simian retroviruses

Summary

Summary: Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Cross-species transmissions of simian retroviruses in Africa and risk for human health
    Martine Peeters
    UMR 145, Institut de Recherche Pour le Dévelopement, 34392 Montpellier, France
    Lancet 363:911-2. 2004
  2. pmc Spleen necrosis virus, an avian immunosuppressive retrovirus, shares a receptor with the type D simian retroviruses
    V N Kewalramani
    Program in Molecular Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104
    J Virol 66:3026-31. 1992
  3. ncbi Detection of squirrel monkey retroviral sequences in interferon samples
    M Pienkowska
    Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Women s College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Hepatol 28:396-403. 1998
  4. ncbi Characterizing the threat to the blood supply associated with nonoccupational exposure to emerging simian retroviruses
    Michael Schillaci
    Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 48:398-401. 2008
  5. ncbi Implications of simian retroviruses for captive primate population management and the occupational safety of primate handlers
    Hayley Weston Murphy
    Zoo New England, 1 Franklin Park Road, Boston, Massachusetts 02121, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 37:219-33. 2006
  6. ncbi Molecular cloning and cell-specific growth characterization of polymorphic variants of type D serogroup 2 simian retroviruses
    G H Marracci
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, 97201, USA
    Virology 261:43-58. 1999
  7. ncbi Detection of SRV/D shedding in body fluids of cynomolgus macaques and comparison of partial gp70 sequences in SRV/D-T isolates
    Masayuki Hara
    Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 1 Hachimanndai, Tsukuba 305 0843, Japan
    Virus Genes 35:281-8. 2007
  8. ncbi Development of a whole-virus multiplex flow cytometric assay for antibody screening of a specific pathogen-free primate colony
    LaRene Kuller
    Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Box 357331, Seattle, 98195, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 53:185-93. 2005
  9. ncbi Methadone induces CCR5 and promotes AIDS virus infection
    Shunji Suzuki
    Department of Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    FEBS Lett 519:173-7. 2002
  10. ncbi Simian retrovirus serogroup 5: partial gag-prt sequence and viral RNA distribution in an infected rhesus macaque
    B Li
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Virus Genes 21:241-8. 2000

Research Grants

  1. Biological and Human Dimensions of Primate Retroviral Transmission
    Tony L Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. Evolution and Emergence of Simian Retroviruses in South Asia
    Maxine L Linial; Fiscal Year: 2012
  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPF PIGTAIL MACAQUE BREEDING COLONY
    ROBERT DRUILHET; Fiscal Year: 2000
  4. SPECIFIC PATHOGEN FREE MACAQUE BREEDING PROGRAM
    M Izard; Fiscal Year: 1999
  5. SIMIAN RETROVIRUSES--NOVEL GENE DELIVERY VECTORS
    CURTIS MACHIDA; Fiscal Year: 1999
  6. PATHOGEN FREE RHESUS MONKEY BREEDING AND RESEARCH
    Prabhat Sehgal; Fiscal Year: 1999
  7. PATHOGENESIS OF HIV IN CD4 CELLS
    James Hoxie; Fiscal Year: 1993
  8. NONHUMAN PRIMATE MODELS FOR AIDS SYMPOSIUM
    William Morton; Fiscal Year: 1991
  9. NONHUMAN PRIMATE AIDS SYMPOSIUM
    PETER GERONE; Fiscal Year: 1990
  10. 10TH ANNL SYMPOSIUM ON NONHUMAN PRIMATE MODELS FOR AID
    Matthew Kessler; Fiscal Year: 1992

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications120 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Cross-species transmissions of simian retroviruses in Africa and risk for human health
    Martine Peeters
    UMR 145, Institut de Recherche Pour le Dévelopement, 34392 Montpellier, France
    Lancet 363:911-2. 2004
  2. pmc Spleen necrosis virus, an avian immunosuppressive retrovirus, shares a receptor with the type D simian retroviruses
    V N Kewalramani
    Program in Molecular Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104
    J Virol 66:3026-31. 1992
    ..spleen necrosis virus (SNV), is about 50% identical in amino acid sequence to the envelope of the type D simian retroviruses. Although SNV does not productively infect primate or murine cells, the receptor for SNV is present on a ..
  3. ncbi Detection of squirrel monkey retroviral sequences in interferon samples
    M Pienkowska
    Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Women s College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Hepatol 28:396-403. 1998
    ..However, it remains to be determined whether the residual DNA sequences detected by our sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assay have biological consequences...
  4. ncbi Characterizing the threat to the blood supply associated with nonoccupational exposure to emerging simian retroviruses
    Michael Schillaci
    Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 48:398-401. 2008
  5. ncbi Implications of simian retroviruses for captive primate population management and the occupational safety of primate handlers
    Hayley Weston Murphy
    Zoo New England, 1 Franklin Park Road, Boston, Massachusetts 02121, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 37:219-33. 2006
    ..b>Simian retroviruses, including simian immunodeficiency virus, simian type D retrovirus, simian T-lymphotropic virus, and gibbon ..
