mars

Summary

Summary: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Space radiation cancer risks and uncertainties for Mars missions
    F A Cucinotta
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Radiation Health Office, Mail Code SA2, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Radiat Res 156:682-8. 2001
  2. ncbi Measurements of energetic particle radiation in transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory
    C Zeitlin
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO, USA
    Science 340:1080-4. 2013
  3. ncbi Microbial characterization of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft and its encapsulation facility
    Myron T La Duc
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
    Environ Microbiol 5:977-85. 2003
  4. ncbi Survival potential and photosynthetic activity of lichens under Mars-like conditions: a laboratory study
    Jean Pierre de Vera
    DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, Berlin, Germany
    Astrobiology 10:215-27. 2010
  5. ncbi Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars
    Bethany L Ehlmann
    Institut d Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite de Paris Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
    Nature 479:53-60. 2011
  6. ncbi Getting ready for the manned mission to Mars: the astronauts' risk from space radiation
    Christine E Hellweg
    DLR, Institut für Luft und Raumfahrtmedizin, Strahlenbiologie, 51147, Cologne, Germany
    Naturwissenschaften 94:517-26. 2007
  7. pmc Mars 520-d mission simulation reveals protracted crew hypokinesis and alterations of sleep duration and timing
    Mathias Basner
    Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, Unit for Experimental Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:2635-40. 2013
  8. ncbi The influence of exercise on prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive performance during a simulated space flight to Mars (MARS500)
    Stefan Schneider
    Institute of Movement and Neurosciences, German Sport University Cologne, Koln, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 236:1-7. 2013
  9. pmc How safe is safe enough? Radiation risk for a human mission to Mars
    Francis A Cucinotta
    NASA, Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Space Radiation Program, Houston, Texas, United States of America University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e74988. 2013
  10. pmc Protective role of spore structural components in determining Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to simulated mars surface conditions
    Ralf Moeller
    German Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology Department, Cologne, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:8849-53. 2012

Detail Information

Publications280 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Space radiation cancer risks and uncertainties for Mars missions
    F A Cucinotta
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Radiation Health Office, Mail Code SA2, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Radiat Res 156:682-8. 2001
    ..Calculations are performed using the space radiation environment and transport codes for several Mars mission scenarios...
  2. ncbi Measurements of energetic particle radiation in transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory
    C Zeitlin
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO, USA
    Science 340:1080-4. 2013
    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover, was launched to Mars on 26 November 2011, and for most of the 253-day, 560-million-kilometer cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed ..
  3. ncbi Microbial characterization of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft and its encapsulation facility
    Myron T La Duc
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
    Environ Microbiol 5:977-85. 2003
    Microbial characterization of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft and the Kennedy Space Center Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II (SAEF-II) was carried out by both culture-based and molecular methods...
  4. ncbi Survival potential and photosynthetic activity of lichens under Mars-like conditions: a laboratory study
    Jean Pierre de Vera
    DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, Berlin, Germany
    Astrobiology 10:215-27. 2010
    Lichens were repetitively exposed over 22 days to thermophysical Mars-like conditions at low-and mid-latitudes. The simulated parameters and the experimental setup are described...
  5. ncbi Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars
    Bethany L Ehlmann
    Institut d Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite de Paris Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
    Nature 479:53-60. 2011
    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago...
  6. ncbi Getting ready for the manned mission to Mars: the astronauts' risk from space radiation
    Christine E Hellweg
    DLR, Institut für Luft und Raumfahrtmedizin, Strahlenbiologie, 51147, Cologne, Germany
    Naturwissenschaften 94:517-26. 2007
    ..are shifting towards planetary exploration and, in particular, towards missions by human beings to the Moon and to Mars. Radiation is considered to be one of the major hazards for personnel in space and has emerged as the most critical ..
  7. pmc Mars 520-d mission simulation reveals protracted crew hypokinesis and alterations of sleep duration and timing
    Mathias Basner
    Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, Unit for Experimental Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:2635-40. 2013
    ..To address the effects of the latter, we used a high-fidelity ground simulation of a Mars mission to objectively track sleep-wake dynamics in a multinational crew of six during 520 d of confined isolation...
  8. ncbi The influence of exercise on prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive performance during a simulated space flight to Mars (MARS500)
    Stefan Schneider
    Institute of Movement and Neurosciences, German Sport University Cologne, Koln, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 236:1-7. 2013
    With respect to the plans of national and internationals space agencies to send people to Mars or Moon, long-term isolation studies are performed to learn about the psycho-physiological and psycho-social limitations of such missions...
  9. pmc How safe is safe enough? Radiation risk for a human mission to Mars
    Francis A Cucinotta
    NASA, Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Space Radiation Program, Houston, Texas, United States of America University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e74988. 2013
    Astronauts on a mission to Mars would be exposed for up to 3 years to galactic cosmic rays (GCR)--made up of high-energy protons and high charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) nuclei...
  10. pmc Protective role of spore structural components in determining Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to simulated mars surface conditions
    Ralf Moeller
    German Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology Department, Cologne, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:8849-53. 2012
    ..Spore survival and mutagenesis were strongly dependent on the functionality of all of the structural components, with small acid-soluble spore proteins, coat layers, and dipicolinic acid as key protectants...
  11. ncbi The Icebreaker Life Mission to Mars: a search for biomolecular evidence for life
    Christopher P McKay
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035, USA
    Astrobiology 13:334-53. 2013
    The search for evidence of life on Mars is the primary motivation for the exploration of that planet...
