influenza b virus

Summary

Summary: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States
    William W Thompson
    Influenza Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 289:179-86. 2003
  2. ncbi Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010
    Anthony E Fiore
    Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, N E, MS A 20, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 59:1-62. 2010
  3. ncbi Influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States
    William W Thompson
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 292:1333-40. 2004
  4. ncbi The need for quadrivalent vaccine against seasonal influenza
    Robert B Belshe
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, USA
    Vaccine 28:D45-53. 2010
  5. ncbi Molecular studies of influenza B virus in the reverse genetics era
    David Jackson
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:1-17. 2011
  6. ncbi Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 422:428-33. 2003
  7. ncbi Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children against influenza B viruses by lineage and antigenic similarity
    Robert B Belshe
    Saint Louis University Health Science Center, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Vaccine 28:2149-56. 2010
  8. pmc The evolutionary dynamics of human influenza B virus
    Rubing Chen
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, Mueller Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Mol Evol 66:655-63. 2008
  9. pmc Evaluation of three influenza A and B real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays and a new 2009 H1N1 assay for detection of influenza viruses
    Suresh B Selvaraju
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:3870-5. 2010
  10. ncbi Unexpected severity of cases of influenza B infection in patients that required hospitalization during the first postpandemic wave
    A Gutiérrez-Pizarraya
    Clinic Unit of Infectious Diseases, Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville, IBIS, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío CSIC University of Seville, Seville, Spain
    J Infect 65:423-30. 2012

Detail Information

Publications343 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States
    William W Thompson
    Influenza Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 289:179-86. 2003
    ..Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Statistical methods used to estimate deaths in the United States attributable to influenza have not accounted for RSV circulation...
  2. ncbi Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010
    Anthony E Fiore
    Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, N E, MS A 20, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 59:1-62. 2010
    ..Vaccination and health-care providers should be alert to announcements of recommendation updates and should check the CDC influenza website periodically for additional information...
  3. ncbi Influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States
    William W Thompson
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 292:1333-40. 2004
    ..Respiratory viral infections are responsible for a large number of hospitalizations in the United States each year...
  4. ncbi The need for quadrivalent vaccine against seasonal influenza
    Robert B Belshe
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, USA
    Vaccine 28:D45-53. 2010
    ..and little or no protection has been provided in the USA by the trivalent vaccines against the circulating influenza B virus in 5 of the 10 seasons between 2001 and 2010...
  5. ncbi Molecular studies of influenza B virus in the reverse genetics era
    David Jackson
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:1-17. 2011
    ..In 2002, two groups reported the successful recovery of influenza B virus entirely from cDNA. This has allowed greater depth of study into the biology of these viruses...
  6. ncbi Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 422:428-33. 2003
    ....
  7. ncbi Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children against influenza B viruses by lineage and antigenic similarity
    Robert B Belshe
    Saint Louis University Health Science Center, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Vaccine 28:2149-56. 2010
    ....
  8. pmc The evolutionary dynamics of human influenza B virus
    Rubing Chen
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, Mueller Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Mol Evol 66:655-63. 2008
    ..However, it is unclear what processes determine the evolutionary dynamics of influenza B virus, and how influenza viruses A and B interact at the evolutionary scale...
  9. pmc Evaluation of three influenza A and B real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays and a new 2009 H1N1 assay for detection of influenza viruses
    Suresh B Selvaraju
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:3870-5. 2010
    ..specimens from children (30 influenza A/H1 virus-, 30 influenza A/H3 virus-, 30 2009 H1N1-, and 30 influenza B virus-positive specimens and 30 influenza virus-negative specimens) were tested with the CDC influenza A/B PCR (..
  10. ncbi Unexpected severity of cases of influenza B infection in patients that required hospitalization during the first postpandemic wave
    A Gutiérrez-Pizarraya
    Clinic Unit of Infectious Diseases, Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville, IBIS, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío CSIC University of Seville, Seville, Spain
    J Infect 65:423-30. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the features of influenza B versus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections during the 2010-2011 epidemic-season...
  11. ncbi Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in health care professionals: a randomized trial
    J A Wilde
    Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Childrens Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    JAMA 281:908-13. 1999
    ..Data are limited and conflicting regarding the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in health care professionals...
  12. ncbi Design and performance testing of quantitative real time PCR assays for influenza A and B viral load measurement
    C L Ward
    International Clinical Virology, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, UK
    J Clin Virol 29:179-88. 2004
    ..Historically this was measured using plaque assays, or Culture Enhanced Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (CE-ELISA)...
  13. ncbi Clinical manifestations and socio-economic impact of influenza among healthy children in the community
    Susanna Esposito
    Department of Maternal and Paediatric Sciences, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Commenda 9, 20122 Milan, Italy
    J Infect 62:379-87. 2011
    ..To evaluate the total burden of influenza among healthy children in the community in order to analyse the cost of influenza in paediatric age...
  14. ncbi Public health impact of including two lineages of influenza B in a quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine
    Carrie Reed
    Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30033, United States
    Vaccine 30:1993-8. 2012
    ..One proposed alternative is to produce a quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) including an influenza B virus from each of the two circulating lineages...
