Summary: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu
    Stuart J D Neil
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 451:425-30. 2008
  2. pmc The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein
    Nanette Van Damme
    The San Diego Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:245-52. 2008
  3. pmc Tetherin inhibits HIV-1 release by directly tethering virions to cells
    David Perez-Caballero
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell 139:499-511. 2009
  4. ncbi Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein
    Ann M Sheehy
    Department of Microbiology, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 418:646-50. 2002
  5. pmc Vpu directs the degradation of the human immunodeficiency virus restriction factor BST-2/Tetherin via a {beta}TrCP-dependent mechanism
    Janet L Douglas
    Oregon Health and Science University, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Beaverton, 97006, USA
    J Virol 83:7931-47. 2009
  6. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
  7. pmc A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71
    Xiangxi Wang
    National Laboratory of Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:424-9. 2012
  8. pmc Purification and characterization of enterovirus 71 viral particles produced from vero cells grown in a serum-free microcarrier bioreactor system
    Chia Chyi Liu
    Vaccine Research and Development Center, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County, Taiwan
    PLoS ONE 6:e20005. 2011
  9. pmc Architects of assembly: roles of Flaviviridae non-structural proteins in virion morphogenesis
    Catherine L Murray
    The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:699-708. 2008
  10. pmc Cell-to-cell transfer of HIV-1 via virological synapses leads to endosomal virion maturation that activates viral membrane fusion
    Benjamin M Dale
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 10:551-62. 2011

Detail Information

Publications339 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu
    Stuart J D Neil
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 451:425-30. 2008
    ..Furthermore, in cells where HIV-1 virion release requires Vpu expression, depletion of CD317 abolished this requirement...
  2. pmc The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein
    Nanette Van Damme
    The San Diego Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:245-52. 2008
    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu counteracts a host factor that restricts virion release from infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/HM1.24/CD317 is such a factor...
  3. pmc Tetherin inhibits HIV-1 release by directly tethering virions to cells
    David Perez-Caballero
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell 139:499-511. 2009
    ..The underlying mechanism by which tetherin functions and whether it directly or indirectly causes virion retention are unknown. Here, we elucidate the mechanism by which tetherin exerts its antiviral activity...
  4. ncbi Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein
    Ann M Sheehy
    Department of Microbiology, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 418:646-50. 2002
    ..The Vif (virion infectivity factor) proteins are encoded by primate immunodeficiency viruses, most notably human immunodeficiency ..
  5. pmc Vpu directs the degradation of the human immunodeficiency virus restriction factor BST-2/Tetherin via a {beta}TrCP-dependent mechanism
    Janet L Douglas
    Oregon Health and Science University, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Beaverton, 97006, USA
    J Virol 83:7931-47. 2009
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein are the degradation of the viral receptor CD4 and the enhancement of virion release...
  6. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
    ..HCVcc replication was inhibited by interferon-alpha and by several HCV-specific antiviral compounds, suggesting that this in vitro system will aid in the search for improved antivirals...
  7. pmc A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71
    Xiangxi Wang
    National Laboratory of Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:424-9. 2012
  8. pmc Purification and characterization of enterovirus 71 viral particles produced from vero cells grown in a serum-free microcarrier bioreactor system
    Chia Chyi Liu
    Vaccine Research and Development Center, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County, Taiwan
    PLoS ONE 6:e20005. 2011
    ..Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections manifest most commonly as a childhood exanthema known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and can cause neurological disease during acute infection...
  9. pmc Architects of assembly: roles of Flaviviridae non-structural proteins in virion morphogenesis
    Catherine L Murray
    The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:699-708. 2008
    ..Recent advances in our understanding of virion assembly have uncovered commonalities among distantly related members of this family...
  10. pmc Cell-to-cell transfer of HIV-1 via virological synapses leads to endosomal virion maturation that activates viral membrane fusion
    Benjamin M Dale
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 10:551-62. 2011
    HIV-1 can infect T cells by cell-free virus or by direct virion transfer between cells through cell contact-induced structures called virological synapses (VS). During VS-mediated infection, virions accumulate within target cell endosomes...
  11. pmc Repulsion of superinfecting virions: a mechanism for rapid virus spread
    Virginie Doceul
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Science 327:873-6. 2010
    ..Mechanistically, early expression of proteins A33 and A36 was critical for virion repulsion and rapid spread, and cells expressing these proteins repelled exogenous virions rapidly...
  12. pmc Cell-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 overcomes tetherin/BST-2-mediated restriction in T cells
    Clare Jolly
    MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Windeyer Building, London, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:12185-99. 2010
    ..more efficiently by cell-to-cell contact between Jurkat cells under conditions where tetherin restricted cell-free virion release...
  13. pmc Inefficient human immunodeficiency virus replication in mobile lymphocytes
    Marion Sourisseau
    Groupe Virus et Immunité, URA CNRS 1930, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Virol 81:1000-12. 2007
    ..Altogether, these results indicate that cell-to-cell transfer is the predominant mode of HIV spread and help to explain why this virus replicates so efficiently in lymphoid organs...
  14. ncbi Specific incorporation of cyclophilin A into HIV-1 virions
    E K Franke
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032
    Nature 372:359-62. 1994
    Little is known about host factors necessary for retroviral virion assembly or uncoating...
  15. ncbi Hepatitis C virus core protein induces lipid droplet redistribution in a microtubule- and dynein-dependent manner
    Steeve Boulant
    MRC Virology Unit, Institute of Virology, Church Street, Glasgow G11 5JR, UK
    Traffic 9:1268-82. 2008
    ..We propose that the presence of core on LDs favours their movement towards the nucleus, possibly to increase the probability of interaction between sites of HCV RNA replication and virion assembly.
  16. pmc The RING-CH ligase K5 antagonizes restriction of KSHV and HIV-1 particle release by mediating ubiquitin-dependent endosomal degradation of tetherin
    Claire Pardieu
    MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000843. 2010
    ..Taken together our results demonstrate that K5 is a mechanistically distinct viral countermeasure to tetherin-mediated restriction, and that herpesvirus particle release is sensitive to this mode of antiviral inhibition...
  17. pmc HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu internalizes cell-surface BST-2/tetherin through transmembrane interactions leading to lysosomes
    Yukie Iwabu
    Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Biol Chem 284:35060-72. 2009
    ..Also, we propose the following configuration of BST-2 in tethering virions to the cell surface; each of the dimerized BST-2 molecules acts as a bridge between viral and cell membranes...
