emergency medical technicians

Summary

Summary: Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Technical and organisational feasibility of a multifunctional telemedicine system in an emergency medical service - an observational study
    Sebastian Bergrath
    Emergency Medical Care Section, Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D 52074 Aachen, Germany
    J Telemed Telecare 17:371-7. 2011
  2. pmc Effectiveness of paramedic practitioners in attending 999 calls from elderly people in the community: cluster randomised controlled trial
    Suzanne Mason
    Health Services Research, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DA
    BMJ 335:919. 2007
  3. ncbi Use of the esophageal tracheal combitube by basic emergency medical technicians
    Daniel P Lefrançois
    Régie régionale de la santé et des services sociaux de la Montérégie, Services prehospitaliers d urgence, 1255, rue Beauregard, Longueuil Que, Canada J4K 2M3
    Resuscitation 52:77-83. 2002
  4. pmc Post-traumatic stress among Swedish ambulance personnel
    A Jonsson
    School of Health Sciences, Högskolan i Borås, Sweden
    Emerg Med J 20:79-84. 2003
  5. ncbi Pre-hospital 12-lead electrocardiography programs: a call for implementation by emergency medical services systems providing advanced life support--National Heart Attack Alert Program (NHAAP) Coordinating Committee; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institu
    J Lee Garvey
    Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 47:485-91. 2006
  6. ncbi Ambulance personnel and critical incidents: impact of accident and emergency work on mental health and emotional well-being
    D A Alexander
    Department of Mental Health, Medical School, University of Aberdeen and Centre for Trauma Research, Royal Cornhill Hospital, Aberdeen, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 178:76-81. 2001
  7. ncbi Duration of mission time in prehospital emergency medicine: effects of emergency severity and physicians level of education
    Martin Schuster
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin, Germany
    Emerg Med J 27:398-403. 2010
  8. ncbi Posture stress on firefighters and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) associated with repetitive reaching, bending, lifting, and pulling tasks
    Marc Gentzler
    University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
    Work 37:227-39. 2010
  9. ncbi Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
    Lars Wik
    National Competence Center for Emergency Medicine, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    JAMA 293:299-304. 2005
  10. pmc Acute and chronic job stressors among ambulance personnel: predictors of health symptoms
    E van der Ploeg
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Occup Environ Med 60:i40-6. 2003

Detail Information

Publications233 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Technical and organisational feasibility of a multifunctional telemedicine system in an emergency medical service - an observational study
    Sebastian Bergrath
    Emergency Medical Care Section, Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D 52074 Aachen, Germany
    J Telemed Telecare 17:371-7. 2011
    ..Use of the telemedical system in EMS is feasible and the quality of the transmitted images and video was satisfactory. However, technical reliability and availability need to be improved prior to routine use...
  2. pmc Effectiveness of paramedic practitioners in attending 999 calls from elderly people in the community: cluster randomised controlled trial
    Suzanne Mason
    Health Services Research, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DA
    BMJ 335:919. 2007
    ..Paramedic practitioners have been trained with extended skills to assess, treat, and discharge older patients with minor acute conditions in the community...
  3. ncbi Use of the esophageal tracheal combitube by basic emergency medical technicians
    Daniel P Lefrançois
    Régie régionale de la santé et des services sociaux de la Montérégie, Services prehospitaliers d urgence, 1255, rue Beauregard, Longueuil Que, Canada J4K 2M3
    Resuscitation 52:77-83. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that EMT-Ds can use the ETC for control of the airway and ventilation in cardiorespiratory arrest patients safely and effectively...
  4. pmc Post-traumatic stress among Swedish ambulance personnel
    A Jonsson
    School of Health Sciences, Högskolan i Borås, Sweden
    Emerg Med J 20:79-84. 2003
    ..This study investigated the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among Swedish ambulance personnel...
  5. ncbi Pre-hospital 12-lead electrocardiography programs: a call for implementation by emergency medical services systems providing advanced life support--National Heart Attack Alert Program (NHAAP) Coordinating Committee; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institu
    J Lee Garvey
    Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 47:485-91. 2006
    ....
  6. ncbi Ambulance personnel and critical incidents: impact of accident and emergency work on mental health and emotional well-being
    D A Alexander
    Department of Mental Health, Medical School, University of Aberdeen and Centre for Trauma Research, Royal Cornhill Hospital, Aberdeen, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 178:76-81. 2001
    ..The association between mental health and occupational factors among ambulance personnel has not been thoroughly investigated in the UK...
  7. ncbi Duration of mission time in prehospital emergency medicine: effects of emergency severity and physicians level of education
    Martin Schuster
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin, Germany
    Emerg Med J 27:398-403. 2010
    ..Prehospital emergency care is provided in many European countries by specialised emergency physicians. However, little is known about the impact of experience and educational level of emergency physicians on providing prehospital care...
  8. ncbi Posture stress on firefighters and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) associated with repetitive reaching, bending, lifting, and pulling tasks
    Marc Gentzler
    University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
    Work 37:227-39. 2010
    ..These ergonomic evaluations analyze the threat of musculoskeletal injuries primarily due to awkward and extreme postures across two post-fire tasks and a patient care task...