  12. ncbi Microbial rock inhabitants survive hypervelocity impacts on Mars-like host planets: first phase of lithopanspermia experimentally tested
    Gerda Horneck
    German Aerospace Center DLR, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Koln, Germany
    Astrobiology 8:17-44. 2008
    ..A vital launch window for the transport of rock-colonizing microorganisms from a Mars-like planet was inferred, which encompasses shock pressures in the range of 5 to about 40 GPa for the bacterial ..
  13. ncbi Mars-like soils in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and the dry limit of microbial life
    Rafael Navarro-González
    Laboratorio de Quimica de Plasmas y Estudios Planetarios, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70 543, Mexico City, 04510, Mexico
    Science 302:1018-21. 2003
    ..Here we report the presence of Mars-like soils in the extreme arid region of the Atacama Desert...
  14. ncbi Underground habitats in the Río Tinto basin: a model for subsurface life habitats on Mars
    David C Fernández-Remolar
    Centro de Astrobiología INTA CSIC, Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
    Astrobiology 8:1023-47. 2008
    ..deposit near the source waters of the Río Tinto River (Iberian pyrite belt, southwest Spain) was carried out by Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project investigators in 2003 and 2004...
  15. ncbi Estimation and assessment of Mars contamination
    A Debus
    Centre National d Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France
    Adv Space Res 35:1648-53. 2005
    Since the beginning of the exploration of Mars, more than fourty years ago, thirty-six missions have been launched, including fifty-nine different space systems such as fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, cruise modules, landing or penetrating ..
  16. ncbi Life in extreme environments: how will humans perform on Mars?
    D J Newman
    Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
    Gravit Space Biol Bull 13:35-47. 2000
    ....
  17. ncbi Natural transfer of viable microbes in space
    C Mileikowsky
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
    Icarus 145:391-427. 2000
    The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0...
  18. pmc Effects of simulated Mars conditions on the survival and growth of Escherichia coli and Serratia liquefaciens
    Bonnie J Berry
    Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:2377-86. 2010
    ..5 kPa, were tested for growth and survival under simulated Mars conditions...
  19. ncbi Sensorimotor investigations for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite: a rotating spacecraft for partial gravity research
    Erika B Wagner
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Brain Res 1091:75-8. 2006
    The Mars Gravity Biosatellite will offer investigators a unique environment for sensorimotor research. Fifteen mice will fly for 5 weeks in low Earth orbit before being returned safely to the ground...
  20. pmc The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization-gas chromatography-MS and their implications for the Viking results
    Rafael Navarro-González
    Laboratorio de Quimica de Plasmas y Estudios Planetarios, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, P O Box 70 543, 04510 Mexico D F, Mexico
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16089-94. 2006
    ..Here, we report that TV-GC-MS may be blind to low levels of organics on Mars. A comparison between TV-GC-MS and total organics has been conducted for a variety of Mars analog soils...
  21. ncbi Mineralogical biosignatures and the search for life on Mars
    J F Banfield
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
    Astrobiology 1:447-65. 2001
    If life ever existed, or still exists, on Mars, its record is likely to be found in minerals formed by, or in association with, microorganisms...
  22. ncbi Description of light ion production cross sections and fluxes on the Mars surface using the QMSFRG model
    Francis A Cucinotta
    NASA, Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Radiat Environ Biophys 46:101-6. 2007
    The atmosphere of Mars significantly attenuates the heavy ion component of the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR), however, increases the fluence of secondary light ions (neutrons, and hydrogen and helium isotopes) because of particle ..
  23. ncbi Global distribution of neutrons from Mars: results from Mars odyssey
    W C Feldman
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Science 297:75-8. 2002
    ..thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron fluxes have been mapped during late southern summer/northern winter using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer...
  24. ncbi Exploration of Victoria crater by the Mars rover Opportunity
    S W Squyres
    Department of Astronomy, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 324:1058-61. 2009
    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, an approximately 750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks...
  25. ncbi Analogue prototypes for Lunar and Mars exploration
    Jack Stuster
    Anacapa Sciences, Inc, Santa Barbara, CA 93103, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 76:B78-83. 2005
    ..This paper describes research conducted to extrapolate design and procedural guidelines for lunar and planetary expeditions from a review of information concerning previous expeditions and voyages of discovery...
  26. ncbi Preservation of martian organic and environmental records: final report of the Mars biosignature working group
    Roger E Summons
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Astrobiology 11:157-81. 2011
    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has an instrument package capable of making measurements of past and present environmental conditions. The data generated may tell us if Mars is, or ever was, able to support life...
  27. pmc Bacterial communities and the nitrogen cycle in the gypsum soils of Cuatro Ciénegas Basin, coahuila: a Mars analogue
    Nguyen E López-Lozano
    Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, Mexico D F, Mexico
    Astrobiology 12:699-709. 2012
    The OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral imager identified gypsum at several sites on Mars in 2005. These minerals constitute a direct record of past aqueous activity and are important with regard to the search of extraterrestrial life...
  28. ncbi A low temperature transfer of ALH84001 from Mars to Earth
    B P Weiss
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 170 25, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 290:791-5. 2000
    The ejection of material from Mars is thought to be caused by large impacts that would heat much of the ejecta to high temperatures...
  29. pmc Perchlorate radiolysis on Mars and the origin of martian soil reactivity
    Richard C Quinn
    Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
    Astrobiology 13:515-20. 2013
    ..Instruments on the Mars Phoenix Lander and the Mars Science Laboratory detected perchlorate in martian soil, which is nonreactive under the ..
  30. ncbi Morphological biosignatures and the search for life on Mars
    Sherry L Cady
    Department of Geology, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    Astrobiology 3:351-68. 2003
    ....