  15. pmc Challenge of conducting a placebo-controlled randomized efficacy study for influenza vaccine in a season with low attack rate and a mismatched vaccine B strain: a concrete example
    Jiri Beran
    The Vaccination and Travel Medicine Center, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
    BMC Infect Dis 9:2. 2009
    ..Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a trivalent inactivated split virus influenza vaccine (TIV) against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B in adults 18 to 64 years of age during the 2005/2006 season in the Czech Republic...
  16. ncbi Epidemiological, antigenic and genetic characteristics of seasonal influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B influenza viruses: basis for the WHO recommendation on the composition of influenza vaccines for use in the 2009-2010 northern hemisphere season
    Ian G Barr
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, VIDRL, Melbourne, Australia
    Vaccine 28:1156-67. 2010
    ..This article gives a summary of the data and background to the recommendations for the 2009-2010 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine formulation...
  17. ncbi Estimating vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza using a sentinel physician network: results from the 2005-2006 season of dual A and B vaccine mismatch in Canada
    D M Skowronski
    Epidemiology Services, BC Centre for Disease Control, Canada
    Vaccine 25:2842-51. 2007
    ....
  18. ncbi Qualitative and quantitative analyses of virtually all subtypes of influenza A and B viral neuraminidases using antibodies targeting the universally conserved sequences
    Caroline Gravel
    Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Vaccine 28:5774-84. 2010
    ..The reasons for the absence or low level of neuraminidase in vaccine preparations are complex and could be multi-factorial. The antibody-based assays reported here could be of practical value for better vaccine quality control...
  19. ncbi Clinical features of influenza A and B in children and association with myositis
    Jen Jan Hu
    Department of Pediatrics, Taiwan Adventist Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 37:95-8. 2004
    ..Influenza A virus outbreaks occurred in January 2000, July 2001, and December 2001, while influenza B virus outbreaks occurred from March 2000 to May 2000 and from December 2000 to February 2001...
  20. pmc Structural basis for receptor specificity of influenza B virus hemagglutinin
    Qinghua Wang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16874-9. 2007
    ..Here we report the structures of influenza B virus HA in complex with human and avian receptor analogs, respectively...
  21. pmc Crystal structure of unliganded influenza B virus hemagglutinin
    Qinghua Wang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, BCM 125, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Virol 82:3011-20. 2008
    ..More than two dozen amino acid substitutions on influenza B virus HAs have been identified to cause antigenicity alteration in site-specific mutants, monoclonal antibody ..
  22. ncbi Surveillance for influenza admissions among children hospitalized in Canadian immunization monitoring program active centers, 2003-2004
    Dorothy L Moore
    Infectious Diseases Division, Montreal Children s Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Pediatrics 118:e610-9. 2006
    ....
  23. ncbi Reappearance and global spread of variants of influenza B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses in the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 seasons
    Michael W Shaw
    National Microbiology Laboratory, Canadian Science Center for Human and Animal Health, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 3R2, Canada
    Virology 303:1-8. 2002
    ....
  24. ncbi Synchrony, waves, and spatial hierarchies in the spread of influenza
    Cecile Viboud
    Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 312:447-51. 2006
    ..A simple epidemiological model, based on the gravity formulation, captures the observed increase of influenza spatial synchrony with transmissibility; high transmission allows influenza to spread rapidly beyond local spatial constraints...
  25. ncbi Duration of protection provided by live attenuated influenza vaccine in children
    Christopher S Ambrose
    MedImmune, One MedImmune Way, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:744-8. 2008
    ..Reliable availability of influenza vaccine before October could enable the vaccination of many children who might not otherwise be vaccinated...
  26. ncbi Influenza
    Karl G Nicholson
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK
    Lancet 362:1733-45. 2003
    ....
  27. ncbi Lower clinical effectiveness of oseltamivir against influenza B contrasted with influenza A infection in children
    Norio Sugaya
    Department of Pediatrics, Keiyu Hospital, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 220 0012, Japan
    Clin Infect Dis 44:197-202. 2007
    Recently, many Japanese physicians have claimed that oseltamivir is less effective in children with influenza B virus infection...
  28. pmc Mice lacking the ISG15 E1 enzyme UbE1L demonstrate increased susceptibility to both mouse-adapted and non-mouse-adapted influenza B virus infection
    Caroline Lai
    Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 83:1147-51. 2009
    ..Both UbE1L(-/-) and ISG15(-/-) mice display increased susceptibility to influenza B virus infection, including non-mouse-adapted strains...
  29. pmc Influenza B virus NS1-truncated mutants: live-attenuated vaccine approach
    Rong Hai
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 82:10580-90. 2008
    ..We also provide evidence that influenza B virus NS1 mutants induce a self-adjuvanted immune response and confer effective protection against challenge with ..
  30. ncbi A comparison of the effectiveness of oseltamivir for the treatment of influenza A and influenza B: a Japanese multicenter study of the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 influenza seasons
    Naoki Kawai
    Japan Physicians Association, Tokyo, Japan
    Clin Infect Dis 43:439-44. 2006
    ..The study included 3351 patients in whom influenza had been diagnosed by use of an antigen detection test kit...
  31. pmc Species-specific antagonism of host ISGylation by the influenza B virus NS1 protein
    Gijs A Versteeg
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 84:5423-30. 2010
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that influenza B virus NS1 protein potently antagonizes human but not mouse ISGylation, a property dependent on B/NS1 binding the N-..
