Genomes and Genes
Summary: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.
Publications187 found, 100 shown here
- Immune evasion and counteraction of restriction factors by HIV-1 and other primate lentivirusesFrank Kirchhoff
Institute of Molecular Virology, University Hospital Ulm, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Cell Host Microbe 8:55-67. 2010..In addition, primate lentiviruses, such as HIV-1, have acquired several "accessory" genes that antagonize antiviral host restriction factors ..
- Ancient adaptive evolution of tetherin shaped the functions of Vpu and Nef in human immunodeficiency virus and primate lentivirusesEfrem S Lim
Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, P O Box 10924, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
J Virol 84:7124-34. 2010..However, viruses have evolved antagonists of Tetherin, including the Vpu and Nef proteins of primate lentiviruses. Like other host genes subject to viral antagonism, primate Tetherin genes have evolved under positive ..
- Selective downmodulation of HLA-A and -B by Nef alleles from different groups of primate lentivirusesAnke Specht
Institute of Virology, Universitatsklinikum, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Virology 373:229-37. 2008..of HIV-1, as well as those from SIVcpz, the precursor of HIV-1, and a variety of other highly divergent primate lentiviruses. In conclusion, our data indicate that Nef's ability to selectively downregulate HLA-A and -B alleles to ..
- Synthetic peptide strategy for the detection of and discrimination among highly divergent primate lentivirusesF Simon
Laboratoire de Virologie and Centre de Primatologie, , Franceville, Gabon
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17:937-52. 2001..inexpensive, and highly sensitive and specific strategy for the detection and lineage differentiation of primate lentiviruses (PIV-ELISA)...
- The inability to disrupt the immunological synapse between infected human T cells and APCs distinguishes HIV-1 from most other primate lentivirusesNathalie Arhel
Institute of Molecular Virology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm, Germany
J Clin Invest 119:2965-75. 2009..HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses use their Nef proteins to manipulate the T cell/APC contact zone, the immunological synapse (IS)...
- Inhibiting the Arp2/3 complex limits infection of both intracellular mature vaccinia virus and primate lentivirusesJun Komano
Laboratory of Virology and Pathogenesis, AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 208 0011, Japan
Mol Biol Cell 15:5197-207. 2004..the existence of an Arp2/3 complex-dependent event during the early phase of the life cycles of both primate lentiviruses and IMV...
- A transitional endogenous lentivirus from the genome of a basal primate and implications for lentivirus evolutionRobert J Gifford
Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20362-7. 2008..Phylogenetic analysis places gray mouse lemur prosimian immunodeficiency virus (pSIVgml) basal to all known primate lentiviruses and, consistent with this, its genomic organization is intermediate between the nonprimate lentiviruses and ..
- Nef-mediated suppression of T cell activation was lost in a lentiviral lineage that gave rise to HIV-1Michael Schindler
Department of Virology, University of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Cell 125:1055-67. 2006..Here, we report that nef alleles from the great majority of primate lentiviruses, including HIV-2, downmodulate TCR-CD3 from infected T cells, thereby blocking their responsiveness to ..
- Anti-tetherin activities in Vpu-expressing primate lentivirusesSu Jung Yang
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
Retrovirology 7:13. 2010..However, tetherin restriction is also counteracted by primate lentiviruses that do not express a Vpu protein, where anti-tetherin functions are provided by either the Env protein (..
- The CDK inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1 is induced by FcgammaR activation and restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and related primate lentiviruses in human macrophagesAnna Bergamaschi
Institut Pasteur, Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales, Paris, France
J Virol 83:12253-65. 2009..Our results point to a role of p21 as an inhibitory factor of lentiviral infection in macrophages and to its implication in FcgammaR-mediated restriction...
- Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest is conserved among primate lentivirusesV Planelles
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Califonia 90059 1678, USA
J Virol 70:2516-24. 1996..demonstrate that induction of cell cycle arrest is a conserved function of members of two other groups of primate lentiviruses, HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus strain sm (SIVsm)/SIVmac and SIVagm...
- Complex evolutionary history of primate lentiviral vpr genesM Tristem
Department of Biology, Imperial College, Ascot, Berkshire, U K
Virology 240:232-7. 1998....
- The Nef protein of primate lentivirusesV Piguet
Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Centre Medical Universitaire, Geneva, Switzerland
Rev Med Virol 9:111-20. 1999The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses acts as an important virulence factor in vivo both in monkeys and in humans...
- Regulation of Apobec3F and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif by Vif-Cul5-ElonB/C E3 ubiquitin ligaseBindong Liu
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Virol 79:9579-87. 2005..Here, we demonstrate that while h-A3F, like h-A3G, was able to suppress primate lentiviruses other than HIV-1 (simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys [SIVagm] and Rhesus macaques [..
- Polyvalent DNA prime and envelope protein boost HIV-1 vaccine elicits humoral and cellular responses and controls plasma viremia in rhesus macaques following rectal challenge with an R5 SHIV isolateRanajit Pal
Advanced BioScience Laboratories, Kensington, MD 20895, USA
J Med Primatol 34:226-36. 2005....
- CCR5 chemokine receptor gene evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates): implication on resistance to lentivirusesIeda P Ribeiro
Laboratorio de Virologia Molecular, Departamento de Genetica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS Bloco A sala A2 121, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949 970, Brazil
Infect Genet Evol 5:271-80. 2005..The high ccr5 genetic diversity observed in Platyrrhini, however, argues for a more extensive infection analysis of diverse NWM species to evaluate this resistance and the potential use of those primates as HIV/AIDS animal models...
- Comparing capsid assembly of primate lentiviruses and hepatitis B virus using cell-free systemsJaisri R Lingappa
Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Box 357238, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Virology 333:114-23. 2005..for assembly, we used cell-free systems to compare capsid assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and three primate lentiviruses. Capsid formation of these diverse viruses in a common eukaryotic extract was dependent on capsid protein ..
