west nile virus

Summary

Summary: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The IFITM proteins mediate cellular resistance to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus
    Abraham L Brass
    Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Cell 139:1243-54. 2009
  2. pmc Globalization, land use, and the invasion of West Nile virus
    A Marm Kilpatrick
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Science 334:323-7. 2011
  3. pmc 2'-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members
    Stephane Daffis
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nature 468:452-6. 2010
  4. pmc RNA interference screen for human genes associated with West Nile virus infection
    Manoj N Krishnan
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticutt 06520 8031, USA
    Nature 455:242-5. 2008
  5. pmc Identification of five interferon-induced cellular proteins that inhibit west nile virus and dengue virus infections
    Dong Jiang
    Drexel Institute for Biotechnology and Virology Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18902, USA
    J Virol 84:8332-41. 2010
  6. ncbi Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999
  7. pmc Evidence of simultaneous circulation of West Nile and Usutu viruses in mosquitoes sampled in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) in 2009
    Mattia Calzolari
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell Emilia Romagna B Ubertini IZSLER, Brescia, Italy
    PLoS ONE 5:e14324. 2010
  8. pmc ISG15 facilitates cellular antiviral response to dengue and west nile virus infection in vitro
    Jianfeng Dai
    Institute of Biology and Medical Sciences, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, P R China
    Virol J 8:468. 2011
  9. pmc Toll-like receptor 3 has a protective role against West Nile virus infection
    Stephane Daffis
    Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 82:10349-58. 2008
  10. pmc B cells and antibody play critical roles in the immediate defense of disseminated infection by West Nile encephalitis virus
    Michael S Diamond
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 77:2578-86. 2003

Detail Information

Publications366 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The IFITM proteins mediate cellular resistance to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus
    Abraham L Brass
    Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Cell 139:1243-54. 2009
    ..revealed that the IFITM proteins inhibit the early replication of flaviviruses, including dengue virus and West Nile virus. Collectively this work identifies a family of antiviral restriction factors that mediate cellular innate ..
  2. pmc Globalization, land use, and the invasion of West Nile virus
    A Marm Kilpatrick
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Science 334:323-7. 2011
    ..A paradigmatic case is the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999...
  3. pmc 2'-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members
    Stephane Daffis
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nature 468:452-6. 2010
    ..Here we show that a West Nile virus (WNV) mutant (E218A) that lacks 2'-O MTase activity was attenuated in wild-type primary cells and mice but ..
  4. pmc RNA interference screen for human genes associated with West Nile virus infection
    Manoj N Krishnan
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticutt 06520 8031, USA
    Nature 455:242-5. 2008
    b>West Nile virus (WNV), and related flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue viruses, constitute a significant global human health problem...
  5. pmc Identification of five interferon-induced cellular proteins that inhibit west nile virus and dengue virus infections
    Dong Jiang
    Drexel Institute for Biotechnology and Virology Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18902, USA
    J Virol 84:8332-41. 2010
    ..IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that instigate an antiviral state against two medically important flaviviruses, West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV), we tested 36 ISGs that are commonly induced by IFN-alpha for antiviral ..
  6. ncbi Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999
    ..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998...
  7. pmc Evidence of simultaneous circulation of West Nile and Usutu viruses in mosquitoes sampled in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) in 2009
    Mattia Calzolari
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell Emilia Romagna B Ubertini IZSLER, Brescia, Italy
    PLoS ONE 5:e14324. 2010
    ..were increasingly reported in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), from the chikungunya virus in 2007 to the West Nile virus (WNV) in 2008...
  8. pmc ISG15 facilitates cellular antiviral response to dengue and west nile virus infection in vitro
    Jianfeng Dai
    Institute of Biology and Medical Sciences, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, P R China
    Virol J 8:468. 2011
    Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV), close siblings of the Flaviviridae family, are the causative agents of Dengue hemorraghic shock or West Nile meningoencephalitis respectively...
  9. pmc Toll-like receptor 3 has a protective role against West Nile virus infection
    Stephane Daffis
    Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 82:10349-58. 2008
    Protection against West Nile virus (WNV) infection requires rapid viral sensing and the generation of an interferon (IFN) response...
