulose synthesis
    Neil G Taylor
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:1450-5. 2003
    ..Consequently, these data suggest that IRX5, IRX3, and IRX1 are all essential components of the cellulose synthesizing complex and the presence of all three subunits is required for the correct assembly of this complex...
  57. pmc Systems analysis of plant cell wall degradation by the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa
    Chaoguang Tian
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences QB3 Chemistry Mass Spectrometry Facility, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:22157-62. 2009
    ..near-full genome deletion strain set and whole genome microarrays, we undertook a system-wide analysis of plant cell wall and cellulose degradation. We identified approximately 770 genes that showed expression differences when N...
  58. ncbi The XTH family of enzymes involved in xyloglucan endotransglucosylation and endohydrolysis: current perspectives and a new unifying nomenclature
    Jocelyn K C Rose
    Department of Plant Biology, 228 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Plant Cell Physiol 43:1421-35. 2002
    The polysaccharide xyloglucan is thought to play an important structural role in the primary cell wall of dicotyledons...
  59. pmc Host carbon sources modulate cell wall architecture, drug resistance and virulence in a fungal pathogen
    Iuliana V Ene
    Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK
    Cell Microbiol 14:1319-35. 2012
    ..albicans to antifungal drugs, osmotic and cell wall stresses. Similar trends were observed in clinical isolates and other pathogenic Candida species...
  60. pmc Coupled, circumferential motions of the cell wall synthesis machinery and MreB filaments in B. subtilis
    Ethan C Garner
    Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 333:222-5. 2011
    Rod-shaped bacteria elongate by the action of cell wall synthesis complexes linked to underlying dynamic MreB filaments...
  61. pmc Three distinct rice cellulose synthase catalytic subunit genes required for cellulose synthesis in the secondary wall
    Katsuyuki Tanaka
    Institute of the Society for Techno Innovation of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0854, Japan
    Plant Physiol 133:73-83. 2003
    ..Based on these observations, the structure of a cellulose-synthesizing complex involved in the synthesis of the secondary cell wall is discussed.
  62. pmc Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans by lectin and Toll-like receptors
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Invest 116:1642-50. 2006
    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans has a multilayered cell wall composed of an outer layer of proteins glycosylated with N- or O-linked mannosyl residues and an inner skeletal layer of beta-glucans and chitin...
  63. ncbi Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production
    Michael E Himmel
    Chemical and Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401, USA
    Science 315:804-7. 2007
    ..To achieve sustainable energy production, it will be necessary to overcome the chemical and structural properties that have evolved in biomass to prevent its disassembly...
  64. ncbi The transcriptional responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to inhibitors of metabolism: novel insights into drug mechanisms of action
    Helena I M Boshoff
    Tuberculosis Research Section, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:40174-84. 2004
    ....
  65. ncbi Global analysis of direct targets of secondary wall NAC master switches in Arabidopsis
    Ruiqin Zhong
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Mol Plant 3:1087-103. 2010
    ..factors, but also a number of non-transcription factor genes involved in secondary wall biosynthesis, cell wall modification, and programmed cell death, the promoters of which all contain multiple SNBE sites...
  66. pmc Architecture and biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall
    Peter Orlean
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Genetics 192:775-818. 2012
    ..Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress...
  67. pmc Evidence that the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor sigmaE is required for normal cell wall structure in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)
    M S Paget
    John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 181:204-11. 1999
    ..Together, these data suggest that sigE is required for normal cell wall structure...
  68. pmc Sortases and the art of anchoring proteins to the envelopes of gram-positive bacteria
    Luciano A Marraffini
    Department of Microbiology, Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Chicago, 920 East 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70:192-221. 2006
    The cell wall envelopes of gram-positive bacteria represent a surface organelle that not only functions as a cytoskeletal element but also promotes interactions between bacteria and their environment...
  69. pmc Distinct pathways for modification of the bacterial cell wall by non-canonical D-amino acids
    Felipe Cava
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and HHMI, Boston, MA, USA
    EMBO J 30:3442-53. 2011
    ..in stationary phase promotes remodelling of peptidoglycan (PG), the polymer that comprises the bacterial cell wall. Impairment of NCDAAs production leads to excessive accumulation of PG and hypersensitivity to osmotic shock; ..
