- Evidence for an expansion-based temporal Shh gradient in specifying vertebrate digit identities
Brian D Harfe
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Cell 118:517-28. 2004
..Genetic studies of the effects of limiting accessibility of Shh within the limb support this model, in which the effect of the Shh morphogen is dictated by a temporal as well as a spatial gradient...
- Germ-layer and lineage-restricted stem/progenitors regenerate the mouse digit tip
Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5323, USA
Nature 476:409-13. 2011
- Cells keep a memory of their tissue origin during axolotl limb regeneration
Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108
Nature 460:60-5. 2009
..Our results show that the complex phenomenon of limb regeneration can be achieved without complete dedifferentiation to a pluripotent state, a conclusion with important implications for regenerative medicine...
- Genetic analysis of the roles of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7 in limb patterning and skeletogenesis
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Genet 2:e216. 2006
..In contrast, we find that the loss of both BMP2 and BMP4 results in a severe impairment of osteogenesis...
- A genome-scale analysis of the cis-regulatory circuitry underlying sonic hedgehog-mediated patterning of the mammalian limb
Steven A Vokes
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
Genes Dev 22:2651-63. 2008
..These studies provide the first comprehensive characterization of the transcriptional output of a Shh-patterning process in the mammalian embryo and a framework for elaborating regulatory networks in the developing limb...
- Normal newt limb regeneration requires matrix metalloproteinase function
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
Dev Biol 279:86-98. 2005
..These data suggest that MMPs are required for normal newt limb regeneration and that MMPs function, in part, to prevent scar formation during the regenerative process...
- Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates vertebrate limb regeneration
Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Genes Dev 20:3232-7. 2006
..Our studies may provide valuable insights toward a better understanding of adult tissue regeneration...
- Defining the earliest transcriptional steps of chondrogenic progenitor specification during the formation of the digits in the embryonic limb
Carlos I Lorda-Diez
Departamento de Anatomía y Biología Celular and Instituto de Formación e Investigación Marqués de Valdecilla, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain
PLoS ONE 6:e24546. 2011
- Regeneration review reprise
Jessica L Whited
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, NRB 360, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Biol 9:15. 2010
..Increasingly, progress in the regeneration field is being inspired by comparisons with stem cell biology and enabled by newly developed techniques that allow simultaneous examination of thousands of genes and proteins...
- Amphibian limb regeneration: rebuilding a complex structure
J P Brockes
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, 91 Riding House Street, London W1P 8BT, UK
Science 276:81-7. 1997
..The possibility of inducing a blastema on a mammalian limb cannot be discounted, although the molecular constraints are becoming clearer as we understand more about the mechanisms of urodele regeneration...
- Amphibian regeneration and stem cells
D L Stocum
Department of Biology, Indiana University Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine, School of Science, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, 402 N Blackford St, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 280:1-70. 2004
- Mouse digit tip regeneration is mediated by fate-restricted progenitor cells
Jessica A Lehoczky
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:20609-14. 2011
- BMP signaling induces digit regeneration in neonatal mice
Division of Developmental Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
Development 137:551-9. 2010
..These studies demonstrate for the first time that the postnatal mammalian digit has latent regenerative capabilities that can be induced by growth factor treatment...
- Plasticity and reprogramming of differentiated cells in amphibian regeneration
Jeremy P Brockes
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:566-74. 2002
..The recent demonstrations of plasticity in mouse myotubes should facilitate comparative studies of the pathways that underlie the regenerative response, as well as proposing new approaches to promote mammalian regeneration...
- Uncoupling Sonic hedgehog control of pattern and expansion of the developing limb bud
Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Dev Cell 14:624-32. 2008
..The progressive loss of digits upon successively earlier Shh removal mirrors this alternating sequence and highlights Shh's role in cell expansion to produce the normal digit complement...
- Randomized prospective study of the benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity
J C Yang
Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Clin Oncol 16:197-203. 1998
..This randomized, prospective study assesses the impact of postoperative external-beam radiation therapy on local recurrence (LR), overall survival (OS), and quality of life after limb-sparing resection of extremity sarcomas...