  9. ncbi Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
    Lars Wik
    National Competence Center for Emergency Medicine, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    JAMA 293:299-304. 2005
    ..There is little information on adherence to these guidelines during advanced cardiac life support in the field...
  10. pmc Acute and chronic job stressors among ambulance personnel: predictors of health symptoms
    E van der Ploeg
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Occup Environ Med 60:i40-6. 2003
    ..To predict symptomatology (post-traumatic distress, fatigue, and burnout) due to acute and chronic work related stressors among ambulance personnel...
  11. ncbi Measures for emergency medical technicians in helping victims at scenes guided by the pattern of injuries and bombing attacks in the three most southern provinces of Thailand
    Piyapan Cheeranont
    Department of Surgery, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 92:S22-7. 2009
    ..analyze locations of wounds of bombing casualties and propose a standing operation procedure for emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in helping victims at scenes to reduce harm from second bombs...
  12. ncbi Emergency medical technicians' disaster training by tabletop exercise
    C H Chi
    Department of Emergency Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan City, Taiwan
    Am J Emerg Med 19:433-6. 2001
    The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of emergency medical technicians (EMTs) toward tabletop drills to determine the effect of tabletop simulation on the EMT student perception of disaster preparedness and management...
  13. ncbi A comparison of the suction laryngoscope and the Macintosh laryngoscope in emergency medical technicians: a manikin model of severe airway haemorrhage
    T Mitterlechner
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
    Emerg Med J 29:54-5. 2012
    The use of a suction laryngoscope that enables simultaneous suction and laryngoscopy was evaluated. 34 emergency medical technicians intubated the trachea of a manikin with simulated upper airway haemorrhage using the suction ..
  14. ncbi The Combitube as a salvage airway device for paramedic rapid sequence intubation
    Daniel P Davis
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103 8676, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 42:697-704. 2003
    ..Here we describe our experience with the Combitube (esophageal-tracheal twin-lumen airway device) as a salvage airway device for paramedic rapid sequence intubation...
  15. ncbi Minimally interrupted cardiac resuscitation by emergency medical services for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
    Bentley J Bobrow
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
    JAMA 299:1158-65. 2008
    ..Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major public health problem...
  16. ncbi Assessing continued cognitive competence among rural emergency medical technicians
    Jonathan R Studnek
    The Center for Prehospital Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Prehosp Emerg Care 13:357-63. 2009
    ..In emergency medical services (EMS), it has been accepted that continued cognitive competency can be impacted through continuing education (CE)...
  17. ncbi Work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints among female and male ambulance personnel
    Ulrika Aasa
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gavle, Umea, Sweden
    Scand J Caring Sci 19:251-8. 2005
    ..Notably, worry about work conditions seems to be an important risk factor for health complaints. This suggests that worry about work conditions should not be neglected when considering risk factors among ambulance personnel...
  18. ncbi The prevalence of sleep problems in emergency medical technicians
    Ronald G Pirrallo
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Sleep Breath 16:149-62. 2012
    To investigate the prevalence, demographic, and work associations of self-reported sleep complaints in US emergency medical technicians (EMTs)
  19. ncbi Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: errors made by pre-hospital emergency medical personnel
    M Liberman
    Montreal General Hospital Trauma Program, Department of Surgery, McGill University, Quebec, Canada
    Resuscitation 42:47-55. 1999
    ..purpose of the current study was to evaluate the CPR techniques of emergency healthcare professionals (emergency medical technicians, firemen, emergency first responders, CPR instructors)...
  20. ncbi Comparison of prehospital insertion success rates and time to insertion between standard endotracheal intubation and a supraglottic airway
    Ralph J Frascone
    Regions Hospital EMS, St Paul, MN, United States
    Resuscitation 82:1529-36. 2011
    ..To compare paramedic insertion success rates and time to insertion between standard ETI and a supraglottc airway device (King LTS-D™) in patients needing advanced airway management...
  21. ncbi Identifying risk of emotional sequelae after critical incidents
    Janice Halpern
    Department of Psychiatry, Mt Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Emerg Med J 28:51-6. 2011
    ..In this study we test the hypothesis that persistence of self-identifiable components of the acute stress reaction as early as a few days post-incident is associated with sequelae...
  22. doi [Securing the airway in emergencies]
    Michael Frass
    Klinik fur Innere Medizin I, Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien, Austria
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 120:191-6. 2008
  23. ncbi Occupational risk factors in the emergency medical services
    Elizabeth Donnelly
    College of Social Work, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
    Prehosp Disaster Med 24:422-9. 2009
    During a medical emergency, the American public often relies on the expertise of emergency medical technicians (EMTs)...
  24. ncbi Diagnostic accuracy of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) examinations performed by emergency medical technicians
    Chu Hyun Kim
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Prehosp Emerg Care 16:400-6. 2012
    We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) examinations when used by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) to detect the presence of free abdominal fluid.
  25. ncbi Recruitment and retention of emergency medical technicians: a qualitative study
    P Daniel Patterson
    Cecil G Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 725 Martin Luther King Jr Blvd, CB 7590, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Allied Health 34:153-62. 2005
    b>Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are critical to out-of-hospital care, but maintaining staff can be difficult. The study objective was to identify factors that contribute to recruitment and retention of EMTs and paramedics...