  70. ncbi Pectin methylesterases: cell wall enzymes with important roles in plant physiology
    F Micheli
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire des relations Plantes Microorganismes, INRA CNRS, BP27, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex, France
    Trends Plant Sci 6:414-9. 2001
    Pectin methylesterases catalyse the demethylesterification of cell wall polygalacturonans...
  71. ncbi Reactive oxygen species and their role in plant defence and cell wall metabolism
    Jose A O'Brien
    School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK
    Planta 236:765-79. 2012
    ....
  72. pmc Organization of cellulose synthase complexes involved in primary cell wall synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Thierry Desprez
    Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, Unité de Recherche 501, Institut Jean Pierre Bourgin Institut national de la recherche agronomique, Route de St Cyr, 78026 Versailles Cedex, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15572-7. 2007
    ..Participation of the latter three isoforms might fine-tune the CESA complexes for the deposition of microfibrils at distinct cellular growth stages...
  73. ncbi Combining various strategies to increase the coverage of the plant cell wall glycoproteome
    Yu Zhang
    Universite de Toulouse, UPS, UMR 5546, Surfaces Cellulaires et Signalisation chez les Végétaux, BP 42617, F 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France
    Phytochemistry 72:1109-23. 2011
    ..In a second part, these strategies are applied to the cell wall glycoproteome of etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana, showing their complementarity...
  74. pmc Coordinated activation of cellulose and repression of lignin biosynthesis pathways in rice
    Madana M R Ambavaram
    Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
    Plant Physiol 155:916-31. 2011
    ..regulatory network coordinating down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and up-regulation of cellulose and other cell wall biosynthesis pathway genes...
  75. pmc A novel isoform of sucrose synthase is targeted to the cell wall during secondary cell wall synthesis in cotton fiber
    Elizabeth Brill
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Plant Industry, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia
    Plant Physiol 157:40-54. 2011
    ..A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction...
  76. pmc Interface of Candida albicans biofilm matrix-associated drug resistance and cell wall integrity regulation
    Jeniel E Nett
    University of Wisconsin, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI 53705, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 10:1660-9. 2011
    ..resistance to cell-perturbing agents and gene expression data do not support a significant role for the cell wall integrity pathway during the biofilm formation...
  77. pmc Diversity of beetle genes encoding novel plant cell wall degrading enzymes
    Yannick Pauchet
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, Penryn, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e15635. 2010
    ..Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are therefore important in a wide range of biotechnological processes from the ..
  78. pmc Cell wall proteome in the maize primary root elongation zone. I. Extraction and identification of water-soluble and lightly ionically bound proteins
    Jinming Zhu
    Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA
    Plant Physiol 140:311-25. 2006
    b>Cell wall proteins (CWPs) play important roles in various processes, including cell elongation. However, relatively little is known about the composition of CWPs in growing regions...
  79. pmc Disclosure of the mycobacterial outer membrane: cryo-electron tomography and vitreous sections reveal the lipid bilayer structure
    Christian Hoffmann
    Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Abteilung Molekulare Strukturbiologie, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3963-7. 2008
    ..These results are crucial for the investigation and understanding of transport processes across the mycobacterial cell wall, and they are of particular medical relevance in the case of pathogenic mycobacteria.
  80. pmc Genetic evidence for three unique components in primary cell-wall cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis
    Staffan Persson
    Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15566-71. 2007
    ..We also show that the CESA6-related CESAs are partially functionally redundant...
  81. ncbi High-throughput mapping of cell-wall polymers within and between plants using novel microarrays
    Isabel Moller
    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK 1353, Denmark
    Plant J 50:1118-28. 2007
    ..These data provide new insights into the structure and functions of plant cell walls, and demonstrate the potential of CoMPP as a component of systems-based approaches to cell-wall biology...
  82. pmc A comprehensive toolkit of plant cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies
    Sivakumar Pattathil
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Plant Physiol 153:514-25. 2010
    A collection of 130 new plant cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated with the aim of facilitating in-depth analysis of cell wall glycans...
  83. pmc An extensive circuitry for cell wall regulation in Candida albicans
    Jill R Blankenship
    Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000752. 2010
    ..However, we identified eight protein kinases whose roles in cell wall regulation (CWR) were not expected from functions of their orthologs in the model fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae ..