  31. ncbi Inhibition of carbonate synthesis in acidic oceans on early Mars
    Alberto G Fairén
    Centro de Biologia Molecular, CSIC Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    Nature 431:423-6. 2004
    Several lines of evidence have recently reinforced the hypothesis that an ocean existed on early Mars. Carbonates are accordingly expected to have formed from oceanic sedimentation of carbon dioxide from the ancient martian atmosphere...
  32. ncbi Growth of methanogens on a Mars soil simulant
    Timothy A Kral
    Arkansas Oklahoma Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701, USA
    Orig Life Evol Biosph 34:615-26. 2004
    Currently, the surface of Mars is probably too cold, too dry, and too oxidizing for life, as we know it, to exist. But the subsurface is another matter...
  33. ncbi Fluid core size of Mars from detection of the solar tide
    C F Yoder
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
    Science 300:299-303. 2003
    The solar tidal deformation of Mars, measured by its k2 potential Love number, has been obtained from an analysis of Mars Global Surveyor radio tracking. The observed k2 of 0.153 +/- 0...
  34. ncbi Sensitive life detection strategies for low-biomass environments: optimizing extraction of nucleic acids adsorbing to terrestrial and Mars analogue minerals
    Susana O L Direito
    Molecular Cell Physiology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 81:111-23. 2012
    ..negatively influences molecular microbial ecology studies, in particular for low-biomass environments on Earth and Mars. We determined the recovery of nucleic acids from a range of minerals relevant to Earth and Mars...
  35. ncbi The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV resistance: considerations for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight
    Wayne L Nicholson
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Mail Code UF 1, Building M6 1025 SLSL, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899, USA
    Mutat Res 571:249-64. 2005
    The environment in space and on planets such as Mars can be lethal to microorganisms because of the high vacuum and high solar radiation flux, in particular UV radiation, in such environments...
  36. ncbi Sleep-wake differences in heart rate variability during a 105-day simulated mission to Mars
    Daniel E Vigo
    Departamento de Docencia e Investigación, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Catolica Argentina, Buenos Aires
    Aviat Space Environ Med 83:125-30. 2012
    ..Our objective was to investigate whether the sleep-wake variations in the autonomic control of the heart are specifically altered by long-term confinement during the 105-d pilot study of the Earth-based Mars500 project...
  37. ncbi A bacterial enrichment study and overview of the extractable lipids from paleosols in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica: implications for future Mars reconnaissance
    Kris M Hart
    School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland
    Astrobiology 11:303-21. 2011
    ..These results underscore the need not only to further investigate Dry Valley cryosols but also to develop reconnaissance strategies to determine whether such likely Earth-like environments on the Red Planet also contain life...
  38. ncbi Internal structure and early thermal evolution of Mars from Mars Global Surveyor topography and gravity
    M T Zuber
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 287:1788-93. 2000
    Topography and gravity measured by the Mars Global Surveyor have enabled determination of the global crust and upper mantle structure of Mars...
  39. ncbi Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars
    M M Osterloo
    Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii, 1680 East West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
    Science 319:1651-4. 2008
    ..deposits consistent with chloride-bearing materials have been identified and mapped using data from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System...
  40. ncbi Survival of endospores of Bacillus subtilis on spacecraft surfaces under simulated martian environments: implications for the forward contamination of Mars
    Andrew C Schuerger
    Dynamac Corporation, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899, USA
    Icarus 165:253-76. 2003
    Experiments were conducted in a Mars simulation chamber (MSC) to characterize the survival of endospores of Bacillus subtilis under high UV irradiation and simulated martian conditions...
  41. ncbi Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft
    Myron T La Duc
    Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:195-201. 2004
    A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft...
  42. ncbi Effects of HZE particle on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in a future Mars mission
    Yu Koike
    Space Medicine Group, Human Space Technology and Astronaut Department, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Acta Astronaut 56:367-78. 2005
    ..Should these particles have biochemical effects, possible options for countermeasures are: (1) nutritional prevention, (2) medication, and (3) surgical placement of a stimulator electrode at a specific anatomic site in the basal ganglia...
  43. ncbi Space exploration, Mars, and the nervous system
    Robert Kalb
    Joseph Stokes Jr Research Institute, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Arch Neurol 64:485-90. 2007
    When human beings venture back to the moon and then on to Mars in the coming decade or so, we will be riding on the accumulated data and experience from approximately 50 years of manned space exploration...
  44. ncbi Evidence of water vapor in excess of saturation in the atmosphere of Mars
    L Maltagliati
    Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales LATMOS, 78280 Guyancourt, France
    Science 333:1868-71. 2011
    The vertical distribution of water vapor is key to the study of Mars' hydrological cycle. To date, it has been explored mainly through global climate models because of a lack of direct measurements...
  45. ncbi Stereo-specific glucose consumption may be used to distinguish between chemical and biological reactivity on Mars: a preliminary test on Earth
    Henry J Sun
    Division of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada 89119, USA
    Astrobiology 9:443-6. 2009
    Two alternative hypotheses explain the degradation of organics in the Viking Labeled Release experiment on Mars. Either martian soil contains live indigenous microorganisms or it is sterile but chemically reactive...
  46. ncbi Evidence for calcium carbonate at the Mars Phoenix landing site
    W V Boynton
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Science 325:61-4. 2009
    ..products of aqueous processes and may hold important clues about the history of liquid water on the surface of Mars. Calcium carbonate (approximately 3 to 5 weight percent) has been identified in the soils around the Phoenix ..
  47. ncbi LIFE experiment: isolation of cryptoendolithic organisms from Antarctic colonized sandstone exposed to space and simulated Mars conditions on the international space station
    Giuliano Scalzi
    Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, University of Tuscia, Largo dell Università snc, 01100, Viterbo, Italy
    Orig Life Evol Biosph 42:253-62. 2012
    ..by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE-Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1...