  26. ncbi Hands-off time during insertion of six airway devices during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised manikin trial
    Kurt Ruetzler
    Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Resuscitation 82:1060-3. 2011
    ..e., non-compression) time compromises tissue perfusion. 2010 European Resuscitation Council guidelines suggest that chest compressions should be paused less than 10 s during airway device insertion...
  27. ncbi Oregon emergency medical technicians' attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide
    T A Schmidt
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 5:912-8. 1998
    To determine Oregon intermediate and advanced emergency medical technicians' (EMTs') attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and factors associated with those attitudes.
  28. ncbi Mortality of blunt polytrauma: a comparison between emergency physicians and emergency medical technicians--prospective cohort study at a level I hospital in eastern Switzerland
    Joseph J Osterwalder
    Emergency Department, Cantonal Hospital, St Gallen, Switzerland
    J Trauma 55:355-61. 2003
    ..Our objective was to establish whether the prehospital deployment of emergency physicians (EPs) rather than emergency medical technicians (EMTs) decreased mortality in blunt polytrauma patients.
  29. ncbi International comparison of prehospital trauma care systems
    Bahman S Roudsari
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas, School of Public Health, Dallas, USA
    Injury 38:993-1000. 2007
    ..These environments represent the continuum of prehospital care in high income countries with more advanced prehospital trauma care systems...
  30. ncbi I-gel insertion by novices in manikins and patients
    N M Wharton
    Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath, UK
    Anaesthesia 63:991-5. 2008
    ..Further work determining safety and efficacy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required...
  31. ncbi Exposure to human tragedy, empathy, and trauma in ambulance paramedics
    Cheryl Regehr
    Faculty of Social Work, Institute for Medical Sciences and Centre for Applied Social Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Orthopsychiatry 72:505-13. 2002
    ..This mixed-methods study attempts to better understand factors that lead to higher levels of distress among paramedics within the theoretical framework of emotional and cognitive empathy...
  32. ncbi Prehospital neuroprotective therapy for acute stroke: results of the Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium (FAST-MAG) pilot trial
    Jeffrey L Saver
    UCLA Stroke Center, Geffen School of Medicine of the University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA
    Stroke 35:e106-8. 2004
    ..To demonstrate that paramedic initiation of intravenous magnesium sulfate (Mg) in the field in focal stroke patients is feasible, safe, and yields significant time-savings compared with in-hospital initiation of neuroprotective therapy...
  33. ncbi The willingness of U.S. Emergency Medical Technicians to respond to terrorist incidents
    Charles DiMaggio
    Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Biosecur Bioterror 3:331-7. 2005
    ..Timely and appropriate training, attention to interpersonal concerns, and instilling a sense of duty may increase first medical provider response rates...
  34. ncbi The impact of hypoxia and hyperventilation on outcome after paramedic rapid sequence intubation of severely head-injured patients
    Daniel P Davis
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92103 8676, USA
    J Trauma 57:1-8; discussion 8-10. 2004
    ..An increase in mortality has been documented in association with paramedic rapid sequence intubation (RSI) of severely head-injured patients. This analysis explores the impact of hypoxia and hyperventilation on outcome...
  35. ncbi Measurement of pain in the prehospital setting using a visual analogue scale
    Bill A Lord
    Monash University Centre for Ambulance and Paramedic Studies, Frankston, Vic, Australia
    Prehosp Disaster Med 18:353-8. 2003
    ..The change in pain score was compared with a benchmark reduction of 20 mm that has been shown to correspond with the minimum clinically significant change in pain perception reported by patients...
  36. ncbi Comparing emergency medical service systems--a project of the European Emergency Data (EED) Project
    Matthias Fischer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Klinik am Eichert, Eichertstraße 3, 73035 Goeppingen, Germany
    Resuscitation 82:285-93. 2011
    ..The aim of this prospective study was the comparison of four emergency medical service (EMS) systems-emergency physician (EP) and paramedic (PM) based-and the impact of advanced live support (ALS) on patients status in preclinical care...
  37. ncbi Assessment of emergency medical technicians serving the Phoenix metropolitan matrix of primary stroke centers
    Bentley J Bobrow
    Stroke 38:e25. 2007
  38. ncbi The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment program: Oregon emergency medical technicians' practical experiences and attitudes
    Terri A Schmidt
    Center for Ethics in Health Care, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 52:1430-4. 2004
    To evaluate emergency medical technicians' (EMTs) experiences with the Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) program and learn about attitudes regarding its effectiveness.
  39. ncbi Daily stress and concept of self in Swedish ambulance personnel
    Anders Jonsson
    Hogskolan I Boras School of Health Sciences, Goteborg University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Primary Health Care, Boras, Sweden
    Prehosp Disaster Med 19:226-34. 2004
    ....
  40. ncbi Management and the creation of occupational stressors in an Australian and a UK ambulance service
    K L Mahony
    Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney
    Aust Health Rev 24:135-45. 2001
    ..These stressors thought to be intrinsic to the work of ambulance officers were found to have an organisational dimension...