  6. ncbi Molecular cloning and cell-specific growth characterization of polymorphic variants of type D serogroup 2 simian retroviruses
    G H Marracci
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, 97201, USA
    Virology 261:43-58. 1999
    b>Simian retroviruses (SRVs), the etiological agent of a spontaneous Simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, endemically infects large percentages of Asian macaques housed in biomedical research colonies and severely compromises the ..
  7. ncbi Detection of SRV/D shedding in body fluids of cynomolgus macaques and comparison of partial gp70 sequences in SRV/D-T isolates
    Masayuki Hara
    Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 1 Hachimanndai, Tsukuba 305 0843, Japan
    Virus Genes 35:281-8. 2007
    ..Also, comparison of sequences of gp70 on multiple SRV/D-T isolates revealed that there was little intra- and inter-monkey variation, suggesting that SRV/D-T is fairly stable...
  8. ncbi Development of a whole-virus multiplex flow cytometric assay for antibody screening of a specific pathogen-free primate colony
    LaRene Kuller
    Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Box 357331, Seattle, 98195, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 53:185-93. 2005
    ..The multiplexed assay provided greater sensitivity, increased stability, and better performance than ELISA...
  9. ncbi Methadone induces CCR5 and promotes AIDS virus infection
    Shunji Suzuki
    Department of Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    FEBS Lett 519:173-7. 2002
    ..Similar methadone effect was not observed on CEM x174 cells infected with other simian retroviruses that do not depend on CCR5 for cellular entry...
  10. ncbi Simian retrovirus serogroup 5: partial gag-prt sequence and viral RNA distribution in an infected rhesus macaque
    B Li
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Virus Genes 21:241-8. 2000
    ....
  11. ncbi Isolation and characterization of a new simian retrovirus type D subtype from monkeys at the Tsukuba Primate Center, Japan
    Masayuki Hara
    Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, National Institute Infectious Diseases, 1 Hachimanndai, Tsukuba 305 0843, Japan
    Microbes Infect 7:126-31. 2005
    Exogenous type D simian retroviruses (SRV/D) are prevalent in captive and feral populations of various macaque monkeys...
  12. pmc Association of platelet-derived growth factor-B chain with simian human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis
    Raghava Potula
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, Marion Merrell Dow Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
    Am J Pathol 165:815-24. 2004
    ..PDGF-B chain protein expression was observed in the virus-infected cells in microglial nodules in the brains of SHIV-encephalitic macaques...
  13. ncbi Naturally acquired simian retrovirus infections in central African hunters
    Nathan D Wolfe
    Department of Epidemiology Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 363:932-7. 2004
    ..We investigated zoonotic infection in individuals living in central Africa...
  14. ncbi New simian beta retroviruses from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) from Rajasthan, India
    Jayashree S Nandi
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
    Virus Genes 33:107-16. 2006
    ..We hypothesize that SRV-6 and SRV-7 probably originated from a progenitor exogenous SRV which recombined with an endogenous SERV in the TM env and pol genes during evolution, based on the phylogenetic analyses...
  15. ncbi Implications of the evolution pattern of human T-cell leukemia retroviruses on their pathogenic virulence (Review)
    Inbal Azran
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cancer Research Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
    Int J Mol Med 14:909-15. 2004
    b>Simian retroviruses pose a serious threat to public health, as two human pathogenic retroviruses, HIV and HTLV, have been already proved to originate from such non-human viruses...
  16. ncbi Simian retroviruses: infection and disease--implications for immunotoxicology research in primates
    Nicholas W Lerche
    California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 8542, USA
    J Immunotoxicol 7:93-101. 2010
    ..evaluate the effect of drugs or biologics on the immune system, the immune modulatory effects of simian retroviruses, which may be subtle or profound, may introduce significant confounding into the studies of immunotoxic ..
  17. pmc Isolation and characterization of simian T-cell leukemia virus type II from New World monkeys
    Y M Chen
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nan Kang, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Virol 68:1149-57. 1994
    ..simian counterpart, simian T-cell leukemia virus type I (STLV-I), the possible existence of other related simian retroviruses has been raised...
  18. ncbi Characterization of blood-borne transmission of simian foamy virus
    James I Brooks
    National HIV and Retrovirology Laboratories, Center for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 47:162-70. 2007
    ..The cross-species transmission of simian retroviruses is believed to be the etiology of human immunodeficiency virus and human T-lymphotropic virus infections in ..
  19. pmc Coinfection of Ugandan red colobus (Procolobus [Piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles) with novel, divergent delta-, lenti-, and spumaretroviruses
    Tony L Goldberg
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Virol 83:11318-29. 2009
    Nonhuman primates host a plethora of potentially zoonotic microbes, with simian retroviruses receiving heightened attention due to their roles in the origins of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2...
  20. pmc A sodium-dependent neutral-amino-acid transporter mediates infections of feline and baboon endogenous retroviruses and simian type D retroviruses
    C S Tailor
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201 3098, USA
    J Virol 73:4470-4. 1999
    The type D simian retroviruses cause immunosuppression in macaques and have been reported as a presumptive opportunistic infection in a patient with AIDS...
  21. pmc Rev proteins of human and simian immunodeficiency virus enhance RNA encapsidation
    Sabine Brandt
    Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 3:e54. 2007
    ..In addition to specific interactions of nucleocapsid with the packaging signal at the 5' end of the genome, the Rev/RRE system provides a second mechanism contributing to preferential encapsidation of genomic lentiviral RNA...