- Quantitation of simian cytokine and beta-chemokine mRNAs, using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: variations in expression during chronic primate lentivirus infectionRegina Hofmann-Lehmann
Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:627-39. 2002..The newly established quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays will allow the determination of cytokine and beta-chemokine patterns in rhesus macaques in studies of microbial pathogenesis or vaccine development...
- Evidence for immune-mediated reduction of viral replication in Macaca nemestrina mucosally immunized with inactivated SHIV(89.6)Zandrea Ambrose
Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Virology 308:178-90. 2003..These data suggest that cellular immunity was required for protection from intravaginal challenge. This immunization regimen provides a promising lead for vaccine development...
- HIV-1-derived lentiviral vectorsL E Ailles
Laboratory for Gene Transfer and Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, University of Torino Medical School, Candiolo, Torino, Italy
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 261:31-52. 2002
- Glycosylation of the ENV spike of primate immunodeficiency viruses and antibody neutralizationCheryl A Pikora
Department of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Curr HIV Res 2:243-54. 2004..Part of the strategy toward development of an optimally immunogenic Env spike will likely require modification of Env glycosylation...
- Capsid-dependent and -independent postentry restriction of primate lentivirus tropism in rodent cellsTheodora Hatziioannou
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
J Virol 78:1006-11. 2004..Overall, these findings indicate that novel restriction factors in rodents can modulate sensitivity to specific primate lentiviruses.
- Immune mechanisms associated with protection from vaginal SIV challenge in rhesus monkeys infected with virulence-attenuated SHIV 89.6Christopher J Miller
California National Primate Research Center
J Med Primatol 34:271-81. 2005..6 mounted effective anti-viral CD8+ T cell responses while avoiding the self-destructive inflammatory cycle found in the lymphoid tissues of unprotected and unvaccinated monkeys...
- Enigmas and paradoxes: the genetic diversity and prevalence of the primate lentivirusesJonathan P Clewley
Sexually Transmitted and Blood Borne Virus Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
Curr HIV Res 2:113-25. 2004..that we understand how its two types, HIV-1 and HIV-2, have evolved from their simian relatives, the primate lentiviruses (PLVs)...
- Characterization and role of lentivirus-associated host proteinsKeli Kolegraff
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, WMB Room 2309, 101 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 231:252-63. 2006....
- Mechanisms of CD4 downregulation by the Nef and Vpu proteins of primate immunodeficiency virusesO Wolf Lindwasser
Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Curr Mol Med 7:171-84. 2007..These two mechanisms lead to a dramatic reduction of CD4 expression in infected cells and are essential for efficient virus replication and disease progression...
- Intra- and interspecific variation of the CCR5 gene in higher primatesYun Wu Zhang
Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
Mol Biol Evol 20:1722-9. 2003..These results suggest that most CCR5 NS polymorphisms are slightly deleterious. However, at domains more closely correlated with its known biological functions, there was no obvious evidence to support deviation from neutrality...
- High frequency of genetic recombination is a common feature of primate lentivirus replicationJianbo Chen
HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI Frederick, P O Box B, Building 535, Room 336, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
J Virol 80:9651-8. 2006..We hypothesize that this high frequency of genetic recombination is a common feature of primate lentiviruses. Alternatively, it is possible that HIV-1 is unique among primate lentiviruses in possessing high ..
- Characterization of a new 5' splice site within the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus genome: evidence for a novel auxiliary proteinStephen Valas
AFSSA Niort, Laboratoire d Etudes et de Recherches Caprines, 79012 Niort, France
Retrovirology 5:22. 2008..Their genome seems to be less complex than those of primate lentiviruses since SRLVs encode only three auxiliary proteins, namely, Tat, Rev, and Vif, in addition to the products of ..
- [Receptors for animal retroviruses]Takayuki Miyazawa
Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Department of Cell Biology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawaracho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
Uirusu 59:223-42. 2009..b>Primate lentiviruses require two molecules (CD4 and chemokine receptors such as CXCR4) as receptors...
- Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of molecular clones of CAEV which generate infectious virusM Saltarelli
Division of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
Virology 179:347-64. 1990..to that of visna virus and the South African ovine maedi visna virus (SA-OMVV) as well as to those of other primate lentiviruses. The CAEV genome includes the small open reading frames (ORF) between pol and env which are the hallmarks ..
- Functional domains in the feline immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid proteinMariana L Manrique
Centro de Virologia Animal CEVAN CONICET, C1414DEM Buenos Aires, Argentina
Virology 327:83-92. 2004..In addition, this study suggests that assembly domains in the FIV NC C-terminus may be functionally equivalent to those present in the p6 domain of the Gag polyprotein of primate lentiviruses.
- Nef-induced CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) down-regulation are governed by distinct determinants: N-terminal alpha helix and proline repeat of Nef selectively regulate MHC-I traffickingA Mangasarian
Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
J Virol 73:1964-73. 1999The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses triggers the accelerated endocytosis of CD4 and of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I), thereby down-modulating the cell surface expression of these receptors...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr interacts with HHR23A, a cellular protein implicated in nucleotide excision DNA repairE S Withers-Ward
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 1678, USA
J Virol 71:9732-42. 1997The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene is an evolutionarily conserved gene among the primate lentiviruses HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency viruses...
- The presence of a vpu gene and the lack of Nef-mediated downmodulation of T cell receptor-CD3 are not always linked in primate lentivirusesJan Schmökel
Institute of Molecular Virology, University Clinic of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
J Virol 85:742-52. 2011....
- Down-modulation of mature major histocompatibility complex class II and up-regulation of invariant chain cell surface expression are well-conserved functions of human and simian immunodeficiency virus nef allelesMichael Schindler
Department of Virology, Universitatsklinikum, 89081 Ulm, Germany
J Virol 77:10548-56. 2003..However, it is currently unknown whether nef alleles derived from HIV-1-infected individuals or from other primate lentiviruses also modulate MHC-II and Ii...