  84. pmc A continuum of anionic charge: structures and functions of D-alanyl-teichoic acids in gram-positive bacteria
    Francis C Neuhaus
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:686-723. 2003
    ..Studies of the mechanism of D-alanylation have identified two potential targets of antibacterial action and provided possible screening reactions for designing novel agents targeted to D-alanyl-TA synthesis...
  85. ncbi Comparison of five xylan synthesis mutants reveals new insight into the mechanisms of xylan synthesis
    David M Brown
    Faculty of Life Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    Plant J 52:1154-68. 2007
    ..This study has important implications for both our understanding of xylan biosynthesis and the functional analysis of cell-wall biosynthesis genes...
  86. pmc Candida albicans transcription factor Rim101 mediates pathogenic interactions through cell wall functions
    Clarissa J Nobile
    Department of Microbiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Cell Microbiol 10:2180-96. 2008
    ..Four of these five genes govern cell wall structure. Our results indicate that Rim101-dependent cell wall alteration contributes to C...
  87. ncbi Characterization of IRX10 and IRX10-like reveals an essential role in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis in Arabidopsis
    David M Brown
    Faculty of Life Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    Plant J 57:732-46. 2009
    ..These characteristics are similar to those of irx9 and irx14, mutants that are believed to be defective in xylan chain elongation, and suggests that IRX10 and IRX10-L also play a role in elongation of the xylan backbone...
  88. ncbi Plant cell wall polymers as precursors for biofuels
    Markus Pauly
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, DOE Plant Research Lab, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 13:305-12. 2010
    ..into liquid transportation fuels is a complex process that could be simplified by altering the ratios of the cell wall polymers that constitute the main biomass components...
  89. ncbi O-glycosylated cell wall proteins are essential in root hair growth
    Silvia M Velasquez
    Instituto de Fisiologia, Biología Molecular y Neurociencias Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas IFIByNE CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1428EGA, Argentina
    Science 332:1401-3. 2011
    ..Our results demonstrate that correct O-glycosylation on EXTs is essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  90. ncbi A matter of life and death: cell wall homeostasis and the WalKR (YycGF) essential signal transduction pathway
    Sarah Dubrac
    Biology of Gram Positive Pathogens, CNRS URA 2172, Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, 25, rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Mol Microbiol 70:1307-22. 2008
    ..functions for this system, defining this signal transduction pathway as a crucial regulatory system for cell wall metabolism, that we have accordingly renamed WalK/WalR...
  91. ncbi Regulation of plant biomass production
    Taku Demura
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916 5 Takayama cho, Ikoma, Nara 630 0192, Japan
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 13:299-304. 2010
    ..The regulators of these processes could potentially be applied to improve the yield of biomass crops such as Miscanthus, switchgrass, and hybrid poplar in the near future...
  92. pmc The Arabidopsis family GT43 glycosyltransferases form two functionally nonredundant groups essential for the elongation of glucuronoxylan backbone
    Chanhui Lee
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Plant Physiol 153:526-41. 2010
    ....
  93. ncbi Outer chain N-glycans are required for cell wall integrity and virulence of Candida albicans
    Steven Bates
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 281:90-8. 2006
    The outer layer of the Candida albicans cell wall is enriched in highly glycosylated mannoproteins that are the immediate point of contact with the host and strongly influence the host-fungal interaction...
  94. pmc The MUR3 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase that is evolutionarily related to animal exostosins
    Michael Madson
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 1155, USA
    Plant Cell 15:1662-70. 2003
    ..This finding suggests that components of the plant cell wall and of the animal extracellular matrix are synthesized by evolutionarily related enzymes even though the ..
  95. ncbi On-off switches for secondary cell wall biosynthesis
    Huan Zhong Wang
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA
    Mol Plant 5:297-303. 2012
    ..Genes responsible for synthesis of the different cell wall components, namely cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, are coordinately expressed and under transcriptional ..
  96. pmc Candida albicans cell wall glycosylation may be indirectly required for activation of epithelial cell proinflammatory responses
    Celia Murciano
    Department of Oral Immunology, Floor 28, Tower Wing, King s College London Dental Institute, King s College London, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 79:4902-11. 2011
    ..Given that fungal cell wall polysaccharides are critical in host recognition and immune activation in myeloid cells, we sought to determine ..