  10. pmc B cells and antibody play critical roles in the immediate defense of disseminated infection by West Nile encephalitis virus
    Michael S Diamond
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 77:2578-86. 2003
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) causes severe central nervous system (CNS) infection primarily in humans who are immunocompromised or elderly...
  11. ncbi A global perspective on the epidemiology of West Nile virus
    Laura D Kramer
    The Arbovirus Laboratories, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 53:61-81. 2008
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae) is the most widespread arbovirus in the world. A significant range expansion occurred beginning in 1999 when the virus was introduced into New York City...
  12. pmc Role of CD8+ T cells in control of West Nile virus infection
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 78:8312-21. 2004
    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) causes fatal encephalitis more frequently in immunocompromised humans than in those with a healthy immune system...
  13. pmc Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus
    Nicholas Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:311-22. 2003
    To evaluate transmission dynamics, we exposed 25 bird species to West Nile virus (WNV) by infectious mosquito bite...
  14. pmc Ly6c+ "inflammatory monocytes" are microglial precursors recruited in a pathogenic manner in West Nile virus encephalitis
    Daniel R Getts
    The Discipline of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia
    J Exp Med 205:2319-37. 2008
    In a lethal West Nile virus (WNV) model, central nervous system infection triggered a threefold increase in CD45(int)/CD11b(+)/CD11c(-) microglia at days 6-7 postinfection (p.i.)...
  15. pmc CD8+ T cells mediate recovery and immunopathology in West Nile virus encephalitis
    Yang Wang
    Division of Immunology and Genetics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
    J Virol 77:13323-34. 2003
    C57BL/6J mice infected intravenously with the Sarafend strain of West Nile virus (WNV) develop a characteristic central nervous system (CNS) disease, including an acute inflammatory reaction...
  16. pmc Chemokine receptor Ccr2 is critical for monocyte accumulation and survival in West Nile virus encephalitis
    Jean K Lim
    Molecular Signaling Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 186:471-8. 2011
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging pathogen responsible for outbreaks of fatal meningoencephalitis in humans...
  17. pmc The interferon-inducible gene viperin restricts West Nile virus pathogenesis
    Kristy J Szretter
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 85:11557-66. 2011
    ..Here, we examined the contribution of the ISG viperin to the control of West Nile virus (WNV) in genetically deficient cells and mice...
  18. ncbi Recombinant West Nile virus envelope protein E and domain III expressed in insect larvae protects mice against West Nile disease
    Julio Alonso-Padilla
    Departamento de Biotecnologia, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria INIA, Ctra Coruña Km 7 5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Vaccine 29:1830-5. 2011
    In this study, West Nile virus (WNV) envelope (rE) protein and its domain III (rDIII) were efficiently expressed in a cost-effective system based on insect larvae as non-fermentative living biofactories...
  19. pmc Phylogeography of West Nile virus: from the cradle of evolution in Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas
    Fiona J May
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 85:2964-74. 2011
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widely distributed of the encephalitic flaviviruses and is a major cause of encephalitis, with isolates obtained from all continents, apart from Antarctica...
  20. pmc Fine-scale variation in vector host use and force of infection drive localized patterns of West Nile virus transmission
    Gabriel L Hamer
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e23767. 2011
    ..within a community of hosts), and not simply host diversity or richness, determine local infection rates of West Nile virus (WNV) in mosquito vectors...
  21. pmc The NS5 protein of the virulent West Nile virus NY99 strain is a potent antagonist of type I interferon-mediated JAK-STAT signaling
    Maudry Laurent-Rolle
    Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 S Fourth St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Virol 84:3503-15. 2010
    ..b>West Nile virus (WNV) infection prevents pY-STAT1 although a role for WNV NS5 in IFN antagonism has not been fully explored...
  22. pmc Inhibition of alpha/beta interferon signaling by the NS4B protein of flaviviruses
    Jorge L Munoz-Jordan
    Department of Microbiology, Box 1124 Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 79:8004-13. 2005
    ....