- Molecular mimicry in inducing DNA damage between HIV-1 Vpr and the anticancer agent, cisplatinK Siddiqui
1Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Oncogene 27:32-43. 2008..virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (vpr) gene is an evolutionarily conserved gene among the primate lentiviruses. Several functions are attributed to Vpr including the ability to cause cell death, cell cycle arrest, ..
- Nef-mediated enhancement of virion infectivity and stimulation of viral replication are fundamental properties of primate lentivirusesJan Munch
Institute of Virology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D 89081 Ulm, Germany
J Virol 81:13852-64. 2007Nef is a multifunctional accessory protein of primate lentiviruses. Recently, it has been shown that the ability of Nef to downmodulate CD4, CD28, and class I major histocompatibility complex is highly conserved between most or all ..
- Active-site residues of cyclophilin A are crucial for its incorporation into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virionsT Dorfman
Division of Human Retrovirology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
J Virol 71:7110-3. 1997..the incorporation of CyPA and reduces HIV-1 virion infectivity but is inactive against closely related primate lentiviruses that do not interact with CyPA...
- Phylogeny and natural history of the primate lentiviruses, SIV and HIVV M Hirsch
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA Vanessa
Curr Opin Genet Dev 5:798-806. 1995..nemestrina). Studies of variation within infected individuals have been facilitated by adaptation of the techniques of heteroduplex analysis and single-stranded conformational polymorphism of PCR generated fragments...
- Conservation of a stepwise, energy-sensitive pathway involving HP68 for assembly of primate lentivirus capsids in cellsJulia E Dooher
Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
J Virol 78:1645-56. 2004..Here we address whether this pathway is universally conserved among primate lentiviruses and can be observed in mammalian cells...
- The highly conserved C-terminal dileucine motif in the cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein is critical for its association with the AP-1 clathrin adaptor [correction of adapter]S Wyss
Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
J Virol 75:2982-92. 2001..virus [HIV]) and Y721 (simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) in the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of the primate lentiviruses are crucial for the association of Env with clathrin-associated adaptor [corrected] complex AP-2...
- The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when?P M Sharp
Institute of Genetics, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:867-76. 2001In the absence of direct epidemiological evidence, molecular evolutionary studies of primate lentiviruses provide the most definitive information about the origins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2...
- Isolation of a simian immunodeficiency virus related to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 from a west African pet sooty mangabeyP A Marx
California Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis 95616
J Virol 65:4480-5. 1991..that this isolate is a member of the SIVsm/human immunodeficiecy virus type 2 (HIV-2)/SIVmac group of primate lentiviruses. Furthermore, sequence comparisons revealed extensive genetic diversity among SIVsm isolates similar to ..
- Although macrophage-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency viruses can exhibit a range of pathogenic phenotypes, a majority of isolates induce no clinical disease in immunocompetent macaquesTatsuhiko Igarashi
Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Building 4, Room 315, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Virol 81:10669-79. 2007..like visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses, which are mainly macrophage tropic (M-tropic), primate lentiviruses primarily target CD4+ T lymphocytes...
- SIVSM/HIV-2 Vpx proteins promote retroviral escape from a proteasome-dependent restriction pathway present in human dendritic cellsCaroline Goujon
LaboRetro, INSERM U758, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, IFR 128 Biosciences Lyon Gerland, Lyon Biopole, France
Retrovirology 4:2. 2007..SIVSM/HIV-2 lineage that is believed to have originated by duplication of the common vpr gene present in primate lentiviruses. Vpx is incorporated into virion particles and is thus present during the early steps of viral infection, ..
- Hypervariable region 3 residues of HIV type 1 gp120 involved in CCR5 coreceptor utilization: therapeutic and prophylactic implicationsW K Wang
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 651 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:4558-62. 1999..In a related genetic study, several residues conserved among primate lentiviruses were found to play important roles in CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) coreceptor utilization, and all but ..
- Full-length genome characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus lineage (SIVolc) from olive Colobus (Procolobus verus) and new SIVwrcPbb strains from Western Red Colobus (Piliocolobus badius badius) from the Tai Forest in Ivory CoastFlorian Liegeois
UMR 145, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, 911, Avenue Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier, France
J Virol 83:428-39. 2009..Overall, these results suggest an ancestral link between these different lentiviruses and highlight once more the complexity of the natural history and evolution of primate lentiviruses.
- Vaccine-induced, simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T cells reduce virus replication but do not protect from simian immunodeficiency virus disease progressionJessica C Engram
Department of Pathology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 19104, USA
J Immunol 183:706-17. 2009Our limited understanding of the interaction between primate lentiviruses and the host immune system complicates the design of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine...
- Host restriction of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 and viral evasion through VifAnna Maria Niewiadomska
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 339:1-25. 2009..However, retroviruses have developed their own methods to launch counter-strikes. Most primate lentiviruses encode a protein called the viral infectivity factor (Vif)...
- Efficient inhibition of SIV replication in rhesus CD4+ T-cell clones by autologous immortalized SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell clonesJacob T Minang
AIDS Vaccine Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
Virology 372:430-41. 2008CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses play an important role in controlling the replication of primate lentiviruses. Induction of these responses is a key objective for most current AIDS vaccine approaches...
- Cloning and sequences of primate CD4 molecules: diversity of the cellular receptor for simian immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virusA Fomsgaard
Department of Microbiology, Georgetown University, Rockville
Eur J Immunol 22:2973-81. 1992To study the interaction between the primate lentiviruses simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the CD4 receptor we have cloned and sequenced the CD4 molecule from six non-human primate species: ..
- Modulation of cellular protein trafficking by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef: role of the acidic residue in the ExxxLL motifScott H Coleman
University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
J Virol 80:1837-49. 2006The nef gene contributes to the replication of primate lentiviruses by altering the trafficking of cellular proteins involved in adaptive immunity (class I and II major histocompatibility complex [MHC]) and viral transmission (CD4 and DC-..
- The inner-nuclear-envelope protein emerin regulates HIV-1 infectivityJean Marc Jacque
Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 373 Plantation Street, Suite 319, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
Nature 441:641-5. 2006b>Primate lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) have the capacity to infect non-dividing cells such as tissue macrophages...