  48. ncbi Preparing for Mars: the physiologic and medical challenges
    J C Buckey
    Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    Eur J Med Res 4:353-6. 1999
    ..A trip to Mars, however, would be even more challenging and significant...
  49. ncbi Life support approaches for Mars missions
    A E Drysdale
    The Boeing Company, KSC, FL 32815 0233, USA
    Adv Space Res 31:51-61. 2003
    Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units...
  50. pmc Pyrosequencing-derived bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity of spacecraft hardware destined for Mars
    Myron T La Duc
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:5912-22. 2012
    ....
  51. ncbi Dislodgement and removal of dust-particles from a surface by a technique combining acoustic standing wave and airflow
    Di Chen
    Department of Physics and Materials Science Program, The University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 127:45-50. 2010
    It is known that there are many fine particles on the moon and Mars. Their existence may cause risk for the success of a long-term project for NASA, i.e., exploration and habitation of the moon and Mars...
  52. ncbi Distribution of hydrogen in the near surface of Mars: evidence for subsurface ice deposits
    W V Boynton
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Science 297:81-5. 2002
    Using the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Mars Odyssey, we have identified two regions near the poles that are enriched in hydrogen. The data indicate the presence of a subsurface layer enriched in hydrogen overlain by a hydrogen-poor layer...
  53. ncbi Ancient impact and aqueous processes at Endeavour Crater, Mars
    S W Squyres
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 336:570-6. 2012
    The rover Opportunity has investigated the rim of Endeavour Crater, a large ancient impact crater on Mars. Basaltic breccias produced by the impact form the rim deposits, with stratigraphy similar to that observed at similar-sized craters ..
  54. ncbi Salivary amylase and stress during stressful environment: three Mars analog mission crews study
    Balwant Rai
    Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and ILEWG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Lett 518:23-6. 2012
    ..Not study was conducted on effect of simulated Mars analog environment on stress and salivary amylase...
  55. ncbi Working hours, sleep, salivary cortisol, fatigue and neuro-behavior during Mars analog mission: five crews study
    Balwant Rai
    Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and ILEWG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Lett 516:177-81. 2012
    ..Long duration missions like mission to Mars however, requires humans to adapt to systemic and complex environments beyond the human body's capacity...
  56. ncbi Water activity and the challenge for life on early Mars
    Nicholas J Tosca
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 320:1204-7. 2008
    ..of the martian surface has shown that acidic, saline liquid water was intermittently available on ancient Mars. The habitability of these waters depends critically on water activity (aH2O), a thermodynamic measure of salinity, ..
  57. ncbi First Atmospheric Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers Mini-TES
    Michael D Smith
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
    Science 306:1750-3. 2004
    ..Upward-looking Mini-TES observations show warm and cool parcels of air moving through the Mini-TES field of view on a time scale of 30 seconds. The retrieved dust optical depth shows a downward trend at both sites...
  58. ncbi Results from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer
    P R Christensen
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Science 279:1692-8. 1998
    ..At an aerocentric longitude of 224 degrees a major dust storm developed in the Noachis Terra region. The south polar cap retreat was similar to that observed by Viking...
  59. ncbi Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration
    Zane A Arp
    Group NMT 15, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
    Appl Spectrosc 58:897-909. 2004
    ..There is also interest in using the technique for the analysis of water ice and ice/dust mixtures located at the Mars polar regions...
  60. ncbi Amino acid racemization on Mars: implications for the preservation of biomolecules from an extinct martian biota
    J L Bada
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0212, USA
    Icarus 114:139-43. 1995
    ..racemization half-lives and times for total racemization of amino acids under conditions relevant to the surface of Mars. Amino acids from an extinct martian biota maintained in a dry, cold (<250 K) environment would not have ..
  61. ncbi Organics on Mars?
    Inge L ten Kate
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA
    Astrobiology 10:589-603. 2010
    Organics are expected to exist on Mars based on meteorite infall, in situ production, and any possible biological sources...
  62. ncbi Fossilized microorganisms from the Emperor Seamounts: implications for the search for a subsurface fossil record on Earth and Mars
    M Ivarsson
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    Astrobiology 8:1139-57. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest new niches for life in subseafloor environments and have implications for further exploration of the subseafloor biosphere on Earth and beyond...
  63. ncbi FTIR reflectance of selected minerals and their mixtures: implications for ground temperature-sensor monitoring on Mars surface environment (NASA/MSL-Rover Environmental Monitoring Station)
    M Paz Martín-Redondo
    Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC INTA, Associated to the NASA Astrobiology Institute, Ctra de Ajalvir, Km 4, 28850, Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
    J Environ Monit 11:1428-32. 2009
    ..considering the chemical-mineralogical assemblages (and their textures) for any investigation and interpretation of Mars surface environment...
  64. ncbi Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars
    C D Litchfield
    Department of Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030, USA
    Meteorit Planet Sci 33:813-9. 1998
    ..Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life.
  65. ncbi Serpentinization and its implications for life on the early Earth and Mars
    Mitch Schulte
    Exobiology Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA
    Astrobiology 6:364-76. 2006
    ..These systems are viewed as important analogs for potential early ecosystems on both Earth and Mars, where highly reducing mineralogy was likely widespread in an undifferentiated crust...
  66. ncbi Hydrogeologic controls on episodic H2 release from precambrian fractured rocks--energy for deep subsurface life on earth and mars
    B Sherwood Lollar
    Department of Geology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Astrobiology 7:971-86. 2007
    ..A conceptual model is presented that demonstrates how periodic opening of fractures and resultant mixing control the distribution and supply of H(2) and support a microbial community of H(2)-utilizing sulfate reducers and methanogens...