  22. pmc Frequent simian foamy virus infection in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates
    William M Switzer
    HIV and Retrovirology Branch, Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Virol 78:2780-9. 2004
    ..that AIDS originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (NHPs)...
  23. pmc Lentiviral vector design using alternative RNA export elements
    Taekeun Oh
    Department of Medicine, Kidney Disease Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Retrovirology 4:38. 2007
    ..Recent studies have attempted to replace the existing complex rev/RRE system with a more simplistic RNA export system from simple retroviruses to make these vectors in a rev-independent manner...
  24. ncbi The mouse homolog of the Gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor: genetic mapping and a possible receptor function in rodents
    M C Adamson
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Virology 183:778-81. 1991
    ..We speculate that a functional receptor for GALV-related viruses was expressed during Mus evolution...
  25. ncbi Prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses in a long-term closed breeding colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Brazil
    Marcia Ribeiro Andrade
    Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Centro de Criação de Animais de Loboratório, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Am J Primatol 59:123-8. 2003
    ..All samples were negative for antibodies against the simian retroviruses. The overall prevalence of antibodies was 95% for RhCMV, 45% for B virus, 35% for HAV, and 1% for MV...
  26. ncbi Sustained increases in cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid concentrations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) naturally infected with simian retrovirus type-D
    M P Heyes
    Section on Analytical Biochemistry, NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Brain Res 531:148-58. 1990
    ..The neuropathologic significance of these increases in CSF QUIN remains to be determined...
  27. ncbi Base-pairings within the RNA pseudoknot associated with the simian retrovirus-1 gag-pro frameshift site
    Z Du
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, 78712, USA
    J Mol Biol 270:464-70. 1997
    ..The implications of this finding are discussed...
  28. pmc The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acid transporter
    J E Rasko
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:2129-34. 1999
    ....
  29. ncbi Intracranial lymphomas in simian retrovirus-positive Macaca fascicularis
    Y A Paramastri
    Vet Pathol 39:399-402. 2002
    ..2) had a pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium avium, suggesting that immunosuppression was present. These cases represent a unique and previously undescribed type of solitary lymphoma in SRV-infected macaques...
  30. ncbi Screening for simian type-D retrovirus infection in macaques, using nested polymerase chain reaction
    N W Lerche
    Applied Virology and Special Pathogens Section, California Regional Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Lab Anim Sci 47:263-8. 1997
    ..Nested PCR is a sensitive and specific assay for simultaneous screening for infection with serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of simian type D retrovirus, and is a powerful tool for rapid screening and surveillance in macaque colonies...
  31. ncbi DNA immunization of mice against SIVmac239 Gag and Env using Rev-independent expression plasmids
    S Indraccolo
    IST Biotechnology Section, Padua, Italy
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 14:83-90. 1998
    ....
  32. ncbi Nucleocytoplasmic export of type D simian retrovirus genomic RNA: identification of important genetic subregions and interacting cellular proteins
    B Li
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Virology 264:37-54. 1999
    ..These experiments indicate that secondary structural determinants of the 3' IR and multiple protein interactions may be important factors in the nuclear export of unspliced SRV RNA...
  33. pmc Mutational analysis of the RNA pseudoknot involved in efficient ribosomal frameshifting in simian retrovirus-1
    D Sung
    Kumho Life and Environmental Science Laboratory, Korea Kumho Petrochemical Co Ltd, 572 Ssangam dong, Kwangsan ku, Kwangju, Korea
    Nucleic Acids Res 26:1369-72. 1998
    ..Our mutational data suggest that SRV-1 pseudoknot adopts similar structural features common to other efficient frameshifting pseudoknots as observed in MMTV and FIV...
  34. ncbi Simian retrovirus vectors for gene transfer in nonhuman primate cells
    B Li
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Oregon Health Sciences University West Campus, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    Virus Res 75:155-68. 2001
    ..Successful infection by the recovered viruses verifies the potential efficacy of the SRV-based system as a research tool for gene transfer of heterologous genes into nonhuman primate cells...
  35. ncbi Natural infection by simian retrovirus-6 (SRV-6) in Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) from two different geographical regions of India
    Jayashree S Nandi
    Department of Retrovirology, National Institute of Virology, Pune 411001, India
    Virology 311:192-201. 2003
    ..The study suggests that natural infection by related strains of SRV-6 occurs in wild langurs from different parts of India...
  36. ncbi Simian retroviruses in African apes
    M Peeters
    UMI 233, TransVIHMI, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Montpellier, France
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:514-20. 2012
    ..Finally, non-invasive sampling also allows the study of the impact of retroviruses and other pathogens on the health and survival of endangered species such as chimpanzees, gorillas, and bonobos...
  37. ncbi Cross-species transmission of simian retroviruses: how and why they could lead to the emergence of new diseases in the human population
    Sabrina Locatelli
    UMI 233, TransVIHMI, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD and University of Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France
    AIDS 26:659-73. 2012
    ..Therefore, it is important to evaluate which retroviruses the human population is exposed to and to better understand how these viruses enter, infect, adapt and spread to its new host...