  32. pmc Multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of influenza and human respiratory syncytial viruses
    Guy Boivin
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHUQ CHUL, Department of Pediatrics, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 42:45-51. 2004
    ..8%) of 208 cases, including 45 (21.6%) influenza A virus infections, no (0%) influenza B virus infections, 106 (51%) HRSV infections, and 12 (5.8%) coinfections...
  33. pmc Multiple genotypes of influenza B virus circulated between 1979 and 2003
    Jonathan A McCullers
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale St, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    J Virol 78:12817-28. 2004
    The segmented genome of influenza B virus allows exchange of gene segments between cocirculating strains...
  34. pmc Cocirculation and evolution of two lineages of influenza B viruses in europe and Israel in the 2001-2002 season
    X Sherry Chi
    Clinical Immunology and Virology Department, Applied Immunology and Microbiology Division, Wyeth Vaccine Research, Pearl River, New York 10965, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:5770-3. 2003
    Forty-nine influenza B virus isolates collected in Belgium, Finland, Spain, and Israel during the 2001-2002 winter season were categorized into either of two lineages, B/Yamagata/16/88 or B/Victoria/2/87, based on the phylogenetic ..
  35. pmc Detection of influenza viruses resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors in global surveillance during the first 3 years of their use
    Arnold S Monto
    University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2395-402. 2006
    ..The frequency of variants with decreased sensitivity to the NAIs did not increase significantly during this period, but continued surveillance is required, especially in regions with higher NAI use...
  36. ncbi Differences in clinical features between influenza A H1N1, A H3N2, and B in adult patients
    Masahide Kaji
    Kurume University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Japan
    Respirology 8:231-3. 2003
    ..The differences in clinical features between influenza A H1N1, A H3N2, and B in the past three influenza seasons were examined...
  37. ncbi Comparative efficacy of inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines
    Arnold S Monto
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    N Engl J Med 361:1260-7. 2009
    ..The efficacy of influenza vaccines may vary from year to year, depending on a variety of factors, and may differ for inactivated and live attenuated vaccines...
  38. pmc Phylogenetic and evolutionary history of influenza B viruses, which caused a large epidemic in 2011-2012, Taiwan
    Ji Rong Yang
    Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 7:e47179. 2012
    ..The TW08-I viruses isolated in both 2011-2012 and 2007-2009 were antigenically similar, indicating that an influenza B virus have persisted for 5 years in antigenic stasis before causing a large epidemic...
  39. ncbi Respiratory tract viral infections in bone marrow transplant patients
    Sonia M Raboni
    Laboratory of Virology, Hospital de Clinicas da Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil
    Transplantation 76:142-6. 2003
    ..Community respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, influenza A, influenza B, and the parainfluenza group are frequent causes of respiratory disease in bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients...
  40. ncbi Clinical and genetic characterization of severe influenza B-associated diseases during an outbreak in Taiwan
    Wen Chen Li
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Chang Gung Children s Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    J Clin Virol 42:45-51. 2008
    ..Mismatches between circulating and vaccine strains of influenza virus had been observed in Taiwan. A comprehensive clinical and genetic analysis of influenza B viruses-associated important diseases was lacking...
  41. pmc A human CD4+ T cell epitope in the influenza hemagglutinin is cross-reactive to influenza A virus subtypes and to influenza B virus
    Jenny Aurielle B Babon
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 86:9233-43. 2012
    ..epitope is well conserved in all 16 subtypes of the HA protein of influenza A virus and the HA protein of influenza B virus. By stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a healthy adult donor with peptides covering ..
  42. pmc Structural basis for RNA binding and homo-oligomer formation by influenza B virus nucleoprotein
    Andy Ka Leung Ng
    Centre for Protein Science and Crystallography, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Virol 86:6758-67. 2012
    ..We have determined the crystal structure of influenza B virus NP to a resolution of 3.2 Å. Influenza B NP contains a head, a body domain, and a tail loop...
  43. pmc Influenza B and C virus NEP (NS2) proteins possess nuclear export activities
    J Paragas
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York University, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 75:7375-83. 2001
    ..VLPs generated in the absence of the influenza B virus NEP protein were unable to transfer the viral RNA-like CAT gene to a new cell...
  44. ncbi Serum antibodies against circulating influenza strains among vaccinated and unvaccinated general practitioners during two consecutive years (2002-2003)
    Barbara Michiels
    Centre for General Practice, University of Antwerp Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk Antwerpen, Belgium
    Vaccine 24:3145-52. 2006
    ..Besides vaccination, the (high) basic antibody titre before vaccination and working in a child and family preventive medicine unit were predicting a protective antibody level in GPs...
  45. ncbi Influenza Β/Victoria antigen induces strong recall of Β/Yamagata but lower Β/Victoria response in children primed with two doses of Β/Yamagata
    Danuta M Skowronski
    British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:833-9. 2011
    ..Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) contains 1 of 2 influenza B/lineages (B/Yamagata or B/Victoria) annually. We assessed prime-boost responses in young children following a change in the B/lineage included in TIV...