  23. pmc A single positively selected West Nile viral mutation confers increased virogenesis in American crows
    Aaron C Brault
    Center for Vector Borne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Nat Genet 39:1162-6. 2007
    b>West Nile virus (WNV), first recognized in North America in 1999, has been responsible for the largest arboviral epiornitic and epidemic of human encephalitis in recorded history...
  24. pmc Neutralization of West Nile virus by cross-linking of its surface proteins with Fab fragments of the human monoclonal antibody CR4354
    Bärbel Kaufmann
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2054, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18950-5. 2010
    ..CR4354, a human monoclonal antibody isolated from a patient, neutralizes West Nile virus (WNV) infection at a postattachment stage in the viral life-cycle...
  25. ncbi Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses
    John S Mackenzie
    Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia
    Nat Med 10:S98-109. 2004
    ....
  26. ncbi Quantitation of flaviviruses by fluorescent focus assay
    Anne F Payne
    The Arbovirus Laboratories, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 5668 State Farm Rd, Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA
    J Virol Methods 134:183-9. 2006
    ..The assay was validated with West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Dengue virus (DENV) types 1-4...
  27. ncbi The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere
    Margo A Brinton
    Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 56:371-402. 2002
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally also infects humans and horses...
  28. pmc Isolation and characterization of human monoclonal antibodies from individuals infected with West Nile Virus
    Mark Throsby
    Crucell Holland B V, P O Box 2048, 2301 CA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Virol 80:6982-92. 2006
    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) neutralizing West Nile Virus (WNV) have been shown to protect against infection in animal models and have been identified as a correlate of protection in WNV vaccine studies...
  29. pmc The stoichiometry of antibody-mediated neutralization and enhancement of West Nile virus infection
    Theodore C Pierson
    Viral Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 1:135-45. 2007
    ..We evaluated how many antibodies must bind to a given epitope on West Nile virus (WNV) to achieve neutralization...
  30. ncbi Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection
    James J Sejvar
    Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, and Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 290:511-5. 2003
    The neurologic manifestations, laboratory findings, and outcome of patients with West Nile virus (WNV) infection have not been prospectively characterized.
  31. pmc IPS-1 is essential for the control of West Nile virus infection and immunity
    Mehul S Suthar
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000757. 2010
    The innate immune response is essential for controlling West Nile virus (WNV) infection but how this response is propagated and regulates adaptive immunity in vivo are not defined...
  32. pmc Tregs control the development of symptomatic West Nile virus infection in humans and mice
    Marion C Lanteri
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3266-77. 2009
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) causes asymptomatic infection in most humans, but for undefined reasons, approximately 20% of immunocompetent individuals develop West Nile fever, a potentially debilitating febrile illness, and approximately 1% ..
  33. pmc Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination
    Marina De Filette
    Laboratory of Gene Therapy, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, Heidestraat 19, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
    Vet Res 43:16. 2012
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus)...
  34. pmc Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus infection: a balance between virulence, innate and adaptive immunity, and viral evasion
    Melanie A Samuel
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:9349-60. 2006
  35. ncbi Pathogenesis of flavivirus infections: using and abusing the host cell
    Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia
    Unité Pathogénie Virale, INSERM U819, Institut Pasteur, Departement de Virologie, Paris, France
    Cell Host Microbe 5:318-28. 2009
    Flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus and the West Nile virus, are emerging arthropod-borne viruses that represent an immense global health problem...
  36. ncbi Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitis
    Tian Wang
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Med 10:1366-73. 2004
    b>West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne single-stranded (ss)RNA flavivirus, causes human disease of variable severity...
  37. ncbi Ecological correlates of risk and incidence of West Nile virus in the United States
    Brian F Allan
    Department of Biology, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1137, Saint Louis, MO, 63130, USA
    Oecologia 158:699-708. 2009
    b>West Nile virus, which was recently introduced to North America, is a mosquito-borne pathogen that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans...
  38. pmc A recombinant influenza A virus expressing domain III of West Nile virus induces protective immune responses against influenza and West Nile virus
    Byron E E Martina
    Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e18995. 2011
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) continues to circulate in the USA and forms a threat to the rest of the Western hemisphere...