  38. ncbi Early immunopathology events in simian retrovirus, type 2 infections prior to the onset of disease
    Jane L Mitchell
    Division of Retrovirology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, A Centre of the Health Protection Agency, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QG, UK
    Virology 413:161-8. 2011
    ..Gross immunopathological changes in lymphoid tissues were similar between SRV infection and those observed for other simian retroviruses SIV and STLV, suggesting a common immunopathological response to infection with these agents.
  39. pmc Detection of EBV, HBV, HCV, HIV-1, HTLV-I and -II, and SMRV in human and other primate cell lines
    Cord C Uphoff
    Department of Human and Animal Cell Lines, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures DSMZ, Inhoffenstrasse 7b, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2010:904767. 2010
    ..Six cell lines were SMRV-infected. Newly established cell lines should be tested for EBV infections to detect B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL). B-LCLs established with EBV from cell line B95-8 should be tested for SMRV infections...
  40. ncbi Acute megakaryocytic leukaemia (AMKL)-like disease in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
    S Okabayash
    The Corporation for Production and Research of Laboratory Primates, Japan Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Hachimandai 1 1, Tsukuba shi, Ibaraki 305 0843, Japan
    J Comp Pathol 140:212-6. 2009
    ..This would appear to be the first report of AMKL-like disease in non-human primates. This monkey was infected with simian retrovirus type D and it is possible that this viral infection was associated with the development of neoplasia...
  41. doi [Alternative methods for the study of simian retroviral genetic diversity]
    Sebastien Calvignac
    4, Rue Jayet, Lyon, France
    Med Sci (Paris) 24:577-8. 2008
  42. pmc Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-beta1 and IL-6
    Kristin R Ruff
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Tulane Cancer Center, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    BMC Cancer 7:35. 2007
    ....
  43. ncbi Prevalence of enzootic simian viruses among urban performance monkeys in Indonesia
    Michael A Schillaci
    Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Trop Med Int Health 10:1305-14. 2005
    ..No evidence of infection with simian immunodeficiency virus was detected in these macaques. These results suggest that urban performance monkeys are a reservoir for enzootic simian viruses known to be capable of infecting humans...
  44. ncbi Antiretroviral drug studies in nonhuman primates: a valid animal model for innovative drug efficacy and pathogenesis experiments
    Koen K A Van Rompay
    California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    AIDS Rev 7:67-83. 2005
    ..Accordingly, well-designed drug studies in nonhuman primates can continue to provide a solid scientific basis to advance our scientific knowledge and to guide future clinical trials...
  45. ncbi Increased viral replication in simian immunodeficiency virus/simian-HIV-infected macaques with self-administering model of chronic alcohol consumption
    Rakesh Kumar
    Laboratory of Viral Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Ponce School of Medicine, San Juan, PR
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:386-90. 2005
    ..The extent of CD4 cell loss in the alcohol group was significantly higher than that in the control animals at week 1 after infection...
  46. ncbi Intestinal stromal tumors in a simian immunodeficiency virus-infected, simian retrovirus-2 negative rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)
    H Bielefeldt-Ohmann
    Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Box 357331, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Vet Pathol 42:391-6. 2005
    ..The animal was negative for simian retroviruses, SRV-1, -2, and -5...
  47. ncbi Evolutionary analysis identifies an MX2 haplotype associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection
    Manuela Sironi
    Scientific Institute IRCCS E Medea, Bioinformatics, Bosisio Parini, Italy
    Mol Biol Evol 31:2402-14. 2014
    The protein product of the myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) gene restricts HIV-1 and simian retroviruses. We demonstrate that MX2 evolved adaptively in mammals with distinct sites representing selection targets in distinct branches; ..
  48. ncbi Isolation and characterization of the neutralizable epitope of simian retrovirus-1 (SRV-1) and of the cell receptor for the virus
    E Benjamini
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis
    Adv Exp Med Biol 303:71-7. 1991
    ..These results indicate that the neutralizing antibodies and the receptor recognize the same area on the viral envelope protein and that neutralization is the result of blocking the virus-receptor interaction by antibodies...
  49. ncbi Polymerase chain reaction detection of type D simian retrovirus proviral DNA from infected macaques
    K Y Pilcher
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Beaverton 97006
    J Virol Methods 50:75-86. 1994
    ....
  50. pmc Efficient expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein in epithelial cells by using Rev and the Rev-responsive element of human immunodeficiency virus or the cis-acting transactivation element of simian retrovirus type 1
    W Tan
    Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Virol 69:5607-20. 1995
    ..This regulated expression may allow virus production in terminally differentiated epithelial cells and is probably a conserved and important mechanism for HPV expression...
  51. ncbi Mesenchymoproliferative disorders (MPD) in simian AIDS associated with SRV-2 infection
    C C Tsai
    Department of Pathology, St Louis University School of Medicine, MO
    J Med Primatol 19:189-202. 1990
    ..Xenograft and allograft transplantation of cultured cells produced MPD lesions in the recipients. The data suggest that SRV-2 plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of MPD in macaques...
  52. ncbi Pseudotyped REV/SRV retroviruses reveal restrictions to infection and host range within members of the same receptor interference group
    H M Koo
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway 08854 5635
    Virology 205:345-51. 1994
    The reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) group of retroviruses and type D simian retroviruses (SRV) belong to the same receptor interference group. The cellular receptor for these viruses has not yet been identified...
