Genomes and Genes
Summary: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
Publications263 found, 100 shown here
- TwinningJudith G Hall
Department of Paediatrics, 4480 Oak Street, Room 2D19, British Columbia s Children s Hospital, BC, V6H 3V4, Vancouver, Canada
Lancet 362:735-43. 2003..Both monozygotic and dizygotic twins have growth rates that slow at 30 weeks in utero and might be programmed both developmentally and ..
- Infant zygosity can be assigned by parental report questionnaire dataT S Price
Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
Twin Res 3:129-33. 2000..The results validate the use of parental report questionnaire data to determine zygosity in infancy...
- Genetic and environmental factors in age-related nuclear cataracts in monozygotic and dizygotic twinsC J Hammond
Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas Hospital, Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom
N Engl J Med 342:1786-90. 2000..Age-related cataracts are a major public health problem. The relative importance of genes and environment in the causation of nuclear cataracts, the most common form of age-related cataracts, is not known...
- Genetic factors, perceived chronic stress, and the free cortisol response to awakeningS Wust
Center for Psychobiological and Psychosomatic Research, University of Trier, Dietrichstrasse 10 11, 54290, Trier, Germany
Psychoneuroendocrinology 25:707-20. 2000..In line with several recent studies, the present findings further support the view that the cortisol awakening responses is consistently enhanced under chronic stress conditions...
- Investigations into the influence of host genetics on the predominant eubacteria in the faecal microflora of childrenJessica A Stewart
Wakefield Gastroenterology Research Institute, Wakefield Hospital, Private Bag 7909, Wellington South, New Zealand
J Med Microbiol 54:1239-42. 2005..001). The results of this study indicate that host genetics influence the composition of the dominant eubacterial population in children...
- Familial aggregation of leisure-time physical activity -- a three generation studyM Aarnio
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland
Int J Sports Med 18:549-56. 1997..Because physical activity patterns do not appear to be transmitted from one generation to the next, it is probable that by constant training and education we can obtain the benefits of physical activity...
- Bias, precision and heritability of self-reported and clinically measured height in Australian twinsStuart Macgregor
Genetic Epidemiology, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston Road, Brisbane, Australia
Hum Genet 120:571-80. 2006..Moderate reduction in error (through the use of accurate clinical or multiple self-report measures) increased the effective sample size by 22%; elimination of measurement error led to increases in effective sample size of 41%...
- Genetic factors in physical activity and the equal environment assumption-- the Swedish young male twins studyMarit Eriksson
The Child and Adolescent Public Health Epidemiology Group, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Behav Genet 36:238-47. 2006..The EEA was investigated with a linear regression model, examining if the twins contact frequency predicted within-pair differences in PA, and further by a simulation study. We found no support for violation of the EEA...
- Congenital heart disease in a population of dizygotic twins: an echocardiographic studySalvatore Caputo
Pediatric Cardiology, Second University of Naples, Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy
Int J Cardiol 102:293-6. 2005..The distribution analysis of CHD in dizygotic twins could provide a useful tool to evaluate the role of genetic and environmental factors in the development of ..
- Size of the human corpus callosum is genetically determined: an MRI study in mono and dizygotic twinsAnton Scamvougeras
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neuroscience, McMaster University, Ontario, Hamilton, Canada
Neurosci Lett 338:91-4. 2003..The results suggest that correlates of CC size, such as the pattern of cerebral lateralization, cognitive abilities and neuropsychiatric dysfunction may be associated with the genetic determinants of CC morphology...
- Genetic versus environmental aetiology of the metabolic syndrome among male and female twinsP Poulsen
Odense University Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Denmark
Diabetologia 44:537-43. 2001..glucose intolerance, overall obesity and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly higher among monozygotic than dizygotic twins indicating a genetic influence on the development of these phenotypes...
- Gray and white matter volume abnormalities in monozygotic and same-gender dizygotic twins discordant for schizophreniaHilleke E Hulshoff Pol
Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Biol Psychiatry 55:126-30. 2004....
- Association between birth weight and adult blood pressure in twins: historical cohort studyN R Poulter
Cardiovascular Studies Unit, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary s Campus, London W2 1PG
BMJ 319:1330-3. 1999..To evaluate the associations in twins between within pair differences in birth weight and subsequent blood pressures as adults thereby removing the impact of potential parental confounding variables...
- Novel variants in growth differentiation factor 9 in mothers of dizygotic twinsJames S Palmer
Molecular Epidemiology, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:4713-6. 2006..We previously identified a deletion mutation in GDF9 in sisters with spontaneous dizygotic (DZ) twins, but the prevalence of rare GDF9 variants in twinning families is unknown...
- Birthweight in liveborn twins: the influence of the umbilical cord insertion and fusion of placentasR J Loos
Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
BJOG 108:943-8. 2001..insertion and fusion of placentas with birthweight in monozygotic monochorionic, monozygotic dichorionic, and dizygotic twins. DESIGN: A prospective population study...
- The genetic epidemiology of schizophrenia in a Finnish twin cohort. A population-based modeling studyT D Cannon
Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
Arch Gen Psychiatry 55:67-74. 1998..We applied structural equation modeling in a total population of twins to determine the significance and magnitudes of the genetic and environmental contributions to schizophrenia...