  41. ncbi Work-related stress and psychological distress in emergency medical technicians
    D A Revicki
    MEDTAP International, Arlington, Virginia 22201, USA
    J Occup Health Psychol 1:391-6. 1996
    b>Emergency medical technicians (N = 65) participated in a study on work environment characteristics, work-related stress, and psychological distress. Data were collected at baseline and 6 months...
  42. ncbi Prehospital care - scoop and run or stay and play?
    R Malcolm Smith
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA, USA 02114, USA
    Injury 40:S23-6. 2009
    ..There may be more need for advanced techniques in the rural environment or where transport times are prolonged and certainly a need for more studies into subsets of patients who may benefit from interventions in the field...
  43. ncbi Paramedic intubation errors: isolated events or symptoms of larger problems?
    Henry E Wang
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 25:501-9. 2006
    ..These findings indicate frequent errors associated with this life-saving technique. These events might be emblematic of larger issues in the structure and delivery of out-of-hospital emergency care...
  44. ncbi Public health department training of emergency medical technicians for bioterrorism and public health emergencies: results of a national assessment
    David Markenson
    Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Maria Fareri Children s Hospital, Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    J Public Health Manag Pract . 2005
    ....
  45. ncbi Acute pain is underassessed in out-of-hospital emergencies
    Thomas J Luger
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Austria
    Acad Emerg Med 10:627-32. 2003
    ..To evaluate the quality of pain assessment by emergency medical services (EMS) in out-of-hospital emergencies...
  46. pmc Setting the scene for the paramedic in primary care: a review of the literature
    L Ball
    Sheffield Hallam University, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Room A213 Collegiate Hall, Collegiate Crescent, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S10 2BP, UK
    Emerg Med J 22:896-900. 2005
    ..However, in the longer term, and more importantly, paramedics must learn to work together to take ownership of the basic philosophies of their practice, which must have their foundation in valid and reliable research...
  47. pmc Health status in the ambulance services: a systematic review
    Tom Sterud
    Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1111 Blindern, NO 0317 Oslo, Norway
    BMC Health Serv Res 6:82. 2006
    ..This article systematically explores the literature on health problems and work-related and individual health predictors in the ambulance services...
  48. ncbi Occupational fatalities in emergency medical services: a hidden crisis
    Brian J Maguire
    Department of Emergency Health Services, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD 21250, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 40:625-32. 2002
    ..We estimate the occupational fatality rate among emergency medical services (EMS) personnel in the United States...
  49. ncbi Simulation as a tool to improve the safety of pre-hospital anaesthesia--a pilot study
    A J Batchelder
    University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Anaesthesia 64:978-83. 2009
    ..0 (0-1.8 [0-2]) vs 3.5 (1.5-4.8 [0-8], respectively; p = 0.011). Crew resource management behaviours also improved in later simulations. On a personal training needs analysis, participants reported increased confidence after the course...
  50. ncbi Addition of physicians to paramedic helicopter services decreases blunt trauma mortality
    A Garner
    NRMA CareFlight NSW Medical Retrieval Service, Westmead, Australia
    Aust N Z J Surg 69:697-701. 1999
    ....
  51. ncbi Error identification, disclosure, and reporting: practice patterns of three emergency medicine provider types
    Cherri Hobgood
    Department of Emergency Medicine CH, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 11:196-9. 2004
    ..To gather preliminary data on how the three major types of emergency medicine (EM) providers, physicians, nurses (RNs), and out-of-hospital personnel (EMTs), differ in error identification, disclosure, and reporting...
  52. ncbi Occupational stress among Japanese emergency medical technicians: Hyogo Prefecture
    Naoki Okada
    Department of Disaster and Emergency Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
    Prehosp Disaster Med 20:115-21. 2005
    ....
  53. ncbi Prehospital trauma care: what do we really know?
    Moishe Liberman
    Department of Surgery, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Curr Opin Crit Care 13:691-6. 2007
    ..This section of the journal aims to review the most current literature concerning these topics as well as highlight some important and relevant literature preceding it...
  54. ncbi Executive summary: developing objectives, content, and competencies for the training of emergency medical technicians, emergency physicians, and emergency nurses to care for casualties resulting from nuclear, biological, or chemical incidents
    J F Waeckerle
    American College of Emergency Physicians, Irving, TX 75038 2522, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 37:587-601. 2001
    ..The task force assessed the needs, demands, feasibility, and content of training for US civilian emergency medical responders (paramedics, nurses, and physicians) for nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) terrorism...
  55. ncbi Sensation seeking as it relates to burnout among emergency medical personnel: a Texas study
    C L Chng
    Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton 76203 1337, USA
    Prehosp Disaster Med 14:240-4. 1999
    ..An investigation of the phenomenon of burnout and factors contributing to its existence are essential steps in designing effective interventions...
  56. ncbi Ambulance crew assessment of trauma severity and alerting practice for trauma patients brought to a general hospital
    Roger Crystal
    Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
    Resuscitation 60:279-82. 2004
    ..There are currently no formal guidelines for the ambulance service to alert hospitals in appropriate cases...
  57. ncbi A comparison of the laryngeal tube and bag-valve mask ventilation by emergency medical technicians: a feasibility study in anesthetized patients
    Jouni O Kurola
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Kuopio University Hospital, PO Box 1777, FIN 70210, Kuopio, Finland
    Anesth Analg 101:1477-81. 2005
    ..In this study, we found that inexperienced fire-EMT students inserted LT and performed 1-min ventilation with a reasonable success rate and insertion time in anesthetized patients...