  53. ncbi Maternal transmission of type D simian retrovirus (SRV-2) in pigtailed macaques
    C C Tsai
    Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle
    J Med Primatol 19:203-16. 1990
    ..SRV-2 infection occurred principally in utero by the transplacental route. Infants born to viremic mothers exhibited low birth weight, prematurity, high perinatal death, and increased incidence of SAIDS...
  54. ncbi SIV, STLV-I and type D retrovirus antibodies in captive rhesus macaques and immunoblot reactivity to SIV p27 in human and rhesus monkey sera
    M D Lairmore
    Retrovirus Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 6:1233-8. 1990
    ..These results also illustrate a potential problem in the testing of human sera for antibodies against simian retroviruses and demonstrate the need for caution in the interpretation of immunoblot results.
  55. ncbi Antibodies to retroviruses of types C and D in female patients with benign and malignant mammary tumours
    T F Malivanova
    All Union Oncological Centre, U S S R Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow
    Acta Virol 34:19-26. 1990
    ..None serum reacted with mouse mammary tumour virus proteins. On the basis of these results we conclude that the expression of antibodies to structural retrovirus proteins is not specific for mammary cancer...
  56. ncbi Soluble CD4 blocks the infectivity of diverse strains of HIV and SIV for T cells and monocytes but not for brain and muscle cells
    P R Clapham
    Chester Beatty Laboratories, Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK
    Nature 337:368-70. 1989
    ..Soluble CD4 prevents HIV infection of T-lymphocytic and myelomonocytic cell lines, but neither sCD4 nor anti-CD4 antibodies inhibit infection of glioma and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines...
  57. ncbi Use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of type D simian retrovirus infection in macaque blood
    Y Wang
    Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7238, USA
    Lab Anim Sci 46:187-92. 1996
    ..The PCR analysis of 39 whole blood samples correctly identified five SRV-1 and nine SRV-2 culture-positive samples. It also detected SRV-2 in two culture-negative blood samples from monkeys from which SRV had been previously isolated...
  58. ncbi Identification of the fusion peptide of primate immunodeficiency viruses
    M L Bosch
    Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Science 244:694-7. 1989
    ....
  59. ncbi Serological survey of a captive macaque colony in China for antibodies to simian type D retroviruses
    Z Chen
    Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical College, Kunming, Yunnan, People s Republic of China
    J Med Primatol 21:377-80. 1992
    ..Of these monkeys, 104 were seropositive by ELISA; only 23 were confirmed by Western blot. The true positive reaction to SRV was found in 15 of 463 (3.2%) M. mulatta and eight of eleven (72.7%) M. assamensis...
  60. ncbi Development of simian retroviral vectors for gene delivery
    Biao Li
    Center for Human Molecular Genetics, Munroe Meyer Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
    Methods Mol Med 76:353-65. 2003
  61. pmc Identification of an RNA sequence within an intracisternal-A particle element able to replace Rev-mediated posttranscriptional regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    C Tabernero
    Human Retrovirus Pathogenesis Group, National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 71:95-101. 1997
    ..viral Rev protein and can be replaced with the posttranscriptional RNA control element (CTE) of the type D simian retroviruses. We have identified a sequence which shares only nucleotide sequences of the internal loops and secondary ..
  62. ncbi Characterization of T cell epitopes on the envelope glycoprotein of simian retrovirus 1 and 2 (SRV-1 and SRV-2) in several mouse strains
    A Malley
    Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Beaverton 97006
    Mol Immunol 29:999-1004. 1992
    ....
  63. pmc New STLV-3 strains and a divergent SIVmus strain identified in non-human primate bushmeat in Gabon
    Florian Liegeois
    UMI 233, Trans VIH MI, Recherches Translationnelles sur le VIH et les Maladies Infectieuses Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, University of Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France
    Retrovirology 9:28. 2012
    ..Nevertheless, today, data on simian retroviruses at the primate/hunter interface remain scarce...
  64. ncbi Immunohistochemical localization of type D retrovirus serotype 1 in the digestive tract of rhesus monkeys with simian AIDS
    A A Lackner
    California Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis
    J Med Primatol 19:339-49. 1990
    ..This revealed that both epithelial and lymphoid cells of the digestive tract are commonly infected by this immunosuppressive type D retrovirus...
  65. ncbi Differential distribution of antibodies to different viruses in young animals in the free-ranging rhesus macaques of Cayo Santiago
    C A Sariol
    Caribbean Primate Research Center, Unit of Comparative Medicine, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA
    J Med Primatol 35:369-75. 2006
    ..The seroprevalence to cercopithecine herpesvirus type 1 (B virus) and simian retroviruses has been studied previously.
  66. ncbi A STLV-III related human retrovirus, HTLV-IV: analysis of cross-reactivity with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    F Barin
    Laboratoire de Virologie, CHRU Bretonneau, Tours, France
    J Virol Methods 17:55-61. 1987
    ..identified which is related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but is more closely related to a group of simian retroviruses (STLV-III). These viruses named HTLV-IV, LAV-II, or SBL-6669, are prevalent in West-Africa...