- Primary biliary cirrhosis in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: genetics, epigenetics, and environmentCarlo Selmi
Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, 95616, USA
Gastroenterology 127:485-92. 2004..Accordingly, we evaluated the concordance of PBC in a genetically defined population of twin sets and evaluated the clinical characteristics between concordant subjects...
- Netherlands Twin Register: from twins to twin familiesDorret I Boomsma
Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Twin Res Hum Genet 9:849-57. 2006..In this paper we give an update on the YNTR and ANTR phenotyping and on the ongoing ANTR biobank studies...
- Rethinking twins and environments: possible social sources for assumed genetic influences in twin researchAllan V Horwitz
Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, 30 College Ave, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N J 08901 1293, USA
J Health Soc Behav 44:111-29. 2003..Therefore, any greater similarity of monozygotic than dizygotic twins is attributed to genetic influences...
- High concordance of bipolar I disorder in a nationwide sample of twinsTuula Kieseppä
Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, National Public Health Institute, 00300 Helsinki 30, Finland
Am J Psychiatry 161:1814-21. 2004..The authors report what appears to be the first twin study of bipolar I disorder involving a population-based twin sample, in which the diagnoses were made by using structured, personal interviews...
- A genome wide linkage scan for dizygotic twinning in 525 families of mothers of dizygotic twinsJodie N Painter
Molecular Epidemiology, Genetic Epidemiology and Neurogenetics Laboratories, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
Hum Reprod 25:1569-80. 2010..To search for new candidate loci for twinning, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan in 525 families using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels...
- Is education causally related to better health? A twin fixed-effect study in the USATakeo Fujiwara
Section of Behavioral Science, Department of Health Promotion, National Institute of Public Health, Wako Shi, Saitama, Japan
Int J Epidemiol 38:1310-22. 2009..The purpose of this study is to identify the causal effects of education on health and health behaviours using a twin fixed-effect approach...
- Heritability of neck pain: a population-based study of 33,794 Danish twinsR Fejer
Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK 5230 Odense M, Denmark
Rheumatology (Oxford) 45:589-94. 2006..To determine the heritability of neck pain in a large population-based study of twins...
- Genetic factors contribute to variation in serum alanine aminotransferase activity independent of obesity and alcohol: a study in monozygotic and dizygotic twinsJanne Makkonen
Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
J Hepatol 50:1035-42. 2009....
- Daytime cortisol secretion in 6-month-old twins: genetic and environmental contributions as a function of early familial adversityIsabelle Ouellet-Morin
School of Psychology, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Canada
Biol Psychiatry 65:409-16. 2009..The goals of the study were to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to daytime cortisol secretion in infant twins and to investigate whether these contributions varied as a function of familial adversity (FA)...
- Evidence that BMI and type 2 diabetes share only a minor fraction of genetic variance: a follow-up study of 23,585 monozygotic and dizygotic twins from the Finnish Twin Cohort StudyM Lehtovirta
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, P O Box 41, FIN 00014, Helsinki, Finland
Diabetologia 53:1314-21. 2010..We investigated whether BMI predicts type 2 diabetes in twins and to what extent that is explained by common genetic factors...
- Prenatal exposure to testosterone and functional cerebral lateralization: a study in same-sex and opposite-sex twin girlsCelina C C Cohen-Bendahan
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Psychoneuroendocrinology 29:911-6. 2004..Secondly, as predicted OS girls had a more masculine pattern of cerebral lateralization, than SS girls. These findings support the notion of an influence of prenatal T on early brain organization in girls...
- Gray and white matter density changes in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometryHilleke E Hulshoff Pol
Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, A01 126, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
Neuroimage 31:482-8. 2006..Focal changes in the left anterior hemisphere may therefore be particularly relevant as endophenotype in genetic studies of schizophrenia...
- IgE in unselected like-sexed monozygotic and dizygotic twins at birth and at 6 to 9 years of age: high but dissimilar genetic influence on IgE levelsH P Jacobsen
Department of Pediatrics, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark
J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:659-63. 2001..The low correlation between the IgE levels at birth and later in childhood suggested that different effector mechanisms may be operating at different ages...
- Voxel-based analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in mono- and dizygotic twins discordant for Alzheimer diseaseJ J Virta
Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, PO Box 52, FIN 20521 Turku, Finland
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:259-66. 2009..Therefore, twin pairs are useful in studying its pathogenesis and aetiology. Cerebral glucose metabolism has been found to be reduced in AD patients...
- Does higher concordance in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins suggest a genetic component?S W Guo
Max McGee National Research Center for Juvenile Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics and Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisc, USA
Hum Hered 51:121-32. 2001..This may serve as a sobering antidote to the uncritical reliance on twin studies without examining the validity of the underlying assumptions...
- Is there an effect of prenatal testosterone on aggression and other behavioral traits? A study comparing same-sex and opposite-sex twin girlsCelina C C Cohen-Bendahan
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, A01 468, University Medical Center Utrecht, P O Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
Horm Behav 47:230-7. 2005..It is argued that it is unlikely that this difference is due to social factors, such as a gender-specific upbringing...