- Noggin, cartilage morphogenesis, and joint formation in the mammalian skeleton
L J Brunet
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3204, USA
Science 280:1455-7. 1998
..Excess BMP activity in the absence of Noggin antagonism may enhance the recruitment of cells into cartilage, resulting in oversized growth plates; chondrocytes are also refractory to joint-inducing positional cues...
- High grade osteosarcoma of the extremities with lung metastases at presentation: treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and simultaneous resection of primary and metastatic lesions
Chemotherapy, Department of Musculoskeletal Oncology, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
J Surg Oncol 98:415-20. 2008
..Between 1986 and 2001, 162 patients with extremity osteosarcoma and lung metastases at presentation, were treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, simultaneous resection of primary and, when feasible, secondary lesions followed by chemotherapy...
- Vertebrate limb regeneration and the origin of limb stem cells
Susan V Bryant
Developmental Biology Center and Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine 92697 2275, USA
Int J Dev Biol 46:887-96. 2002
..Advances in regeneration research will then feed back in terms of devising new strategies for therapies to induce regeneration in organisms such as humans that have traditionally been viewed as incapable of regeneration...
- Critical roles of muscle-secreted angiogenic factors in therapeutic neovascularization
Department of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
Circ Res 98:1194-202. 2006
..Further studies will allow us to develop more effective treatments for ischemic vascular disease...
- Growing models of vertebrate limb development
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Development 136:179-90. 2009
..In this review, we discuss these recent findings and propose how the various models of limb patterning can be reconciled...
- ADAMTS metalloproteases generate active versican fragments that regulate interdigital web regression
Daniel R McCulloch
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, ND20 Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Dev Cell 17:687-98. 2009
..The data highlight the developmental significance of proteolytic action on the ECM, not only as a clearance mechanism, but also as a means to generate bioactive versican fragments...
- Right insula for our sense of limb ownership and self-awareness of actions
Hans Otto Karnath
Section of Neuropsychology, Center of Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tubingen, Hoppe Seyler Str 3, 72076, Tubingen, Germany
Brain Struct Funct 214:411-7. 2010
..We thus hypothesize that the right insular cortex constitutes a central node of a network involved in human body scheme representation...
- Rates and patterns in the evolution of snake-like body form in squamate reptiles: evidence for repeated re-evolution of lost digits and long-term persistence of intermediate body forms
Matthew C Brandley
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94270, USA
Evolution 62:2042-64. 2008
..Finally, although loss of digits is common, we find statistically significant support for at least six examples of the re-evolution of lost digits in the forelimb and hind limb...
- Mechanisms of digit formation: Human malformation syndromes tell the story
Development and Disease Group, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany
Dev Dyn 240:990-1004. 2011
..Developmental Dynamics 240:990-1004, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
- Multipotent vasculogenic pericytes from human pluripotent stem cells promote recovery of murine ischemic limb
Department of Ob Gyn, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa 31096, Israel
Circulation 125:87-99. 2012
- Blastema induction in aneurogenic state and Prrx-1 regulation by MMPs and FGFs in Ambystoma mexicanum limb regeneration
Okayama University, Research Core for Interdisciplinary Sciences RCIS, 3 1 1, Tsushimanaka, Kitaku, Okayama, 700 8530, Japan
Dev Biol 355:263-74. 2011
..Furthermore, we demonstrated that these two activities were sufficient to induce an ALM blastema in the absence of a nerve in vivo...
- Establishment of medial fates along the proximodistal axis of the Drosophila leg through direct activation of dachshund by Distalless
Matt W Giorgianni
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Dev Cell 20:455-68. 2011
..Thus, medial leg fates are established via a regulatory cascade in which Wg+Dpp activate Dll and then Dll directly activates dac, with Wg+Dpp as less critical, permissive inputs...