  67. ncbi Mars analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (MALIS): influence of mars atmosphere on plasma emission and study of factors influencing plasma emission with the use of doehlert designs
    R Brennetot
    CEA Saclay, Nuclear Energy Division, DPC SCPA LALES Bâtiment 391, 91191 Gif sur Yvette France
    Appl Spectrosc 57:744-52. 2003
    A project called MALIS (Mars Analysis by Laser-Induced breakdown Spectroscopy) is under progress to perform in situ analysis of Mars soils and rocks. This paper reports on the behavior of plasma in Martian conditions, i.e...
  68. ncbi Magnesium sulphate salts and the history of water on Mars
    David T Vaniman
    Los Alamos National Laboratory LANL, MS D462, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
    Nature 431:663-5. 2004
    Recent reports of approximately 30 wt% of sulphate within saline sediments on Mars--probably occurring in hydrated form--suggest a role for sulphates in accounting for equatorial H2O observed in a global survey by the Odyssey spacecraft...
  69. ncbi Can identification of a fourth domain of life be made from sequence data alone, and could it be done on Mars?
    Anthony M Poole
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    Astrobiology 7:801-14. 2007
    ..Overall, our conclusions do not bode well for planned PCR-based surveys for life on Mars, and we argue that other independent biosignatures will be essential in corroborating any claims for the presence ..
  70. ncbi Identification of carbonate-rich outcrops on Mars by the Spirit rover
    Richard V Morris
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Science 329:421-4. 2010
    Decades of speculation about a warmer, wetter Mars climate in the planet's first billion years postulate a denser CO2-rich atmosphere than at present...
  71. ncbi Strong release of methane on Mars in northern summer 2003
    Michael J Mumma
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mailstop 690 3, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
    Science 323:1041-5. 2009
    Living systems produce more than 90% of Earth's atmospheric methane; the balance is of geochemical origin. On Mars, methane could be a signature of either origin...
  72. ncbi Subfreezing activity of microorganisms and the potential habitability of Mars' polar regions
    Bruce M Jakosky
    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA
    Astrobiology 3:343-50. 2003
    The availability of water-ice at the surface in the Mars polar cap and within the top meter of the high-latitude regolith raises the question of whether liquid water can exist there under some circumstances and possibly support the ..
  73. ncbi A case for ancient springs in Arabia Terra, Mars
    Carlton C Allen
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, U S A
    Astrobiology 8:1093-1112. 2008
    Based on new image data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), a case can be made that several structures in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra are ancient springs...
  74. ncbi The Urey instrument: an advanced in situ organic and oxidant detector for Mars exploration
    Andrew D Aubrey
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
    Astrobiology 8:583-95. 2008
    ..a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry ..
  75. ncbi Using the science fiction film invaders from Mars in a child psychiatry seminar
    Stephen A Zerby
    Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Hospital, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Acad Psychiatry 29:316-21. 2005
    The science fiction film Invaders From Mars is used to teach principles of child development; clinical features of separation anxiety and nightmares; and clinical interventions, including child psychotherapy, child protective issues, and ..
  76. ncbi Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater
    Larry A Haskin
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Nature 436:66-9. 2005
    ....
  77. ncbi Physiological and biomechanical considerations for a human Mars mission
    Adam Hawkey
    BUPA, BUPA House, London, UK
    J Br Interplanet Soc 58:117-30. 2005
    ..If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic ..
  78. ncbi Sulfates in Martian layered terrains: the OMEGA/Mars Express view
    Aline Gendrin
    Institut d Astrophysique Spatiale IAS, Batiment 121, 91405 Orsay Campus, France
    Science 307:1587-91. 2005
    The OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral imager identified hydrated sulfates on light-toned layered terrains on Mars...
  79. ncbi Sulfates in the north polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express
    Yves Langevin
    Institut d Astrophysique Spatiale IAS, Batiment 121, 91405 Orsay Campus, France
    Science 307:1584-6. 2005
    ..l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer observed the northern circumpolar regions of Mars at a resolution of a few kilometers...
  80. ncbi Spectral reflectance and morphologic correlations in eastern Terra Meridiani, Mars
    R E Arvidson
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Science 307:1591-4. 2005
    The Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) hyperspectral image data covering eastern Terra Meridiani indicate the ubiquitous presence of molecular water in etched terrain materials that ..
  81. ncbi Global mineralogical and aqueous mars history derived from OMEGA/Mars Express data
    Jean Pierre Bibring
    Institut d Astrophysique Spatiale IAS, Batiment 121, 91405 Orsay Campus, France
    Science 312:400-4. 2006
    Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and ..
  82. ncbi Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES Experiment on the Opportunity Rover
    P R Christensen
    Department of Geological Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Science 306:1733-9. 2004
    ..Bright wind streak material matches global dust. Waterlain rocks covered by unaltered basaltic sands suggest a change from an aqueous environment to one dominated by physical weathering...
  83. ncbi Detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars
    Vittorio Formisano
    Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario INAF IFSI, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy
    Science 306:1758-61. 2004
    We report a detection of methane in the martian atmosphere by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard the Mars Express spacecraft. The global average methane mixing ratio is found to be 10 +/- 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)...
  84. ncbi Evidence that the reactivity of the martian soil is due to superoxide ions
    A S Yen
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
    Science 289:1909-12. 2000
    The Viking Landers were unable to detect evidence of life on Mars but, instead, found a chemically reactive soil capable of decomposing organic molecules...