- Chimeric dizygotic twins: implications for development and diseaseNancy L Segal
Twin Res Hum Genet 8:178-9, 181. 2005
- Prevalence of premature ovarian failure in monozygotic and dizygotic twinsR G Gosden
Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
Hum Reprod 22:610-5. 2007..A recent case of ovarian transplantation between young monozygotic (MZ) twins in which one had undergone unexplained POF at 14 years has prompted a study of the prevalence of POF...
- Heritability of plasma leptin levels: a twin studyK Narkiewicz
Institute of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland
J Hypertens 17:27-31. 1999..To examine the influence of genetic factors on plasma leptin levels...
- HLA and genomewide allele sharing in dizygotic twinsGrant W Montgomery
Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology Laboratories, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia
Am J Hum Genet 79:1052-8. 2006..Our results imply that gene-mapping studies based on affected sibling pairs that include DZ pairs will not suffer from false-positive results due to loci involved in embryo survival...
- Gender differences in the heritability of seasonal mood changeK L Jang
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Psychiatry Res 70:145-54. 1997..5%) and females (median, 30.5%). For both sexes, weight changes were not heritable. Sex-by-genotype analyses suggested that the genetic factors influencing female seasonality may not be the same as those influencing male seasonality...
- Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in dizygotic twins with schizophrenia: a case reportShunji Matsunaga
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Imakiire General Hospital, 4 16 Shimotatsuo, Kagoshima, Japan
Mod Rheumatol 18:277-80. 2008..This is the first report of dizygotic twins with OPLL. The twins suffered from schizophrenia, which might be related to the pathogenesis of OPLL...
- Strong genetic control of emergence of human primary incisorsT E Hughes
School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, Frome Rd, Adelaide, Australia 5005
J Dent Res 86:1160-5. 2007..Estimates of narrow-sense heritability ranged from 82 to 94% in males and 71 to 96% in females...
- Sports participation during adolescence: a shift from environmental to genetic factorsJanine H Stubbe
Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:563-70. 2005..A twin design was used to assess the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on the variation in sports participation of Dutch male and female twins between the ages of 13 and 20 yr...
- Genetic and environmental influences on substance initiation, use, and problem use in adolescentsSoo Hyun Rhee
Department of Psychology and the Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 90309, USA
Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:1256-64. 2003..We conducted a sibling/twin/adoption study of substance initiation, use, and problem use, estimating the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on these phenotypes in adolescents...
- Genetic contribution to bone metabolism, calcium excretion, and vitamin D and parathyroid hormone regulationD Hunter
Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St. Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom
J Bone Miner Res 16:371-8. 2001..The genes controlling bone hormones and markers are likely to be useful therapeutic and diagnostic targets...
- The influence of genetic factors and life stress on depression among adolescent girlsJ Silberg
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298 0003, USA
Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:225-32. 1999....
- Twin concordance and sibling recurrence rates in multiple sclerosisC J Willer
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:12877-82. 2003..8%) for female DZ pairs. We did not demonstrate an MZ/DZ difference in males, although the sample size was small. We observed a 2-fold increase in risk to DZ twins over nontwin siblings of twins, but the difference was not significant...
- Genetic effects on baseline values of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid a protein: a comparison of monozygotic and dizygotic twinsAlex J MacGregor
Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
Clin Chem 50:130-4. 2004..These values, especially of CRP, are associated with future atherothrombotic events, and the determinants of baseline CRP and SAA concentration are therefore of considerable interest...
- Sex differences in the heritability of resilienceJason D Boardman
Department of Sociology and Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO 80309 0327, United States of America
Twin Res Hum Genet 11:12-27. 2008..However, compared to women, men appear to derive additional benefits from environmental mastery that may enable otherwise sex-neutral resilient tendencies to manifest...
- The intrauterine environment as reflected by birth size and twin and zygosity status influences insulin action and intracellular glucose metabolism in an age- or time-dependent mannerPernille Poulsen
Steno Diabetes Center, Niels Steensens Vej 2, DK 2820 Gentofte, Denmark
Diabetes 55:1819-25. 2006..The documented differential programming effects associated with either low birth weight and twin or zygosity status all represent known defects of glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes...
- Genetic susceptibility of myocardial infarctionSlobodan Zdravkovic
Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Twin Res Hum Genet 10:848-52. 2007..In conclusion, liability to first occurrence of acute myocardial infarction is moderately influenced by genetic variants in both sexes. The familial influence on phenotypic variance is exclusively explained by additive genetic factors...
- Increased perinatal mortality and morbidity in monochorionic versus dichorionic twin pregnancies: clinical implications of a large Dutch cohort studyK E A Hack
Department of Obstetrics, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
BJOG 115:58-67. 2008..To evaluate mortality and morbidity in a large cohort of twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. We aimed to estimate the optimal time of delivery...
- The Italian Twin Register: new cohorts and tools, current projects and future perspectives of a developing resourceCorrado Fagnani
National Center for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome, Italy
Twin Res Hum Genet 9:799-805. 2006..The Italian Twin Register is currently involved in both population and clinical based studies on various complex phenotypes and diseases, some conducted within large European consortia...