  58. ncbi Can DVD simulations provide an effective alternative for paramedic clinical placement education?
    B Williams
    Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, School of Primary Health Care, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med J 26:377-81. 2009
    ..The clinical DVD simulations were underpinned by interprofessional educational principles that supported clinical placements for paramedic students...
  59. ncbi Stress, work overload, burnout, and satisfaction among paramedics in Israel
    Nurit Nirel
    Myers JDC Brookdale Institute, POB 3886, 91037 Jerusalem, Israel
    Prehosp Disaster Med 23:537-46. 2008
    ..The number of paramedics in Israel is increasing. Despite this growth and important role, the emergency medical organizations lack information about the characteristics of their work...
  60. ncbi Exposure of Iranian emergency medical technicians to workplace violence: a cross-sectional analysis
    Azad Rahmani
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
    Emerg Med Australas 24:105-10. 2012
    b>Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Iran experience concerning levels of workplace violence, although until now there has been no investigation of this phenomenon...
  61. ncbi Time to first shock by emergency medical technicians with automated external defibrillators
    Aaron M Brillhart
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, USA
    Prehosp Emerg Care 6:373-7. 2002
    ..In order to achieve the earliest possible defibrillation, many emergency medical services (EMS) systems equip first-responding units with an automated external defibrillator (AED)...
  62. ncbi Effect of emergency medical technician certification for all prehospital personnel in a Latin American city
    Carlos Arreola-Risa
    Escuela de Medicina, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico
    J Trauma 63:914-9. 2007
    ..This study sought to evaluate the costs and effectiveness of providing EMT certification to all personnel working in an EMS service in a Mexican city...
  63. ncbi Field trial of endotracheal intubation by basic EMTs
    M R Sayre
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 31:228-33. 1998
    ..The 1994 basic-EMT (EMT-B) curriculum recommended teaching EMT-Bs the skill of endotracheal intubation. In this study we assessed the success and complication rates of endotracheal intubations in the field by EMT-Bs...
  64. ncbi Occupational injuries among emergency medical services personnel
    Brian J Maguire
    The Department of Emergency Health Services, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21250, USA
    Prehosp Emerg Care 9:405-11. 2005
    ..Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel treat 22 million patients a year in the United States, yet little is known of their injury risks...
  65. ncbi Evaluation of protocols allowing emergency medical technicians to determine need for treatment and transport
    T Schmidt
    Oregon Health Sciences University, School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Portland 97201 3098, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 7:663-9. 2000
    To determine whether emergency medical technicians (EMTs) can safely apply protocols to assign transport options and to assess agreement between groups of providers on application of the protocols.
  66. ncbi Injuries from assaults on paramedics and firefighters in an urban emergency medical services system
    C Crawford Mechem
    Philadelphia Fire Department, and Department of Emergency Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 19104 4283, USA
    Prehosp Emerg Care 6:396-401. 2002
    ..To determine the nature and frequency of injuries resulting from assaults on paramedics and firefighters in a large, fire department-based emergency medical services (EMS) system...
  67. ncbi Prehospital rapid-sequence intubation: a pilot training program
    Kory Kaye
    Region Hospital EMS, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
    Prehosp Emerg Care 7:235-40. 2003
    ..To develop a training program enabling paramedics to use sedation and paralytic medications to facilitate endotracheal intubation in patients who otherwise could not be successfully intubated...
  68. ncbi Change in stress outcomes following an industrial dispute in the ambulance service: a longitudinal study
    K M Young
    Manchester School of Management, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, UK
    Health Serv Manage Res 12:51-62. 1999
    ..It is proposed that the manner in which the aftermath of the dispute and ensuing organizational change were managed gave an increasingly limited scope for influence...
  69. ncbi [Exposure of French emergency medical personnel to violence]
    F X Duchateau
    Service d Anesthesie Reanimation, SMUR, Hopital Beaujon, 100, boulevard du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy, France
    Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 21:775-8. 2002
    ..Evaluate the problem of violence in French EMS system and characterize assaults...
  70. ncbi The risk of acquiring hepatitis B or C among public safety workers: a systematic review
    G Rischitelli
    Center for Research in Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, The Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland OR 97201 3111, USA
    Am J Prev Med 20:299-306. 2001
    ..Determination of the occupational risk of hepatitis B and C to public safety workers is important in identifying prevention opportunities and has significant legal and policy implications...
  71. ncbi Blood-borne pathogens among firefighters and emergency medical technicians
    Winifred L Boal
    National Institute of Occupational Safety, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
    Prehosp Emerg Care 9:236-47. 2005
    ....
  72. ncbi Back strength and flexibility of EMS providers in practicing prehospital providers
    Matthew T Crill
    Heartland Rehabilitation, 3535 Fishinger Blvd Suite 120, Hilliard, Ohio, USA
    J Occup Rehabil 15:105-11. 2005
    ..This group of professionals may be at risk for occupational injury and should be targeted for interventions to improve strength and flexibility...