  67. ncbi Intracellular turnover, novel secretion, and mitogenically active intracellular forms of v-sis gene product in simian sarcoma virus-transformed cells. Implications for intracellular loop autocrine transformation
    V B Lokeshwar
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, St Louis University School of Medicine, Missouri 63104
    J Biol Chem 265:1665-75. 1990
    ....
  68. ncbi Subunit vaccine protects Macaca nemestrina (pig-tailed macaque) against simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I challenge
    C S Dezzutti
    Center for Retrovirus Research, Columbus, Ohio 43210
    Cancer Res 50:5687S-5691S. 1990
    ..The data presented here demonstrate that the vaccine was successful in protecting Macaca nemestrina from simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I infection...
  69. ncbi Prevalence of natural infection with simian immunodeficiency virus and simian T-cell leukemia virus type I in a breeding colony of sooty mangabey monkeys
    P N Fultz
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30322
    AIDS 4:619-25. 1990
    ....
  70. ncbi SIV infection of macaques: a model for AIDS vaccine development
    M B Gardner
    Department of Medical Pathology, University of California, Davis 95616
    Dev Biol Stand 72:259-66. 1990
    ..We believe that these inactivated whole virus and modified live virus approaches are worth pursuing further and they may guide us towards an eventual effective vaccine for AIDS...
  71. ncbi [Bacterial and viral epidemics of zoonotic origin; the role of hunting and cutting up wild animals]
    C Chastel
    Laboratoire de Virologie, Faculte de Medecine, 22 Av Camille Desmoulins, F 29 285 Brest, France
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 97:207-12. 2004
    ..SARS is another possible example of the zoonotic risks represented by the sale, handling and cutting up Chinese wild animals such as Himalayan civets for culinary purposes...
  72. ncbi Survey of captive cynomolgus macaque colonies for SRV/D infection using polymerase chain reaction assays
    Masayuki Hara
    Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science National Institute Infectious Diseases NIID, 1 Hachimandai, Tsukuba, 305 0843 Japan
    Comp Med 55:145-9. 2005
    ..On the other hand, SRV/D-T was detected in 11 of 49 animals (22.5%) in the conventional colony. SRV/D-T was the only SRV/D subtype detected. Consequently, SRV/D-T is the major SRV/D subtype present in cynomolgus monkeys at TPC...
  73. pmc Construction and properties of retrovirus packaging cells based on gibbon ape leukemia virus
    A D Miller
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104
    J Virol 65:2220-4. 1991
    ..These simian virus-based packaging cells extend the host range of currently available murine and avian packaging cells and should be useful for efficient gene transfer into higher mammals...
  74. pmc Fusion properties of cells infected with human parainfluenza virus type 3: receptor requirements for viral spread and virus-mediated membrane fusion
    A Moscona
    Department of Pediatrics and Cell Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 6574
    J Virol 66:6280-7. 1992
    ..We compare the outcome of HPF3 infection in the presence of excess neuraminidase with that of another paramyxovirus (simian virus 5) and provide evidence that these two viruses differ in their receptor requirements for mediating fusion...
  75. ncbi Design, biologic evaluation, and SAR of novel pseudo-peptide incorporating benzheterocycles as HIV-1 protease inhibitors
    Meizi He
    State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100083, China
    Chem Biol Drug Des 76:174-80. 2010
    ..8 microM) with low toxicity (TC(50) > 100 microM). The flexible docking of inhibitor 23 to HIV-1 protease active site rationalized the interactions with protease...
  76. pmc High prevalence, coinfection rate, and genetic diversity of retroviruses in wild red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) in Tai National Park, Cote d'Ivoire
    Siv Aina J Leendertz
    Research Group Emerging Zoonoses, Robert Koch Institut, Nordufer 20, Berlin, Germany
    J Virol 84:7427-36. 2010
    b>Simian retroviruses are precursors of all human retroviral pathogens...
  77. ncbi Antibodies to gag gene coded polypeptides of type D retroviruses in healthy people from Guinea-Bissau
    V A Morozov
    UPR 0043 CNRS, , , France
    Intervirology 32:253-7. 1991
    ..In eight (25%) sera antibodies at least against p36 were detected. Among squirrel monkey retrovirus positive sera, three were also positive with p27 M-PMV. The other five were found to be M-PMV negative...
  78. ncbi The induction of neutralizing antibodies by synthetic peptides of the envelope protein of type D simian retrovirus-1 (SRV-1)
    J V Torres
    University of California, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Davis 95616
    Mol Immunol 28:907-13. 1991
    It has been recently demonstrated that two serotypes of type D simian retroviruses, namely SRV-1 and SRV-2, exhibit extensive immunological cross-reactivity but do not exhibit cross-reactivity at the level of neutralizing antibodies...
  79. ncbi Characterization of rhesus macaque B-lymphoblastoid cell lines infected with simian type D retrovirus
    R W van Kuyk
    Department of Medical Pathology, University of California, Davis 95616
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 7:899-909. 1991
    ..Investigations on the interactions of SRV-1 with B cells will be useful for elucidating mechanisms involved in the immunopathogenesis of primate retroviruses...