- A computational analysis of limb and body dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with implications for locomotion, ontogeny, and growth
John R Hutchinson
Structure and Motion Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
PLoS ONE 6:e26037. 2011
..Overall, the limb "antigravity" muscles may have been as large as or even larger than those of ratite birds, which themselves have the most muscular limbs of any living animal...
- Stick insect locomotion in a complex environment: climbing over large gaps
Faculty of Biology, University of Bielefeld, Postbox 100131, D 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
J Exp Biol 207:1273-86. 2004
..Comparing flow charts for two gap sizes revealed differences in the frequency and succession of these elements, especially during the first part of the sequence...
- A BMP-Shh negative-feedback loop restricts Shh expression during limb development
Ma Félix Bastida
Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain
Development 136:3779-89. 2009
..Our study emphasizes the intricacy of the crosstalk between the major signaling pathways in the posterior limb bud...
- Limb bone allometry during postnatal ontogeny in non-avian dinosaurs
Brandon M Kilbourne
Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60605, USA
J Anat 217:135-52. 2010
..The intraspecific scaling patterns observed in dinosaurs and other amniotes do not support earlier hypotheses that intraspecific scaling differs between endothermic and ectothermic taxa...
- In the limb AER Bmp2 and Bmp4 are required for dorsal-ventral patterning and interdigital cell death but not limb outgrowth
Danielle M Maatouk
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and the Genetics Institute, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Dev Biol 327:516-23. 2009
..Our data suggests that AER expression of Bmp2 and Bmp4 is required for digit and dorsal-ventral patterning but surprisingly not for limb outgrowth...
- Sizing the Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus: assessing growth strategy and evolution of ontogenetic scaling of limbs
Paul J Bybee
Department of Earth Science, Utah Valley State College, Orem, 84058 5999, USA
J Morphol 267:347-59. 2006
..Phylogenetic optimization suggests that large theropods independently evolved reduced humeral, ulnar, and tibial lengths by a phyletic reduction in longitudinal growth relative to the femur...
- Pattern formation in the limbs of Drosophila: bric à brac is expressed in both a gradient and a wave-like pattern and is required for specification and proper segmentation of the tarsus
Department of Biology, University of California at Los Angeles 90024
Development 119:799-812. 1993
..The graded requirement for bric à brac correlates with its graded expression pattern, suggesting that the concentration of BRIC A BRAC protein specifies segment identity in the tarsus...
- Sonic hedgehog, a member of a family of putative signaling molecules, is implicated in the regulation of CNS polarity
Harvard University, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cellular and Developmental Biology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
Cell 75:1417-30. 1993
..Ectopic expression of Shh in the mouse CNS leads to the activation of floor plate-expressed genes. These results suggest that Shh may play a role in the normal inductive interactions that pattern the ventral CNS...
- Prognostic factors in localized extremity osteosarcoma: a systematic review
J A M Bramer
Department of Orthopedic Surgery G4 221, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, P O Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Eur J Surg Oncol 35:1030-6. 2009
..showed chemotherapy response as only independent factor. We tried to identify evidence-based prognostic factors in the literature since 1992 and to establish pooled relative risks of factors...
- Functional analysis of CTCF during mammalian limb development
Department of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Dev Cell 19:819-30. 2010
..We conclude that, at least in this physiological context, rather than being an insulator, CTCF is required for cell survival via the direct transcriptional regulation of target genes critical for cellular homeostasis...
- Fins to limbs: what the fossils say
Michael I Coates
Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Evol Dev 4:390-401. 2002
..This reduction in segment number is accompanied by increased regional specialization, and these changes are discussed with reference to the phylogenetic distribution of characteristics of the stylopod, zeugopod, and autopod...
- Limb remote-preconditioning protects against focal ischemia in rats and contradicts the dogma of therapeutic time windows for preconditioning
Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, MSLS Building, P306, 1201 Welch Road, Room P306, Stanford, CA 94305 5327, USA
Neuroscience 151:1099-103. 2008
..In conclusion, remote preconditioning performed in one limb protected against ischemic damage after focal cerebral ischemia...