  73. ncbi Evaluation of prehospital emergency care in the field and during the ambulance drive to the hospital
    Suna Soysal
    Dokuz Eylul University, Advanced Professional School of Health Sciences, Izmir, Turkey
    Adv Ther 22:44-8. 2005
    ..053). A trauma board was used in 9 of 30 trauma cases (30%) and a cervical collar in 6 of 30 (20%). It was concluded that basic procedures used in the management of patients brought into the ED via ambulances were inadequate...
  74. ncbi Use of the Airtraq laryngoscope in a model of difficult intubation by prehospital providers not previously trained in laryngoscopy
    M Woollard
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia
    Anaesthesia 62:1061-5. 2007
    ..Users evaluated it as easy to use and achieved intubation within an acceptable breath-to-breath interval...
  75. ncbi Stroke training of prehospital providers: an example of simulation-enhanced blended learning and evaluation
    David Lee Gordon
    University of Miami Center for Research in Medical Education, Florida 33101, USA
    Med Teach 27:114-21. 2005
    ....
  76. ncbi Outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a physician-staffed emergency medical system according to the Utstein style
    Heidi L Estner
    Deutsches Herzzentrum München and 1 Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Am Heart J 153:792-9. 2007
    ..The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of a physician on the outcome of patients after OHCA...
  77. ncbi How would minimum experience standards affect the distribution of out-of-hospital endotracheal intubations?
    Henry E Wang
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 50:246-52. 2007
    ..The system-level influence of such limits is unknown. We seek to determine how minimum endotracheal intubation experience standards influence the number and distribution of out-of-hospital endotracheal intubations...
  78. ncbi Emergency medical services in Japan: an opportunity for the rational development of pre-hospital care and research
    Matthew R Lewin
    Division of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Fresno, CA, USA
    J Emerg Med 28:237-41. 2005
    ..Japan, a technologically advanced country that is not encumbered by entrenched "standards of care," has the opportunity to develop an efficient and rational EMS system...
  79. ncbi Life and EMS go on
    Mike Smith
    Emergeng Medical Services Program, Tacoma Community College, WA, USA
    Emerg Med Serv 33:32. 2004
  80. ncbi Emergency preparedness and professional competency among health care providers during hurricanes Katrina and Rita: pilot study results
    Lynn A Slepski
    United States Public Health Service, Graduate School of Nursing, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Gaithersburg, MD, USA
    Disaster Manag Response 5:99-110. 2007
    ..The objective of this pilot study was to collect, explore, and describe background data on professional competencies from health care providers who were involved in the Hurricanes Katrina and/or Rita disaster responses...
  81. ncbi Airtraq vs standard laryngoscopy by student paramedics and experienced prehospital laryngoscopists managing a model of difficult intubation
    M Woollard
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia
    Anaesthesia 63:26-31. 2008
    ....
  82. ncbi Acres of QA. Challenges of monitoring a large EMS system
    Stephen Rashford
    Queensland Ambulance Service, Queensland, Australia
    JEMS 32:38, 40. 2007
  83. ncbi Feasibility of sternal intraosseous access by emergency medical technician students
    David D Miller
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Prehosp Emerg Care 9:73-8. 2005
    ..This study was conducted to examine the feasibility of training EMT-B students to correctly place a commercial sternal IO infusion device (FAST-1)...
  84. ncbi How many attempts are required to accomplish out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation?
    Henry E Wang
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 13:372-7. 2006
    ..Clinical protocols limiting the number of ETI attempts may minimize harm, but this strategy also may reduce the frequency of successful ETI...
  85. ncbi Pre-hospital thrombolysis delivered by paramedics is associated with reduced time delay and mortality in ambulance-transported real-life patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction
    Erik Bjorklund
    Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Uppsala, 751 85 Uppsala Sweden
    Eur Heart J 27:1146-52. 2006
    ..We therefore evaluated treatment delays and outcome in a large cohort of ambulance-transported real-life patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) according to PHT delivered by paramedics or in-hospital thrombolysis...
  86. ncbi Emergency medical service systems in Japan: past, present, and future
    Koichi Tanigawa
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1 2 3 Kasumi, Minami Ku, Hiroshima 734 8551, Japan
    Resuscitation 69:365-70. 2006
    ..Currently, private services for transportation of non-acute or minor injury/illness have been introduced in some areas, and dispatch protocols to triage 119 calls are being developed...
  87. ncbi Ground critical care transport: a lifesaving intervention
    Kimberly Johnson
    Kanawha County Emergency Ambulance Authority, Charleston, WV, USA
    Crit Care Nurse 26:80, 77. 2006
  88. ncbi [How is out-of-hospital cardiac arrest dispatched?]
    Ole Pagh Mathiesen
    Rigshospitalet, HovedOrtoCentret, DK 2100 København Ø
    Ugeskr Laeger 170:1145-7. 2008
    ..A specific dispatch report (DR) is used if an ambulance is dispatched. We assessed which DRs were used for the Copenhagen Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in the case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest...
  89. ncbi Experiences of adding nurses to increase medical competence at an emergency medical dispatch centre
    Kerstin Forslund
    Centre for Nursing Science, Orebro University Hospital, P O Box 1324, SE 701 13 Orebro, Sweden
    Accid Emerg Nurs 14:230-6. 2006
    ..Communication problems, serious and unpredictable situations can often occur during the emergency calls. A two-year intervention study involved the addition of registered nurses to an EMD-centre team to increase medical competence...
