- Micrometastases or isolated tumor cells and the outcome of breast cancer
Maaike de Boer
Division of Medical Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands
N Engl J Med 361:653-63. 2009
..The association of isolated tumor cells and micrometastases in regional lymph nodes with the clinical outcome of breast cancer is unclear...
- Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial
Armando E Giuliano
John Wayne Cancer Institute at Saint John s Health Center, 2200 Santa Monica Blvd, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA
JAMA 305:569-75. 2011
..Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) accurately identifies nodal metastasis of early breast cancer, but it is not clear whether further nodal dissection affects survival...
- A nomogram for predicting the likelihood of additional nodal metastases in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel node biopsy
Kimberly J Van Zee
Departments of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA
Ann Surg Oncol 10:1140-51. 2003
..Accurate estimates of the likelihood of additional disease in the axilla could assist greatly in decision-making regarding further treatment.
- Locoregional recurrence after sentinel lymph node dissection with or without axillary dissection in patients with sentinel lymph node metastases: the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 randomized trial
Armando E Giuliano
John Wayne Cancer Institute at Saint John s Health Center, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA
Ann Surg 252:426-32; discussion 432-3. 2010
..Few studies have examined the outcome of patients who do not undergo ALND for positive SNs. We now report local and regional recurrence information from the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 trial...
- Role of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of indeterminate and suspicious axillary lymph nodes in the initial staging of breast carcinoma
Department of Pathology, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Cancer 95:982-8. 2002
..This study was undertaken to determine the diagnostic accuracy of US-guided FNA of indeterminate/suspicious/metastatic-appearing axillary lymph nodes during the initial staging of breast carcinoma...
- Role of sonography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a systematic review
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Santiago Apostol, Olaguibel 29, 01004 Vitoria, Alava, Spain
AJR Am J Roentgenol 186:1342-8. 2006
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of sonography and sonographically guided biopsy in the preoperative diagnosis of metastatic invasion of the axilla in patients with breast carcinoma.
- Intra-operative rapid diagnostic method based on CK19 mRNA expression for the detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer
Department of Pathology, VU Medical Center Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Int J Cancer 122:2562-7. 2008
..7% before and 97.1% after discordant case investigation. Our results indicate that OSNA-CK19 can potentially be useful in an intra-operative clinical setting to detect SN tumor involvement in breast cancer patients...
- Lymph node ratio as an alternative to pN staging in node-positive breast cancer
Oncology Center, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, 101 Laarbeeklaan, 1090 Jette, Belgium
J Clin Oncol 27:1062-8. 2009
..In this study, we assessed the prognostic value of the lymph node ratio (LNR; ie, ratio of positive over excised lymph nodes) as compared with pN staging and determined its optimal cutoff points...
- Nonsentinel node metastasis in breast cancer patients: assessment of an existing and a new predictive nomogram
Amy C Degnim
Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St, SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Am J Surg 190:543-50. 2005
..The accurate prediction of nonsentinel node (NSN) metastasis in breast cancer patients remains uncertain...
- Combined axillary reverse mapping (ARM) technique for breast cancer patients requiring axillary dissection
Department of Gynecologic and Oncologic Surgery, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 12 Rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris, France
Ann Surg Oncol 15:2550-5. 2008
..The objective of axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is to preserve the main lymphatic chain-with both the nodes and the ducts-in relation to lymphatic arm drainage (LAD) during an axillary dissection (AD)...
- Preoperative breast cancer staging: MR imaging of the axilla with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide enhancement
Sven C A Michel
Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
Radiology 225:527-36. 2002
- Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: a 52-week multicenter double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety
Nicholas J Lowe
University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, USA
J Am Acad Dermatol 56:604-11. 2007
..The long-term effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) on the global impairment associated with severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis have not been comprehensively assessed relative to placebo...