  80. pmc Effects of maternal and infant characteristics on birth weight and gestation length in a colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
    Kelly J Hopper
    Research Resources, The Mannheimer Foundation, Homestead, Florida, USA
    Comp Med 58:597-603. 2008
    ..Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques...
  81. ncbi Immunobiological properties of a recombinant simian retrovirus-1 envelope protein and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against it
    L L Werner
    University of California, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Davis
    Mol Immunol 28:819-26. 1991
    ..Taken together, the above findings indicate that immunity conferred at the level of neutralizing antibodies during SRV infection is strain-specific and involves the recognition of envelope sequences unique to each strain...
  82. ncbi Opportunistic infections in immunologically compromised nonhuman primates
    Lynn M Wachtman
    Harvard Medical School, Southborough, MA 01772 9012, USA
    ILAR J 49:191-208. 2008
    ..We discuss risk reduction through the use of quarantine procedures, specific pathogen-free animals, and environmental controls...
  83. ncbi Neutralization epitope in the envelope glycoprotein of simian retrovirus-1 (SRV-1) and identification of the virus receptor
    J V Torres
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616
    J Med Primatol 20:218-21. 1991
    ..The virus receptor was immunoprecipitated from Raji cells using gp70 as the ligand. Antibodies to peptide 142-167 inhibit the immunoprecipitation, indicating that the receptor recognizes residues 142-167 of the viral envelope protein...
  84. ncbi Activation in vivo of retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus, a simian homologue of human herpesvirus-8
    M L Bosch
    Regional Primate Research Center and Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    J Gen Virol 80:467-75. 1999
    ..Together, these data suggest a common biology between RFHVMm infection of macaques and HHV-8 infection and pathogenesis in humans...
  85. ncbi Evidence for a lentiviral etiology in an epizootic of immune deficiency and lymphoma in stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides)
    L J Lowenstine
    Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616
    J Med Primatol 21:1-14. 1992
    ..The isolate was antigenically related to other SIVs as well as to HIV-1 and HIV-2. Two surviving stump-tailed macaques sent to another colony carried SIVstm latently for at least 7 years and disseminated it throughout that colony...
  86. ncbi Antibodies to type D retrovirus in talapoin monkeys
    P Ilyinskii
    New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772
    J Gen Virol 72:453-6. 1991
    ..Talapoins are the only African non-human primates that have so far shown evidence for type D retrovirus infection. Thus, talapoin monkeys appear to be a reservoir of type D retrovirus infection...
  87. ncbi Human SSAV-related endogenous retroviral element: LTR-like sequence and chromosomal localization to 18q21
    R Brack-Werner
    Abt für Molekulare Zellpathologie, Gesellschaft für Strahlen und Umweltforschung, Neuherberg, Federal Republic of Germany
    Genomics 4:68-75. 1989
    ..By means of Southern blotting and in situ hybridization, the sequence was mapped to chromosome 18 band q21...
  88. ncbi Simian retroviral infections in human beings
    Cristian Apetrei
    Lancet 364:137-8; author reply 139-40. 2004
  89. ncbi Structure, stability and function of RNA pseudoknots involved in stimulating ribosomal frameshifting
    D P Giedroc
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Center for Macromolecular Design, Texas A and M University, TX 77843 2128, USA
    J Mol Biol 298:167-85. 2000
    ..These studies are summarized here and provide new insights into the structural requirements and mechanism of programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting...
  90. ncbi Histologic lesions in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) naturally infected with simian retrovirus type D: comparison of seropositive, virus-positive, and uninfected animals
    R E Guzman
    Drug Safety Evaluation, Pfizer Central Research, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 27:672-7. 1999
    ....
  91. pmc Inhibitors of retrovirus infection are secreted by several hamster cell lines and are also present in hamster sera
    D G Miller
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104 2092
    J Virol 67:5346-52. 1993
    ..Inhibitory factors are also present in the sera of Chinese and Syrian hamsters but were not detected in bovine serum. These results suggest the presence of specific factors that function to inhibit retrovirus infection in hamsters...
  92. ncbi Detection of serum antibodies in Ethiopian baboons that cross-react with SIV, HTLV-I, and type D retroviral antigens
    R E Benveniste
    Laboratory of Viral Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, MD 21702 1201
    J Med Primatol 22:124-8. 1993
    ..In addition, 20% of these baboons had antibodies that cross-reacted with HTLV-I viral antigens. These data suggest that wild-caught baboons are infected with retroviruses only partially related to known primate viral isolates...
  93. ncbi Long-term protection of macaques against high-dose type D retrovirus challenge after immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing envelope glycoproteins
    R E Benveniste
    Laboratory of Viral Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, MD
    J Med Primatol 22:74-9. 1993
    ....
  94. ncbi Localized retroperitoneal fibromatosis causing intestinal obstruction in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
    J D Fikes
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Vet Pathol 32:713-6. 1995
    ..This case represents an unusual presentation of localized retroperitoneal fibromatosis in which the lesion produced intestinal obstruction and death...
  95. ncbi The rotavirus vaccine
    P A Offit
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, USA
    J Clin Virol 11:155-9. 1998
    ..Rotavirus gastroenteritis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide...