  46. pmc Structural basis for the sequence-specific recognition of human ISG15 by the NS1 protein of influenza B virus
    Rongjin Guan
    Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, Piscataway NJ 08854, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13468-73. 2011
    ..The NS1 protein of influenza B virus (NS1B) specifically binds only human and nonhuman primate ISG15s and inhibits their conjugation...
  47. ncbi Defective interfering influenza A virus protects in vivo against disease caused by a heterologous influenza B virus
    Paul D Scott
    School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:2122-32. 2011
    ..In the current study, it was shown that 244/PR8 also protects against disease caused by a heterologous influenza B virus (B/Lee/40)...
  48. ncbi Influenza A and B virus infections in children
    Ville Peltola
    Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
    Clin Infect Dis 36:299-305. 2003
    ..Laboratory confirmation of influenza is particularly important for children because the clinical presentation of the infection is less characteristic than that seen in adults...
  49. ncbi Decreased leukocytes and other characteristics of laboratory findings of influenza virus infections in children
    Ching Fen Shen
    Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 41:294-300. 2008
    ..An outbreak of influenza A and influenza B appeared at the beginning and end of 2006 in southern Taiwan. We conducted this study to test whether laboratory findings could differentiate influenza A from influenza B infection...
  50. ncbi Impact of influenza vaccination on seasonal mortality in the US elderly population
    Lone Simonsen
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 6613, USA
    Arch Intern Med 165:265-72. 2005
    ..We tried to reconcile these conflicting findings by adjusting excess mortality estimates for aging and increased circulation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses...
  51. ncbi Influenza virus susceptibility and resistance to oseltamivir
    Fred Y Aoki
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
    Antivir Ther 12:603-16. 2007
    ..However, continued vigilance, especially of emerging avian H5N1 strains, combined with careful, systematic laboratory-based monitoring, is essential...
  52. pmc Prevalence of antibodies against seasonal influenza A and B viruses in children in Netherlands
    R Bodewes
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, P O Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:469-76. 2011
    ..These findings may have implications for the development of vaccination strategies aiming at the protection of young children against seasonal and/or pandemic influenza virus infection...
  53. ncbi Performance of Directigen flu A+B enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent assay for detection of influenza infection during the 2004-2005 season
    Mahbubur Rahman
    Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI 54449, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 58:413-8. 2007
    ..Compared with culture, specificity of both EIA and DFA was 96%. During the 2004-2005 influenza season, both the EIA and DFA had low sensitivity and failed to detect influenza in many patients...
  54. ncbi High proportion of influenza B characterises the 2008 influenza season in Victoria
    Kristina A Grant
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Melbourne, Victoria
    Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 33:328-36. 2009
    ..Overall 56% of notifications of laboratory confirmed influenza to DHS and 56% of influenza positive swabs from sentinel surveillance were influenza type B...
  55. ncbi Outcome of influenza infections in outpatients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
    N Khanna
    Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    Transpl Infect Dis 11:100-5. 2009
    ..Influenza can cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The diagnostic methods and antiviral treatment have scarcely been investigated...
  56. ncbi Universal antibodies and their applications to the quantitative determination of virtually all subtypes of the influenza A viral hemagglutinins
    Stella Chun
    Centre for Biologics Research, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Vaccine 26:6068-76. 2008
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantitative determination of virtually all influenza vaccines using a single universal antibody...
  57. ncbi Effect of influenza vaccination of children on infection rates in Hutterite communities: a randomized trial
    Mark Loeb
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, ON, L8N 3Z5 Canada
    JAMA 303:943-50. 2010
    ..Children and adolescents appear to play an important role in the transmission of influenza. Selectively vaccinating youngsters against influenza may interrupt virus transmission and protect those not immunized...
  58. pmc Monitoring the impact of influenza by age: emergency department fever and respiratory complaint surveillance in New York City
    Donald R Olson
    New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Med 4:e247. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of emergency department (ED) chief complaint data for measuring influenza-attributable morbidity by age and by predominant circulating virus...
  59. ncbi Influenza B virus evolution: co-circulating lineages and comparison of evolutionary pattern with those of influenza A and C viruses
    M Yamashita
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, City University of New York, New York 10029
    Virology 163:112-22. 1988
    ..Examination of 14 influenza B virus NS gene and 10 HA gene sequences by the maximum parsimony method suggested that--as with influenza C viruses-..
  60. pmc Multipathogen infections in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections
    Dan Peng
    Pediatrics Department, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, PR China
    Virol J 6:155. 2009
    ..A medical history of each child was taken...
  61. ncbi Long time trends in influenza-like illness and associated determinants in The Netherlands
    F Dijkstra
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Epidemiol Infect 137:473-9. 2009
    ..However, insufficient data were present to assess the impact of other potential contributing factors, such as diminished fitness of influenza viruses and changes in consulting behaviour...
  62. pmc Influenza B virus NS1 protein inhibits conjugation of the interferon (IFN)-induced ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein
    W Yuan
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    EMBO J 20:362-71. 2001
    ..We demonstrate the novel way in which the function of the ISG15 protein is inhibited by influenza B virus, which strongly induces the ISG15 protein: a specific region of the influenza B virus NS1 protein, which ..