  97. ncbi Modulation of virulence gene expression by cell wall active antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus
    Natalia Subrt
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:979-84. 2011
    To investigate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of cell wall active antibiotics on virulence gene expression and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus Newman and in laboratory strains.
  98. pmc Elevated cell wall chitin in Candida albicans confers echinocandin resistance in vivo
    Keunsook K Lee
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:208-17. 2012
    Candida albicans cells with increased cell wall chitin have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether C...
  99. pmc AXY8 encodes an α-fucosidase, underscoring the importance of apoplastic metabolism on the fine structure of Arabidopsis cell wall polysaccharides
    Markus Günl
    University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720, USA
    Plant Cell 23:4025-40. 2011
    ..Furthermore, without the dominant apoplastic glycosylhydrolases, the XyG structure in the wall is mainly composed of XXXG and XXFG subunits...
  100. ncbi Transcriptional activation of secondary wall biosynthesis by rice and maize NAC and MYB transcription factors
    Ruiqin Zhong
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Plant Cell Physiol 52:1856-71. 2011
    ....
  101. pmc New insights into the WalK/WalR (YycG/YycF) essential signal transduction pathway reveal a major role in controlling cell wall metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus
    Sarah Dubrac
    Unité de Biologie des Bactéries Pathogènes à Gram Positif, CNRS URA 2172, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Bacteriol 189:8257-69. 2007
    ..aureus cell wall degradation...

Research Grants80

  1. Human neutrophils, phospholipase A2 and S.aureus: microbial targets and responses
    William M Nauseef; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..induced by ROS 1 MPO in the phagosome alter GpIIA- PLA2, its substrates, or both? Are genetic mutants in cell wall constituents, including D-alanylation or cardiolipin synthase, better equipped to survive in and escape from the ..
  2. 4th ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Cell Biology and Development
    Susan S Golden; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in our understanding of essential cell structures including the cell division apparatus, the cytoskeleton, the cell wall, and structures involved in bacterial motility...
  3. Characterization of new toxins (YmgD and YdfD) from E.coli, targeting cell wall
    Hisako Masuda; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..On the basis of preliminary results from my study, the targets of these toxins appear to be the cell wall, causing a rapid decrease in cell viability upon their induction...
  4. Mechanisms of innate immune response modulation by mechanical ventilation
    William A Altemeier; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..ventilation synergistically augments mRNA levels of genes transcribed in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, and D) inhibition of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK - a kinase activator ..
  5. Modulation of host immune defense by Pneumocystis beta-glucans
    EVA MARIA CARMONA PORQUERA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Beta-glucans (BG) are carbohydrates found in the cell wall of fungi (including Pneumocystis) which modulate both the innate and adaptive immune systems and are potentially ..
  6. Inhibitors of isoprenoid synthesis for antibacterial therapy
    Donald T Moir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Isoprenoids are essential for electron transport and cell wall biosynthesis in bacteria...
  7. 5500 QTRAP
    John W Turk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Eduardo Groisman, WU, and Dr. Yixin Shi, Univ. Arizona-Tempe);(6) Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall lipid molecular species and cellular mechanisms of destructive host tissue reactions in a murine granuloma model ..
  8. Vaccine Assembly from Surface Proteins of Staphylococcus Aureus
    Olaf Schneewind; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Vancomycin and other glycopeptide inhibitors of cell wall synthesis are considered last-resort-therapies for MRSA, however strains with intermediate (VISA) or full ..
  9. Biophysics of the morphology and motility of Borrelia burgdorferi in diverse envi
    Charles W Wolgemuth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..helical filaments (flagella) that reside in the periplasmic space (the space between the outer membrane and the cell wall material)...
  10. STRUCTURE-BASED TUBERCULOSIS DRUG DESIGN TARGETED AT ACYL-COA CARBOXYLASE
    Shiou Chuan Tsai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ACCase subunits (accD1-6), and that AccD4, AccD5 and AccD6 play major roles in providing the building-blocks to cell wall lipid biosyntheses...
  11. Carbohydrate-based Antiinfective Agents
    Chi Huey Wong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Transglycosylase (TGase) is the enzyme responsible for assembling the carbohydrate backbone of the bacterial cell wall: it is essential, accessible, and less prone to evolving antibiotic resistance due to its recognition of the ..