- The use of FDG-PET in assessing axillary lymph node status in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aberdeen Royal, Infirmary, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
Breast Cancer Res Treat 123:281-90. 2010
..FDG-PET has been suggested as a non-invasive method of staging the axilla. The aim of this study was to review and aggregate all studies that measured the performance of FDG-PET in ..
- Axillary reverse mapping (ARM): a new concept to identify and enhance lymphatic preservation
Division of Breast Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
Ann Surg Oncol 14:1890-5. 2007
..Mapping the drainage of the arm with blue dye (axillary reverse mapping, ARM) decreases the likelihood of disruption of lymphatics and subsequent lymphedema...
- Sentinel lymph node as a new marker for therapeutic planning in breast cancer patients
Division of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa, Italy
J Surg Oncol 85:102-11. 2004
..examination of the sN, and the clinical implications of sN metastasis as regards the surgical management of the axilla, still require further confirmation...
- Randomized multicenter trial of sentinel node biopsy versus standard axillary treatment in operable breast cancer: the ALMANAC Trial
Robert E Mansel
Department of Surgery, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
J Natl Cancer Inst 98:599-609. 2006
Sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with operable breast cancer is routinely used in some countries for staging the axilla despite limited data from randomized trials on morbidity and mortality outcomes...
- Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of axillary lymph nodes as a triage test in breast cancer staging
Centro per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica CSPO, Florence, Italy
Breast Cancer Res Treat 103:85-91. 2007
..Because of variability in the reported accuracy of this test its role and clinical utility in pre-operative staging remains controversial...
- Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) plus axillary lymph node dissection compared with SLND alone in the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Trial Z0011
Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
J Clin Oncol 25:3657-63. 2007
..The current study compares complications associated with SLN dissection (SLND) plus ALND, versus SLND alone...
- The pathologic complete response open question in primary therapy
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Turin, Turin 10126, Italy
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2011:86-90. 2011
..Residual isolated tumor cells in primary tumor and in lymph nodes do not affect patient outcome...
- Feasibility of axillary reverse mapping during sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients
Department of Gynecology, University of Genoa S Martino Hospital, Genoa, Italy
Ann Surg Oncol 16:2459-63. 2009
..This pilot study evaluates the feasibility of axillary reverse mapping (ARM) during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients...
- Blue dye injection in the arm in order to conserve the lymphatic drainage of the arm in breast cancer patients requiring an axillary dissection
Department of Gynecologic and Oncologic Surgery, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
Ann Surg Oncol 14:2490-6. 2007
- Axillary reverse mapping for breast cancer
Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kanazawa Medical University Hospital, Uchinada daigaku 1 1, Ishikawa 920 0293, Japan
Breast Cancer Res Treat 119:529-35. 2010
..The success of ARM in reducing lymphedema has not yet been determined. Further studies are needed before this can be accepted as a standard procedure in surgical management of breast cancer...
- Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer
National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Surgery and Division of Breast Cancer, 5 1 1 Tsukiji Chuo ku, Tokyo, Japan
Breast 19:210-3. 2010
..We compared the combination of radioisotope or dye with a fluorescence compound to analyze lymph flow to identify targets for SNB...
- Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer
George H Sakorafas
4th Department of Surgery, Attikon University Hospital, Athens University, Medical School, Arkadias 19 21, GR 115 26 Athens, Greece
Surg Oncol 15:153-65. 2006
..Prevention is of key importance to avoid lymphedema formation. The application of the sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of breast cancer has been associated with a reduced incidence of lymphedema formation...
- Lymphedema and quality of life in survivors of early-stage breast cancer
Sarah M Beaulac
Department of Epidemiology, Boston University Medical Center, Mass, USA
Arch Surg 137:1253-7. 2002
..Despite increased use of breast-conserving surgery, lymphedema rates are similar to those with more radical surgery...
- Ratio between positive lymph nodes and total dissected axillaries lymph nodes as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer
Luciano José Megale Costa
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Am J Clin Oncol 27:304-6. 2004
..213; p < 0.001). It is concluded that P/D ratio could become a simple, inexpensive, and easily available prognostic factor for patients undergoing conventional chemotherapy for BC...