- The role of CYP26 enzymes in defining appropriate retinoic acid exposure during embryogenesis
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Division of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 88:883-94. 2010
- The acquisition of motoneuron subtype identity and motor circuit formation
L T Landmesser
Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 4975, USA
Int J Dev Neurosci 19:175-82. 2001
..These observations are then related to the combinatorial code of LIM transcription factor expression, which has been hypothesized to specify motoneuron subtypes...
- Expression and biological effect of urodele fibroblast growth factor 1: relationship to limb regeneration
Kathleen M Dungan
Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
J Exp Zool 292:540-54. 2002
- Differential recruitment of limb patterning genes during development and diversification of beetle horns
Armin P Moczek
Department of Biology, Indiana University, 915 East Third Street, Myers Hall 150, Bloomington, IN 47405 7107, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:8992-7. 2009
- Genetically regulated epigenetic transcriptional activation of retrotransposon insertion confers mouse dactylaplasia phenotype
Division of Clinical Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19034-9. 2007
..Our findings indicate that ectopic expression from the MusD insertion correlates with the dactylaplasia phenotype and that Mdac acts as a defensive factor to protect the host genome from pathogenic MusD insertions...
- Lateralization of ventral fins use during object exploration in the blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus)
Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Via Venezia 8, 35131, Padua, Italy
Physiol Behav 72:575-8. 2001
- LIM homeobox transcription factors integrate signaling events that control three-dimensional limb patterning and growth
Section on Mammalian Molecular Genetics, Laboratory of Mammalian Genes and Development, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Development 136:1375-85. 2009
- IGF signaling between blastema and wound epidermis is required for fin regeneration
Unit of Anatomy, Department of Medicine, University of Fribourg, Rte A Gockel 1, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
Development 137:871-9. 2010
..Thus, IGF signaling upregulated upon fin amputation represents a signal from the blastema to the wound epithelium, a crucial step in appendage regeneration...
- Global control of motor neuron topography mediated by the repressive actions of a single hox gene
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Smilow Neuroscience Program, Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
Neuron 67:781-96. 2010
..Genome-wide analysis of Hoxc9 binding suggests that this mode of repression is mediated by direct interactions with Hox regulatory elements, independent of chromatin marks typically associated with repressed Hox genes...
- Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland
Department of Paleobiology and Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, 2S Banacha Street, 02 097 Warsaw, Poland
Nature 463:43-8. 2010
..They force a radical reassessment of the timing, ecology and environmental setting of the fish-tetrapod transition, as well as the completeness of the body fossil record...
- Comparative aspects of animal regeneration
Jeremy P Brockes
Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, England
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 24:525-49. 2008
..These mechanisms are reviewed here across a range of contexts. We also consider the evolutionary origins of regeneration and how regeneration may relate to both agametic reproduction and to ontogeny...
- One-sided limb preference is linked to alternating-limb locomotion in anuran amphibians
Yegor B Malashichev
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology and Soil Sciences, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia
J Comp Psychol 120:401-10. 2006
..Conclusions reached for anuran amphibians may be applicable to other vertebrates possessing paired appendages-the degree of lateralization in motor response depends on the mode of locomotion used by a species...
- Evidence that mechanisms of fin development evolved in the midline of early vertebrates
Department of Zoology, University of Florida, PO Box 118525, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
Nature 442:1033-7. 2006
- The bric à brac locus consists of two paralogous genes encoding BTB/POZ domain proteins and acts as a homeotic and morphogenetic regulator of imaginal development in Drosophila
Jean Louis Couderc
INSERM UMR 384, Laboratoire de Biochimie, 28 Place Henri Dunant, 63001 Clermont Ferrand, Cedex, France
Development 129:2419-33. 2002
- A proliferation gradient between proximal and msxb-expressing distal blastema directs zebrafish fin regeneration
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cardiology, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Development 129:2607-17. 2002
- Comparative analysis of genes downstream of the Hoxd cluster in developing digits and external genitalia
National Research Center NCCR Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Sciences III, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
Development 132:3055-67. 2005
..e. the digits and the penis/clitoris...