  18. pmc Poliovirus RNA is released from the capsid near a twofold symmetry axis
    Mihnea Bostina
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Virol 85:776-83. 2011
    ..To avoid entanglement with the capsid, the RNA must exit via a single site on the virion surface...
  19. pmc Interaction of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A with core protein is critical for the production of infectious virus particles
    Takahiro Masaki
    Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Virol 82:7964-76. 2008
    ..a marked decrease in NS5A-core interaction, disturbance of the subcellular localization of NS5A, and disruption of virion production...
  20. pmc Dengue virus capsid protein usurps lipid droplets for viral particle formation
    Marcelo M Samsa
    Fundación Instituto Leloir CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000632. 2009
    ..We propose that lipid droplets play multiple roles during the viral life cycle; they could sequester the viral capsid protein early during infection and provide a scaffold for genome encapsidation...
  21. pmc Vpu enhances HIV-1 virus release in the absence of Bst-2 cell surface down-modulation and intracellular depletion
    Eri Miyagi
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Viral Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2868-73. 2009
  22. pmc Conformational changes of the flavivirus E glycoprotein
    Ying Zhang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lilly Hall, 915 West State Street, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Structure 12:1607-18. 2004
    ..Flexibility of E is apparently a functional requirement for assembly and infection of flaviviruses...
  23. pmc Role of annexin A2 in the production of infectious hepatitis C virus particles
    Perdita Backes
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Virol 84:5775-89. 2010
    ..Therefore, it seems likely that ANXA2 plays a role in HCV assembly rather than in genome replication or virion release...
  24. pmc Catching a virus in the act of RNA release: a novel poliovirus uncoating intermediate characterized by cryo-electron microscopy
    Hazel C Levy
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 84:4426-41. 2010
  25. pmc Lassa virus Z protein is a matrix protein and sufficient for the release of virus-like particles [corrected]
    Thomas Strecker
    Institut für Virologie der Philipps Universität Marburg, D 35037 Marburg, Germany
    J Virol 77:10700-5. 2003
    ..contains two late domains, PTAP and PPXY, necessary for the release of virus-like particles. Our data provide evidence that Z is the Lassa virus matrix protein that is the driving force for virus particle release...
  26. pmc Envelope glycans of immunodeficiency virions are almost entirely oligomannose antigens
    Katie J Doores
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:13800-5. 2010
    ..This study revises and extends our understanding of the glycan shield of HIV with implications for AIDS vaccine design...
  27. pmc MPER-specific antibodies induce gp120 shedding and irreversibly neutralize HIV-1
    Claudia R Ruprecht
    Institute of Medical Virology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 208:439-54. 2011
    ..gp120 shedding is closely associated with MPER antibody inhibition, constituting either a primary event leading to virion neutralization or representing an immediate consequence thereof, and thus needs to be factored into the ..
  28. pmc Inhibition of Lassa and Marburg virus production by tetherin
    Toshie Sakuma
    First Department of Forensic Science, National Research Institute of Police Science, Kashiwa 277 0882, Japan
    J Virol 83:2382-5. 2009
    ..These results suggest that tetherin inhibits the release of a wide variety of enveloped viruses from host cells by a common mechanism...
  29. pmc Identification of proteins in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) particles: the HCMV proteome
    Susan M Varnum
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    J Virol 78:10960-6. 2004
    ..HCMV genome has been known for over a decade, the full set of viral and cellular proteins that compose the HCMV virion are unknown...
  30. pmc Human apolipoprotein e is required for infectivity and production of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Kyung Soo Chang
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
    J Virol 81:13783-93. 2007
    ..The fractions of low densities are infectious, while the higher-density fractions containing the majority of HCV virion RNA are not...
  31. pmc Role of N-linked glycans in the functions of hepatitis C virus envelope proteins incorporated into infectious virions
    François Helle
    Institut Pasteur de Lille, Bâtiment IBL, 59021 Lille Cedex, France
    J Virol 84:11905-15. 2010
    ..Furthermore, these carbohydrates form a "glycan shield" at the surface of the virion, which contributes to the evasion of HCV from the humoral immune response.
  32. pmc Functional surfaces of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein
    Uta K von Schwedler
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84132, USA
    J Virol 77:5439-50. 2003
    ..Finally, the identification of replication-defective mutants with normal viral assembly phenotypes indicates that CA also performs important nonstructural functions at early stages of the viral life cycle...
  33. pmc Imaging the biogenesis of individual HIV-1 virions in live cells
    Nolwenn Jouvenet
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 454:236-40. 2008 Gag protein accumulated in cells, and typically 5-6 min was required to complete the assembly of a single virion. These approaches allow a previously unobserved view of the genesis of individual virions and the determination of ..
  34. pmc Lytic activity of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88
    Lorena Rodriguez
    Instituto de Productos Lacteos de Asturias IPLA CSIC, Apdo, Asturias, Spain
    BMC Microbiol 11:138. 2011
    ..In this context, bacteriophage lytic enzymes such as endolysins and structural peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases have received considerable attention as possible antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria...
  35. pmc A cytoplasmic tail determinant in HIV-1 Vpu mediates targeting of tetherin for endosomal degradation and counteracts interferon-induced restriction
    Tonya Kueck
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002609. 2012
    ..Importantly, this motif is required for efficient cell-free virion release from CD4+ T cells, particularly after their exposure to type-1 interferon, indicating that the ability to ..
  36. pmc RNA helicase A modulates translation of HIV-1 and infectivity of progeny virions
    Cheryl Bolinger
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Center for Retrovirus Research and Center for RNA Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 1093, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:1686-96. 2010
  37. pmc Conformational changes induced in the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein by soluble CD4 binding
    Q J Sattentau
    Academic Department of Genito Urinary Medicine, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 174:407-15. 1991
    ..We propose that these events occurring after CD4 binding are integral components of the membrane fusion reaction between HIV or HIV-infected cells and CD4+ cells...
  38. ncbi The molecular biology of coronaviruses
    Paul S Masters
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, 12201, USA
    Adv Virus Res 66:193-292. 2006
    ..discoveries in the study of the molecular biology of these infectious agents, with particular emphasis on the nature and recognition of viral receptors, viral RNA synthesis, and the molecular interactions governing virion assembly.
  39. pmc Influenza A virus M2 protein: monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in virions
    S L Zebedee
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208
    J Virol 62:2762-72. 1988
    ..monoclonal antibody was used in a sensitive immunoblot assay to show that M2 protein could be detected in virion preparations...