- Prevention of lymphorrhea by means of fibrin glue after axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer: prospective randomized trial
F N Gilly
Department of Surgery, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite, France
Eur Surg Res 30:439-43. 1998
..006). One delayed seroma was observed in each group. Fibrin glue seems to reduce daily postoperative drainage and hospital stay, but did not affect delayed seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer...
- Reliability and validity of arm volume measurements for assessment of lymphedema
School of Population Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia
Phys Ther 86:205-14. 2006
..Arm lymphedema following breast cancer surgery is a continuing problem. In this study, we assessed the reliability and validity of circumferential measurements and water displacement for measuring upper-limb volume...
- A Randomized clinical trial on sentinel lymph node biopsy versus axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer: results of the Sentinella/GIVOM trial
Clinica Chirurgica II, University of Padova, Italy
Ann Surg 247:207-13. 2008
..The aim of this multicenter randomized trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy compared with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)...
- Morbidity in breast cancer patients with sentinel node metastases undergoing delayed axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) compared with immediate ALND
Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Ann Surg Oncol 15:262-7. 2008
..This study was designed to compare morbidity in patients undergoing complete ALND in the first (and only) operation versus those undergoing the two-step procedure (SLN biopsy followed by delayed completion ALND)...
- Evaluation of axillary status in breast cancer. CT-based determination of sentinel lymph node size
Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyou, Kyoto, Japan
Acta Radiol 43:579-86. 2002
..To determine whether the location and size of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) on CT are predictive of the axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer...
- Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer
Rosa F Hwang
Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Ann Surg Oncol 10:248-54. 2003
..Our aim was to determine factors that predict involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes (NSLNs) in patients with positive SLNs...
- Positron emission tomography (PET) for assessment of axillary lymph node status in early breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis
K L Cooper
School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, UK
Eur J Surg Oncol 37:187-98. 2011
..This systematic review evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET), with or without computed tomography (CT), for assessment of axillary nodes in early breast cancer...
- Axillary reverse mapping: mapping and preserving arm lymphatics may be important in preventing lymphedema during sentinel lymph node biopsy
Division of Breast Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Winthrop P Rockefeller Cancer Institute, Little Rock, AR, USA
J Am Coll Surg 206:1038-42; discussion 1042-4. 2008
..We hypothesized that this higher than expected rate of lymphedema may be secondary to disruption of arm lymphatics during an SLNB procedure...
- Axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer: can we spare what we find?
Ann Surg Oncol 15:390-1; author reply 392-3. 2008
- Treatment of the axilla by tangential breast radiotherapy in women with invasive breast cancer
Maureen A Chung
The Breast Health Center, Women and Infants Hospital, 101 Dudley St, Providence, RI 02905, USA
Am J Surg 184:401-2. 2002
..The objective of this study was to determine if standard tangential breast radiation covered the sentinel lymph node in women with invasive breast cancer...
- Reduction in the number of sentinel lymph node procedures by preoperative ultrasonography of the axilla in breast cancer
E E Deurloo
Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Eur J Cancer 39:1068-73. 2003
..In 93 axillae (35%), at least one node was detected with ultrasound. FNA was performed once per axilla on 66 nodes; 37 (56%) contained tumour cells...
- Distinct lymph nodal sonographic characteristics in breast cancer patients at high risk for axillary metastases correlate with the final axillary stage
Department of Radiology, University of Kentucky Breast Cancer Center, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
Br J Radiol 81:630-6. 2008
..sonographic characteristics of patients at high risk for metastases are useful predictors of tumour burden in the axilla. When combined with the results from aspiration cytology, these findings could modify the surgical approach to the ..