- An in vivo replication-important function in the second coding exon of Tat is constrained against mutation despite cytotoxic T lymphocyte selectionStephen M Smith
Saint Michael s Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA
J Biol Chem 278:44816-25. 2003..Tat functions in the transcription of primate lentiviruses. A plethora of in vitro data currently suggests that the second coding exon of Tat is largely devoid of ..
- Construction and in vitro properties of SIVmac mutants with deletions in "nonessential" genesJ S Gibbs
Harvard Medical School, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772 9102
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 10:333-42. 1994The so-called "nonessential" genes of primate lentiviruses can be deleted without abrogating the ability of virus to replicate under at least some cell culture conditions. In SIVmac, these genes are vif, vpx, vpr, and nef...
- Roles of p53 and caspases in the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by HIV-1 vprL D Shostak
Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Cancer Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
Exp Cell Res 251:156-65. 1999..This cellular function of vpr is conserved in evolution because other primate lentiviruses, including HIV-2, SIV(mac), and SIV(agm) encode related genes that also induce G(2) arrest...
- Construction and in vitro properties of SIVmac mutants with deletions in "nonessential" genesJ S Gibbs
Harvard Medical School, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772 9102
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 10:607-16. 1994The so-called "nonessential" genes of primate lentiviruses can be deleted without abrogating the ability of virus to replicate under at least some cell culture conditions. In SIVmac, these genes are vif, vpx, vpr, and nef...
- A new type of IRES within gag coding region recruits three initiation complexes on HIV-2 genomic RNALaure Weill
CNRS UMR 8015, Laboratoire de cristallographie et RMN Biologique, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 avenue de l Observatoire, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France
Nucleic Acids Res 38:1367-81. 2010Genomic RNA of primate lentiviruses serves both as an mRNA that encodes Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins and as a propagated genome. Translation of this RNA is initiated by standard cap dependant mechanism or by internal entry of the ribosome...
- A cellular restriction dictates the permissivity of nondividing monocytes/macrophages to lentivirus and gammaretrovirus infectionRajnish Kaushik
Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Cell Host Microbe 6:68-80. 2009b>Primate lentiviruses, including HIV-1, transduce terminally differentiated, nondividing myeloid cells; however, these cells are refractory to infection by gammaretroviruses such as murine leukemia virus (MLV)...
- HIV type I envelope determinants for use of the CCR2b, CCR3, STRL33, and APJ coreceptorsT L Hoffman
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:11360-5. 1998The envelope (Env) proteins of primate lentiviruses interact sequentially with CD4 and a coreceptor to infect cells. Changes in coreceptor use strongly influence viral tropism and pathogenesis...
- Rhesus macaque dendritic cells efficiently transmit primate lentiviruses independently of DC-SIGNLi Wu
HIV Drug Resistance Program, Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, and Basic Research Program, Science Applications International Corporation Frederick, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:1568-73. 2002..plays no discernable role in the ability of rhesus macaque dendritic cells to capture and transmit primate lentiviruses. Expression and neutralization analyses suggest that this process is DC-SIGN independent in macaque, ..
- Induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to enhanced green and yellow fluorescent proteins after myeloablative conditioningJulia C Morris
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
Blood 103:492-9. 2004..In summary, we report the induction of transgene-specific immune responses after transplantation of lentivirally transduced repopulating cells in a myeloablative setting...
- Immunodeficiency virus exploitation of dendritic cells in the early steps of infectionNatalia Teleshova
Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Leukoc Biol 74:683-90. 2003....
- FIV Gag: virus assembly and host-cell interactionsBenjamin G Luttge
Virus Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
Vet Immunol Immunopathol 134:3-13. 2010..This process is far better understood in primate lentiviruses, especially HIV-1...
- Primate lentiviral Vpx commandeers DDB1 to counteract a macrophage restrictionNatalia Sharova
Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000057. 2008b>Primate lentiviruses encode four "accessory proteins" including Vif, Vpu, Nef, and Vpr/Vpx. Vif and Vpu counteract the antiviral effects of cellular restrictions to early and late steps in the viral replication cycle...
- [Analysis on primate lentivirus genome dimerization in virion]Jun ichi Sakuragi
Department of Viral Infections, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan
Uirusu 55:153-60. 2005..The results of precise mapping of dimerization functional region strongly suggested that the RNA dimerization is one of the essential steps of RNA packaging...
- Influence of primate lentiviral Vif and proteasome inhibitors on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virion packaging of APOBEC3GBindong Liu
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
J Virol 78:2072-81. 2004..Vif proteins from distantly related primate lentiviruses such as SIVagm were unable to suppress the antiviral activity of human APOBEC3G or the packaging of ..
- Adaptation to the interferon-induced antiviral state by human and simian immunodeficiency virusesJulia Bitzegeio
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA
J Virol 87:3549-60. 2013..Here we show that prototype primate lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIV(MAC) and SIV(..
- Differential sensitivities of tetherin isoforms to counteraction by primate lentivirusesJulia Weinelt
Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
J Virol 88:5845-58. 2014....
- Inhibition of HIV-1 particle assembly by 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesteraseSam J Wilson
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10016, USA
Cell Host Microbe 12:585-97. 2012..Several primate lentiviruses are CNP-sensitive, and CNP sensitivity/resistance is determined by a single, naturally dimorphic, codon (E/..
- Distal leucines are key functional determinants of Alix-binding simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(smE543) and SIV(mac239) type 3 L domainsNana F Bello
Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Virol 85:11532-7. 2011In addition to PTAP L domains, primate lentiviruses carry Alix-binding motifs that include the recently described type 3 SREKPYKEVTEDLLHLNSLF sequence...
- Journey to the heart of macrophages: the delicate relationship between HIV-1 and a multifaceted cell typeAndrea Cimarelli
Department of Human Virology, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon, France
Retrovirology 7:28. 2010Cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage play multiple roles during the infection of primate lentiviruses serving as reservoirs for viral production or as vectors for viral spread to other cells and tissues...