- Loss of the Tg737 protein results in skeletal patterning defects
The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Cell Biology, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
Dev Dyn 227:78-90. 2003
..Collectively, the data argue for a dosage effect of Tg737 on the limb phenotypes and that the polydactyly is independent of Shh misexpression...
- Molecular genetic cascades for external genitalia formation: an emerging organogenesis program
Center for Animal Resources and Development CARD, Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
Dev Dyn 235:1738-52. 2006
..Development of the male and female external genitalia is also reviewed...
- A new function of BMP4: dual role for BMP4 in regulation of Sonic hedgehog expression in the mouse tooth germ
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular and Cell Biology Graduate Program, Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
Development 127:1431-43. 2000
..Taken together, our data provide insight into a new regulatory mechanism for Shh expression, and suggest that this BMP4-mediated pathway in Shh regulation may have a general implication in vertebrate organogenesis...
- Maintenance of blastemal proliferation by functionally diverse epidermis in regenerating zebrafish fins
Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Dev Biol 331:270-80. 2009
..Thus, the fin wound epidermis spatially confines Hh signaling through the activity of Fgf and Wnt pathways, impacting blastemal proliferation during regenerative outgrowth...
- Angiogenesis by implantation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets into ischemic limbs
Department of Medicine II and Cardiovascular Center, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan
Circulation 106:2019-25. 2002
..Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), platelets, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) contain various angiogenic factors and cytokines...
- Appendage regeneration in adult vertebrates and implications for regenerative medicine
Jeremy P Brockes
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Science 310:1919-23. 2005
..The blastema can regenerate autonomously as a self-organizing system over variable linear dimensions. Here we consider the prospects for limb regeneration in mammals from this viewpoint...
- The formation of skeletal muscle: from somite to limb
Department of Developmental Biology, CNRS URA 1947, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France
J Anat 202:59-68. 2003
- Body integrity identity disorder: deranged body processing, right fronto-parietal dysfunction, and phenomenological experience of body incongruity
Melita J Giummarra
Experimental Neuropsychology Research Unit, School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
Neuropsychol Rev 21:320-33. 2011
- BMP-2 functions independently of SHH signaling and triggers cell condensation and apoptosis in regenerating axolotl limbs
Jean Charles Guimond
Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universite de Montreal, Montreal Qc Canada
BMC Dev Biol 10:15. 2010
- Limb salvage with isolated perfusion for soft tissue sarcoma: could less TNF-alpha be better?
Department of Surgery, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
Ann Oncol 16:1061-8. 2005
..The optimal dose of TNF-alpha delivered by isolated limb perfusion (ILP) in patients with locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma is still unknown...
- Desmoid tumours of the extremities and trunk: a review of the literature
Emilios E Pakos
Department of Radiation Therapy, University Hospital of Ioannina, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
Int Orthop 29:210-3. 2005
..in the abdominal wall, the bowel, and the mesentery or in extra-abdominal sites such as the trunk and the extremities. Surgical resection is the main treatment modality in extremities and trunk, with the optional combination of ..
- The axolotl limb: a model for bone development, regeneration and fracture healing
Department of Biochemistry, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Bone 40:45-56. 2007
..These results suggest that the axolotl does not use the regeneration process to repair bone fractures...
- A comparative study of gland cells implicated in the nerve dependence of salamander limb regeneration
Institute for Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, London, UK
J Anat 217:16-25. 2010
..These findings serve to unify the nerve dependence of limb regeneration...
- Visual targeting of forelimbs in ladder-walking locusts
Jeremy E Niven
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
Curr Biol 20:86-91. 2010
..The trajectory was only modified after missing the rung. Our data show that locusts walking in environments where footholds are limited use visual and mechanosensory information to place their front legs...