- False negative results of preoperative axillary ultrasound in patients with invasive breast cancer: correlations with clinicopathologic findings
Ji Soo Choi
Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Ultrasound Med Biol 38:1881-6. 2012
- Axillary lymph node echo-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology enables breast cancer patients to avoid a sentinel lymph node biopsy. Preliminary experience and a review of the literature
Breast Unit, Campus Bio Medico University, Rome, Italy
Surg Today 37:735-9. 2007
..This study presents the preliminary results regarding the efficacy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to identify metastatic axillary lymph nodes in the pre-operative phase...
- Impact of clinicopathological factors on sensitivity of axillary ultrasonography in the detection of axillary nodal metastases in patients with breast cancer
Departments of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Ann Surg Oncol 10:1025-30. 2003
..Ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) are used to evaluate the breast and regional nodes in breast cancer patients. We sought to identify factors influencing the sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of nodal metastasis...
- Accurate staging of axillary lymph nodes from breast cancer patients using a novel molecular method
Division of Pathology, The Cancer Institute of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan
Br J Cancer 105:1197-202. 2011
..We aimed to determine the performance of the OSNA assay as an accurate nodal staging tool in comparison with routine histological examination...
- Gray scale and power Doppler US in the preoperative evaluation of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with no palpable lymph nodes
Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul University, Turkey
Eur Radiol 15:1215-23. 2005
..Inclusion of axillary US in the preoperative diagnostic evaluation would be complimentary to sentinel node biopsy, and also could eliminate the need for it in patients with positive US results, after confirmation with biopsy...
- One-year morbidity after sentinel node biopsy and breast surgery
Breast Surgery Unit, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Breast 14:28-36. 2005
..Although every fourth patient complained of at least mild arm symptoms 1 year after sole SNB, the risk of severe long-term morbidity is minimal. In particular, the risk of disabling lymphoedema seems to be negligible after SNB only...
- Preoperative sonographic classification of axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer: node-to-node correlation with surgical histology and sentinel node biopsy results
Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, 101 Daehangno, Jongno gu, Seoul, 110 744, Republic of Korea
AJR Am J Roentgenol 193:1731-7. 2009
..The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the role of axillary lymph node classification by sonography in breast cancer patients by node-to-node correlation with surgical histology and sentinel node biopsy results...
- Fibrin sealant reduces the duration and amount of fluid drainage after axillary dissection: a randomized prospective clinical trial
Department of Surgery and the Tissue Adhesive Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA
J Am Coll Surg 192:591-9. 2001
..dissection dose of fibrin sealant significantly reduced the duration and quantity of fluid drainage from the axilla following lumpectomy (p < or = 0.05)...
- Sentinel node identification rate and nodal involvement in the EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS trial
Marieke E Straver
Department of Surgical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Ann Surg Oncol 17:1854-61. 2010
..The aim of the current substudy was to evaluate the identification rate and the nodal involvement...
- A phase I study to assess the feasibility and oncologic safety of axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer patients
Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston Texas, USA
Cancer 116:2543-8. 2010
..This study reported a phase 1 trial conducted in patients with cytologically documented axillary metastasis undergoing axillary lymph node dissection to determine the feasibility and oncologic safety of ARM...
- Axillary reverse mapping with indocyanine fluorescence imaging in patients with breast cancer
Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kanazawa Medical University Hospital, Uchinada daigaku, Japan
J Surg Oncol 101:217-21. 2010
..The ARM technique was proposed to prevent arm lymphedema after ALND and/or SLN biopsy. However, several problems remain to be resolved in the practical application of this technique...
- Prospective open-label study of botulinum toxin type A in patients with axillary hyperhidrosis: effects on functional impairment and quality of life
Sunnybrook and Women s Health Science Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Dermatol Surg 31:405-13. 2005
..Few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) on these symptoms...
- Preoperative ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of axillary nodes in invasive breast cancer: meta-analysis of its accuracy and utility in staging the axilla
Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Ann Surg 254:243-51. 2011
..Systematic evidence synthesis of ultrasound-guided needle biopsy (UNB) of axillary nodes in breast cancer...