  39. ncbi The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere
    Duane J Gubler
    Asia Pacific Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases and Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology, and Pharmacology, John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:1039-46. 2007
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) has historically been considered to be among the least virulent of the Japanese serogroup viruses of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus...
  40. ncbi Development and evaluation of a new epitope-blocking ELISA for universal detection of antibodies to West Nile virus
    Elena Sotelo
    Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal CISA INIA, Ctra Algete El Casar, S N, 28130 Valdeolmos, Madrid, Spain
    J Virol Methods 174:35-41. 2011
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with a wide range of hosts, including birds, horses and humans...
  41. ncbi Detection and molecular analysis of West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in the eastern part of Austria in 2008 and 2009
    Eveline Wodak
    Institute for Veterinary Disease Control Mödling, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety AGES, Robert Koch Gasse 17, 2340 Mödling, Austria
    Vet Microbiol 149:358-66. 2011
    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) was expected in Austria since the initial discovery of the infection in neighbouring Hungary in 2003/2004...
  42. pmc RNA structures required for production of subgenomic flavivirus RNA
    Anneke Funk
    Centre for Infectious Disease Research, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
    J Virol 84:11407-17. 2010
    ..Here, we investigated in detail the importance of West Nile virus Kunjin (WNV(KUN)) 3' UTR secondary structures as well as tertiary interactions for sfRNA formation...
  43. ncbi Host selection by Culex pipiens mosquitoes and West Nile virus amplification
    Gabriel L Hamer
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48910, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:268-78. 2009
    Recent field studies have suggested that the dynamics of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission are influenced strongly by a few key super spreader bird species that function both as primary blood hosts of the vector mosquitoes (in ..
  44. pmc Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus
    Theodore Oliphant
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8051, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Med 11:522-30. 2005
    Neutralization of West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein...
  45. pmc Neuronal CXCL10 directs CD8+ T-cell recruitment and control of West Nile virus encephalitis
    Robyn S Klein
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 79:11457-66. 2005
    ..of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells into the central nervous system is an essential step towards clearance of West Nile virus (WNV) from infected neurons...
  46. pmc Spatial and temporal variation in vector competence of Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans mosquitoes for West Nile virus
    A Marm Kilpatrick
    University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:607-13. 2010
    ..We examined vector competence of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Cx. restuans Theobald mosquitoes for West Nile virus collected over 3 years from 17 sites to measure spatial and temporal scales of variation in vector competence...
  47. pmc Assembly and maturation of the flavivirus Kunjin virus appear to occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the secretory pathway, respectively
    J M MacKenzie
    Clinical Medical Virology Centre, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Virol 75:10787-99. 2001
    ..The results suggest that the assembly of virions occurs within the lumen of the RER and that subsequent maturation occurs via the secretory pathway...
  48. pmc Real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of West Nile virus
    Manmohan Parida
    Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852 8523, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 42:257-63. 2004
    ..These results indicate that the RT-LAMP assay is extremely rapid, cost-effective, highly sensitive, and specific and has potential usefulness for rapid, comprehensive WN virus surveillance along with virus isolation and/or serology...
  49. pmc Progress on the development of therapeutics against West Nile virus
    Michael S Diamond
    Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
    Antiviral Res 83:214-27. 2009
    A decade has passed since the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in humans in the Western Hemisphere in New York City...
  50. pmc Inhibitor of κB kinase epsilon (IKK(epsilon)), STAT1, and IFIT2 proteins define novel innate immune effector pathway against West Nile virus infection
    Olivia Perwitasari
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:44412-23. 2011
    b>West Nile virus is an emerging virus whose virulence is dependent upon viral evasion of IFN and innate immune defenses...
  51. pmc Validation of a microsphere-based immunoassay for detection of anti-West Nile virus and anti-St. Louis encephalitis virus immunoglobulin m antibodies
    Alison J Johnson
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1084-93. 2007
    ..The detection of IgM antibodies to WN virus was more consistent than detection of IgM antibodies to SLE virus. Some changes were made to the analysis software that resulted in an improved accuracy of diagnosis...