  85. ncbi Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith
    Andrew C Schuerger
    Dynamac Corporation, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899, USA
    Life Support Biosph Sci 8:137-47. 2002
    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis...
  86. pmc The missing organic molecules on Mars
    S A Benner
    Departments of Chemistry, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:2425-30. 2000
    GC-MS on the Viking 1976 Mars missions did not detect organic molecules on the Martian surface, even those expected from meteorite bombardment...
  87. ncbi Iron-magnesium silicate bioweathering on Earth (and Mars?)
    M R Fisk
    College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA
    Astrobiology 6:48-68. 2006
    ..distribution of olivine and pyroxene on Earth and in the Solar System make bioweathering features in these minerals potentially important new biosignatures that may play a significant role in evaluating whether life ever existed on Mars.
  88. ncbi The ultraviolet environment of Mars: biological implications past, present, and future
    C S Cockell
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 1000, USA
    Icarus 146:343-59. 2000
    ..Over time Mars has probably experienced an increasingly inhospitable photobiological environment, with present instantaneous DNA ..
  89. ncbi Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanobacterial gypsum halotrophs and relevance for sulfate deposits on Mars
    Howell G M Edwards
    Chemical and Forensic Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
    Analyst 130:917-23. 2005
    ..spectroscopic techniques for incorporation as part of the instrumentation suite of a robotic lander for planetary surface exploration for the detection of organisms inside sulfate crystals from previous hydrothermal activity on Mars.
  90. ncbi Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: a sensor array for chemical analysis of the Martian soil
    Samuel P Kounaves
    Department of Chemistry, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA
    J Geophys Res 108:13-1 - 13-12. 2003
    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified for the now canceled MSP (Mars Surveyor Program) '01 Lander...
  91. ncbi Why Raman spectroscopy on Mars?--a case of the right tool for the right job
    Alex Ellery
    School of Engineering, Kingston University, London, United Kingdom
    Astrobiology 3:565-79. 2003
    We provide a scientific rationale for the astrobiological investigation of Mars. We suggest that, given practical constraints, the most promising locations for the search for former life on Mars are palaeolake craters and the evaporite ..
  92. ncbi Vanguard--a European robotic astrobiology-focussed Mars sub-surface mission proposal
    Alex Ellery
    Astronautics and Space Systems Group, School of Engineering, Kingston University, Friars Avenue, Roehampton Vale, London, UK
    Acta Astronaut 56:397-407. 2005
    We present a new European Mars mission proposal to build on the UK-led Beagle2 Mars mission and continue its astrobiology-focussed investigation of Mars...
  93. ncbi Mars exploration: going underground
    Tony Reichhardt
    Nature 435:266-7. 2005
  94. ncbi Space science. Europe trumpets successes on Mars and Titan
    Govert Schilling
    Science 310:1598. 2005
  95. ncbi Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian climate
    F Poulet
    Institut d Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris Sud and CNRS UMR 8617 F 91405 Orsay, France
    Nature 438:623-7. 2005
    ..by remote sensing and in situ observations has been considered evidence of the past presence of liquid water on Mars. Here we report the unambiguous detection of diverse phyllosilicates, a family of aqueous alteration products, on ..
  96. ncbi Planetary science: clays in the history of Mars
    Horton Newsom
    Nature 438:570-1. 2005
  97. ncbi Critical issues in connection with human missions to Mars: protection of and from the Martian environment
    G Horneck
    German Aerospace Center DLR, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany
    Adv Space Res 31:87-95. 2003
    Human missions to Mars are planned to happen within this century...
  98. ncbi Applied superconductivity and superfluidity for the exploration of the Moon and Mars
    Talso C P Chui
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Low Temperature Science and Quantum Sensors Group, Pasadena, CA 91109 8099, USA
    Adv Space Res 36:99-106. 2005
    ..how superconductivity and superfluidity can be applied to solve the challenges in the exploration of the Moon and Mars. High sensitivity instruments using phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity can potentially make ..
  99. ncbi [Engineering issues of microbial ecology in space agriculture]
    Masamichi Yamashita
    Biol Sci Space 19:25-36. 2005
    Closure of the materials recycle loop for water-foods-oxygen is the primary purpose of space agriculture on Mars and Moon...
  100. ncbi Mars orbiter ready to scout for future landing sites as NASA looks ahead
    Tony Reichhardt
    Nature 436:613. 2005
  101. ncbi Ancient Mars: wet in many places
    David A Paige
    University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 307:1575-6. 2005
    New results from the Mars Express Orbiter mission reveal multiple deposits of minerals formed in the presence of liquid water...

Research Grants62

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study of Cognitive Decline Among Older African Americans
    Jill R Murrell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..CHAP), the Indianapolis-Ibadan Project, the Memory and Aging Project (MAP) and the Minority Aging Research Study (MARS)...
  2. Ultrahigh Resolution Optical Barcode
    ROBERT C HAUSHALTER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..also developed a completely portable, battery-powered prototype bead reader (Multiplexed Assay Reader System, or "MARS") with on superbright LEDs with an imaging system based on a very inexpensive commercial DSLR camera...
  3. Mechanisms of Psychostimulant Abuse
    CLAYTON THOMAS BAUER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Amphetamine is a prototype drug for a class of compounds known as monoamine releasers (MARs)...
  4. Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline in African-Americans
    Lisa L Barnes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) is a longitudinal cohort study of more than 350 older African Americans without dementia who agreed to annual ..
  5. Novel Models to Predict Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity in Preschoolers
    Nancy F Butte; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models will be developed in 88 preschool-aged children using 12-h room respiration calorimetry as the criterion ..