- Genetic influences on exercise participation in 37,051 twin pairs from seven countriesJanine H Stubbe
Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands
PLoS ONE 1:e22. 2006..To get more insight in the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in exercise participation, twin samples from seven countries participating in the GenomEUtwin project were used...
- Phenotypic differences in genetically identical organisms: the epigenetic perspectiveAlbert H C Wong
The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Hum Mol Genet 14:R11-8. 2005....
- Genetic and cultural transmission of smoking initiation: an extended twin kinship modelHermine H Maes
Department of Human Genetics, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 980003, 23298 0003, Richmond, VA 23298 0003, USA
Behav Genet 36:795-808. 2006....
- Age-dependent impact of zygosity and birth weight on insulin secretion and insulin action in twinsP Poulsen
Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark
Diabetologia 45:1649-57. 2002..Study the influence of age, zygosity and birth weight on insulin action and insulin secretion in twins...
- Genetic and environmental contributions to variation in human tooth sizeP J Dempsey
South Australian Centre for Rural and Remote Health, University of South Australia, Nicolson Ave, Whyalla Norrie, 5608, Australia
Heredity 86:685-93. 2001..Mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) dental crown diameters were recorded from almost 600 monozygotic and dizygotic twins, and univariate biometrical models were fitted to the data for 28 permanent teeth (excluding third molars)...
- Variation in genetic and environmental influences in serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels across the lifespan in Swedish male and female twinsA Iliadou
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Am J Med Genet 102:48-58. 2001....
- Twins. Novel uses to study complex traits and genetic diseasesA J MacGregor
Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
Trends Genet 16:131-4. 2000..The unique matching of identical twins provides researchers with ways to isolate the function of individual genes involved in disease together with approaches to understanding how genes and the environment interact...
- The inheritance of neuropsychological dysfunction in twins discordant for schizophreniaT D Cannon
Department of Psychology, UCLA, 90095, USA
Am J Hum Genet 67:369-82. 2000..On tests of verbal and visual episodic memory, but not on the liability-related measures, patients were more impaired than their own MZ co-twins, suggesting a preferential impact of nongenetic influences on long-term memory systems...
- Consequences of in-utero death in a twin pregnancyP O Pharoah
Department of Public Health, University of Liverpool, UK
Lancet 355:1597-602. 2000..We did a cohort study to quantify mortality and serious morbidity in co-twin survivors of fetuses that died in utero...
- Genetic and environmental influences on adolescent substance use and abuseM McGue
Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
Am J Med Genet 96:671-7. 2000..The finding of significant environmental influences on all substance use measures underscores the importance of intervention on early adolescent substance use, a known predictor of adult substance abuse and dependence...
- Genetic and environmental influences on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins: effects of menopauseRita P S Middelberg
Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 22:1142-7. 2002....
- DNA methylation profiles in monozygotic and dizygotic twinsZachary A Kaminsky
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8, Canada
Nat Genet 41:240-5. 2009....
- Genetic study of the height and weight process during infancyPaula van Dommelen
Department of Mathematics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Twin Res 7:607-16. 2004..Female jerk and snap, and also female height at birth and height at 2 years of age, are mostly under control of the same additive genetic factor...
- [Early infancy onset of type 1A diabetes mellitus in dizygotic twins: association with genetic and environmental factors]Lucianne R M Tannus
Departamento de Diabetes, Serviço de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Hospital Universitario Pedro Ernesto, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 51:142-5. 2007..We report two cases of dizygotic twins with type 1 diabetes onset in their first 9 months of age, with genetic homogeneity (for HLA DR3/DR4 alleles),..
- Genome-wide linkage scan for athlete status in 700 British female DZ twin pairsMarleen H M de Moor
Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Twin Res Hum Genet 10:812-20. 2007..2000) and physical activity (UCP1 gene; Simonen et al., 2003). Future association studies should further clarify the possible role of these genes in athlete status...
- Twin birth weight standardsMarij Gielen
Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht NUTRIM, Department of Population Genetics, Genomics and Bioinformatics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Neonatology 92:164-73. 2007..The relative contribution of gestational age, maternal factors, twin factors and placental factors to the birth weight was evaluated in a multivariate approach...
- Selected neonatal outcomes in dizygotic twins after IVF versus non-IVF pregnanciesB Kallen
Tornblad Institute, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
BJOG 117:676-82. 2010..To compare neonatal outcome among twins conceived after in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with that of spontaneously conceived twins...
- A common genetic factor underlies hypertension and other cardiovascular disordersFrances M K Williams
Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
BMC Cardiovasc Disord 4:20. 2004..This study used a classical twin design to examine whether these conditions are linked through shared environmental exposures or by a common underlying genetic propensity to vasospasm...
- Differences in smoking habits of MZ and DZ twins: a commentary on Tishler and CareyJaakko Kaprio
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Twin Res Hum Genet 10:718-20. 2007..Even if the Tisher/Carey finding holds up in further analyses, it pertains only to the observed trait, the effect is small in size, and the mechanism underlying it needs to be explored...