- Rapid viral escape at an immunodominant simian-human immunodeficiency virus cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope exacts a dramatic fitness costCaroline S Fernandez
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
J Virol 79:5721-31. 2005..Quantifying both the selection pressure exerted by CTL and the fitness costs of escape mutation has important implications for the development of CTL-based vaccine strategies...
- The paradox of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in sooty mangabeys: active viral replication without disease progressionLisa A Chakrabarti
Viral Immunology Unit, Pasteur Institute, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Front Biosci 9:521-39. 2004..The comparative analysis of simian models thus suggests that viral load alone cannot account for progression to disease, and that the capacity of primate lentiviruses to induce abnormal immune activation underlies AIDS pathogenesis.
- Simian immunodeficiency virus in which nef and U3 sequences do not overlap replicates efficiently in vitro and in vivo in rhesus macaquesJ Munch
Institute for Clinical and Molecular Virology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
J Virol 75:8137-46. 2001..The genomes of all known primate lentiviruses contain a large overlap between nef and the U3 region...
- Isolation of simian immunodeficiency viruses from two sooty mangabeys in Côte d'Ivoire: virological and genetic characterization and relationship to other HIV type 2 and SIVsm/mac strainsM Peeters
Department of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 10:1289-94. 1994..To search for the presence of SIV in sooty mangabeys and other monkey species in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, and to compare viral isolates with HIV-2 strains from the same region...
- High viral load and CD4 lymphopenia in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques infected by a chimeric primate lentivirus constructed using the env, rev, tat, and vpu genes from HIV-1 LaiC S Dunn
INSERM U74 and Laboratoire de Virologie, Strasbourg, France
Virology 223:351-61. 1996Chimeric primate lentiviruses composed of SIV and HIV genes may allow the analysis of the role of these discrete HIV genes in viral pathogenesis in macaque monkeys...
- Comparison of simian immunodeficiency virus isolatesH W Kestler
New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772
Nature 331:619-22. 1988Information on the extent of genetic variability among non-human primate lentiviruses related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is sorely lacking...
- The 80's loop (residues 78 to 85) is important for the differential activity of retroviral proteasesJ Stebbins
Department of Molecular Genetics, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA
J Mol Biol 267:467-75. 1997....
- Diversity of HIV-1 Vpr interactions involves usage of the WXXF motif of host cell proteinsM Bouhamdan
The Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
J Biol Chem 273:8009-16. 1998..One such retroviral-incorporated protein is Vpr, which is present in all primate lentiviruses. Vpr has been implicated in different roles within the HIV-1 life cycle...
- Maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus genomes encode a Vpr-like but no Tat proteinStephanie Villet
UMR 754 INRA ENVL UCBL, Rétrovirus et Pathologie Comparée, Virologie Cellulaire, Moléculaire, et Maladies Emergentes, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France
J Virol 77:9632-8. 2003..arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) was initially named "tat" by analogy with a similarly placed ORF in the primate lentiviruses. The encoded "Tat" protein was ascribed the function of up regulation of the viral transcription from the ..
- Evidence for restriction of ancient primate gammaretroviruses by APOBEC3 but not TRIM5alpha proteinsDavid Perez-Caballero
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000181. 2008..TRIM5 and APOBEC restriction factors are most often studied in the context of modern primate lentiviruses, but it is likely that ancient retroviruses imposed the selective pressure that is evident in primate TRIM5 ..
- Biology of the HIV Nef proteinSuman Ranjan Das
Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 100 067, India
Indian J Med Res 121:315-32. 2005The accessory Nef protein is expressed by all primate lentiviruses--HIV-1,HIV-2 and simian immune deficiency virus (SIV). Its expression in the early stages of the viral life cycle ensures two basic attributes of HIV infection...
- The primate lentivirus-encoded Nef protein can regulate several steps of the viral replication cycleY Collette
Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille, 13009, France
Virology 265:173-7. 1999The primate lentiviruses encode a protein, Nef, which is required for efficient viral replication in their host...
- Lentiviral vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virusD Negre
Laboratoire de Vectorologie Rétrovirale et Thérapie Génique, INSERM U412, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, IFR 74, 46 allee d Italie, 69364 Lyon, France
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 261:53-74. 2002
- Antagonism to and intracellular sequestration of human tetherin by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope glycoproteinAnna Le Tortorec
Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
J Virol 83:11966-78. 2009..virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes the accessory gene vpu to overcome the action of tetherin, the lineage of primate lentiviruses that gave rise to HIV-2 does not...
- Integration site choice of a feline immunodeficiency virus vectorYubin Kang
Program in Gene Therapy, Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 52242, 52242, USA
J Virol 80:8820-3. 2006..FIV integration preferences are more similar to those of primate lentiviruses and distinct from those of Moloney murine leukemia virus, avian sarcoma leukosis virus, and foamy virus.
- The secondary structure of the 5' end of the FIV genome reveals a long-range interaction between R/U5 and gag sequences, and a large, stable stem-loopJulia C Kenyon
Department of Medicine, Addenbrooke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom
RNA 14:2597-608. 2008..This long-range interaction is similar to that seen in primate lentiviruses where it is thought to be functionally important...
- Co-translational myristoylation alters the quaternary structure of HIV-1 Nef in solutionCaitríona A Dennis
Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Proteins 60:658-69. 2005..solution properties of Nef, a 24-kDa cotranslationally myristoylated protein produced by HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses. Nef is found in the cytosol and also in association with cytoplasmic membranes, the latter, mediated in ..
- Prevalence of antibodies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV) in a colony of non-human primates in Kenya, East AfricaM Otsyula
Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi, Kenya
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 90:65-70. 1996..However, the relatively high prevalence of anti-SIV and anti-STLV antibodies in these monkeys offers an opportunity for prospective studies on the transmission and natural history of both viruses in a single colony...