  12. Group B. Streptococci and Toll-like Receptors
    Douglas T Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Specifically we intend to identify the MyD88-dependent GBS cell wall factor on the molecular level and dissect its most potent effect on the host cell transcription machinery...
  13. A common denominator of pathogenesis;a rare opportunity for novel therapeutic de
    DOUGLAS ALAN MITCHELL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..should directly target the pathogenic mechanism, rather than DNA replication, protein synthesis, or the cell wall. This approach holds enormous potential, as these drugs will theoretically be resistant to resistance...
  14. High-throughput Screenings to Identify Host Receptors for Staphylococcal Adhesins
    Renata Pasqualini; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our research aims to better understand staphylococcal infection and to set the grounds for targeted therapies against this disease. ..
  15. THE ROLE OF CELL SHAPE AND CELL WALL IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI PATHOGENESIS
    NINA REDA SALAMA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Biochemical analyses indicate that some of these proteins modify the cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) structure...
  16. Moraxella catarrhalis: virulence-based prevention
    Timothy F Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 2 we will elucidate the molecular structure of OppA and related transporters in the bacterial cell wall to identify potentially protective epitopes and peptide binding regions...
  17. Nikkomycin Z treatment of early coccidioidal pneumonia: Phase II clinical trial
    DAVID LARWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Nikkomycin Z is a first-in-class antifungal drug which inhibits fungal cell wall development...
  18. Environmental Chitin Exposure in the Pathogenesis of Asthma
    Rene M Roy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..among these irritants, since it is present in the exoskeleton of arthropods, the shells of crustaceans, and the cell wall of fungi...
  19. Coenzyme F420-dependent enzymes in mycobacteria
    Biswarup Mukhopadhyay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..function of F420 is similar to that of NAD(P), we are investigating the roles of F420-dependent enzymes in cell wall biosynthesis and cholesterol degradation;these are common sites of action by NAD(P)...
  20. Mechanism of PsrP mediated adhesion
    Carlos J Orihuela; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..psrP-secY2A2 encodes PsrP, a 520-kDa cell wall protein, which we have determined is an adhesin, is required for the development of lower respiratory tract ..
  21. Molecular mechanism of apolipoprotein binding to lipopolysaccharides
    PAUL MICHIEL WEERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is hypothesized that apoLp-III is a pattern recognition protein, binding and neutralizing a variety of cell wall components of microbial invaders, most noticeably LPS...
  22. Probiotics and HIF signaling in Alcoholic Liver Disease
    Wenke Feng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Endotoxins are derived from the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, and normally penetrate the gut epithelium in only trace amounts due to tightly ..
  23. The Role of CD1a in Protecting Against Human Tuberculosis
    Chetan Seshadri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the cell wall of M...
  24. Cell wall synthesis enzymes and beta-lactam resistance in Enterococcus faecium
    Louis B Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They will also enhance our understanding of cell wall synthesis mechanisms in Gram-positive cocci and reveal promising new targets for antibacterial therapy.
  25. Novel Approach to Oral Gene Therapy for Chronic Granulomatous Disease
    Peter E Newburger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The novel yeast cell wall particle (YCWP) DNA delivery technology traps DNA in the form of cationic polymer nano-complexes within porous ..
  26. Role of phosphatidylethanolamine in regulating virulence in Candida albicans
    SARAH ELIZABETH DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..psd2[unreadable]/[unreadable], respectively) are avirulent, have a significant drop in PE, expose cell wall [unreadable]-glucans (an immune marker for fungal infections) to enhanced detection by the immune system, and ..
  27. Effect of Helicobacter pylori cell shape on pathogenesis
    LAURA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Some of our cell shape mutants accumulate high levels of this agonist in the PG sacculus. Thus, the cell wall modification events that drive cell shape changes may impact the synthesis and release of PG fragments that are ..
  28. MECHANISM OF PATHOGENIC ACTIVITY OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN
    Roman Dziarski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..this laboratory and recently identified as either hydrolytic for peptidoglycan (the major component of bacterial cell wall), or bactericidal for both Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
  29. Biomarker Screening of Essential Putative Glycoprotease Inhibitor
    Yinduo Ji; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  30. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Fatty Acid Adenylating Enzymes
    Courtney C Aldrich; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The distinguishing feature of the mycobacterial cell wall is the presence of an outer waxy coat comprised of an extraordinary variety of exotic lipids...