- A twin-pronged attack on complex traitsN Martin
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, PO Royal Brisbane Hospital, Australia
Nat Genet 17:387-92. 1997..from the classical twin study--the demonstration that monozygotic twins are more similar for the trait than dizygotic twins. The strengths and weaknesses of twin studies are discussed, and it is suggested that, far from becoming ..
- Can comparison of MZ- and DZ-twin concordance rates be used invariably to estimate heritability?Peter V Tishler
Genetics Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Twin Res Hum Genet 10:712-7. 2007..For subjective traits, heritability estimates may be influenced by these unequal environmental factors that differentially affect their development and characteristics in MZ and DZ twins...
- Environmental influences on family similarity in afternoon cortisol levels: twin and parent-offspring designsJane E Schreiber
Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1202 West Johnson Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Psychoneuroendocrinology 31:1131-7. 2006....
- Nature, nurture and academic achievement: a twin study of teacher assessments of 7-year-oldsSheila O Walker
Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College, London, UK
Br J Educ Psychol 74:323-42. 2004..Twin research has consistently shown substantial genetic influence on individual differences in cognitive ability; however, much less is known about the genetic and environmental aetiologies of school achievement...
- Evidence for nonadditive genetic effects on Eysenck Personality Scales in South Korean twinsYoon Mi Hur
Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
Twin Res Hum Genet 10:373-8. 2007..For Neuroticism and Extraversion, models that included an additive genetic component fit better than those including a nonadditive genetic variance component...
- An association of chorionicity with preterm twin birthDebora Penava
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Western Ontario, London ON
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 26:571-4. 2004..To assess the risk factors for preterm birth in twin pregnancies, particularly monochorionicity...
- Structured latent growth curves for twin dataM C Neale
Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond 23298, USA
Twin Res 3:165-77. 2000..Though the growth curve model fit less well than some others, they make restrictive, falsifiable predictions about the mean, variance and twin covariance of other (not yet measured) occasions of measurement...
- Heritability of background EEG across the power spectrumD J A Smit
Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Psychophysiology 42:691-7. 2005..We conclude that across the scalp and most of the frequency spectrum, individual differences in adult EEG are largely determined by genetic factors...
- Genetic and environmental contributions to the Child Behavior Checklist Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: a cross-cultural twin studyJames J Hudziak
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington Vrije University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:608-16. 2004..Twin studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have indicated a significant genetic component to its expression...
- Uric acid levels in patients with multiple sclerosis: analysis in mono- and dizygotic twinsS Spitsin
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
Mult Scler 7:165-6. 2001..These observations were now extended to 132 sets of twins with one sibling affected by multiple sclerosis. In blood of both mono- and dizygotic twins the uric acid levels were lower in the twin with the disease than in the healthy twin.
- Familial influences on basal salivary cortisol in an adult populationNina Kupper
Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:857-68. 2005....
- Twin-singleton differences in intelligence?D Posthuma
Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Twin Res 3:83-7. 2000..It is concluded that twin studies provide reliable estimates of heritabilities of intellectual abilities which can be generalised to the singleton population...
- Lifetime socioeconomic position and twins' health: an analysis of 308 pairs of United States women twinsNancy Krieger
Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
PLoS Med 2:e162. 2005..This comparison permitted us to ascertain the additional impact of adult experiences on adult health in a population matched on early life experiences...
- On the probability of dizygotic twins being concordant for two alleles at multiple polymorphic lociDale R Nyholt
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
Twin Res Hum Genet 9:194-7. 2006..Numerous tools enabling convenient and accurate zygosity probability calculation may be accessed via the ZygProb homepage at http://genepi.qimr.edu.au/general/daleN/ZygProb/..
- Variation in radiologic joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis differs between monozygotic and dizygotic twins and pairs of unrelated patientsAnnette H M van der Helm-van Mil
Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Arthritis Rheum 54:2028-30. 2006
- The genetic basis of academic achievement on the Queensland Core Skills Test and its shared genetic variance with IQMark A Wainwright
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
Behav Genet 35:133-45. 2005..Covariance between academic achievement on the QCST and psychometric IQ (particularly VIQ) is to a large extent due to common genetic influences...
- Determinants of birthweight and intrauterine growth in liveborn twinsRuth J F Loos
Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Human Genetics, Katholieke Universiteit Leven, Leuven, Belgium
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 19:15-22. 2005..Gestation is the main determinant of birthweight. Other placental and maternal factors have a modest but significant influence on prenatal growth...
- Genetic analysis of physical activity in twinsAnnemiek M C P Joosen
Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
Am J Clin Nutr 82:1253-9. 2005..A genetic control of activity-induced energy expenditure (AEE) may contribute to a genetic susceptibility to obesity...
- Socioeconomic position and twins' health: a life-course analysis of 1266 pairs of middle-aged Danish twinsMerete Osler
Institute of Public Health Epidemiology, University of Southern Denmark, JB Winsløws Vej 9B, 5000 Odense C, Denmark
Int J Epidemiol 36:77-83. 2007....
- Prosocial behavior from early to middle childhood: genetic and environmental influences on stability and changeAriel Knafo
Psychology Department, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Dev Psychol 42:771-86. 2006..Using longitudinal genetic analyses, the authors conclude that genetic effects account for both change and continuity in prosocial behavior and nonshared environment contributes mainly to change...