  52. pmc Infection and injury of neurons by West Nile encephalitis virus
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Departments of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 77:13203-13. 2003
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) infects neurons and leads to encephalitis, paralysis, and death in humans, animals, and birds. We investigated the mechanism by which neuronal injury occurs after WNV infection...
  53. pmc Persistence of virus-specific immune responses in the central nervous system of mice after West Nile virus infection
    Barbara S Stewart
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA
    BMC Immunol 12:6. 2011
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) persists in humans and several animal models. We previously demonstrated that WNV persists in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice for up to 6 months post-inoculation...
  54. pmc West Nile virus: immunity and pathogenesis
    Stephanie M Lim
    Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Viruses 3:811-28. 2011
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic, arthropod-borne flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but can also infect and cause disease in horses and humans...
  55. pmc Autonomic nervous dysfunction in hamsters infected with West Nile virus
    Hong Wang
    Institute for Antiviral Research, Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19575. 2011
    Clinical studies and case reports clearly document that West Nile virus (WNV) can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) complications...
  56. pmc The costs of infection and resistance as determinants of West Nile virus susceptibility in Culex mosquitoes
    Alexander T Ciota
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept, of Health, Slingerlands, USA
    BMC Ecol 11:23. 2011
    ..Here, in order to evaluate the potential costs of West Nile virus (WNV) infection and resistance in a primary WNV vector, and to assess the extent to which virus-vector ..
  57. pmc West Nile virus encodes a microRNA-like small RNA in the 3' untranslated region which up-regulates GATA4 mRNA and facilitates virus replication in mosquito cells
    Mazhar Hussain
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:2210-23. 2012
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to a group of medically important single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses causing deadly disease outbreaks around the world...
  58. pmc CD8+ T cells use TRAIL to restrict West Nile virus pathogenesis by controlling infection in neurons
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Departments of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Virol 86:8937-48. 2012
    ..demonstrated that an orchestrated sequence of innate and adaptive immune responses is required to control West Nile virus (WNV) infection in peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) tissues...
  59. ncbi Landscape epidemiology of vector-borne diseases
    William K Reisen
    Center for Vectorborne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 55:461-83. 2010
    ..aspects by contrasting the ecology of two different recent disease outbreaks in North America caused by West Nile virus, an explosive, highly virulent mosquito-borne virus producing ephemeral nidi, and Borrelia burgdorferi, a ..
  60. pmc 2'-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap by West Nile virus evades ifit1-dependent and -independent mechanisms of host restriction in vivo
    Kristy J Szretter
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United Stated of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002698. 2012
    ....
  61. ncbi Detection of Usutu virus within a West Nile virus surveillance program in Northern Italy
    Marco Tamba
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell Emilia Romagna, Brescia, Italy
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:551-7. 2011
    ..In the same area of Northern Italy where USUV human cases occurred in 2009, a regional West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance program based on mosquito monitoring and wild birds screening has been implemented since ..
  62. pmc Evolution of new genotype of West Nile virus in North America
    Allison R McMullen
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:785-93. 2011
    Previous studies of North American isolates of West Nile virus (WNV) during 1999-2005 suggested that the virus had reached genetic homeostasis in North America...
  63. pmc A temporal role of type I interferon signaling in CD8+ T cell maturation during acute West Nile virus infection
    Amelia K Pinto
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002407. 2011
    ..To define the temporal functions of type I IFN signaling in the context of infection by West Nile virus (WNV), we treated mice with MAR1-5A3, a neutralizing, non cell-depleting anti-IFNAR antibody...
  64. pmc The innate immune adaptor molecule MyD88 restricts West Nile virus replication and spread in neurons of the central nervous system
    Kristy J Szretter
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 84:12125-38. 2010
    ..studies have demonstrated that IPS-1-dependent induction of IFN-α/β downstream of RLR recognition restricts West Nile virus (WNV) infection in many cell types, whereas TRIF-dependent TLR3 signaling limits WNV replication in neurons...
  65. pmc Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus isolates, Italy, 2008-2009
    Giada Rossini
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:903-6. 2011
    To determine the lineage of West Nile virus that caused outbreaks in Italy in 2008 and 2009, several West Nile virus strains were isolated from human specimens and sequenced...