- Surgical management of the axilla: do intramammary nodes matter?
Matthew S Pugliese
Breast Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA
Am J Surg 198:532-7. 2009
..The purpose of this study was to identify the appropriate surgical management of the axilla in intramammary node-positive patients undergoing sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy.
- Analysis of axillary coverage during tangential radiation therapy to the breast
University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61:163-8. 2005
To evaluate the percent of the prescribed radiation dose to the breast delivered to the axillary tissue and to evaluate the volume of the axilla receiving 95% of the prescribed dose with normal and with high tangential fields.
- Tumour size as a predictor of axillary node metastases in patients with breast cancer
New South Wales Breast Cancer Institute, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
ANZ J Surg 76:1002-6. 2006
..Tumour size and grade are independent predictors of nodal disease. This study aims to generate a tool, using Australian data, allowing surgeons to calculate the probability of axillary lymph node involvement in a preoperative setting...
- Sentinel-lymph-node-based management or routine axillary clearance? One-year outcomes of sentinel node biopsy versus axillary clearance (SNAC): a randomized controlled surgical trial
Royal Adelaide Hospital, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia
Ann Surg Oncol 16:266-75. 2009
..SNB had sensitivity 94.5%, false-negative rate 5.5%, and negative predictive value 98%. SNBM was successfully undertaken in a wide range of surgical centers and caused significantly less morbidity than RAC...
- Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of clinically negative lymph nodes versus sentinel node mapping in patients at high risk for axillary metastasis
Joseph T Davis
Department of Pathology, University of Kentucky Breast Cancer Center, 800 Rose Street, MS 157, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
Ann Surg Oncol 13:1545-52. 2006
..Sonographically directed fine-needle aspiration is a less invasive and less costly alternative to sentinel node (SN) mapping in breast cancer patients at high risk for metastatic disease but with clinically negative axillae...
- Relationship of sentinel and axillary level I-II lymph nodes to tangential fields used in breast irradiation
P J Schlembach
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:671-8. 2001
- Axillary lymph node dissection can be avoided in women with breast cancer with intraoperative, false-negative sentinel lymph node biopsies
Saitama Cancer Center, Komuro Ina, Kita adachi, Japan
Breast Cancer 17:9-16. 2010
..It is currently unclear which patients with breast cancer with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases do not need axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)...
- Seroma prevention following axillary dissection in patients with breast cancer by using ultrasound scissors: a prospective clinical study
Endocrine Surgery Unit, Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy
Eur J Surg Oncol 30:526-30. 2004
- Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial
David N Krag
National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project NSABP, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Lancet Oncol 11:927-33. 2010
- Ultracision reduces acute blood loss but not seroma formation after mastectomy and axillary dissection: a pilot study
Breast Unit, Mayday University Hospital, London Road, Croydon, Surrey, UK
Int J Clin Pract 60:562-4. 2006
..However, there was little difference between the two groups in terms of hospital stay, volume or duration of postoperative drainage or subsequent aspiration of seroma...
- Size of breast cancer metastases in axillary lymph nodes: clinical relevance of minimal lymph node involvement
Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141, Milan, Italy
J Clin Oncol 23:1379-89. 2005
- Factors affecting failed localisation and false-negative rates of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer--results of the ALMANAC validation phase
Department of Surgery, Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Breast Cancer Res Treat 99:203-8. 2006
..A major aim of this prospective multicentre validation study was to quantify detection and false-negative rates of SLNB and evaluate factors influencing them...
- Lymphatic drainage patterns from the breast
Susanne H Estourgie
Departments of Surgery and Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Ann Surg 239:232-7. 2004
..The aim of this study was to describe the lymphatic drainage patterns from the 5 "quadrants" of the breast...
- Arm morbidity following sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection: a study from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group
Anders Husted Madsen
Department of Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, JageHansensgade 2, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Breast 17:138-47. 2008
..Very few studies have examined the impact on shoulder mobility of node positive patients having a secondary axillary dissection because of the findings of metastases postoperatively...