- The end of Nef's tetherRuth Serra-Moreno
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Texas Tech University, 8 th and Canton Avenue, Lubbock, TX 79409 3131, USA Electronic address
Trends Microbiol 22:662-4. 2014Tetherin represents an important barrier for successful cross-species transmissions of primate lentiviruses. HIV-1 overcame this obstacle by using Vpu as a countermeasure...
- G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest Correlates with Primate Lentiviral Vpr Interaction with the SLX4 ComplexGregory Berger
Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
J Virol 89:230-40. 2015The accessory gene vpr, common to all primate lentiviruses, induces potent G2/M arrest in cycling cells...
- APOBEC3G polymorphism as a selective barrier to cross-species transmission and emergence of pathogenic SIV and AIDS in a primate hostAnnabel Krupp
Institut fur Klinische und Molekulare Virologie, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen and Nuremberg, Germany Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 9:e1003641. 2013..Importantly, our study confirms that APOBEC3G divergence can be a critical determinant of interspecies transmission and emergence of primate lentiviruses, including viruses with the potential to infect and spread in human populations.
- Host gene evolution traces the evolutionary history of ancient primate lentivirusesAlex A Compton
Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368:20120496. 2013..Traditional phylogenetic approaches have grossly underestimated the age of these primate lentiviruses. Instead, here we review how selective pressures imposed by these viruses have fundamentally altered the ..
- Evidence for a different susceptibility of primate lentiviruses to type I interferonsStéphanie Cordeil
Department of Human Virology, ENS L, Lyon, France
J Virol 87:2587-96. 2013..The differential susceptibilities to IFN-α of the primate lentiviruses tested here do not map to the capsid protein (CA), excluding de facto a role for human tripartite motif ..
- Suboptimal provirus expression explains apparent nonrandom cell coinfection with HIV-1Christelle Brégnard
Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France
J Virol 86:8810-20. 2012Despite the ability of primate lentiviruses to prevent infected cells from being reinfected, cell coinfection has occurred in the past and has shaped virus evolution by promoting the biogenesis of heterozygous virions and recombination ..
- Both the 5' and 3' LTRs of FIV contain minor RNA encapsidation determinants compared to the two core packaging determinants within the 5' untranslated region and gagAkela Ghazawi
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences FMHS, United Arab Emirates University UAEU, P O Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
Microbes Infect 8:767-78. 2006..contribution of the various regions implicated in FIV genomic RNA packaging, and reveals that like other primate lentiviruses, the packaging determinants of FIV are multipartite and spread out, an observation that has implications ..
- A novel motif in HIV-1 Nef that regulates MIP-1beta chemokine release in macrophagesLue Dai
University of Massachusetts Medical School, Program in Molecular Medicine, 373 Plantation Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
J Virol 84:8327-31. 2010All primate lentiviruses encode Nef, an accessory protein that is important for viral pathogenicity in vivo...
- Identification of a new simian immunodeficiency virus lineage with a vpu gene present among different cercopithecus monkeys (C. mona, C. cephus, and C. nictitans) from CameroonValerie Courgnaud
UR36, Institut de recherche pour le developpement IRD, and University of Montpellier I, Montpellier, France
J Virol 77:12523-34. 2003..analyses of SIVmon and SIVmus revealed that these viruses were genetically distinct from other known primate lentiviruses but were more closely related to SIVgsn all across their genomes, thus forming a monophyletic lineage ..
- Conserved residues in the HIV-1 Nef hydrophobic pocket are essential for recruitment and activation of the Hck tyrosine kinaseHyun Jung Choi
Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, E1240 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
J Mol Biol 343:1255-68. 2004The Nef protein of the primate lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is essential for high-titer viral replication and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression...
- MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF LENTIVIRAL VPR AND VPX PROTEINSJacek Skowronski; Fiscal Year: 2012Our long-term objective is to understand the functions of accessory proteins of primate lentiviruses at the molecular level...
- The role of myeloid cells in viral replication, persistence and neuroinvasionMario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2013..provided by applicant): Myeloid lineage cells (macrophage/microglia) are central to the ability of primate lentiviruses (HIV/SIV) to establish a viral reservoir in the central nervous system (CNS) and the presence of such a ..
- Innate Restriction Factor Modulation of Retrovirus-specific Humoral ImmunityMARIO LUIS SANTIAGO; Fiscal Year: 2013..Notably, primate lentiviruses antagonize the simian and human homologues of Apobec3 through the action of Vif...
- Introducing restriction factors into the genome of an AIDS virus host speciesEric M Poeschla; Fiscal Year: 2013..Remarkably, it is now believed that the accessory genes (vif, vpx, vpu, nef, and probably vpr) of primate lentiviruses are largely devoted to countering the antiviral effects of species-specific restrictio factors...
- Preclinical Development of HIV-1 Vif AntagonistsMario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2012..To counteract this cellular restriction, primate lentiviruses such as HIV-1 have evolved a Vif protein, the function of which is to target apobec for proteasomal ..
- Understanding how HIV-1 Vpu and HIV-2 Env stimulate virus releasePaula M Cannon; Fiscal Year: 2010b>Primate lentiviruses code for a conserved function that is necessary for the efficient production of viral particles and in vivo pathogenicity...
- VprYong Hui Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Vpr and vpx are two viral accessory genes that are expressed in primate lentiviruses, which are required for viral replication and disease progression in vivo...
- Lentiviral Resistance to TetherinDavid T Evans; Fiscal Year: 2013..able to counteract restriction by human tetherin, further underscoring the extraordinary plasticity of the primate lentiviruses in adapting to the tetherin proteins of their respective hosts and revealing a previously unappreciated ..
- Host Factor Genetics and Susceptibility to Retroviral InfectionWelkin Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009..to establish biological relevance of endogenously expressed post-entry restriction, and to ascertain the potential of genetically encoded restriction factors to impact cross-species transmission of primate lentiviruses.
- The Evolution of Vpr/Vpx Function in Primate LentivirusesMichael Emerman; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses encode accessory genes that serve to enhance virus replication and counteract host antiviral factors...