  63. ncbi Diagnosis of influenza in the community: relationship of clinical diagnosis to confirmed virological, serologic, or molecular detection of influenza
    M Zambon
    Influenza Unit, Enteric and Respiratory Virus Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, 61 Colindale Ave, Colindale, London NW9 5HT, England
    Arch Intern Med 161:2116-22. 2001
    ..Successful treatment of influenza depends on an accurate diagnosis of the illness and prompt intervention. However, there is a lack of data comparing clinical diagnosis vs laboratory diagnostic techniques...
  64. ncbi Synthetic multi-epitope peptides identified in silico induce protective immunity against multiple influenza serotypes
    Gregory A Stoloff
    PepTcell Limited, High Wycombe, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:2441-9. 2007
    ..Overall, FLU-v represents a promising influenza vaccine candidate, obviating the need for yearly vaccinations and allowing the stockpiling and initiation of a worldwide vaccination program in advance of a pandemic outbreak...
  65. ncbi Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent single dose seasonal influenza vaccine containing pandemic A(H1N1) antigen in younger and elderly subjects: a phase III open-label single-arm study
    M Loebermann
    University of Rostock, Department of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Ernst Heydemann Strasse 6, 18057 Rostock, Germany
    Vaccine 29:1228-34. 2011
    ..We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of a preservative-free non-adjuvanted seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine...
  66. ncbi Medically attended pediatric influenza during the resurgence of the Victoria lineage of influenza B virus
    Ladonna K Hite
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 11:40-7. 2007
    ..During the 2002-2003 season, a new variant of influenza B co-circulated with influenza A viruses. This study examines the characteristics and outcomes of children with influenza A and B virus infection vs. other acute respiratory illnesses...
  67. ncbi Genetic diversity of influenza B virus: the frequent reassortment and cocirculation of the genetically distinct reassortant viruses in a community
    Yoko Matsuzaki
    Department of Bacteriology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Iida Nishi, Yamagata, Japan
    J Med Virol 74:132-40. 2004
    ..B viruses isolated during one influenza season, the antigenic and genetic relationships among 20 strains of influenza B virus isolated in February and March 2001 at one pediatric clinic in Yamagata City, Japan, were investigated...
  68. ncbi Clinical features of children infected with different strains of influenza B in southern Taiwan
    Chia Yu Chi
    Division of Clinical Research, National Health Research Institutes, Chunan, Miaoli, Taiwan
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:640-5. 2008
    ..The clinical features were compared with influenza A infection occurring in the same period...
  69. ncbi Isolation of influenza A/H3 and B viruses from an influenza patient: confirmation of co-infection by two influenza viruses
    Shoichi Toda
    Division of Biology, Yamaguchi Prefectural Research Institute of Public Health, Yamaguchi 753 0821, Japan
    Jpn J Infect Dis 59:142-3. 2006
  70. ncbi An efficient RNA aptamer against human influenza B virus hemagglutinin
    Subash C B Gopinath
    Functional Nucleic Acids Group, Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Central 6, 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566
    J Biochem 139:837-46. 2006
    ..The aptamer bound efficiently to the HA of influenza B and required 5 mM MgCl(2) ion for its recognition. The aptamer not only distinguished HA derived from the influenza A virus, but also inhibited HA-mediated membrane fusion...
  71. ncbi Virologically confirmed population-based burden of hospitalization caused by influenza A and B among children in Hong Kong
    Susan S Chiu
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong
    Clin Infect Dis 49:1016-21. 2009
    ..We sought to determine the virologically confirmed hospitalization rates associated with influenza virus infection among Hong Kong children...
  72. ncbi Comparison of nasopharyngeal nylon flocked swabs with universal transport medium and rayon-bud swabs with a sponge reservoir of viral transport medium in the diagnosis of paediatric influenza
    Susanna Esposito
    Department of Maternal and Pediatric Sciences, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan, Italy
    J Med Microbiol 59:96-9. 2010
    ....
  73. ncbi Subtyping of the influenza virus by high resolution mass spectrometry
    Alexander B Schwahn
    School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Anal Chem 81:3500-6. 2009
    ..The approach represents a more rapid and direct approach with which to type and subtype the virus that is of critical need to prepare strategies and treatments in the event of a local epidemic or global pandemic...
  74. ncbi GS4071 is a slow-binding inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase from both A and B strains
    W M Kati
    Infectious Diseases Research, Abbott Laboratories, Illinois 60064, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 244:408-13. 1998
    ..The time dependent inhibition phenomenon, often referred to as slow-binding inhibition, appears to be a consequence of the very slow rate of dissociation of the compound from influenza neuraminidase...
  75. ncbi Dual infections by influenza A/H3N2 and B viruses and by influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses during winter 2007, Corsica Island, France
    A Falchi
    INSERM, UMR S 707, Paris F 75012, France
    J Clin Virol 41:148-51. 2008
    ..The investigation of dual influenza infection human cases is of major interest specifically for the control of new emerging influenza strains...
  76. pmc Congenital eye malformations associated with extensive periocular neural crest apoptosis after influenza B virus infection during early embryogenesis
    Bo Yie Chen
    School of Optometry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Mol Vis 15:2821-8. 2009
    ..Infections acquired during gestation may disrupt eye morphogenesis. We investigated the effects of influenza B virus infection on eye malformations during early embryogenesis.