- Survival after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer at least equivalent to after negative extensive axillary dissection
G P Kuijt
Department of Surgery, University Medical Centre St Radboud, Geert Grooteplein zuid 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Eur J Surg Oncol 33:832-7. 2007
..is replacing ALND as the axillary staging procedure of choice in breast cancer patients with a clinically negative axilla even though it is unclear whether this influences patient survival...
- US prevalence of hyperhidrosis and impact on individuals with axillary hyperhidrosis: results from a national survey
David R Strutton
Galt Associates Inc, Sterling, Virginia, USA
J Am Acad Dermatol 51:241-8. 2004
..The current epidemiologic data on hyperhidrosis are scarce and insufficient to provide precise prevalence or impact estimates...
- Lymphedema in a cohort of breast carcinoma survivors 20 years after diagnosis
J A Petrek
Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
Cancer 92:1368-77. 2001
..The current study provides further support for treatments that limit lymph node dissection. The authors are prospectively evaluating patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy...
- Influence of frozen-section analysis of sentinel lymph node and lumpectomy margin status on reoperation rates in patients undergoing breast-conservation therapy
Sarah A McLaughlin
Department of Breast Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Am Coll Surg 206:76-82. 2008
..The purpose of this study was to determine if eliminating FS would change reoperation rates in BCT patients...
- Axillary dissection is not required for all patients with breast cancer and positive sentinel nodes
J Michael Guenther
Kaiser Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Arch Surg 138:52-6. 2003
..When SN metastasis is present, the value of additional axillary dissection is unclear and not all patients benefit from axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)...
- Completion axillary lymph node dissection not required for regional control in patients with breast cancer who have micrometastases in a sentinel node
Department of Surgery, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles Medical Center, 4760 Sunset Blvd, 3rd Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
Arch Surg 145:564-9. 2010
..Completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is not required for regional control in patients with metastases in the sentinel lymph node (SLN)...
- Non-sentinel lymph node metastases associated with isolated breast cancer cells in the sentinel node
Carolien H M van Deurzen
Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
J Natl Cancer Inst 100:1574-80. 2008
- Detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive cells in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with histologically and immunohistochemically negative axillary lymph nodes
E N Stathopoulos
Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Crete, University General Hospital of Heraklion, 71003 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Ann Oncol 16:240-6. 2005
- Significance of sentinel lymph node micrometastases in human breast cancer
Charles E Cox
Department of Surgery, Comprehensive Breast Cancer Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
J Am Coll Surg 206:261-8. 2008
..The objective of our study was to review the impact of micrometastatic carcinoma detected by SLN biopsy...
- The prognostic significance of the percentage of positive/dissected axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer recurrence and survival in patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes
Pauline T Truong
British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Center, Radiation Therapy Program and the University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Cancer 103:2006-14. 2005
..The current study evaluated the prognostic impact of the percentage of positive/dissected lymph nodes on recurrence and survival in women with one to three positive lymph nodes...
- Randomized clinical trial comparing axillary padding with closed suction drainage for the axillary wound after lymphadenectomy for breast cancer
J M Classe
Department of Surgery, Rene Gauducheau Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Nantes Saint Herblain, France
Br J Surg 93:820-4. 2006
After axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer, a suction drain is routinely inserted into the axilla to prevent seroma formation. This drain is an obstacle to reducing hospital stay after breast-conserving surgery...
- Internal mammary sentinel nodes: ignore, irradiate or operate?
Nathan J Coombs
Great Western Hospital, Swindon, UK
Eur J Cancer 45:789-94. 2009
..This study describes the results of internal mammary chain (IMC) biopsy, identifying factors that predict 'hot spots' and nodal metastases for patients in whom mapped IMC nodes were routinely dissected...
- Seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy with and without the use of drains
P S H Soon
Breast Endocrine Unit, St George Hospital, UK
Breast 14:103-7. 2005
..Undrained patients, however, had larger volume seromas of longer duration which required more aspirations. There was a tendency for undrained patients to have fewer complications when compared to patients with drains...
- Prevention of seroma formation after mastectomy and axillary dissection by lymph vessel ligation and dead space closure: a randomized trial
Department of Oncological Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Hubei, China
Am J Surg 200:352-6. 2010
..We aimed to reduce the incidence of seroma formation by altering surgical technique...
- Scientific Impact Award: Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) to identify and protect lymphatics draining the arm during axillary lymphadenectomy
Division of Breast Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Winthrop P Rockefeller Cancer Institute, Little Rock, AR, USA
Am J Surg 198:482-7. 2009
..The aim of this study was to assess the ability of ARM to identify and preserve lymphatics draining the arm and the impact on lymphedema...
- Impact of axillary lymph node dissection on breast cancer outcome in clinically node negative patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Cancer 115:1613-20. 2009
..This study reviews and conducts a meta-analysis of contemporary trials of axillary dissection in patients with early stage breast cancer...
- Axillary node sample to evaluate the axilla
U ChettyCh B
Edinburgh Breast Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
World J Surg 25:773-9. 2001
Lymphatic drainage from the breast is principally to the ipsilateral axilla. In patients with breast cancer the status of the lymph nodes in the axilla is an important prognostic factor and can be used to determine local and systemic ..
- Sealing of postoperative axillary leakage after axillary lymphadenectomy using a fibrin glue coated collagen patch: a prospective randomised study
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Vienna School of Medicine, Austria
Breast Cancer Res Treat 67:9-14. 2001
..In summary, we observed no statistically significant differences with respect to axillary drainage time, drainage volume, length of hospital stay, local inflammation, and seroma formation after drainage removal...
- A comparison between infrared tympanic thermometry, oral and axilla with rectal thermometry in neutropenic adults
Abu Abdullah Dzarr
Haematology Unit, Department of Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Jalan Sultanah Zainab II, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
Eur J Oncol Nurs 13:250-4. 2009
..3 degrees C) to rectal thermometry as reference standard in neutropenic adults. The sensitivity and specificity of the mentioned thermometries in detecting rectal fever (> or =38 degrees C) were also analysed...
- Malignant neoplasm in the axilla of a male: suspected primary carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland
Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 4 11 1 Izumi Honcho, Komae, Tokyo 201 8601, Japan
Breast Cancer 17:151-4. 2010
..The tumor could have been an axillary lymph node metastasis from an occult breast carcinoma, or primary cancer arising in an accessory mammary gland...
- Assessment of topographic brachial plexus nerves variations at the axilla using ultrasonography
J L Christophe
Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Jean Minjoz Hospital, University of Franche Comte, 3 bvd Alexander Fleming, 25000 Besancon, France
Br J Anaesth 103:606-12. 2009
The aim of this study was to describe topographic variations in the arrangement of the four main brachial plexus nerves at the junction of the axilla and the upper part of the arm.
- Ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology of the axilla in the pre-operative identification of axillary nodal involvement in breast cancer
Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Breast Screening Unit and Luton and Dunstable Breast Unit, Luton and Dunstable Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Lewsey Road, Luton, Bedfordshire LU4 0DZ, UK
Eur J Surg Oncol 35:1152-7. 2009
..We evaluated the efficacy of axillary ultrasound (US) with US guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of axillary nodal involvement...
- Extramammary Paget's disease of the axilla: an unusual case
Anees B Chagpar
Department of Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
Breast J 13:291-3. 2007
..Less commonly, it has been reported to affect the skin of the axilla. There are very few other cases of extramammary Paget's disease reported in the literature, and the appropriate ..