  31. Regulation of an Iron Import Facilitator by Transcriptional Interference
    CAMILLE REYES NERY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aftlp activates the FIT family of proteins that facilitate the uptake of siderophore-bound iron through the cell wall. Previous work from our lab has shown that in normal iron conditions, FIT3 mRNA is highly expressed in cells ..
  32. Protein Structure/Function by NMR, Crystallography and Computational Chemistry
    Eric Oldfield; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..azoles that inhibit bacterial defenses against NO-based killing, as well as new compounds that inhibit bacterial cell wall biosynthesis...
  33. The Role of PcpA in the Mechanism of Virulence and Protective Immunity.
    MELISSA MARIE WALKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are surface attached through their avid binding to the phosphocholine in the membrane lipoteichoic acids or cell wall teichoic acids...
  34. ETHANOL REGULATION OF KUPFFER CELL SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
    Laura E Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Activation of macrophages by endotoxin/ lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, via the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) leads to the production of a variety of ..
  35. Cholecystokinin - Role in postprandial gastric motility
    Helen E Raybould; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..obesity is associated with low chronic plasma level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a breakdown product of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria...
  36. Pneumocystis carinii: Macrophage &Epithelial Activation
    Andrew H Limper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Numerous studies demonstrate that Pneumocystis (Pc) cell wall components including ?-glucans interact with alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells to stimulate the release ..
  37. Functional Amyloid Formation in Streptococcus mutans
    L Jeannine Brady; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mutans lacking sortase, the transpeptidase enzyme that mediates covalent linkage of it substrates to the cell wall peptidoglycan, including P1 and five other proteins, is not birefringent when stained with Congo red and does ..
  38. Recombination in a Minimal Organism
    Patricia A Totten; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unfortunately, this bacterium is resistant to cell wall-targeting antibiotics and to many of the antibiotics curretly used to treat these serious reproductive tract ..
  39. Analyses of two RNA helicases that affect intercellular transport via plasmodesma
    Patricia C Zambryski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Plasmodesmata (PD) are membrane-lined channels that span the plant cell wall, linking the cytoplasm between adjacent plant cells...
  40. AIDS Opportunistic Infections: Virulence of C. glabrata
    Brendan Cormack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..C. glabrata encodes a large number of cell wall proteins in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosome, some of which we have demonstrated to be important in ..
  41. Control of bacterial morphology and differentiation
    Yves V Brun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..determine if polar growth requires peptidoglycan synthesis and composition that are different than for lateral cell wall synthesis...
  42. N-acetylglucosamine signaling in fungi
    James B Konopka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..on proteins, and is a core constituent of extracellular polymers, such as keratin or hyaluronan in humans and cell wall chitin in fungi and parasites...
  43. Oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..recycling of the thiol peroxidase and that Tsa1 is localized in the cell periphery, the precise localization (cell wall, cell membrane, membrane associated, or mitochondrial) of the thiol peroxidases and thioredoxin and the ..
  44. Statins protect against adverse cardiac events during pneumonia
    Carlos J Orihuela; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In past studies, we have determined that pneumococcal cell wall released during infection damages cardiomyocytes in a Platelet activating factor (PAFr)-dependent manner, ..
  45. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials Targeting the D-Alanine Pathway
    KAREN G ANTHONY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..inhibition of alanine racemase, an enzyme in the D-alanine metabolic pathway that is essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis...
  46. Role of pattern recognition receptors in organic dust-induced airway inflammation
    Jill A Poole; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..demonstrated a high concentration of muramic acid, a component of peptidoglycan (PGN) from the bacterial cell wall, in large animal farming environments...
  47. Recognition of Mtb-Infected Cells by Non-Classically Restritcted CD8+ T Cells
    David M Lewinsohn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be prepared, and tested for their ability to process and present Mtb and antigens found within the Mtb cell wall. Flow cytometry will be used to enumerate CD8 T cells expressing the MR-1 associated V17 T-cell Receptor (TCR), ..