- Analysis of heritability of hormonal responses to alcohol in twins: beta-endorphin as a potential biomarker of genetic risk for alcoholismJ C Froehlich
Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202 5124, USA
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:265-77. 2000..The present study was designed to determine whether hormonal responses to alcohol are heritable...
- Prevalence of cranial scan abnormalities in preterm twins in relation to chorionicity and discordant birth weightAdedayo L Adegbite
Academic Unit of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Child Health, St Mary s Hospital for Women and Children, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 119:47-55. 2005....
- Expression of beta-cell autoimmunity does not differ between potential dizygotic twins and siblings of patients with type 1 diabetesMaria J Redondo
Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue B 140, Denver, CO 80262, USA
J Autoimmun 23:275-9. 2004....
- Habituation of cortisol responses to repeated psychosocial stress-further characterization and impact of genetic factorsStefan Wüst
Department of Psychobiology, University of Trier, Johanniterufer 15, 54290 Trier, Germany
Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:199-211. 2005....
- Neuromorbidity in preterm twins in relation to chorionicity and discordant birth weightAdedayo L Adegbite
Academic Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Mary s Hospital for Women and Children, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:156-63. 2004..The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of neurologic morbidity in preterm monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) twins...
- Birthweight in dizygotic twinsWilliam H James
Twin Res 5:309; author reply 10. 2002
- Marital status and twins' health and behavior: an analysis of middle-aged Danish twinsMerete Osler
Danish Ageing Research Center Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Psychosom Med 70:482-7. 2008..We compared health status among same-sex male and female twin pairs who lived together during childhood and were discordant or concordant on adult marital status...
- Different rates of telomere attrition in peripheral lymphocytes in a pair of dizygotic twins with hematopoietic chimerismSilke Brüderlein
Institute of Pathology, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm, Germany
Aging Cell 7:663-6. 2008Hematopoietic chimerism in dizygotic twins is due to placental vascular anastomoses and arises when hematopoietic stem cells from one twin home to the bone marrow of the other...
- Does zygosity influence the metabolic profile of twins? A population based cross sectional studyP Poulsen
Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Odense University Hospital, DK 5000 C Odense, Denmark
BMJ 319:151-4. 1999..To study the influence of zygosity on the metabolic variables involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes...
- Sex differences in genetic and environmental factors contributing to body-heightK Silventoinen
Department of Public Health, PO Box 41, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Twin Res 4:25-9. 2001..The stronger contribution of environmental factors to body-height among women questions the hypothesis that women are better buffered against environmental stress, at least for this phenotype...
- A religious upbringing reduces the influence of genetic factors on disinhibition: evidence for interaction between genotype and environment on personalityD I Boomsma
Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Twin Res 2:115-25. 1999..The resemblances between twins for the Disinhibition scale differ according to their religious upbringing. Receiving a religious upbringing seems to reduce the influence of genetic factors on Disinhibition, especially in males...
- A prospective twin study of birth weight discordance and child problem behaviorJ van Os
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, European Graduate School of Neuroscience, The Netherlands
Biol Psychiatry 50:593-9. 2001..35, p <.001). This latter effect was similar in monozygotic (beta =.34, p =.005) and dizygotic twins (beta =.37, p =.003)...
- Cell Death and Antibody-Mediated Protection from AutoimmunityGREGG JOSHUA SILVERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010..autoantibody responses in clinical populations, including close siblings and sets of monozygotic and dizygotic twins with lupus and other autoimmune diseases...
- In utero antidepressant exposures and risk for autismRoy H Perlis; Fiscal Year: 2013..This result is consistent with twin studies indicating greater concordance for autism among dizygotic twins compared to non-twin siblings, likely pointing to shared in utero risk...
- Mapping eQTLs that affect susceptibility to TuberculosisYoav Gilad; Fiscal Year: 2013..that monozygotic twins have considerably higher concordance rates for tuberculosis morbidity than do dizygotic twins. In addition, multiple rare single-gene mutations with high penetrance have also been linked with ..
- Effects of Biological Maturation and Visual Experience on Human Visual DevelopmenKaren R Dobkins; Fiscal Year: 2012..e., age since conception). (C) Monozygotic vs. Dizygotic Twins. While both twin types share the same environment and parents, they differ in the degree of shared genetic ..
- BEHAVIORALLY INDUCED SNS AROUSAL AND SODIUM REGULATIONGregory Harshfield; Fiscal Year: 1990..There will be equal numbers of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. The protocol we have developed induces SNS arousal by challenging pairs of subjects to compete with each ..
- TWINS AND RISK OF PD: A CLINICAL AND IMAGING STUDYCaroline Tanner; Fiscal Year: 2004..of Parkinson's disease, since one would expect monozygotic twins to show a much higher concordance rate than dizygotic twins if Parkinson's Disease were genetically determined...
- INTERACTIONAL FACTORS IN ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIORSarnoff Mednick; Fiscal Year: 1980..The pairwise concordance rates for criminality for the monozygotic twins was 36%, for the dizygotic twins 13%...
- NON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF RPE LIPOFUSCINFrancois DeLori; Fiscal Year: 2005..evidence for genetic regulation of the accumulation of lipofuscin and/or macular pigment in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. (4) In longitudinal studies, determine whether the foci of elevated lipofuscin and/or its average level ..