  90. ncbi Initial needs of bereaved relatives following sudden and unexpected death
    Yvonne Purves
    London Ambulance Service NHS Trust
    Emerg Nurse 13:28-34. 2005
  91. ncbi The reality of multiple casualty triage: putting triage theory into practice at the scene of multiple casualty vehicular accidents
    P Arbon
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia
    Emerg Med J 25:230-4. 2008
    ..Key objectives included investigation of the situational cues and other contextual factors influencing triage practice and the development of recommendations for the future education of ambulance paramedics...
  92. ncbi Choice in health care
    Alain C Enthoven
    Health Aff (Millwood) 25:566-7. 2006
  93. ncbi Development of systems of care for ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: the emergency medical services and emergency department perspective
    Peter Moyer
    Circulation 116:e43-8. 2007
  94. ncbi A comparison of the King-LT to endotracheal intubation and Combitube in a simulated difficult airway
    Christopher S Russi
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Prehosp Emerg Care 12:35-41. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to determine if the King-LT offers improved placement success and times over the Combitube (ETC) and endotracheal tube (ETT) in a simulated difficult airway...
  95. ncbi Should emergency medical service rescuers be trained to practice endotracheal intubation?
    Patrick Gerbeaux
    Crit Care Med 33:1864-5. 2005
  96. ncbi Endotracheal tube placement by EMT-Basics in a rural EMS system
    Jeffrey C Pratt
    Tisbury Ambulance Service, Tisbury, Martha s Vineyard, MA, USA
    Prehosp Emerg Care 9:172-5. 2005
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of an intubation-training module and special-waiver project in which Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics were trained to perform endotracheal intubations in a rural community...
  97. ncbi The effect of Combitube use on paramedic experience in endotracheal intubation
    Charles E Cady
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Emerg Med 23:868-71. 2005
    ..To determine the change in number of endotracheal intubations per paramedic after the implementation of Combitube use and to explore consequences...
  98. ncbi Capnography in EMS. A powerful way to objectively monitor ventilatory status
    Baruch Krauss
    Harvard Medical School and Division of Emergency Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    JEMS 28:28-30, 32-8, 41. 2003
  99. pmc Prehospital intubation and SARS
    David J Hutcheon
    CMAJ 170:19-20; author reply 20. 2004
  100. pmc Prehospital intubation and SARS
    Stephen L Urszenyi
    CMAJ 170:19; author reply 20. 2004
  101. pmc Prehospital intubation and SARS
    Richard E Schabas
    CMAJ 170:18; author reply 20. 2004

Research Grants56

  1. Police/Fire/EMTs Get the SKOOP: Online Skills &Training On Overdose Prevention
    JANIE ELIZABETH SIMMONS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This 2-track curriculum [one track for police;a second track for firefighters and emergency medical technicians (EMTs)] will provide targeted, up-to-date, lifesaving information and teach skills on how to safely ..
  2. Virtual Emergency Medical Technician-Basic Training Program
    Robert J Levine; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed experiments will investigate two different power levels to further understand impact of intensity on would healing. ..
  3. Risk assessment training for methamphetamine lab responders
    WILLIAM D AGGEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..For first responders such as emergency medical technicians, HAZMAT workers, law enforcement, firefighters, or others who may encounter clandestine meth labs, ..
  4. Does Teamwork Mediate Relationship between Partner Familiarity and EMT Injuries?
    PAUL D PATTERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) are at a significantly greater risk of death and injury at work than the general population. Annually, 12...
  5. EXPOSURE TO BLOOD AMONG NON-HOSPITAL HEALTH CARE WORKERS
    Jack Leiss; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..RNs and LPNs), palliative and home care nurses and nurse-midwives, dental workers, phlebotomists, and emergency medical technicians. The study population will consist of a stratified random sample of workers in each occupation...
  6. Impacts of Alcohol / Fatigue on Paramedic Skills
    LES BECKER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Not Available ..
  7. Escape Respirator for First Responders
    GIRISH SRINIVAS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..They are also the last to leave the scene. First responders are policemen, firemen, and emergency medical technicians. There are 11 million state and local first responders in 87,000 jurisdictions throughout the United ..
  8. Simulation-Based Wound Closure Training System
    DWIGHT MEGLAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the training needs of numerous groups of US healthcare workers, from surgical residents to nurses to emergency medical technicians to military medics...
  9. UTILIZING RESEARCH TO ENHANCE CLINICAL PRACTICE
    Robert Bienkowski; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..professionals including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists, respiratory therapists, emergency medical technicians, and social workers. Evaluating the Conference...
  10. Bioelectronic Telemetry System For Fire Fighter Safety
    MICHAEL MASTERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..distinguishing feature of Extreme Endeavors is that all of our engineers are also firefighters and/or emergency medical technicians, providing us with a unique perspective on the engineering requirements and tradeoffs for a system ..
  11. Development of EMT backboard transport system
    TROY LIVINGSTON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..costly, musculoskeletal injuries are the most frequent type of injury among firefighter/paramedics and emergency medical technicians, typically incurred while transporting patients during EMS operations...