  6. Revision ACL Reconstructions: A Comparative Effectiveness Treatment Study
    Rick W Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..With this in mind, the Multi-center ACL Revision Study (MARS) group was established as an 87 surgeon multi-center group to perform a prospective longitudinal cohort analysis of ..
  7. A RuleFit Product for Classification and Regression
    DAN STEINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These include CART, MARS, MART and PRIM...
  8. VITAMIN E ATHEROSCLEROSIS PREVENTION STUDY
    HOWARD HODIS; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..from the Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study (CLAS) and the Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study (MARS) demonstrate that supplementary vitamin E intake reduces progression of atherosclerosis by 50% to 80% over a 2 year ..
  9. Continuous Monitoring of Advanced Reading Skills (CMARS)
    WILLIAM A FAHLE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will call this assessment Continuous Monitoring of Advanced Reading Skills (CMARS, pronounced SEE-mars)...
  10. DBillScan: A Camera Phone Based Currency Reader for the Visually Impaired
    Huiping Li; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In many countries the currency is printed on different sizes of paper or with different tactile mars for people with visual disabilities to touch and recognize. However, these features are not provided in U.S...
  11. Interactive Search and Review of Clinical Records with Multi-layered Semantic Ann
    JANYCE M WIEBE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Data repositories, such as the Medical Archival Retrieval System (MARS) at the University of Pittsburgh, are useful for identifying supersets of patients for clinical research studies ..
  12. MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGIONS IN AN IMPRINTED DOMAIN
    John Greally; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The research component of this proposal is a test of the hypothesis that matrix-attachment regions (MARs) are involved in genomic imprinting. MARs are DNA sequences which anchor chromatin to a fixed nuclear matrix...
  13. Circadian adaptation to non-24-hour sleep-wake schedules
    CHARLES CZEISLER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..5-h. NASA's planned exploration class mission to Mars, currently scheduled for 2018, will require crew members to adapt to the 24...
  14. FUNCTION OF MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGIONS IN THE IG LOCI
    ANN FEENEY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..b>MARs have been studied in a few model loci, two of which are the IgH and Ig- kappa loci...
  15. UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH IAIMS PHASE II
    JEFFREY ROMOFF; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The University Medical Center has implemented an on-line patient record system, the Medical ARchival System (MARS)...
  16. INFERRING CHROMOSOME ARCHITECTURE FROM GENOMIC SEQUENCE
    Craig Benham; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The sites on the DNA where attachment occurs, called scaffold (or matrix) attachment regions (S/MARs), strongly influence many regulatory events including transcriptional augmentation and enhancement, initiation of ..
  17. Base unpairing regions and chromatin folding
    Terumi Kohwi Shigematsu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..framework of nuclei, called the nuclear matrix, at specialized DNA sequences called matrix attachment regions, or MARs. Such higher order chromatin structure might have both structural and functional significance in gene regulation...
  18. INTERACTION OF CIS-ACTING ELEMENTS IN CD8 REGULATION
    Philip Tucker; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will contribute to our knowledge of CD8 gene regulation during T-cell differentiation, and to the roles played by MARs and their cognate binding proteins in modulating the activities of cis-acting sequences in vivo.
  19. Persistent Organochlorines and Testicular Cancer Risk
    Stephen Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..To address these aims, we will conduct an ancillary investigation to the Male Androgen Research Study (MARS), a recently-initiated, NCI-funded, population-based case-control study of molecular genetic risk factors for TGCC...
  20. Logistic joinpoint regression model in cohort studies
    Grzegorz Rempala; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..regression model versus that of penalized splines (P-splines) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models...
  21. EARLY S PHASE REPLICATION SITES AS ENVIRONMENTAL TARGETS
    David Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..intriguingly, a region shows homologies to autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs), matrix attachment regions (MARS), a topo II binding site and pyrimidine runs (thought to be primase binding sites) (5) The principal investigator ..
  22. AUTOMATING THE DOLLOFF MEDICAL LIBRARY CATALOG
    MARJORIE WESTERFIELD; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Many of the libraries within the regional system are already online with C/W MARS (Central/Western Massachusetts Automated Resource Sharing)...
  23. NON B DNA STRUCTURE WITH CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS
    Terumi Kohwi Shigematsu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..that chromatin loops are anchored to the nuclear matrix at specific DNA regions (Matrix attachment regions, or MARs) that exhibit high affinity to the nuclear matrix...
  24. Evaluate the effects of Massachusetts Reporting System
    Nancy Ridley; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..contained within the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) mandatory hospital reporting system (MARS) to ensure that it can be used to improve patient safety...
  25. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE IG LOCUS CONTROL REGION
    WILLIAM FORRESTER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..structures, which can be propagated to more distal regions in the presence of nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs)...
  26. Optical Encoding Technology for Viral Screening Panels
    ROBERT HAUSHALTER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..samples will be characterized using Parallume beads and Parallel's robust Multiplex Assay Reader System (MARS), which has replaced the fragile flow cytometer and lasers with micromachined silicon bead localization slides and ..
  27. MARS: AUTOMATED LOGISTIC REGRESSION FOR CANCER RESEARCH
    PHILLIP COLLA; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The basis for these tools is the recent advancement, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). Our package will apply MARS to cross-section regression...
  28. Control of Human Papillomavirus-16 Transcription
    Hans Ulrich Bernard; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We have detected two nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs), which are super-regulators of transcription, namely silencers in transiently transfected cells, but enhancers ..
  29. Targeted gene deletion of eARID proteins
    Laura Allred; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..to upregulate immunoglobulin heavy chain transcription by binding ATC motifs within matrix association regions (MARs). Bright has also been shown to play a role in cell cycle regulation...