  48. Immunopathology of the Pneumocystis Life Cycle Stages
    Melanie T Cushion; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The cyst is distinct from the trophs in that it contains a thick cell wall comprised mostly of B-1,3 glucan;is larger (5-8um vs 1-4um);and stains with the fungal wall stain, methenamine ..
  49. BIOACTIVITIES OF PNEUMOCOCCAL CELL WALL IN MENINGITIS
    Elaine I Tuomanen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..system (CNS) infection: We determined how the pneumococcus localizes to the blood brain barrier (CbpA on the cell wall ligates laminin receptor LR) and then penetrates into the CNS (phosphorylcholine PCho on the cell wall ligates ..
  50. Role of Calcineurin in Fungal Virulence
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..domain protein Cts1 that may function as a downstream effector of the calcineurin signaling pathway to promote cell wall biogenesis and growth at 37degrees C...
  51. Signaling iteractions in cytokinesis, cell wall biogenesis, and growth in fungi
    Jose R Rodriguez-Medina; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of this application are to 1- understand signaling interactions connecting myosin II functions in cytokinesis, cell wall biogenesis, and cell growth 2- understand the relation between myosin II function and cell wall integrity and 3- ..
  52. Ginger Extracts in the Prevention of Metabolic Bone Disease
    LAURA ELIZABETH WRIGHT; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In the streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis model for RA, female Lewis rats will be treated with vehicle or ginger extracts, and ..
  53. Cell Wall Integrity Signaling in Yeast
    David E Levin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The principal mechanism by which yeast cells detect and respond to cell wall stress is through the Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) signaling pathway, which transmits stress signals generated at ..
  54. Assembly of the mycobacterial cell wall
    Martin S Pavelka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The overall goal of this proposal is to better understand cell wall assembly in mycobacteria with a focus on the biosynthesis and significance of DAP-DAP cross-links...
  55. Mechanisms of Mycoplasmal Disease Pathogenesis
    KEVIN F DYBVIG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The lack of a cell wall might seem to make mycoplasmas highly susceptible to killing by host defenses, but these organisms are often ..
  56. IL-1?? as a mediator of maternal infection-induced effects on offspring neuroinfl
    Heping Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..has found that maternal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of Gram-negative bacteria cell wall, attenuated the mRNA expression of cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-???? interleukin (IL)-1??, and ..
  57. Heterogeneity of T-cells in M. tuberculosis Infection
    HENRY BOOM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..First, ManLAM is one of the most abundant glycolipids in the MTB cell wall. Second, ManLAM travels outside the phagosome to interact with host cells...
  58. Effect of beta-glucan on sepsis
    COURTNI NEWSOME; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Beta-glucan is a class of long-chain glucose polymers in beta-(1,3)(1,6) linkage. Beta-glucans are found in the cell wall of fungi, as well as in mushrooms, algae, higher plants, and some bacteria but are not found in mammalian cells ..
  59. Glycopeptide Complexes with Bacterial Cell Walls by REDOR NMR
    Jacob Schaefer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..assays used in the clinic;and (iii) intermediate-resistant staph strain Mu50 whose peptidoglycan-thickened cell wall resists treatment by both vancomycin and oritavancin but appears to be susceptible to at least one of the cyclic ..
  60. Cell Surface Protein Anchoring and Function in Gram-Positive Bacteria
    ROBERT THOMPSON CLUBB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S. aureus and other Gram- positive bacteria covalently attach virulence factors to their cell wall using sortase transpeptidase enzymes. In S...
  61. The accessory Sec system of Gram-positive pathogens
    Paul M Sullam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our research has identified a novel genetic locus of Streptococcus gordonii that encodes a cell wall-anchored, serine-rich glycoprotein (GspB) that mediates the binding of streptococci to human platelets, and ..
  62. Peptidoglycan synthesis during sporulation
    Jonathan Dworkin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..non-essential homolog of two essential genes that encode integral membrane proteins found in all bacteria with a cell wall. Mutations in these genes lead to defects in cell shape consistent with a proposed role in cell wall synthesis...
  63. Bacteriolytic phage enzymes as novel antibacterials against Yersinia pestis
    Ian Molineux; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Muralytic enzymes will be used with two proteins to promote access to the cell wall: T7 gp14 is ejected from infecting virions and makes a channel across the outer membrane, and the Bdellovibrio ..