- HIV HOST-CELL INTERACTIONSMichael Emerman; Fiscal Year: 2010..of other members of this family of antiviral genes, and by evaluating the evolution of Vif among the primate lentiviruses through phylogenetic and functional analysis of its adaptation to Apobec3 proteins in primates...
- Activation of CD40 by HIV and Role in AIDS DementiaMario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2010One of the most striking characteristics of primate lentiviruses and one that distinguishes them from onco- retroviruses is their ability to infect non-dividing cells including macrophages and microglia...
- Role of Targeted Mutations in ViF on SHIV PathogenesisEdward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006All known primate lentiviruses encode for a viral infectivity factor or Vif, which interacts with the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G to prevent its incorporation into virions...
- Cytidine deaminase and HIV-1 replicationHui Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007G to A hypermutation is one of the characteristics of primate lentiviruses, as well as other retroviruses, during replication in vivo and in cell culture. The molecular mechanisms of this process, however, remain to be clarified...
- Role of TNPO3 in HIV-1 ReplicationFelipe Diaz-Griffero; Fiscal Year: 2013..Depletion of TNPO3 expression dramatically decreases the infection of primate lentiviruses such as HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIVmac. TNPO3 is essential for early steps on HIV-1 replication...
- FUNCTION FOR VPR AND VPX OF PRIMATE LENTIVIRUSESMario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2009..It is expected that these studies will more fully define the contribution of nuclear import activities of Vpr and i Vpx proteins to virus replication in vitro and in vivo. ..
- Cross-Species transmission and adaptation of primate lentivirusesWelkin E Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013..abstract_text> ..
- Natural SIV Reservoirs and Human Zoonotic RiskBeatrice Hahn; Fiscal Year: 2005..that exists in wild-living African primates and the ecological niche occupied by this broad family of primate lentiviruses. In this grant application, we propose to address these questions in Cameroon, a country known to lie ..
- HIV/AIDS Intravirion Reverse Transcription and VirucidesHui Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Molecular mechanisms by which primate lentiviruses, such as HIV-1, are sexually transmitted, have yet to be fully elucidated...
- FUNCTION FOR VPR AND VPX OF PRIMATE LENTIVIRUSESMario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 1999....
- Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Orf-A a Model for HIV VprEllen Sparger; Fiscal Year: 2007..A protein-protein interactions may be common properties of accessory genes encoded by either non-primate lentiviruses (FIV and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) or primate lentiviruses (HIV and simian immunodeficiency ..
- DIVERSITY AND PATHOGENESIS OF SIVAGMYen Li; Fiscal Year: 1993..Both human and non-human primate lentiviruses are know to be genetically divergent among individual HIV-2, and SIVmac isolates, our analysis indicate ..
- VACCINATION AGAINST INTRAPARTUM HIV CLADE C TRANSMISSIONRuth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 1999..recognized for their expertise in the epidemiology of HIV infection in developing countries, phylogeny of primate lentiviruses, antiviral humoral immune responses, and vaccine development...
- WaNPRC MACACA NEMESTRINA SPF BREEDING COLONYDavid Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2006..Well-defined models currently exist in this species utilizing a large number of primate lentiviruses and other infectious agents. A small colony of M...
- HIV activation in alcohol-aided G. vaginalis virulenceAbraham Rosenberg; Fiscal Year: 2005..is known to inversely affect the extent of replication and the infectivities of human HIV and other primate lentiviruses. Sialidase is an enzyme that has been shown to remove sialic acid from highly sialylated virion envelope ..
- SHIV ADAPTATION AND PATHOGENESIS IN MACAQUESPaul Luciw; Fiscal Year: 2000DESCRIPTION: (Adapted From Applicant's Abstract) The env gene of the primate lentiviruses, HIV and SIV, is a major determinant of several in vitro viral properties and an important target of anti-viral immune responses...
- Replication and Persistence of Primate LentivirusesWelkin Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Biology and Pathogenesis of Primate LentivirusesMario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2002..These approaches are providing a more complete understanding of how primate lentiviruses effect lymphocyte depletion...
- HUMAN ANTITAT INTRABODY GENE THERAPY AGAINST SHIVWayne Marasco; Fiscal Year: 2001..Chimeric primate lentiviruses (SHIVs) composed of SIV and HIV genes have proven useful in the analysis of the role of discrete HIV genes ..
- PP2A AND THE INDUCTION OF G2 ARREST BY HIV1 VPRVicente Planelles; Fiscal Year: 2001..This viral function is conserved in evolution as other primate lentiviruses such as HIV-2, SIVmac, and SIVagm encode related genes which also induce G2 arrest...
- DETERMINANTS OF VACCINE PROTECTION IN A SIV MODELShiu Lok Hu; Fiscal Year: 2005..Abstract) The overall objective of this project is to examine determinants of vaccine protection against primate lentiviruses. Direct evidence supporting the feasibility of vaccine-induced protection against primate lentivirus ..
- CD134-based fusion polypeptides as novel FIV immuno-therapeuticsAymeric de Parseval; Fiscal Year: 2007..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) shares many features with the primate lentiviruses and is thus considered a valuable experimental model to study AIDS intervention therapies...
- COMBINATION IMMUNIZATION AS AN APPROACH TO AIDS VACCINESShiu Lok Hu; Fiscal Year: 2002..Results from this program project will contribute directly to current and future clinical development of AIDS vaccines and enhance our basic understanding of the protective immunity against primate lentiviruses.
- Combined Approach to Broadly Protective AIDS VaccinesShiu Lok Hu; Fiscal Year: 2007..from this Program are likely to contribute directly to clinical development of AIDS vaccines and enhance our understanding of the protective mechanisms and effective immunization strategies against primate lentiviruses.
- Interaction of HIV-1 Vpr with the Host Cell CycleWEI GOH; Fiscal Year: 2003..Manipulation of the host's cell cycle is a highly conserved property of Vpr alleles from all primate lentiviruses studied to date, suggesting that this must confer an advantage to the viral replication cycle within the ..