  40. ncbi HIV-1 buds and accumulates in "nonacidic" endosomes of macrophages
    Mabel Jouve
    Institut Curie, INSERM U653, 26 rue d Ulm 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Cell Host Microbe 2:85-95. 2007
    ..Thus, HIV-1 has developed a strategy for survival within infected macrophages involving prevention of acidification within a devoted endocytic virus assembly compartment...
  41. pmc Cellular factors required for Lassa virus budding
    Shuzo Urata
    First Department of Forensic Science, National Research Institute of Police Science, Kashiwa 277 0882, Japan
    J Virol 80:4191-5. 2006
    ..Our data may provide a clue to develop an effective antiviral strategy for Lassa virus...
  42. pmc Small-molecule inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by virus capsid destabilization
    Jiong Shi
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, A 5301 Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232 2363, USA
    J Virol 85:542-9. 2011
    ..This study highlights uncoating as a step in the HIV-1 life cycle that is susceptible to small molecule intervention...
  43. pmc Simultaneous quantitation of antibodies to neutralizing epitopes on virus-like particles for human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by a multiplexed luminex assay
    David Opalka
    Virus and Cell Biology, Merck Research Laboratories, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087 8630, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:108-15. 2003
  44. pmc A supramolecular assembly formed by influenza A virus genomic RNA segments
    Emilie Fournier
    Architecture et Reactivite de l ARN, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IBMC, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:2197-209. 2012
    ..Collectively, our findings support a model in which the eight genomic RNA segments are selected and packaged as an organized supramolecular complex held together by direct base pairing of the packaging signals...
  45. pmc A virus capsid component mediates virion retention and transmission by its insect vector
    Angel Y S Chen
    Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology and Center for Disease Vector Research, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:16777-82. 2011
    ..Notably, a transmission-defective CPm mutant was deficient in specific virion retention, whereas the CPm-restored virus showed WT levels of specific virion retention and transmission...
  46. pmc A surface loop of the potato leafroll virus coat protein is involved in virion assembly, systemic movement, and aphid transmission
    Lawrence Lee
    Department of Plant Pathology, 334 Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Virol 79:1207-14. 2005
    ..virus (PLRV) coat protein, separated by 55 amino acids and predicted to be adjacent surface features on the virion, were the focus of a mutational analysis...
  47. pmc Immunoelectron microscopic evidence for Tetherin/BST2 as the physical bridge between HIV-1 virions and the plasma membrane
    Jason Hammonds
    Department of Pediatrics and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000749. 2010
    ..Tetherin acts to retain virion particles on the plasma membrane after budding has been completed...
  48. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and related primate lentiviruses engage clathrin through Gag-Pol or Gag
    Sergei Popov
    UMass Medical School, LRB 526, 364 Plantation St, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    J Virol 85:3792-801. 2011
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that primate lentiviruses from two different subgroups functionally interact with clathrin during assembly...
  49. pmc The T7-related Pseudomonas putida phage φ15 displays virion-associated biofilm degradation properties
    Anneleen Cornelissen
    Laboratory of Gene Technology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 6:e18597. 2011
    ..of single-species Pseudomonas putida biofilms, PpG1 and RD5PR2, by the novel phage ϕ15, a 'T7-like virus' with a virion-associated exopolysaccharide (EPS) depolymerase...
  50. pmc Incorporation of the green fluorescent protein into the herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid
    P Desai
    Virology Laboratories, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 72:7563-8. 1998
    ..Furthermore, the fusion protein incorporated into the virion particle was fluorescent as judged by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of infected cells in the ..
  51. pmc Synaptic vesicle-like lipidome of human cytomegalovirus virions reveals a role for SNARE machinery in virion egress
    Sean T H Liu
    Department of Molecular Biology, Lewis Thomas Laboratory, University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12869-74. 2011
    ..The virion envelope contained twofold more phosphatidylethanolamines and threefold less phosphatidylserines than the host ..
  52. pmc An externalized polypeptide partitions between two distinct sites on genome-released poliovirus particles
    Jun Lin
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
    J Virol 85:9974-83. 2011
    ..Similar deviations from icosahedral symmetry may be biologically significant during other viral transitions...
  53. pmc Synthesis of infectious human papillomavirus type 18 in differentiating epithelium transfected with viral DNA
    C Meyers
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey 17033, USA
    J Virol 71:7381-6. 1997
    ..HPV18 virions purified by isopycnic gradient were capable of infecting keratinocytes in vitro, as shown by the expression of multiple HPV18-specific, spliced transcripts...
  54. pmc HIV-1 maturation inhibitor bevirimat stabilizes the immature Gag lattice
    Paul W Keller
    Laboratory of Structural Biology Research, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH, Building 50, Room 1517, 50 South Drive, MSC 8025, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 85:1420-8. 2011
    ..In both cases, the observed failure to assemble mature capsids correlates with the loss of infectivity...
  55. pmc Cryo electron tomography of native HIV-1 budding sites
    Lars Anders Carlson
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Universitatsklinikum Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001173. 2010
    ..lattice of the structural Gag protein in budding sites was indistinguishable from that of the released immature virion, suggesting that its organization is determined at the assembly site without major subsequent rearrangements...
  56. pmc Structural changes of envelope proteins during alphavirus fusion
    Long Li
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 W State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2054, USA
    Nature 468:705-8. 2010
    ..The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of E2 each form immunoglobulin-like folds, consistent with the receptor attachment properties of E2...
  57. pmc Vaccinia virus extracellular enveloped virion neutralization in vitro and protection in vivo depend on complement
    Mohammed Rafii El Idrissi Benhnia
    Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 83:1201-15. 2009
    ..Antibody neutralization is an important component of protective immunity against vaccinia virus (VACV). Two distinct virion forms, mature virion and enveloped virion (MV and EV, respectively), possess separate functions and nonoverlapping ..
  58. pmc HIV-1 Vpu neutralizes the antiviral factor Tetherin/BST-2 by binding it and directing its beta-TrCP2-dependent degradation
    Bastien Mangeat
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospitals and Medical School of Geneva, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000574. 2009
    ..Identification of tetherin binding to Vpu provides a potential novel target for the development of drugs aimed at inhibiting HIV-1 replication...
  59. pmc Proteolytic activation of tick-borne encephalitis virus by furin
    K Stadler
    Institute of Virology, University of Vienna, Austria
    J Virol 71:8475-81. 1997
    ..Shortly before the virion exits the cell, prM is cleaved by a cellular enzyme, and this processing step can be blocked by treatment with ..