- SCOR in Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep ApneaAllan Pack; Fiscal Year: 2007..a study evaluating the heritability of sleep homeostasis in humans using a design based on monozygotic and dizygotic twins (Project by Kuna)...
- Genetics of Interstitial CystitisJohn Warren; Fiscal Year: 2007..effect is reflected by our further findings of significantly greater concordance among monozygotic than dizygotic twins and occurrence of IC in 2nd and 3rd degree relatives who presumably have not shared households...
- CANCER INCIDENCE IN MOTHERS OF DIZYGOTIC TWINSGrace Wyshak; Fiscal Year: 1980..The observed incidence of site-specific cancer will be compared with that expected among Connecticut residents of the same age and sex...
- ASSORTMENT AND TRANSMISSION OF ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO USEChandra Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2001..We propose to use a genetically informative twin-kinship design, including monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their spouses, and offspring, to resolve the mechanisms of assortment as well as models of parent-offspring ..
- MAJOR PSYCHOSES--PHENOMENOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, GENETICSNancy Andreasen; Fiscal Year: 2000..Other studies include the evaluation of phenomenology and diagnosis in monozygotic and dizygotic twins in order to explore gene/environmental interactions as they shape clinical presentation...
- Genetic studies of mammographic densityJohanna Rommens; Fiscal Year: 2009..In Aim 1, critical resources for the proposed genetic studies will be recruited from a collection of dizygotic twins used in previous studies and a breast cancer case-based collection of over 1,800 sibpairs, recruited through ..
- Childbearing and post-partum ovarian cancer riskChung cheng Hsieh; Fiscal Year: 2004..to progesterone contributes to the protective effect of childbearing by evaluating the effect of twinning (dizygotic twins in particular) and birth spacing...
- HEMATOPOIETIC CHIMERISMDANE BOGGS; Fiscal Year: 1980..The new world primate, marmoset, virtually always conceives dizygotic twins. Such twins are naturally chimeric for hematopoietic tissue by virtue of common placental circulation...
- ATHEROSCLEROTIC DISEASE AND RISK FACTORS IN TWINSGary Friedman; Fiscal Year: 1980..out a three-phase study of atherosclerotic disease and risk factors in adult like-sex monozygotic and dizygotic twins. The main objectives are to assess the degree of genetic determination of atherosclerotic disease, ..
- ORIGINS OF VARIANCE IN THE OLD-OLD--OCTOGENARIAN TWINSGerald McClearn; Fiscal Year: 2002..The study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins is one of the strongest available methods for decomposing the manifest variance in complex traits into ..
- ORIGINS OF VARIANCE IN THE OLD-OLD: OCTOGENARIAN TWINSGerald McClearn; Fiscal Year: 1993..The study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins is one of the strongest available methods for decomposing the manifest variance in complex traits into ..
- Host variability in innate inflammatory responsesMark Wurfel; Fiscal Year: 2007..Quantitative sib-pair linkage analysis will then be performed using the dizygotic twins to assess for linkage between single nueleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes from genes within the LPS ..
- College Drinking: A Twin StudyAndrey Anokhin; Fiscal Year: 2006..This study will provide a greater understanding of the interplay of genetic and high-risk environmental factors in college drinking and can inform prevention and intervention strategies on college campuses. ..
- An Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol DependenceKenneth Kendler; Fiscal Year: 2005..To conduct this project we have assembled a team of experts in clinical assessment, statistical genetics and molecular genetics...
- A Twin-Family Study of Drug Use, Abuse, and DependenceKenneth Kendler; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- THE GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA IN IRELANDKenneth Kendler; Fiscal Year: 2008..In this competitive renewal, we request 5 further years of support with the primary goals of identifying these pathogenic variant(s) and relating them to the biology of the gene, gene product and disease. ..
- Axis I & Axis II Psychiatric Disorders in Norwegian TwinKenneth Kendler; Fiscal Year: 2007..This study has the capacity to address several key and largely unanswered empirical questions about PDs, the answers to which will be critical for proposed revisions in DSM-V. ..
- BIOBEHAVIORAL MARKERS OF RISK FOR NICOTINE ADDICTIONAndrey Anokhin; Fiscal Year: 2005..The acquired expertise will allow the candidate to better integrate genetic and psychophysiological approaches in order to establish a program of interdisciplinary research in the neurobehavioral genetics of addiction. ..
- The Epidemiology of Mood, Anxiety and Alcohol DisorderKenneth Kendler; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- Biometric and Measured Genetic Research on SmokingGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2007..Such knowledge will confer new insights about the etiology and progression of smoking and should improve the current understanding of smoking, which is still largely descriptive. ..
- Treatment of Nicotine Dependence in Health Care SettingGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Causes of Comorbidity:Substance Use Disorder, ADHD & CDSoo Rhee; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Impact of Smoking Cessation on SleepGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2008..The results of this project will be particularly important for the development of targeted treatment approaches designed to ameliorate sleep disruption as part of an overall smoking cessation strategy. ..