  64. Virulence Factor Trafficking in Cryptococcus
    Peter Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..neoformans in vitro and virulence of the organism in experimental animals. We have shown that laccase is a cell wall-associated virulence factor by multiple lines of evidence: 1) localization by immuno-electron microscopy using ..
  65. Advancing lead dipiperidine compound into preclinical development
    Marina Protopopova; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Completion of these Specific Aims will provide vital data in support of development of SQ609 as an antitubercular and a firm rationale for determining whether or not to advance SQ609 into the extensive preclinical testing. ..
  66. ELECTRON TRANSPORT VARIANTS IN STAPHYLOCOCCAL DISEASE
    Richard Proctor; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Also, ETVs grow very slowly, due to low levels of ATP which is required for cell wall biosynthesis, thus they are more resistant to cell wall antibiotics...
  67. Structure and Cell-Wall Targeting of the Staphylolytic Enzyme Lysostaphin
    KEITH GRISCOM INMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..aureus (MRSA). Lysostaphin acts by binding to and cleaving interpeptide bridges in cell wall peptidoglycan, leaving bacteria vulnerable to osmotic lysis...
  68. MOLECULAR BASIS OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF ORAL FUNGAL SP.
    Mary Ann Jabra Rizk; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..albicans CSHl gene which encodes a hydrophobic cell wall protein involved in cell adherence but differs in the expression of the MNN mannosylation family of genes and ..
  69. H. INFLUENZAE: PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS & CELL WALL
    Paul Mendelman; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..influenzae disease. However, the mode of action of beta-lactams on the cell wall of this pathogen is undetermined at the biochemical level...
  70. Cell wall biogenesis in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Deborah Fox; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In recent years, antifungal drugs that target the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of cell wall components have been developed and are beginning to be used to treat fungal disease...
  71. Functions, Traffic and Targeting of Fungal Adhesins
    SCOTT ERDMAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The fungal cell wall plays a critical role in protecting cells from osmotic stress and, in conjunction with the actin cytoskeleton, in regulating cell shape as a function of cell growth...
  72. High Throughput Protein Production by Novel E. coli Expression-Secretion System
    WILLIAM MACCONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..TolC facilitate the secretion of hemolysin A by forming a multi-subunit channel that spans the inner and outer cell wall (1)...
  73. Glucan Binding to Azole Drugs: A Novel Resistance Mechanism in Candida albicans
    THEODORE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The high levels of azole resistance in these biofilms is due to increased production of ??1,3 glucan in the cell wall that binds to azole drugs...
  74. Bacillus anthracis cell surface carbohydrates
    Russell Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..anthracis cell wall carbohydrates. B. anthracis produces a capsule consisting of poly-g-glutamic acid, rather than a polysaccharide...
  75. STAPHYLOCOCCAL METHICILLIN RESISTANCE LOCUS
    Gordon Archer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..target the enzymes (penicillin-binding proteins or PBPs) that maintain the integrity of the bacterial cell wall. The gene responsible for methicillin resistance (MR), mecA, encodes a new PBP (PBP2a) that can maintain cell ..
  76. IMMUNE RECOGNITION OF CANDIDA--ROLE OF CELL WALL
    David Williams; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Our working hypothesis is that Candida cell wall (1-3)-beta-D-glucans play a major role in the recognition of Candida by immune competent cells, i.e...
  77. Chitosan in Cryptococcus
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2011
    The cell wall of the fungal pathogen C. neoformans is an essential organelle that incorporates chitin as a rigid, insoluble, polysaccharide polymer. De-acetylation converts chitin to chitosan, a more flexible and soluble polymer...
  78. AIDS Opportunistic Pathogens/Fungal Cell Wall Drug Targets
    Brendan Cormack; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This grant proposes to identify potential targets in yeast cell wall biogenesis for development of novel antifungal agents...
  79. Identification small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial morphogenetic complex
    JAMES GOBER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This complex is required for the spatial and temporal synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall and functions to position and coordinate cell wall biosynthetic activities on both sides of the cytoplasmic ..
  80. Cell Wall Biogenesis-Target for new Anti-TB drugs
    Michael McNeil; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION (Provided by applicant): In this competing continuation, mycobacterial cell wall metabolism is targeted as a route to new tuberculosis drugs. In one approach, essential cell wall biosynthetic enzymes are targetted...