  77. ncbi Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift
    F Carrat
    Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, UMR S 707, Paris, France INSERM, UMR S 707, Paris, France
    Vaccine 25:6852-62. 2007
    ..In addition to the use of vaccine adjuvants, emerging research areas include development of a universal vaccine and the use of vaccines that exploit mechanisms of cross-protective immunity...
  78. ncbi Influenza vaccine immunogenicity in 6- to 23-month-old children: are identical antigens necessary for priming?
    Emmanuel B Walter
    Duke Clinical Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Pediatrics 118:e570-8. 2006
    ....
  79. pmc Genetic analysis of influenza B viruses isolated in Uganda during the 2009-2010 seasons
    Denis K Byarugaba
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, P, O, Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
    Virol J 10:11. 2013
    ..Complete genome analysis of one influenza B virus and several gene segments of other influenza B viruses isolated from Uganda from May 2009 through December ..
  80. ncbi Immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a mammalian cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy children and adolescents three to seventeen years of age
    Timo Vesikari
    University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:494-500. 2012
    ..In this study, we compared the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of CCIV with a conventional egg-derived trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in a healthy pediatric population...
  81. pmc Co-infection of Influenza B and Streptococci causing severe pneumonia and septic shock in healthy women
    Timothy Aebi
    Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    BMC Infect Dis 10:308. 2010
    ....
  82. ncbi Myocardial injury and bacterial pneumonia contribute to the pathogenesis of fatal influenza B virus infection
    Christopher D Paddock
    Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Infect Dis 205:895-905. 2012
    b>Influenza B virus infection causes rates of hospitalization and influenza-associated pneumonia similar to seasonal influenza A virus infection and accounts for a substantial percentage of all influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths ..
  83. pmc Differentiation of influenza B virus lineages Yamagata and Victoria by real-time PCR
    Barbara Biere
    Robert Koch Institut, FG17 Influenza Respiratorische Viren, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1425-7. 2010
    ..We present the first real-time PCR assay for virus lineage differentiation to supplement classical antigenic analyses. The assay was successfully applied to 310 primary samples collected in Germany from 2007 to 2009...
  84. pmc Further characterisation of the translational termination-reinitiation signal of the influenza B virus segment 7 RNA
    Michael L Powell
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e16822. 2011
    ..Reinitiation on distant AUGs is not inhibited in eIF4G-depleted RRL, suggesting that the tethered 40S subunit can move some distance without a requirement for linear scanning...
  85. ncbi Laboratory diagnosis of influenza--virology or serology?
    R Allwinn
    Institute for Medical Virology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Paul Ehrlich Str 40, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Med Microbiol Immunol 191:157-60. 2002
    ..In comparison, virus detection is clearly superior to antibody determination for diagnosis of influenza virus infections. However, antibody testing may be useful as a complementary tool to confirm the diagnosis retrospectively...
  86. ncbi Characterization of antibody responses to annual influenza vaccination over four years in a healthy elderly population
    E M Gardner
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, MCP Hahnemann University School of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
    Vaccine 19:4610-7. 2001
    ..This study clearly supports the concept that annual immunization with the same influenza vaccine component over multiple years does not significantly decrease antibody titers in a healthy elderly population...
  87. pmc Transmission of influenza B viruses in the guinea pig
    Natalie Pica
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    J Virol 86:4279-87. 2012
    ..We therefore present, for the first time, a small animal model with which to study the underlying mechanisms of influenza B virus transmission.
  88. ncbi Evolution of surface and nonstructural-1 genes of influenza B viruses isolated in the Province of Québec, Canada, during the 1998-2001 period
    Yacine Abed
    Infectious Disease Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Canada
    Virus Genes 27:125-35. 2003
    ..This study confirms the importance of a detailed molecular analysis for understanding the evolution of influenza B viruses...
  89. ncbi Monoclonal antibody, but not synthetic peptide, targeting the ectodomain of influenza B virus M2 proton channel has antiviral activity
    Yongjin Wang
    Laboratory of Wildlife Epidemic Diseases, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    New Microbiol 33:311-7. 2010
    The proton channels of influenza A virus (A/M2) and influenza B virus (BM2) are essential for viral replication...
  90. pmc The rationale for quadrivalent influenza vaccines
    Christopher S Ambrose
    MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USA
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:81-8. 2012
    ..However, licensed trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain antigens from only a single influenza B virus and thus provide limited immunity against circulating influenza B strains of the lineage not present in the ..
  91. ncbi The phosphorylation of the integral membrane (M1) protein of influenza virus
    A Gregoriades
    Department of Basic Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, NY 10035
    Virus Res 16:27-41. 1990
    ..4) The phosphate is located within or in close proximity to the major stretch of neutral and hydrophobic amino acids found in M1, as determined by analyzing cyanogen bromide fragments...
  92. ncbi Influenza-associated deaths among children in the United States, 2003-2004
    Niranjan Bhat
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Career Development Division, Office of Workforce and Career Development National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2559-67. 2005
    ..Although influenza is common among children, pediatric mortality related to laboratory-confirmed influenza has not been assessed nationally...
  93. ncbi Genetic and phenotypic analysis of reassortants of high growth and low growth strains of influenza B virus
    G M Vodeiko
    Laboratory of Pediatric and Respiratory Viral Diseases, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics and Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 21:3867-74. 2003
    ..The studies identify multiple genes that may affect growth of influenza B viruses in eggs...