- PHARMACOKINETICS OF NICOTINE IN TWINSGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2002..Ultimately, this knowledge may lead to more informed and more finely targeted treatment of individuals who are either susceptible to nicotine addiction or are already addicted to this substance. ..
- CVD RISK FACTORS AND BRAIN MORPHOLOGY IN NHLBI TWINSGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- Dementia in Swedish Twins Data ArchivingMargaret Gatz; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Pharmacological fMRI to Identify New Anxiolytics: A Human BioassayMurray Stein; Fiscal Year: 2008..Enhancing the development of new treatments for anxiety is a public health priority. The projects proposed in this application have the potential to achieve this important aim. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Improving Outcomes in Pharmacotherapy of Social PhobiaMurray Stein; Fiscal Year: 2009..It thus directly addresses a critical public health issue that adversely affects a substantial proportion of the population. ..
- Neural Phenotypes for Schizophrenia and Bipolar DisorderTyrone D Cannon; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Working Memory and Social Functioning in SchizophreniaTyrone Cannon; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- SES, health behaviors and CVD among Vietnam-era-TwinsJeanne McCaffery; Fiscal Year: 2005..The primary method of analysis will be twin structural equation modeling. ..
- Genetic Predictors of Comorbid Depressive Symptoms + CADJeanne McCaffery; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Preventing Psychiatric Sequelae of Traumatic InjuryMurray Stein; Fiscal Year: 2003..Findings will provide justification for and information about optimal parameters (e.g., subject selection; sample size; dose and duration) for a future randomized controlled trial (RCT). ..
- DEMENTIA IN SWEDISH TWINSMargaret Gatz; Fiscal Year: 2002..Different diagnostic criteria will be compared. Quantitative indices will be derived from neuropsychological scores and from neuroimaging data subjected to quantitative mapping. ..
- Genetic Epidemiology of Pathological GamblingWendy Slutske; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Gene-enviornment interactions in facial cleftsKaare Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2006..This study will provide a new level of understanding for a complex birth defect trait. ..
- A Twin Study of Cognitive Outcomes in Older Adult CancerMargaret Gatz; Fiscal Year: 2006..Through abstracting data from cancer treatment records and linking them to existing datasets, we will be able to examine possible longer term effects, along with likely covariates, with optimal comparison groups. ..
- IMPROVING CARE FOR PANIC DISORDER IN PRIMARY CAREMurray Stein; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- Genetic Influence on Personality DisorderJeanette Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- DSM-IV ADHD IN AN ETHNICALLY DIVERSE COMMUNITY SAMPLEErik Willcutt; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Social and Demographic Context and HeritabilityGuang Guo; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Genetic and Environmental Risk for Eating DisordersKelly Klump; Fiscal Year: 2003..Findings from this study will significantly increase understanding of developmental risk factors for eating disorders and potentially inform intervention and prevention efforts aimed at their amelioration. ..
- Familial Transmission of Eating Pathology & Sex HormonesKelly Klump; Fiscal Year: 2002..Participants will include 50 female dizygotic twins recruited from the campus of Michigan State University and surrounding metropolitan areas who will complete ..
- Etiology of Reading Disabilities and Comorbid ADHDErik Willcutt; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- ALCOHOL, HIV, AND THE BRAINAdolf Pfefferbaum; Fiscal Year: 2004..Specific Aim 3: To establish cross-sectional and longitudinal within-subject relationships among nueroimaging, neuropsychological, and clinical measures. ..
- Executive Function: Links to Drug Use & PsychopathologySusan Young; Fiscal Year: 2006..Our final aim is to determine the extent to which the covariation between ECF deficits and comorbid psychopathology is due to genetic and/or environmental factors. ..
- Genetic Influences on Activity Level in Early ChildhoodKIMBERLY SAUDINO; Fiscal Year: 2007..Our multi-method, multi-situation approach will allow a more complete picture of child behavior, moreover the finding of similar results across methods should inform about the robustness of the results. ..
- The VETSA Longitudinal Twin Study of Cortisol and AgingWilliam Kremen; Fiscal Year: 2007..Using multivariate twin analytic approaches, we will determine the extent of genetic, and shared and unique environmental factors influencing cortisol in midlife as well as their association with other key measures. ..
- Validity of DSM-IV ADHD Subtypes in a Community SampleErik Willcutt; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Androgen Receptor as a Biomarker in Prostate Cancer ProgressionAnn Hamilton; Fiscal Year: 2007..It will also lay the groundwork for larger studies examining. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- High Throughput web-base Image Analysis of Mouse Brain MR Imaging StudiesMartin Styner; Fiscal Year: 2008..The analysis of MR images of entire brain studies will become the matter of a few mouseclicks on a web-interface. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence: Exploring PhenotypesMichael Lynskey; Fiscal Year: 2008..AIM 5: Based on these analyses, to formulate a model for unfolding of genetic influences on transitions in cannabis and the emergence of dependence symptoms. ..
- Statistical Genetics Methods WorkshopHermine Maes; Fiscal Year: 2008..This workshop will provide that training and identify promising areas for future didactic and collaborative meetings. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Cannabis and Other Illicit Drug Use: A Twin StudyMichael Lynskey; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..