  60. ncbi Structure of the amino-terminal core domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein
    R K Gitti
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Science 273:231-5. 1996
    ..The binding site for cyclophilin A, a cellular rotamase that is packaged into the HIV-1 virion, is located on the exposed loop and encompasses the essential proline residue Pro90...
  61. pmc Structural and functional studies of nonstructural protein 2 of the hepatitis C virus reveal its key role as organizer of virion assembly
    Vlastimil Jirasko
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001233. 2010
    ..Mutants affected in virion assembly, but not RNA replication, were selected for pseudoreversion in cell culture...
  62. pmc Structural organization of a filamentous influenza A virus
    Lesley J Calder
    Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10685-90. 2010
    ..membrane is an ordered helix of the M1 protein and its close interaction with the surrounding envelope determines virion morphology...
  63. ncbi Cellular proteins detected in HIV-1
    David E Ott
    AIDS Vaccine Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    Rev Med Virol 18:159-75. 2008
    ..In the same way, knowledge of viral--cellular protein interactions might assist our understanding of important cellular pathways...
  64. pmc Myristoylation of the RING finger Z protein is essential for arenavirus budding
    Mar Perez
    The Scripps Research Institute, IMM6, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Virol 78:11443-8. 2004
    ..These findings indicate N-terminal myristoylation of Z plays a key role in arenavirus budding...
  65. ncbi Dissociation of gp120 from HIV-1 virions induced by soluble CD4
    J P Moore
    Chester Beatty Laboratories, Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
    Science 250:1139-42. 1990
    ..This may represent the initial stage in virus-cell and cell-cell fusion. Shedding of gp120 from virions induced by sCD4 may also contribute to the mechanism by which these soluble receptor molecules neutralize HIV-1...
  66. pmc Electron tomography analysis of envelope glycoprotein trimers on HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus virions
    Ping Zhu
    Department of Biological Science and Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15812-7. 2003
    ..Wild-type HIV-1 and SIV virions had an average of 8-10 trimers per virion, consistent with predictions based on biochemical evidence...
  67. ncbi A structural perspective of the flavivirus life cycle
    Suchetana Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 West State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2054, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:13-22. 2005
    ..This review focuses mainly on structural studies of dengue virus...
  68. pmc Role of Abl kinase and the Wave2 signaling complex in HIV-1 entry at a post-hemifusion step
    Brooke Harmon
    Division of Molecular Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000956. 2010
    ..These results suggest a potential utility of Abl kinase inhibitors to treat HIV-1 infected patients...
  69. ncbi Genome packaging in influenza A virus
    Edward C Hutchinson
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    J Gen Virol 91:313-28. 2010
    ..At the final stage of viral assembly, these genomic virion (v)RNAs are incorporated into the virion as it buds from the apical plasma membrane of the cell...
  70. ncbi Taking aim on bacterial pathogens: from phage therapy to enzybiotics
    Juan A Hermoso
    Grupo de Cristalografia Macromolecular y Biologia Estructural, Instituto Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    Curr Opin Microbiol 10:461-72. 2007
    ..These results allow endolysins to be considered as effective antimicrobials with potentially important applications in medicine and biotechnology...
  71. pmc A human cytomegalovirus gO-null mutant fails to incorporate gH/gL into the virion envelope and is unable to enter fibroblasts and epithelial and endothelial cells
    Paul T Wille
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Virol 84:2585-96. 2010
    ..This was different from results involving fibroblast-adapted HCMV strain AD169, which incorporates gO into the virion envelope...
  72. pmc The dynamics of EBV shedding implicate a central role for epithelial cells in amplifying viral output
    Vey Hadinoto
    Department of Pathology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000496. 2009
    ..We suggest that the final size of these plaques is a function of the rate of infectious spread within the lymphoepithelium which may be governed by the structural complexity of the tissue but is ultimately limited by the immune response...
  73. pmc Serine-threonine ubiquitination mediates downregulation of BST-2/tetherin and relief of restricted virion release by HIV-1 Vpu
    Andrey A Tokarev
    Department of Medicine University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol 85:51-63. 2011
    ..specifically mediates the downregulation of BST-2 from the cell surface and the optimal relief of restricted virion release...
  74. ncbi Visualization of retroviral replication in living cells reveals budding into multivesicular bodies
    Nathan M Sherer
    Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, 295 Congress Ave, New Haven, CT 06536, USA
    Traffic 4:785-801. 2003
    ..These data suggest that retroviruses can interact with the vps sorting machinery in a more traditional sense, directly linked to the mechanism by which cellular proteins are sorted into multivesicular endosomes...
  75. pmc Assembly and maturation of the flavivirus Kunjin virus appear to occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the secretory pathway, respectively
    J M MacKenzie
    Clinical Medical Virology Centre, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Virol 75:10787-99. 2001
    ..The results suggest that the assembly of virions occurs within the lumen of the RER and that subsequent maturation occurs via the secretory pathway...
  76. ncbi With a little help from a friend: increasing HIV transduction of monocyte-derived dendritic cells with virion-like particles of SIV(MAC)
    C Goujon
    INSERM U412, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, IFR 128 Biosciences Lyon Gerland, Lyon, France
    Gene Ther 13:991-4. 2006
    ..In this study, we show that preincubation of monocyte-derived DCs with low amounts of non-infectious virion-like particles derived from the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV(MAC) VLPs) increases up to 10-fold the ..
  77. ncbi Architecture of ribonucleoprotein complexes in influenza A virus particles
    Takeshi Noda
    Internal Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo 108 8639, Japan
    Nature 439:490-2. 2006
    ..The individual RNPs are suspended from the interior of the viral envelope at the distal end of the budding virion and are oriented perpendicular to the budding tip...
  78. pmc Critical role of virion-associated cholesterol and sphingolipid in hepatitis C virus infection
    Hideki Aizaki
    Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Virol 82:5715-24. 2008
    ..we establish that cholesterol and sphingolipid associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles are important for virion maturation and infectivity...
  79. pmc Direct restriction of virus release and incorporation of the interferon-induced protein BST-2 into HIV-1 particles
    Kathleen Fitzpatrick
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000701. 2010
    ..b>Virion-incorporation was confirmed by capture of infectivity using antibody to the ectodomain of BST-2...