  94. ncbi Protective efficacy against pandemic influenza of seasonal influenza vaccination in children in Hong Kong: a randomized controlled trial
    Benjamin J Cowling
    School of Public Health
    Clin Infect Dis 55:695-702. 2012
    ..The efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) remains unclear...
  95. ncbi Influenza B virus PB1 protein; nucleotide sequence of the genome RNA segment predicts a high degree of structural homology with the corresponding influenza A virus polymerase protein
    S Kemdirim
    Virology 152:126-35. 1986
    ..domain and 90% of the proline residues found within the influenza A virus PB1 protein are conserved in the influenza B virus molecule...
  96. pmc Antigenic structure of the influenza B virus hemagglutinin: nucleotide sequence analysis of antigenic variants selected with monoclonal antibodies
    M T Berton
    J Virol 52:919-27. 1984
    We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza B virus B/Oregon/5/80 and, through comparative sequence analysis, identify amino acid substitutions in the HA1 polypeptide responsible for the ..
  97. ncbi Fatal human metapneumovirus and influenza B virus coinfection in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient
    C Ghattas
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Elizabeth Health Center, Youngstown, Ohio, USA
    Transpl Infect Dis 14:E41-3. 2012
    ..Coinfection with hMPV and influenza virus type B may have a poor outcome and can be fatal, especially in immunocompromised patients...
  98. ncbi Influenza B virus with modified hemagglutinin cleavage site as a novel attenuated live vaccine
    Jürgen Stech
    Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany
    J Infect Dis 204:1483-90. 2011
    ..According to World Health Organization recommendations, current annual vaccines are composed of 2 type A and 1 type B virus-specific component...
  99. ncbi The CM2 protein of influenza C virus is an oligomeric integral membrane glycoprotein structurally analogous to influenza A virus M2 and influenza B virus NB proteins
    A Pekosz
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 3500, USA
    Virology 237:439-51. 1997
    ..orientation of CM2, the size of the ectodomain and cytoplasmic tail of CM2, and its ability to form disulfide-linked oligomers are reminiscent of the structural properties of influenza A virus M2 and influenza B virus NB proteins.
  100. ncbi Detection of type B influenza virus genes from biopsied gastric mucosa
    Yukiharu Hayase
    Department of Virology, Jichi Medical School, Kawachi, Tochigi, Japan
    J Gastroenterol 37:101-5. 2002
    ..The purpose of the present study was to further characterize gastric mucosal infection with type B influenza virus, in which the natural host is limited to humans...
  101. ncbi The BM2 protein of influenza B virus is synthesized in the late phase of infection and incorporated into virions as a subviral component
    T Odagiri
    Department of Microbiology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku gun, Ishikawa, Japan
    J Gen Virol 80:2573-81. 1999
    The influenza B virus genome RNA segment 7 encodes the M1 and BM2 proteins...

Research Grants42

  1. Respiratory Panel Flow-Strip: a Point-of-Care Molecular Diagnostic Test
    CHRISTOPHER GERARD COONEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..identifies hypervariable genomes across the following panel of respiratory pathogens: influenza A virus, influenza B virus, human respiratory syncytial virus A/B, human adenovirus A/B/C/D/E/F, human coronavirus 229E/NL63/OC43, ..
  2. The influenza A virus nucleoprotein: structure and function
    Yizhi Jane Tao; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..NP on its various functions;and (5) solve the structure of NP from infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) and influenza B virus and determine whether NP self-oligomerization and RNA binding modes are broadly conserved in the ..
  3. REPLICATION OF INFLUENZA VIRUS
    Robert M Krug; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The third aim focuses on how the NS1 protein of influenza B virus (NS1B) inhibits the antiviral activity of the interferon-induced ISG15 protein, which can be conjugated to ..
  4. AvanceIII 700MHz NMR spectrometer with cryogenic probe
    James J Chou; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..continued focus on proton translocators, the Chou lab will determine the structure of the BM2 H+ channel of influenza B virus, for providing structural details for designing new anti-flu compounds...
  5. Structural and Functional Study of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin
    Qinghua Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Infection caused by influenza B virus remains a serious threat to global healthcare, due to naturally evolving strains and to their potential use as manmade bio-weapons by terrorists...
  6. Structure of M2 proton channel from influenza A Virus
    William F Degrado; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally we will structurally characterize the proton channel of influenza B virus, BM2, which shows no sequence similarity to M2 aside from having a His-X3-Trp motif...
  7. NanI sialidase enhances C. perfringens host cell adherence and toxin action
    Jihong Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..perfringens diseases, similar to the use of sialidase inhibitors in the treatment of influenza caused by influenza A virus and influenza B virus.
  8. INFLUENZA B VIRUS AND MATRIX GENE ORF
    DAN DEBORDE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Research directed at influenza B virus has benefited greatly from studies performed on influenza A viruses...
  9. Virulence factors of influenza virus: The NS1 protein
    Adolfo Garcia Sastre; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our recent results indicate that the NS1 of influenza B virus (less than 25% amino acid identity with the NS1 of influenza A virus) also prevents the induction of IRF-3 ..
  10. Transgenic indicator cells for influenza virus
    PAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..constructs to generate stable cell lines that express a reporter gene only in response to influenza A and/or influenza B virus infection...