  12. Unit-dose Intraosseous Auto-injector for Resuscitation
    Larry Miller; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Currently, these drugs can be administered only by emergency medical technicians (EMT's) certified at advanced levels of training...
  13. National Alcohol Screening Day
    Kerry Broderick; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..All patients will be followed and re-assessed at 3 and 6 months using a second centrally managed interactive telephone interview. Data analysis will be performed at the data coordinating center. ..
  14. TREATING CARDIAC ARRESTS WITH DEFIBRILLATION BY EMTS
    Lawrence Bergner; Fiscal Year: 1980
    This study will determine whether emergency medical technicians (EMTs) equipped with defibrillators can improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest...
  15. MEASUREMENT OF EMT PERFORMANCE
    Lee Sechrest; Fiscal Year: 1980
    Measurement of the adequacy of performance of Emergency Medical Technicians is still in a rather primitive state, in part because there is as yet little firm knowledge about what EMTs actually do...
  16. Escape Respirators for First Responders
    GIRISH SRINIVAS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..They are also the last to leave the scene. First responders are policemen, firemen, and emergency medical technicians. There are 11 million state and local first responders in 87,000 jurisdictions throughout the United ..
  17. Virtual Emergency Medical Technician-Basic Training Program
    Robert Levine; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The product will impact public health by improving availability, quality. and cost of EMT training. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Effect of Out-of-Hospital Endotracheal Intubation Errors
    Henry Wang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These analyses are innovative in the fields of EMS, patient safety and health services research and will help to justify system-wide efforts to reduce errors in this complex procedure. ..
  19. Home Automatic external Defibrillator Training
    Thomas Rea; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Alternatively, if nominal video-based approaches achieve comparable outcomes, training efforts can be streamlined at considerable cost savings with fewer impediments for distribution and dissemination. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  20. Brief Intervention to Reduce STDs in ER Drug Users
    Edward Bernstein; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..An effective, brief intervention for safe sex behaviors to reduce STDs and HIV among drug users in ED and UCC settings may provide a sustainable intervention opportunity for drug users who are otherwise difficult to access. ..
  21. Modeling Research Participant Compensation
    ELIZABETH RIPLEY; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..An R01 proposal will be submitted to further develop and test this model for feasibility, usefulness and practicality. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Designing musculoskeletal disorder interventions for imaging technologists
    Carolyn M Sommerich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  23. Macaque Model of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Effects of Force and Posture Exposures
    Carolyn M Sommerich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Now we need to differentiate amongst exposures, in terms of extent of nerve impairment, so that, in the long term, the risk for development or recurrence of work- related CTS can be reduced. ..
  24. Community Partnership for Ethical Research
    ELIZABETH B RIPLEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  25. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE BRIEF NEGOTIATED INTERVIEW
    Edward Bernstein; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  26. ED NASD Alcohol Education Project
    Edward Bernstein; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Changes in Substance Abuse Patterns Following the Terrorist Attacks of September
    Charles DiMaggio; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Behavioral Health Effects of September 11th, 2001
    Charles DiMaggio; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. PARAMEDIC FIELD INITIATION OF MAGNESIUM NEUROPROTECTIVE
    Jeffrey Saver; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. MR ASSESSMENT OF MAGNESIUM IN ACUTE STROKE
    Chelsea Kidwell; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  31. Innovative HCW Training: Infectious Disease Risk
    Robyn Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The results of this study may have important implications for effective health and safety training for nurses. ..
  32. Improving Safety and Quality with Integrated Technology
    Jeanne Marie Guise; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The findings, though applied specifically for OB, can be applied to many areas of medicine and surgery. The findings will provide inpatient and outpatient HIT stakeholders needed information to make important decisions. ..
  33. Bloodborne Pathogen Risk in Home Healthcare Workers
    Robyn Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This study will improve our understanding of the risks facing home health care workers and allow us to focus our risk management energies and resources appropriately. ..
  34. The Epidemiology of Fecal Incontinence after Childbirth
    Jeanne Marie Guise; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These data will provide a better understanding of the extent of the problem and will provide data essential for future trials of prevention and treatment of fecal incontinence. ..
  35. Evaluating the Clinical Impact of Simulation & Team Training on OB Safety
    Jeanne Marie Guise; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our current work evaluates performance in the simulated environment; this proposal focuses on the translation of simulation and team training to the clinical environment. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. Exposure to Blood Among Home Health Care Nurses
    Jack Leiss; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Collaborating agency directors and home health care nurses, focus groups, and a pilot study will be used to design and test recruitment strategies that will ensure high response rates. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. BBP EXPOSURE AND RISK FACTORS IN NON-HOSPITAL BASED HCWS
    Robyn Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This study will improve our understanding of the risks facing non-hospital HCWs and allow us to focus our energies and resources appropriately. ..
  38. BLOODBORNE EXPOSURE MANAGEMENT
    Robyn Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This study will identify barriers to appropriate implementation of the Guidelines and allow us to focus our energies and resources on specific improvements in order to minimize the risk of infection to exposed employees. ..
  39. Designing Ergonomic Interventions for the Fire Service
    Karen Conrad; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..