  30. MARS SPECIFIC TO HUMAN MYOD PROTEIN
    CHUNMING HUANG; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  31. REGULATION OF CD4 GENE EXPRESSION
    STEPHEN HEDRICK; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..at locating more distant cis-acting regions that serve as enhancers and nuclear matrix association regions (MARS)...
  32. MAINTENANCE AND REGULATION OF GLOBIN GENE EXPRESSION
    Mark Groudine; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of promoter elements to the initiator determines their ability to regulate transcription rate; and if insulators, MARs, and enhancers can alter position effects on expression level...
  33. PATIENT CARE PROVIDER ORDER ENTRY WITH TACTICAL SUPPORT
    RANDOLPH MILLER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The function will review laboratory and other data available in the MARS system to answer the question, "What happened to the patient during the last 12-72 hours?", (I) formative ..
  34. B-SPLINE STATISTICAL TECHNOLOGIES AND HAZARD REGRESSION
    DOUGLAS CLARKSON; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..b>MARS-like methods are used to adaptively select the spline basis functions...
  35. Control Of Tcr Data And Tcr Alpha Rearrangement
    MICHAEL KRANGEL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The function of enhancer-associated nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) is unclear...
  36. Role of Vestibular System in Exploration of Space
    FRANKLIN BLACK; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Manned expeditions to Mars and beyond cannot be accomplished safely until the vestibular physiology of microgravity has been fully defined and ..
  37. Magnetic Levitation of Osteoblasts
    BRUCE HAMMER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..38 g and 0.167 g, thus providing ground-based simulations of the gravitational forces experienced on the surface of mars and the moon, respectively. [unreadable] [unreadable]
  38. Software for Fitting Non-Gaussian Random Effects Models
    Chris Fraley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We propose to allow other densities, including user specified densities, in the random effects model. We also propose to develop software with adaptive MARS like model fitting capabilities. [unreadable] [unreadable]
  39. PHARMACOLOGIC REHABILITATION OF ATTENTION DEFICITS
    John Whyte; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The factor structure will also be compared to that obtained from a control sample. ..
  40. GENETICS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY
    Nancy Butte; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This QTL method will be implemented in the program package SOLAR using estimation procedures from FISHER. Lastly, we will test for pleiotropic effects of obesity-related QTLs across phenotypes. ..
  41. Bound Solute Dialysis
    John Patzer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Bound solute dialysis (BSD), practiced heuristically by the MARS and Biologic-DT approaches, offers the potential of a new standard of care treatment modality...
  42. STAGE SPECIFIC EXPRESSION OF CD34 IN EARLY HEMATOPOIESIS
    Diane Krause; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Also, a better understanding of the molecular control for early hematopoiesis will improve our ability to combat selective cytopenias and aplastic anemia. ..
  43. Gene Expession in Conditioned Taste Aversion
    Louis Irwin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..As such, it represents a more realistic view of the way in which a system as complex as the brain likely processes and encodes experiential information. ..
  44. BEHAVIORAL CONTRUCTS AND CULTURE IN CANCER SCREENING
    Rena Pasick; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Items will be further refined and tested in a survey with the remaining 750 women six months later, yielding culturally appropriate measures that better predict breast cancer screening among Filipinas and Latinas. ..
  45. Increasing Treatment Adherence in Co-Occurring Disorders
    Michael Pantalon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Secondary outcomes include reductions in depressive symptomatology and rates of re-hospitalization. ..
  46. MECHANISMS OF ENZYMIC AND HYDRIDE TRANSFERS
    Gregory Petsko; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. Mechanisms of Disease in the Newborn Human Infant
    F Cole; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..As such, this program should provide for new pediatric scholars to lead the way for future advances in this important area of child health. ..
  48. Hip Joint Resurfacing with Functional Human Cartilage
    Lisa Freed; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. Prognosis and Effectiveness of Advanced Lung Cancer Treatment in the Elderly
    Juan P Wisnivesky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study will provide information regarding the efficacy of several therapies and may help resolve several controversies regarding the staging and treatment of elderly patients with advanced stage lung cancer. ..
  50. Causal Models for CVD Use by Aspirin and Vitamin E in the Women's Health Study
    Nancy Cook; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The findings of reduced risk of CVD mortality, however, as well as effects by age, should be explored further to clarify the public health message. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. Epithelial engraftment of bone marrow derived stem cells
    Diane Krause; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The data obtained will lead us to design novel therapeutic strategies tissue injury and disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  52. The Development of An Eating Laboratory for Overweight Adolescents
    B Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Lung Cancer Treatment in the Elderly
    Juan Wisnivesky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The findings from this project will provide information that can directly impact the care of elderly patients with NSCLC and inform the design of future trials of lung cancer treatment strategies. ..
  54. The Role of the Mre11 Complex in Heat-radiosensitization
    JOSEPH DYNLACHT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will also determine the role of HR in heat-radiosensitization using silencing RNA (siRNA) targeting technology or conditional mutants deficient in specific NHEJ or HR proteins. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Interactive Outreach: CIS-Link to the Underserved
    Rena Pasick; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The conceptual framework is drawn from Subjective Culture, Anxiety/Uncertainty Management, and Social Learning theories. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Phthalate Exposure and Pregnancy Outcome
    T Peter Stein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The findings will have ramifications for public health, for the packaging trade and for the chemical industry. ..
  57. OBSERVATIONAL COHORT STUDY OF SODIUM, WEIGHT AND CVD
    Nancy Cook; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This cohort provides a unique resource to address the impact in a normotensive population of salt restriction and weight change on subsequent cardiovascular events. ..
  58. Translational Research on Eating Disorders
    B Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....