  11. MINORITY PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM
    Karen Chachu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..modulates DC differentiation in human cell lines, iSG15 is induced by several viruses including HCMV, HSV-1, influenza B virus and gammaHV68. However, the exact role of ISG15 during viral infection remains to be characterized...
  12. Reducing Transmission of Influenza by Face Masks
    ARNOLD MONTO; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Such a reduction could have a major public health impact during a pandemic. In the second year, the study can be expanded or modified based on findings in the first. ..
  13. Comparative Study of Influenza Vaccines in Adults
    ARNOLD MONTO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Results will help to determine how the vaccine may be used as part of the strategy to combat influenza in varying situations. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. 2nd Orthomyxoviruses Research Conference
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The purpose of this proposal is to provide funds that will allow promising young investigators to interact with their peers and develop a commitment to this area of research. ..
  15. Synergism Between Influenza Virus and Pneumococcus
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  16. 3rd Orthomyxoviruses Research Conference
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The purpose of this proposal is to provide funds that will allow promising young investigators to interact with their peers and develop a commitment to this area of research. ..
  17. Reconstitution of Protective CMV Immunity and Immune Regulation After HAART
    Adriana Weinberg; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These analyses will define the role of TREG in the inadequate CMV immune reconstitution of HAART recipients. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Influenza-pneumococcal synergism: role of neuraminidase
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  19. Lethal synergism between influenza and pneumococcus
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  20. A randomized trial of influenza vaccination of Hutterite children
    Mark Loeb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We believe that the trial we propose will lead to important data that can inform policy on influenza immunization strategy. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. A Novel Target for New Anti-Anthrax Drugs
    Wayne Brouillette; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Selectivity for the inhibition of Bacillus NAD synthetase over the human (erythrocyte) enzyme will also be evaluated. ..
  22. Elicitation of broad immunity using VLPs with consensus envs
    Ted Ross; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, the breadth and protective efficacy of immune responses elicted by a SHIV-1 VLP containing an envelope representing the consensus envelope sequence of clade C (Con C) will be evaluated with a clade B SHIV challenge. ..
  23. Vulnerability to Smallpox Due to Declining CTL Immunity
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..By correlating these responses with vaccinia lesion sizes in new vaccinees, markers of severe complications from vaccinia vaccination may be identified. ..
  24. Diagnostic protein array for respiratory infections
    Darrell Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The underlying platform developed herein will likewise find broad application in many areas of disease surveillance, with an emphasis on point-of-use applications. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. Dielectrophoretic Separator for Cell/Pathogen Separation
    Ying Huang; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..There examples address the needs of lowering the threshold for detection of cancer cells in blood, with the goal of diagnosing infectious disease and biowarfare agents without the need to first culture the pathogens. ..
  26. Role of Virus and Genetic Susceptibility in Otitis Media
    Cuneyt Alper; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These results will be used in the design of future studies that prevent OM by moderating vURI pathogenesis. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. Studies on Influenza B Virus BM2 Protein Ion Channel
    LAWRENCE PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Influenza A virus has caused all human pandemics but influenza B virus infections occur annually and in some recent years they have constituted 50% of total influenza virus ..
  28. IL-6 IN HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 OCULAR REACTIVATION
    JOHN KRIESEL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Novel and specific viral mutants will be constructed based on the results of HSV-DNA binding and transient expression assays. ..
  29. A Novel Genetic Therapy for Herpes Keratitis
    JOHN KRIESEL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An ex vivo model of HSV-1 reactivation in explanted mouse trigeminal ganglia is proposed as an efficient means for determining effective strategies for the delay or inhibition of reactivation. ..
  30. Accelerated Viral Inhibition Assay
    Maryna Eichelberger; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Integrated, on-chip RT-MME-PCR for influenza diagnostics; Phase 1 = sample prepar
    Darrell Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. High Throughput Assays for Ion Channel Activities of Influenza A & B Viruses
    LAWRENCE PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Influenza A virus has caused all human pandemics and influenza B virus infections occur annually and in some recent years they have constituted 50% of total influenza virus ..
  33. RESPIRATORY VIRUS ION CHANNELS
    LAWRENCE PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..5. In a separate set of experiments we will use a sensitive method to test the NB protein of influenza B virus for ion channel activity. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]
  34. Mechanisms of influenza NA drug resistance
    Jennifer L McKimm Breschkin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  35. Multiplexed pathogen detection by on-chip amplification
    Darrell Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLY
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  37. New Influenza A Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Biodefense
    Wayne Brouillette; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim 4. Evaluate whole cell antiviral activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, and in vivo anti-influenza A activity. ..
  38. INITIATION OF VIRUS SPECIFIC CD8+ T CELL RESPONSES
    Maryna Eichelberger; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This proposal is designed as an essential step towards the development of more effective influenza vaccine. ..
  39. Neonatal Immunization with Acellular Pertussis Vaccines
    Natasha Halasa; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  40. ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION
    Walter Gerhard; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  41. Rapid Analysis of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness
    Edward Belongia; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Interim and annual estimates of VE with 95% confidence intervals will be provided to CDC, including overall VE and VE for each of the priority age groups. ..
  42. Sixth International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium
    ANN FALSEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..