- Axillary lymph nodes suspicious for breast cancer metastasis: sampling with US-guided 14-gauge core-needle biopsy--clinical experience in 100 patients
Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Radiology 250:41-9. 2009
..To study the clinical usefulness of ultrasonography (US)-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) of axillary lymph nodes and the US-depicted abnormalities that may be used to predict nodal metastases...
- Controversial ectopic thyroid: a case report of thyroid tissue in the axilla and benign total thyroidectomy
Haruko A Kuffner
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
Thyroid 15:1095-7. 2005
A 43-year-old woman presented with a mass in her left axilla, which was surgically excised. Histologically, the tissue was a reactive lymph node with adjacent thyroid follicular tissue...
- Randomized trial comparing axillary clearance versus no axillary clearance in older patients with breast cancer: first results of International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 10-93
Carl Magnus Rudenstam
West Swedish Breast Cancer Study Group, Sahlgrenska University Hospital Molndal, Göteborgsvägen 31, 431 80 Mölndal, Sweden
J Clin Oncol 24:337-44. 2006
..We therefore investigated whether avoiding axillary surgery in older women would result in improved quality of life (QL) with similar disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)...
- Number of positive axillary lymph nodes and post-mastectomy radiotherapy effect in breast cancer patients
Radiother Oncol 84:102-3; discussion 103-4; author reply 104-5. 2007
- Evaluation of lymph node metastases of breast cancer using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging
Department of General and Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka Medical College, 2 7 Daigaku machi, Takatsuki City, Osaka 569 8686, Japan
Eur J Radiol 63:401-7. 2007
..We assessed the utility of enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with breast cancer...
- The value of radiotherapy on metastatic internal mammary nodes in breast cancer. Results on a large series
European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy
Ann Oncol 19:1553-60. 2008
..We assume that this excellent result is due to radiotherapy to internal mammary nodes and we propose that exploration of internal mammary nodes should be part of the staging process of carcinomas of the medial part of the breast...
- Extramammary Paget Disease of the Axilla Associated With Comedo-like Apocrine Carcinoma In Situ
Institute of Pathology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Am J Dermatopathol 24:351-7. 2002
Extramammary Paget disease of the axilla with underlying apocrine carcinoma has been reported only in six cases until now...
- Nodal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the axilla presenting as cellulitis
J E Gach
Br J Dermatol 154:177-8. 2006
- Factors influencing sentinel lymph node identification failure in breast cancer surgery
Breast Surgery Clinic, Horsholm Hospital, Usserod Kongevej 102, DK 2970 Horsholm, Denmark
Breast 17:167-71. 2008
- Breast cancer patients with extra-axillary sentinel nodes only may be spared axillary lymph node dissection
Iris M C van der Ploeg
Department of Surgery, The Netherlands Cancer Institute Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Ann Surg Oncol 15:3239-43. 2008
..The purpose of this study was to evaluate our approach to spare such patients further dissection based on the hypothesis that a sentinel node is not necessarily located in the axilla.
- Radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery in small breast carcinoma: long-term results of a randomized trial
Department of Senology, European Institute of Oncology, Milano, Italy
Ann Oncol 12:997-1003. 2001
..Breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is a widely accepted form of treatment in patients with breast cancer of limited extent. Many attempts have been made to identify subgroups of patients who might avoid radiotherapy...
- Reasons for failure to identify positive sentinel nodes in breast cancer patients with significant nodal involvement
A Y de Kanter
Department of Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Centre Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Eur J Surg Oncol 32:498-501. 2006
To analyse causes of failure of sentinel node (SN) procedures in breast cancer patients and assess the role of pre-operative ultrasound examination of the axilla.
- neu/erbB-2 amplification identifies a poor-prognosis group of women with node-negative breast cancer. Toronto Breast Cancer Study Group
I L Andrulis
Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
J Clin Oncol 16:1340-9. 1998
..Although overexpression has been investigated extensively, this study represents the first prospective assessment of the prognostic value of neu/erbB-2 DNA amplification in a cohort of women with newly diagnosed ANN...