  80. ncbi Characterization of a T7-like lytic bacteriophage of Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055: a potential therapeutic agent
    Vivek Verma
    Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India
    Curr Microbiol 59:274-81. 2009
    ..We propose the use of this characterized phage, KPO1K2, as a prophylactic/therapeutic agent especially for the treatment of catheter associated UTI caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae...
  81. pmc Macrophages archive HIV-1 virions for dissemination in trans
    Natalia Sharova
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    EMBO J 24:2481-9. 2005
    ..The stable sequestration of infectious virions within cytoplasmic compartments of macrophages may represent an additional mechanism for viral persistence in HIV-1-infected individuals...
  82. ncbi Simian Virus 40 depends on ER protein folding and quality control factors for entry into host cells
    Mario Schelhaas
    Institute of Biochemistry, Schafmattstrasse 18, ETH Hoenggerberg, ETH Zurich, CH 8093, Zurich, Switzerland
    Cell 131:516-29. 2007
    ..Thus, the virus utilizes the protein folding machinery for initial uncoating before exploiting the ER-associated degradation machinery presumably to escape from the ER lumen into the cytosol...
  83. pmc BST-2 diminishes HIV-1 infectivity
    Jianyong Zhang
    McGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Cote Ste Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Virol 84:12336-43. 2010
    ..The lowered virion infectivity is due to the accumulation of pr55 Gag precursor and the p40Gag intermediates as well as to the loss ..
  84. pmc Structural analysis of HIV-1 maturation using cryo-electron tomography
    Alex De Marco
    Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001215. 2010
    HIV-1 buds form infected cells in an immature, non-infectious form. Maturation into an infectious virion requires proteolytic cleavage of the Gag polyprotein at five positions, leading to a dramatic change in virus morphology...
  85. pmc Alanine scanning of the hepatitis C virus core protein reveals numerous residues essential for production of infectious virus
    Catherine L Murray
    Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 81:10220-31. 2007
    ..As a component of the virion, the HCV core protein likely functions primarily in infectious virus production, although little is known about ..
  86. ncbi First snapshots of the HIV-1 RNA structure in infected cells and in virions
    Jean Christophe Paillart
    Unité Propre de Recherche 9002 du CNRS conventionnée à l Université Louis Pasteur, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 279:48397-403. 2004
    ..Taken together, our results provided the first analysis of the dynamic of RNA structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA genome during virus assembly ex vivo...
  87. pmc Backbone model of an aquareovirus virion by cryo-electron microscopy and bioinformatics
    Lingpeng Cheng
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7364, USA
    J Mol Biol 397:852-63. 2010
    ..We report a near-atomic-resolution reconstruction of the GCRV virion by cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction...
  88. pmc Protein transduction from retroviral Gag precursors
    Christine Voelkel
    Department of Experimental Hematology, and Research Group Stem Cell Biology, Hannover Medical School, D 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7805-10. 2010
  89. pmc Incorporation of high levels of chimeric human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins into virus-like particles
    Bao Zhong Wang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Virol 81:10869-78. 2007
    ..HIV Env specific monoclonal antibody binding results showed that chimeric Env-containing VLPs retained conserved epitopes and underwent conformational changes upon CD4 binding...
  90. pmc Safety and immunogenicity of AS03B adjuvanted split virion versus non-adjuvanted whole virion H1N1 influenza vaccine in UK children aged 6 months-12 years: open label, randomised, parallel group, multicentre study
    Claire S Waddington
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ
    BMJ 340:c2649. 2010
    To compare the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted split virion H1N1 vaccine and a non-adjuvanted whole virion vaccine used in the pandemic immunisation programme in the United Kingdom.
  91. pmc Compensatory mutations in E1, p7, NS2, and NS3 enhance yields of cell culture-infectious intergenotypic chimeric hepatitis C virus
    Minkyung Yi
    Center for Hepatitis Research, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 81:629-38. 2007
    ..We conclude that interactions between NS2 and E1 and p7 as well as between NS2 and NS3 are essential for virus assembly and/or release and that each of these viral proteins plays an important role in this process...
  92. pmc Infectious hepatitis C virus pseudo-particles containing functional E1-E2 envelope protein complexes
    Birke Bartosch
    Laboratoire de Vectorologie Rétrovirale et Thérapie Génique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U412, IFR 128, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    J Exp Med 197:633-42. 2003
    ..Altogether, these studies indicate that these pseudo-particles may mimic the early infection steps of parental HCV and will be suitable for the development of much needed new antiviral therapies...
  93. pmc Efficient infection by a recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome: application for genetic analysis
    Fu Chun Zhou
    Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78229, USA
    J Virol 76:6185-96. 2002
    ..The feasibility of the system was illustrated through the generation of a KSHV mutant with the vIRF gene deleted. This cellular model is useful for the investigation of KSHV infection and pathogenesis...
  94. ncbi Actin-binding cellular proteins inside human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    D E Ott
    SAIC Frederick, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, 21702 1201, USA
    Virology 266:42-51. 2000
    ..To identify cellular proteins inside HIV-1, virion preparations were treated by a protease-digestion technique that removes external host proteins, allowing for the ..
  95. pmc Imaging the interaction of HIV-1 genomes and Gag during assembly of individual viral particles
    Nolwenn Jouvenet
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Cellular Biophysics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19114-9. 2009
  96. pmc Species-specific activity of HIV-1 Vpu and positive selection of tetherin transmembrane domain variants
    Matthew W McNatt
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000300. 2009
  97. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein modulates the lipid composition of virions and host cell membrane microdomains
    Britta Brugger
    Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center BZH, Heidelberg, Germany
    Retrovirology 4:70. 2007
    ..suggested a correlation between the association of Nef with lipid raft microdomains and its positive effects on virion infectivity...
  98. ncbi Live-cell visualization of dynamics of HIV budding site interactions with an ESCRT component
    Viola Baumgärtel
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science CiPSM and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Butenandtstrasse 11, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 13:469-74. 2011
    ..virus) diverts the cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery to promote virion release from infected cells...
  99. ncbi Virus-like particles as a vaccine delivery system: myths and facts
    Polly Roy
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Adv Exp Med Biol 655:145-58. 2009
    ..With new VLP vaccines for papillomavirus beginning to reach the market place we argue that this technology has now 'come-of-age' and must be considered a viable vaccine strategy...