- Anterior-posterior differences in HoxD chromatin topology in limb development
MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
Development 139:3157-67. 2012
..This is the first example of A-P differences in chromatin compaction and chromatin looping in the development of the mammalian secondary body axis (limb)...
- Activation of germline-specific genes is required for limb regeneration in the Mexican axolotl
Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Dev Biol 370:42-51. 2012
..Given the requirement for FGF signaling in limb development and regeneration, the results suggest that PL1 and PL2 function to establish a unique germline-like state that is associated with successful regeneration...
- Control of the spineless antennal enhancer: direct repression of antennal target genes by Antennapedia
Department of Biology, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
Dev Biol 347:82-91. 2010
..We conclude that the function of Antennapedia in the leg is not to repress homothorax, as has been suggested, but to directly repress spineless and other antennal genes that would otherwise be activated within this ring...
- Matrix metalloproteinase expression is related to angiogenesis and histologic grade in spindle cell soft tissue neoplasms of the extremities
Margaret M Roebuck
Department of Musculoskeletal Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England
Am J Clin Pathol 123:405-14. 2005
..The activation of endothelial MMP-2 linked to widespread MMP-14 expression provides a mechanism for sarcomas to modulate their matrix and facilitate angiogenesis...
- Retinoic acid promotes limb induction through effects on body axis extension but is unnecessary for limb patterning
Development and Aging Program, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Curr Biol 19:1050-7. 2009
- Beneficial effects of VEGF secreted from stromal cells in supporting endothelial cell functions: therapeutic implications for critical limb ischemia
Dipartimento di Patologia Generale, Cattedra di Patologia Clinica, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Napoli, Italy
Cell Transplant 19:1425-37. 2010
- Role of Epiprofin, a zinc-finger transcription factor, in limb development
Departamento de Anatomía y Biología Celular Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Cantabria, 39011 Santander, Spain
Dev Biol 337:363-74. 2010
- Goal-driven behavioral adaptations in gap-climbing Drosophila
Lehrstuhl Genetik und Neurobiologie, Biozentrum der Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
Curr Biol 15:1473-8. 2005
..The fact that the adaptations can be impaired separately unveils them as distinct subunits...
- Limb-bone scaling indicates diverse stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaurs
Susannah C R Maidment
Department of Palaeontology, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
PLoS ONE 7:e36904. 2012
..For example, it has been proposed that some ornithischians could run, while others consider that none were cursorial...
- BMP controls proximodistal outgrowth, via induction of the apical ectodermal ridge, and dorsoventral patterning in the vertebrate limb
Molecular Biology Program and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
Development 128:4463-74. 2001
..We propose that the BMP signal bifurcates at the level of EN1 and MSX to mediate differentially DV patterning and AER induction, respectively...
- Clinical and social consequences of Buerger disease
Department of Vascular Surgery, Aichi Medical University, 21 Karimata, Yazako, Nagakute, 480 1195 Aichi, Japan
J Vasc Surg 39:176-80. 2004
..This study was undertaken to assess the clinical course of Buerger disease and to analyze the social problems that influence quality of life of affected patients...
- Deciphering skeletal patterning: clues from the limb
Francesca V Mariani
Department of Anatomy and Program in Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0452, USA
Nature 423:319-25. 2003
..Based on the data from such studies, models for how limb skeletal pattern is established have been proposed and continue to be hotly debated...
- Tgfbeta2 and 3 are coexpressed with their extracellular regulator Ltbp1 in the early limb bud and modulate mesodermal outgrowth and BMP signaling in chicken embryos
Carlos I Lorda-Diez
Departamento de Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad de Cantabria IFIMAV, Santander 39011, Spain
BMC Dev Biol 10:69. 2010
..Here we have studied in chicken embryos, whether these cytokines are implicated in the development of the embryonic limb bud at stages preceding tissue differentiation...