  96. pmc Amplification of simian retroviral sequences from human recipients of baboon liver transplants
    J S Allan
    Department of Virology and Immunology, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas 78228, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 14:821-4. 1998
    ..disease who died 70 and 27 days after the transplantation of baboon livers revealed the presence of two simian retroviruses of baboon origin, simian foamy virus (SFV) and baboon endogenous virus (BaEV), in multiple tissue ..
  97. ncbi One-step fluorescent probe product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay
    B A Arnold
    Department of Virus and Cell Biology, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 0004, USA
    Biotechniques 25:98-106. 1998
    ..This newly enhanced fluorescent PERT assay can play an important role in the high-throughput detection of retroviral infection and characterization of RT activity...
  98. ncbi Identification of a human population infected with simian foamy viruses
    W Heneine
    HIV and Retrovirology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Nat Med 4:403-7. 1998
    Studying the transmission of simian retroviruses to humans can help define the importance of these infections to public health. We identified a substantial prevalence (4/231, 1...
  99. ncbi A characteristic bent conformation of RNA pseudoknots promotes -1 frameshifting during translation of retroviral RNA
    X Chen
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    J Mol Biol 260:479-83. 1996
    ..The requirement for a precise pseudoknot conformation for efficient frameshifting strongly implies that a specific interaction occurs between the viral RNA pseudoknot and the host protein-synthesizing machinery...
  100. ncbi Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in primates infected with a simian immunodeficiency virus
    C E Alpers
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 13:413-24. 1997
    ..They also indicate the variable pathology that can be seen in primate infections of distinct retrovirus types, each of which produces a simian immunodeficiency state that resembles human AIDS...
  101. ncbi Identification and purification of cellular proteins that specifically interact with the RNA constitutive transport elements from retrovirus D
    H Tang
    Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0665, USA
    Virology 228:333-9. 1997
    ..Both proteins have been partially purified. The nature of these proteins and their roles in RNA intracellular trafficking are currently under investigation...

Research Grants14

  1. Biological and Human Dimensions of Primate Retroviral Transmission
    Tony L Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test our model in a highly relevant non-human primate system. In 2009, we documented three simian retroviruses co-circulating in a metapopulation of wild red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus) in Kibale National ..
  2. Evolution and Emergence of Simian Retroviruses in South Asia
    Maxine L Linial; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our proposed research will investigate the epizootiology, ecology and evolution of two simian retroviruses, simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian type D retrovirus (SRV) in macaques and langurs...
  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPF PIGTAIL MACAQUE BREEDING COLONY
    ROBERT DRUILHET; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..b>Simian retroviruses and other immune suppressive viral agents occur naturally in these macaques, and their presence makes the ..
  4. SPECIFIC PATHOGEN FREE MACAQUE BREEDING PROGRAM
    M Izard; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..research, requiring that the government establish and maintain macaque breeding colonies free of the known simian retroviruses and Herpes B virus...
  5. SIMIAN RETROVIRUSES--NOVEL GENE DELIVERY VECTORS
    CURTIS MACHIDA; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  6. PATHOGEN FREE RHESUS MONKEY BREEDING AND RESEARCH
    Prabhat Sehgal; Fiscal Year: 1999
    The simian retroviruses simian T-lymphotropic virus I, simian immunodeficiency virus, and type D retrovirus are important animal models for the study of human immunodeficiency and also pose a threat to the health of captive domestic ..
  7. PATHOGENESIS OF HIV IN CD4 CELLS
    James Hoxie; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The human immunodeficiency viruses are among an enlarging family of human and simian retroviruses that exhibit extraordinary molecular and biological diversity...
  8. NONHUMAN PRIMATE MODELS FOR AIDS SYMPOSIUM
    William Morton; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..for presentation and discussion: (1) Virology and molecular biology of SIV, HIV, other lentiviruses and simian retroviruses. (2)Immunology of SIV and other lentivirus/retrovirus infections...
  9. NONHUMAN PRIMATE AIDS SYMPOSIUM
    PETER GERONE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..topics for presentation and discussion: Virology and molecular biology of SIV,HIV, other lentiviruses and simian retroviruses. Immunology of SIV and other lentivirus/retrovirus infections...
  10. 10TH ANNL SYMPOSIUM ON NONHUMAN PRIMATE MODELS FOR AID
    Matthew Kessler; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The scientific sessions will cover the following topics on HIV, SIV and other simian retroviruses and lentiviruses: (1) virology and molecular biology, (2) pathogenesis, (3) immunology, (4) prophylaxis and ..
  11. Topical virucides to prevent oral transmission
    Koen van Rompay; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If topical tenofovir administration were effective, then this simple strategy would be highly affordable for developing countries. ..
  12. ENHANCING MUCOSAL IMMUNE RESPONSES BY MICROENCAPSULATION
    Paul Offit; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The availability of microencapsulated virus provides a unique opportunity to understand the relationship between APC and protective mucosal immune responses. ..
  13. Inhibition of HIV by Novel Chimeric Receptors
    Jonathan Allan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If successful, this strategy will have broad applications in immunotherapy and immune reconstitution against HIV-1. ..
  14. Determinants of Natural Host Resistance to SIV agm
    Jonathan Allan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In summary, this proposal seeks to understand the role of coreceptor expression, viral replication and cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of SIV. ..