  100. pmc An HPV 16 L1-based chimeric human papilloma virus-like particles containing a string of epitopes produced in plants is able to elicit humoral and cytotoxic T-cell activity in mice
    Georgina Paz De la Rosa
    Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados Cinvestav, Unidad Irapuato, km, 9, 6 libramiento norte, 36500 Carretera Irapuato León, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico
    Virol J 6:2. 2009
    ..Several HPV genes have been expressed in plants, including L1, which can self-assemble into virus-like particles. A plant-based, dual prophylactic/therapeutic vaccine remains an attractive possibility...
  101. pmc Resolving the assembly state of herpes simplex virus during axon transport by live-cell imaging
    Sarah E Antinone
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Virol 84:13019-30. 2010
    ..In this study, we applied time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to image HSV-1 virion components actively translocating to distal axons in primary neurons and neuronal cell lines...

Research Grants81

  1. Varicella zoster virus: molecular controls of cell fusion-dependent pathogenesis
    Ann Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Glycoprotein B (gB) along with the gH/gL heterodimer is known to be critical for fusion of the virion envelope with the target cell membrane during herpesvirus entry...
  2. Regulation and Function of the HCMV pp71 Tegument Protein
    Julie Kerry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In specific aim 2, we will map the phosphorylation sites of pp71 protein in both infected cells and the virion using tandem mass spectrometry approaches...
  3. Mechanistic Studies of HCV E2
    Joseph Marcotrigiano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The HCV virion consists of a membrane enveloped nucleocapsid and two glycoproteins (E1 and E2), which are important for ..
  4. VEE Virus Infection on the Mosquito Vector
    Scott C Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2013 mutations that alter amino acids in the E2 envelope glycoprotein, an important component of spikes on the virion surface...
  5. Agnoprotein in JC virus virion biogenesis and replication
    Mahmut Safak; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the functions of agnoprotein and led us to hypothesize that agnoprotein plays critical regulatory roles in JCV virion biogenesis and therefore in the progression of PML...
  6. Crossprotective CTL Against Influenza
    Ellis L Reinherz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..strategies against influenza A viruses are primarily based upon elicitation of neutralizing antibodies directed at virion surface expressed hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins...
  7. Encapsidation of the poxvirus genome
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2012 the virus are those mediate gene expression, genome replication and maturation, and the complex process of virion assembly...
  8. Control of HIV drug resistance in older patients
    Alonso Heredia; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and CCR5 (free and antagonist-bound) and the stoichiometry (number of antagonist-bound CCR5 molecules engaged per virion) in CCR5 antagonist-resistant R5 HIV infection...
  9. Phase I Study to Evaluate Safety and Toxicity of EGCG in HIV-1-Infected Subjects
    Christina L Nance; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..shown to bind to the HIV-1-gp120 binding site on the CD4 molecule with sufficient affinity to prevent the HIV-1 virion from attaching to the target cell, CD4, thus inhibiting infection...
  10. Role of HSV Induced RNA Degradation in Pathogenesis
    David A Leib; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For HSV the major gene responsible for this shutoff is the virion host shutoff protein or vhs. Vhs is an RNAse, inducing rapid destabilization of host mRNAs...
  11. The Pox Virion Molecular Interactome
    Paul D Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..From the picornaviruses to the herpesviruses, an understanding of virion outer molecular structures at molecular or atomic resolution, has instructed the rational design of therapeutic ..
  12. Viral Gene Expression to Therapeutic Levels in Models of Heart Failure
    Joseph E Rabinowitz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the best parental and transcapsidation (combination of capsid subunits from different AAV serotypes into one virion) serotypes, will permit examination of cardiac tropism of the recombinant virus after systemic injection;and 2) ..
  13. Optimized Adaptation of Simian-tropic R5 HIV Clade C to Pig-tailed Macaques
    RUTH MARGRIT RUPRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..APOBEC3G (A3G), a cytidine deaminase that is not recognized by HIV-1 Vif and therefore escapes inhibition by this virion-associated protein...
  14. Modulation of histone deacetylase activity by a gammaherpesviral kinase
    Bryan C Mounce; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..facilitates viral infection at several stages, including viral gen expression, DNA replication, and infectious virion production. To test this hypothesis, we will use cells and mice with conditional HDAC alleles...
  15. Mechanisms of pox virus motility and release
    Daniel Kalman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The key questions we address here are: Aim 1: how does the virion recruit and activate tyrosine kinases;Aim 2: what are the cellular and viral targets of the kinases, and how does ..
  16. Astrovirus structure and replication
    Yizhi Jane Tao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 2. The mechanism of astrovirus RNA replication. We will experimentally map the sequence of the virion- associated astrovirus VPg...
  17. Underlying Mechanisms of ApoE in HCV Infection and Assembly
    GUANGXIANG GEORGE LUO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have demonstrated that apoE is a structural component of HCV and plays important roles in HCV infection and virion assembly...
  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Chikungunya N-linked Glycosylation on Pathogenesis
    CHARLES EDWIN MCGEE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 2: To identify specific C-type lectin receptors that interact with CHIKV envelope/virion N-linked glycans...
  19. Improving Antibodies to Virion Based HIV Vaccines
    Kathie Grovit-Ferbas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The central hypothesis of this renewal application "Improving Antibody Responses to Virion Based HIV Vaccines" is that native HIV envelope (Env) is not an optimal antigen for the humoral immune system...
  20. Interferon Effects on HIV Transmission in Human Models
    Judy Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Most sexual exposures do not lead to transmission. Of the swarms of virus in the semen, only a single virion is usually transmitted...
  21. 3C Protease Polyubiquitylation as a Picornavirus Replication Success Determinant
    THOMAS GLEN LAWSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..pathways involved in 3C protease polyubiquitylation and measure the extent to which this inhibition alters new virion component production rates, infectious progeny virion yield, and the timing of cytopathicity onset...
  22. Modification of AdenoAssociated Virus to deliver DNA directly to Mitochondria
    John Guy; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Our Specific Aims are: 1) To (a) direct the AAV virion to mitochondria of cultured cells and test for the presence and expression of the payload DNA and then (b) test ..
  23. HIV-driven B cell activation: role in the genesis of AIDS-related lymphoma
    Otoniel Martinez-Maza; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that B cell activation can contribute to the development of ARL, it is important to better define the role of such virion-associated stimulatory molecules in driving B cell activation With this in mind, the specific aims of this study ..
  24. KSHV Lytic DNA Replication and its Control Mechanism
    Subhash C Verma; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..also determine the role of viral microRNA and epigenetic modifications in regulating replication initiation and virion production...
    Robert V Schoborg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our data demonstrate that either HSV-2 co-infection or contact between purified HSV-2 virion glycoprotein D (gD) and the host genital epithelial cell adhesion protein, nectin-1 (nec-1), induces C...