- IMPROVE PROTECTIVE RESPONSES TO ATTENUATED SHIV VACCINEC Pauza; Fiscal Year: 2001..development of protective immunity is a crucial period for judging efficacy of a vaccine against pathogenic primate lentiviruses. During this period, vaccinees are susceptible to infection with pathogenic virus and the replicating ..
- NEF, T CELL, AND HIV REPLICATIONThomas Hope; Fiscal Year: 2000..The conservation of this gene product in primate lentiviruses, as well as experiments done in the SIV system, indicate that Nef is essential for the persistence of these ..
- Imaging HIV-1 Egress by Evanescent Field MicroscopyMarkus Thali; Fiscal Year: 2005..of the mammalian vacuolar protein sorting pathway in the release of various RNA viruses, including the primate lentiviruses. It is unclear how these components, which are normally hosted by the endo-lysosomal system, are recruited ..
- HIV VPX/VPR STRUCTURE/FUNCTIONLee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2001Vpr and Vpx arose by an ancestral recombination event, and confer diverse properties upon primate lentiviruses, including the ability to replicate in quiescent cells...
- IN VIVO MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF SIV LUNG INFECTIONSTodd Reinhart; Fiscal Year: 2002..These investigations will provide insight into the mechanisms by which primate lentiviruses alter the immunologic environment within the lung, leading to susceptibility to respiratory infections as ..
- Regulation of APOBEC3G enzymatic activity in HIV-infected primary human T cellsJAISRI LINGAPPA; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Cell-free VEE assembly system and alphavirus drug screenJAISRI LINGAPPA; Fiscal Year: 2006..The cell-free VEE assembly system offer a safe and low cost approach to understanding the mechanism of VEE capsid formation and to screen for agents active against alphaviruses that have potential as bioterrorism agents. ..
- Actions of Vif and APOBEC3 proteins in HIV-1 ReplicationYong Hui Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2010..This potent protective mechanism is circumvented by HIV-1 (and other primate lentiviruses) by their production of a viral infectivity factor, Vif...
- Pathogenesis of Macrophage Tropic HIV-1Paul Gorry; Fiscal Year: 2004..Understanding the molecular basis of enhanced M-tropism will provide further insights into HIV-1 pathogenesis, which is vital for the development of new inhibitors for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. ..
- The MHC-I, HIV-1 Nef, AP-1 ComplexJohn Guatelli; Fiscal Year: 2008..By understanding the molecular basis of this linkage, new approaches to drug design may become apparent. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS WITH ATTENUATED LENTIVIRAL VACCINEChristopher Miller; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- BIOPHYSICAL/GENETIC PROPERTIES OF HIV1 IN HUMAN PLASMAGeorge Shaw; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- HOST AND VIRAL FACTORS IN SIV PNEUMONIAM Zink; Fiscal Year: 2001..4) The cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors that are expressed in alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood-derived macrophages infected with different strains of virus will be identified. ..
- CHIMERIC SHIV MODEL FOR EVALUATING HIV IMMUNOTHERAPIESKeith Reimann; Fiscal Year: 2001..II. Utilize this model to evaluate a unique, humanized anti-CD4 antibody as an anti-viral therapy for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. ..
- Antiretroviral Therapy and SIV EncephalitisM Zink; Fiscal Year: 2005..2) To determine whether antiretroviral therapy that suppresses virus replication in the periphery modulates the selection and replication of neurovirulent viruses in the CNS of SIV-infected macaques. ..
- FETAL IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS AGAINST A PRIMATE LENTIVIRUSRuth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 2001..Data generated from this work can be translated into human clinical trials aimed at preventing maternal HIV-1 transmission. ..
- Overcoming blocks to HIV-1 replication in rhesus macaques.Theodora Hatziioannou; Fiscal Year: 2007..If successful, this proposal will lead to improved animal models for HIV-1 infection and will considerably facilitate the development and testing of drug and vaccine interventions. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- LENTIVIRUS INFECTION OF NEONATAL DENDRITIC CELLSRuth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 2002..The overall approach is designed to shed light on the basic biology of how DC generate immune responses in neonates to viral infections generally, and to dissemination of HIV-1 in particular. ..
- Attenuated recombinant Listeria as oral AIDS vaccineRuth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 2003..These primate studies represent crucial steps towards developing recombinant Lmdd vectors for clinical trials as oral AIDS vaccine candidates that could be administered easily, even in the developing world. ..
- DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIMATE IMMUNOLOGY RESOURCEChristopher Miller; Fiscal Year: 2003..This type of sustained support for assay development is required if immune studies in non-human primates are going to significantly advance in the near future. ..
- 25th Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDSChristopher Miller; Fiscal Year: 2007..This format has been successfully followed using NCRR support for the previous Annual symposium. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Single-Cycle SIV as a Novel AIDS Vaccine ApproachDavid Evans; Fiscal Year: 2008..Associations between immune responses elicited by scSIV and the outcome of challenge will be analyzed for each specific aim to reveal potential mechanisms of protection. ..
- Tropism and transmissibility of HIV-1 envelopes in semenPaul Clapham; Fiscal Year: 2009..Aim 3. Assessment of semen envelopes for their capacity to confer infection of cervical explant cultures. ..
- PATHOGENIC CONVERSION OF ATTENUATED SIV VACCINESEarl Sawai; Fiscal Year: 2003..Accordingly, the proposed studies will provide critical insight into molecular changes in the viral genome that are necessary for pathogenic conversion of live-attenuated viral vaccines. ..
- Divergent narrow and broad tropisms HIV-1 R5 virusesPaul Clapham; Fiscal Year: 2008..Aim 4. Investigation of how HIV-1 R5 virus tropism diversity impacts on sensitivity to CCR5 inhibitors and the evolution of escape mutants. ..
- Dynamics of SHIV clade C and S mansoni coinfectionRuth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 2005..These studies will provide valuable information whether parasitic helminth infections significantly alter HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and/or immunogenicity and efficacy of two different AIDS vaccine strategies. ..