- Conserved mechanisms regulate outgrowth in zebrafish fins
M Kathryn Iovine
Lehigh University Department of Biological Sciences, 111 Research Drive, Iacocca B217, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
Nat Chem Biol 3:613-8. 2007
..Future perspectives describe opportunities using the zebrafish fin to reveal mechanisms underlying the regulation of final size...
- Sall genes regulate region-specific morphogenesis in the mouse limb by modulating Hox activities
Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Development 136:585-94. 2009
- Opposing roles of two isoforms of the Prx1 homeobox gene in chondrogenesis
Richard E Peterson
Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
Dev Dyn 233:811-21. 2005
..These results suggest that the Prx1a:Prx1b ratio and the alternative splicing mechanism that generates these two isoforms are critical in controlling chondrogenesis...
- Co-option of an anteroposterior head axis patterning system for proximodistal patterning of appendages in early bilaterian evolution
Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0349, USA
Dev Biol 344:358-62. 2010
- Analysis of N-cadherin function in limb mesenchymal chondrogenesis in vitro
Anthony M DeLise
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Dev Dyn 225:195-204. 2002
- Activator-inhibitor dynamics of vertebrate limb pattern formation
Stuart A Newman
Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 81:305-19. 2007
..Finally, we discuss how viewing development as an interplay between molecular-genetic and dynamic physical processes can provide new insight into the origin of congenital anomalies...
- BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation
Otto Warburg Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestrasse 73, 14195 Berlin, Germany
Development 128:4523-34. 2001
..This role of BMP signaling is independent of the Ihh/PTHrP pathway...
- The molecular basis of amphibian limb regeneration: integrating the old with the new
David M Gardiner
Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, Developmental Biology Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Semin Cell Dev Biol 13:345-52. 2002
- Local recurrence and local control of non-metastatic osteosarcoma of the extremities: a 27-year experience in a single institution
Chemotherapy, Department of Musculoskeletal Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
J Surg Oncol 96:118-23. 2007
..Indications and contraindications for limb salvage versus amputation for local treatment of osteosarcoma of the extremity are still controversial...
- A novel member of the F-box/WD40 gene family, encoding dactylin, is disrupted in the mouse dactylaplasia mutant
Departments of Pathology and Genetics, SUMC R248B, Stanford, California 94305 5324, USA
Nat Genet 23:104-7. 1999
..In conjuction with recent biochemical studies, this report demonstrates the importance of this gene family in vertebrate embryonic development...
- In vivo evidence that BMP signaling is necessary for apoptosis in the mouse limb
Department of Nueroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
Dev Biol 249:108-20. 2002
..These abnormalities were rescued by coexpressing BMP4 under the same promoter in double transgenic mice, suggesting that the limb abnormalities are a direct effect of inhibiting BMP signaling...
- Cell proliferation and movement during early fin regeneration in zebrafish
Departments of Medicine and of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Ottawa Health Research Institute at the Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Dev Dyn 221:380-90. 2001
..Thus, cell proliferation and migration contribute to the early regeneration of zebrafish fins...
- Regulation of rate of cartilage differentiation by Indian hedgehog and PTH-related protein
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Science 273:613-22. 1996
- Of fingers, toes and penises
Nature 390:29. 1997
- Pattern formation: old models out on a limb
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Molecular Biology Programme, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, Box 73, New York, New York 10022, USA
Nat Rev Genet 4:133-43. 2003
- The evolutionary continuum of limb function from early theropods to birds
John R Hutchinson
Structure and Motion Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK
Naturwissenschaften 96:423-48. 2009
- Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in limb outgrowth and patterning
Institut Pasteur, Unité de Recherche Associée 2578 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Dev Growth Differ 49:455-68. 2007
..Particular attention is paid to the methodology, its power and its limits...
- Definitive intraoperative very high-dose radiotherapy for localized osteosarcoma in the extremities
Department of Radiology, Kyoto University, Faculty of Medicine, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:87-93. 2001
..To evaluate the outcome and adverse effects in patients with osteosarcoma treated with very high-dose definitive intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), with the intention of saving the affected limb...