  26. The roles of acidic autophagosomes in production of infectious poliovirus
    William T Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..secretory vesicles used for RNA replication, and acidification of the newly formed autophagosomes promotes virion maturation. The central hypothesis will be tested by pursuing two specific aims...
  27. Helper phage mobilization of S. aureus superantigen pathogenicity islands
    Gail E Christie; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..frequency transduction involves a remarkable example of molecular piracy, in which the SaPIs not only hijack the virion of the helper phage but direct the formation of smaller capsids which can accommodate the smaller SaPI genome ..
  28. Adenovirus-based Anti-Cocaine Vaccine
    Ronald G Crystal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We hypothesize that linking cocaine analogs to the proteins on the virion capsid (hexon, fiber, penton) will elicit high level, high affinity cocaine-specific antibodies sufficient to ..
  29. Vaccinia Virus Genetics and Morphogenesis
    Richard C Condit; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The goal of this proposal is to understand the structure and assembly of the vaccinia virion core. The core contains the viral DNA and at least 50 viral proteins...
  30. Genetic Analysis of Molecular Interactions in Coronavirus Replication
    PAUL SCOTT MASTERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..interactions among N protein, the membrane (M) protein, and the small envelope (E) protein that are essential to virion assembly...
  31. Effects of saliva on herpes simplex virus infection of oralcells
    CLAUDE F KRUMMENACHER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Saliva is known to contain antiviral and antimicrobial agents, including components that act on the HSV virion to prevent infection...
  32. Development of the Gag/Lysyl tRNA synthetase interaction as a target for anti-HIV
    Lawrence Kleiman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The primer for reverse transcription in HIV-1 is human tRNALys3, which is selectively packaged into the virion during viral assembly in the cell, and binds (anneals) to a region in the viral RNA genome termed the primer ..
  33. Henipavirus Entry and Virion Assembly
    Christopher Broder; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..G glycoprotein) and the other is a Class I fusion (F) glycoprotein which facilitates fusion between the virion and host cell membranes...
  34. FIV Testing of a CNS-Relevant Antiretroviral Compound
    Rick B Meeker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..4) Examine and compare virion progeny and nucleocapsid proteins produced during exposure to FX101...
  35. Structure-function analysis of zebrafish encoded 3-OST enzyme for HSV-1 Entry
    Vaibhav Tiwari; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The binding of gD to its receptor triggers fusion of virion envelope with the plasma membrane of the host cell...
  36. Dengue Virus Genome Encapsidation and Its Interplay with Host Lipid Droplets
    Andrea Gamarnik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..capsid protein modulates the genome structure using high throughput probing analysis of the viral RNA inside the virion. Dissecting the multiple functions and interactions of the capsid protein with host and viral components will shed ..
    Herbert W Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..led to isolation and full sequencing of 21 new strains, and the solution of the cryo-EM structure of both the T=3 virion and a fascinating smaller T=1 particle assembled from the MNV capsid protein...
  38. HSV latency and reactivation and the novel neuronal regulation of VP16 in vivo.
    Nancy M Sawtell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cascade during HSV-1 lytic infection begins with activation of immediate-early (IE) gene transcription by the virion protein VP16 with host factors Oct-1 and HCF-1...
  39. RASCAL: a new tropism determinant encoded by human cytomegalovirus?
    Laura Hertel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and RASCALTowne, and both isoforms remained associated with lamin B-positive cytoplasmic vesicles during virion egress from the nucleus...
  40. Role of HCV p7 and NS2 in infectious virus production
    Charles M Rice; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..has changed dramatically with recent development of cell culture systems allowing both HCV RNA replication and virion production (HCVcc)...
  41. Tailoring AAV Vectors for Glioma Immunotherapy
    Ou Cao; Fiscal Year: 2011 selected for using replication-competent AAV combinatorial capsid protein libraries characterized by randomized virion surface loops;(2) AAV vectors that display dominant T-cell epitopes on the capsid surface, while simultaneously ..
  42. Role of Lipids in Hepatitis C Virus Maturation
    Aleem Siddiqui; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Characterization of VTVs in HCV infected cells containing HCV virion components is of fundamental importance in understanding the HCV morphogenesis...
  43. Does HIV Enter Doomed Cells
    Sujatha Iyengar; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..irreversible entry of HIV will be detected by dual fluorescent virion entry, BlaM-vpr activity, and quantitative RT-PCR of intracellular genomic viral RNA, in conjunction with ..
  44. Nipsnap1: A Novel Negative Regulator of Hepatitis C Virus Replication
    BRIANA M WEISER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..important for productive infections [1] The HCV NS5A protein is multi-functional, with roles in RNA replication, virion assembly, and host cell modulation...
  45. Immune complexes: origins and effects in HCV infection
    Lynn B Dustin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and without MC;(Aim 2) testing the hypothesis that VH1-69-coded antibodies react to lipid components of the HCV virion;and (Aim 3) defining the activation requirements for anergic RF-bearing B cells in HCV+MC+ patients...
  46. Mechanisms of humoral immunity development and function to the smallpox vaccine
    SHANE P CROTTY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..B cell responses to VACV in mice discovered that nearly half of the CD4 T cell responses targeted matched viral virion proteins of the antibody response, suggesting a deterministic linkage between the specificities...
  47. Nuclear Export of Retroviral RNPs: Cytoplasmic fates determined in the nucleus
    REBECCA J KADDIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest that the decision regarding whether the unspliced RSV RNA will be packaged into a virion or used to synthesize structural viral proteins is made in the nucleus...
  48. Optimization of XMRV and other MLV-related virus detection for screening of blood
    Graham Simmons; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..proteases and detergents before and after ultracentrifugation, to determine whether viral nucleic acid is virion associated or present as free RNA/DNA. Specific Aim 2: Mechanisms to enhance nucleic acid testing...
    Denise A Galloway; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3 will examine the epitopes on the HPV 16 virion that elicit antibodies, using an approach in which the type-specific surface exposed loops have been swapped for ..
  50. Characterization and Consequences of HCV Interaction with Host Lipoproteins
    MARGARET ADELE SCULL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our overall hypothesis is that HCV virion association with, or incorporation of, host proteins and lipids reduces virus susceptibility to neutralization...
  51. Molecular biology of viral capsids
    CHENG C KAO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..That is, how does the capsid interact with the viral RNAs within the virion and facilitate entry into cells? Brome mosaic virus (BMV) will be the model virus for this study...
  52. HCMV infection of human placental trophoblast and hematopoietic progenitors
    LENORE PALMA PEREIRA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Upregulated molecules were mislocalized to the cytoplasm and accumulated in the virion assembly compartment. Additional experiments showed that HCMV infected placentally-derived HSCs...
  53. Lipid-Protein Interactions in Viral Assembly and Virus Like Particle Formation
    ROBERT VIRGIL STAHELIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The process of generating a new virion involves an array of protein interactions but there is a paucity of mechanistic information on this process...
  54. Mechanisms of CD8+ T cell Immune surveillance in human genital skin and mucosa af
    Jia Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..persist in the periphery at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) contiguous to the sensory nerve endings where HSV virion particles are released, and that HSV-2 specific CD8+ T cells frequently encounter viral antigens...
    Jianming Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..role of the packaged host CDK2 in NC uncoating and infection;and (3) determine the mechanisms of regulation of HBV virion morphogenesis...
    PETER J TATTERSALL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It will provide new information on the control of tissue tropis and on structural transitions in the virion that regulate successive steps in the infectious entry pathway of these ubiquitous viruses, particularly relating ..
  57. Cellular attachment, penetration and transport of non-enveloped dsRNA viruses
    Z Hong Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our 7A-resolution cryoEM structure of the pre-penetration BTV virion suggests the presence of a central three-helix bundle and 18 amphipathic helices on the surface of the BTV ..
  58. SUMO and ubiquitin modifications in Nipah virus matrix trafficking and function
    MICKEY JOSEPH PENTECOST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Their matrix structural protein organizes virion assembly at the plasma membrane and mediates viral budding from the cell surface...
  59. XVII International Poxvirus, Asfivirus and Indorviurs Symposium
    Bertram L Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and gene expression, (3) Viral DNA biology and genome structure (including genomics and proteomics), (4) Virion assembly and egress, (5) Virus host cell-interaction and signaling, (6) Immunomodulation and pathogenesis, (7) ..
  60. Hepatitis B virus genotypes B and C
    Shuping Tong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Nevertheless, they are more efficient at virion secretion...
  61. The Molecular Mechanism of Antibody Neutralization of Hepatitis C Virus
    Michelle Sabo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HCV Envelope-2 (E2) is expressed on the surface of the virion and is thought to be important in mediating viral attachment and entry...
  62. Elucidating the role of the NPC1L1 cholesterol uptake receptor in HCV infection
    Susan L Uprichard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that exogenous expression of NPC1L1 on the surface of CHO cells results in binding of the cholesterol-enriched HCV virion and the fact that NPC1L1 exhibits restricted tissue distribution and is expressed on human but not mouse ..
  63. Nonstructural roles of capsid proteins in virus replication
    TERYL FREY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have made the unexpected discovery that one of the virion proteins, the capsid protein (C), is involved in an early step in virus RNA synthesis...
  64. A Microfluidic Device for Label-free HIV Virion Count at Point of Care Settings
    Xuanhong Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will pursue two specific aims. The first aim intends to develop three microfluidic modules to process virion-containing plasma...
  65. Structural Basis for Long-Range Genetic Interactions in Retroviral CA Assembly
    Rebecca Craven; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of the Gag polyprotein during immature particle assembly, directing morphogenesis of the mature capsid in the virion core, and finally, acting in poorly defined role(s) during the early stages of replication...
  66. Role of Coronavirus Membrane Protein Carboxy Tail Virus Assembly
    Ariel L Arndt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The virion envelope contains at least two major structural proteins, the membrane (M) and spike (S) proteins...
  67. Genetics and Functions of HSV Membrane Fusion Proteins
    KONSTANTIN KOUSOULAS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The multi-membrane spanning proteins, UL20p and gK, have been directly implicated in intracellular virion envelopment, since deletion of either gene results in drastic accumulation of unenveloped capsids in the cytoplasm...
  68. Assembly of Influenza A viruses
    Toru Takimoto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, the molecular mechanism of budding and virion formation is yet unclear...
    Mario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We have previously suggested a model in which nucleophilic virion components remain associated with the reverse transcription complex to facilitate its nuclear localization...
    David Livingston; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..If valid and perfected, such an assay has the potential to reveal the nature of, oncoprotein- induced functional perturbations of individual proteins in the complex in close to real time.[unreadable]..
    VINCENT RACANIELLO; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In the infected cell, newly synthesized virion proteins encapsidate the viral genome and protect it as it travels to a new cell target...
  72. Development of a Novel Semen-Activated Prodrug as an Anti-HIV Microbicide
    ROBERT WALTER BUCKHEIT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..inactivating compounds act by stripping coordinated zinc ions from the nucleocapsid (NC) protein in the infectious virion or maturing virus particle...
  73. Silencing Suppression Mechanism of a Herpes Simplex Virus Virion Component
    NIL CELEBI CHERUKURI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It was shown that the US11 virion tegument protein, but not 3 immediate-early proteins, could suppress silencing in plants and in mammalian cells, ..
    Timothy Baker; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..generate new viral components and assemble these components into precursors that mature into a stable progeny virion which is released from the host cell and transmitted to encounter a new host...
    Wah Chiu; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Computer analysis of the digitized images has led to the tentative conclusion that the LAC virion possesses icosahedral symmetry...
  76. Modification of a Tegument Protein during the Assembly of HSV-1
    Richard J Courtney; Fiscal Year: 2010 not a static structure and certain dynamic interactions may occur among tegument proteins within the assembled virion. The long-term objective of our research program has been to define molecular events associated with the assembly ..
  77. Hepatitis B virus immune escape mutants
    Shuping Tong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our preliminary studies suggest that structural changes around the alpha determinant may impair virion secretion, but the possibility of the co-infecting wild-type virus or second-site mutations restoring virion ..
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..200 genes are those encoding the F10 protein kinase, which plays a prime role in the initiation and regulation of virion morphogenesis, and the H1 protein phosphatase, which is required to establish the structural integrity and ..
  79. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of HIV
    Xiao Fang Yu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) is an essential regulatory protein required for HIV- 1 replication in natural target cells such as CD4+ T-cells and macrophages...
    SARAH FLINT; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The major DNA binding domain of protein VII, the major virion DNA binding protein of the virion, will be identified by an extension of UV-crosslinking methods we have recently ..
    Dennis Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..b>Virion assembly is complicated by the fact that poxviruses produce several different infectious forms (IMV, intracellular ..