  66. pmc Structure and function of flavivirus NS5 methyltransferase
    Yangsheng Zhou
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 120 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    J Virol 81:3891-903. 2007
    ..Representative flavivirus methyltransferases from dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile virus (WNV) sequentially generate GpppA-->m7GpppA-->m7GpppAm...
  67. pmc West Nile virus discriminates between DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR for cellular attachment and infection
    Carl W Davis
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Virol 80:1290-301. 2006
    ..In this study, we investigated whether these lectins could enhance cellular infection by West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus related to dengue virus...
  68. pmc Interaction of TIA-1/TIAR with West Nile and dengue virus products in infected cells interferes with stress granule formation and processing body assembly
    Mohamed M Emara
    Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9041-6. 2007
    The West Nile virus minus-strand 3' terminal stem loop (SL) RNA was previously shown to bind specifically to cellular stress granule (SG) components, T cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) and the related protein TIAR...
  69. ncbi Cross-reactivity of Japanese encephalitis virus-vaccinated horse sera in serodiagnosis of West Nile virus
    Jiro Hirota
    Research Team for Advanced Biologicals, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3 1 5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0856, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 72:369-72. 2010
    ..However, the cross-reactivity level of JEV-vaccinated horse sera in the serodiagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) has not been clarified...
  70. pmc Maturation of West Nile virus modulates sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization
    Steevenson Nelson
    Viral Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000060. 2008
    ..The E proteins of newly synthesized West Nile virus (WNV) are organized into trimeric spikes composed of pre-membrane (prM) and E protein heterodimers...
  71. pmc West Nile virus differentially modulates the unfolded protein response to facilitate replication and immune evasion
    Rebecca L Ambrose
    Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne 3086, Australia
    J Virol 85:2723-32. 2011
    ..Our previous studies have indicated that the replication and assembly of the flavivirus West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV(KUN)) is intimately associated with the ER...
  72. pmc The lectin pathway of complement activation contributes to protection from West Nile virus infection
    Anja Fuchs
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virology 412:101-9. 2011
    The function of the lectin pathway of complement activation in vivo against West Nile virus (WNV) or many other pathogenic viruses has not been defined...
  73. ncbi Live-attenuated recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) induces a neutralizing antibody response against West Nile virus (WNV)
    Cristina T Rosas
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Virus Res 125:69-78. 2007
    The immunogenicity in horses of a recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing West Nile virus (WNV) prM and E proteins was studied...
  74. pmc A paradoxical role for neutrophils in the pathogenesis of West Nile virus
    Fengwei Bai
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8031, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:1804-12. 2010
    ..In infection due to West Nile virus (WNV), we found that expression of 2 PMN-attracting chemokines, Cxcl1 and Cxcl2, was rapidly and dramatically ..
  75. pmc West Nile virus-specific CD4 T cells exhibit direct antiviral cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity and are sufficient for antiviral protection
    James D Brien
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    J Immunol 181:8568-75. 2008
    CD4 T cells have been shown to be necessary for the prevention of encephalitis during West Nile virus (WNV) infection...
  76. pmc Inhibition of interferon signaling by the New York 99 strain and Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus involves blockage of STAT1 and STAT2 activation by nonstructural proteins
    Wen Jun Liu
    Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia
    J Virol 79:1934-42. 2005
    ..The results clearly demonstrate that both NY99 and KUN inhibit IFN signaling by preventing STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation and identify nonstructural proteins responsible for this inhibition...
  77. pmc Dead bird clusters as an early warning system for West Nile virus activity
    Farzad Mostashari
    New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York 10013, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:641-6. 2003
    An early warning system for West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks could provide a basis for targeted public education and surveillance activities as well as more timely larval and adult mosquito control...
  78. ncbi Cholesterol manipulation by West Nile virus perturbs the cellular immune response
    Jason M Mackenzie
    School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    Cell Host Microbe 2:229-39. 2007
    Complex membrane structures induced by West Nile virus (WNV), an enveloped RNA virus, are required for efficient viral replication. How these membranes are induced and how they facilitate the viral life cycle are unknown...
  79. pmc Induction of IFN-beta and the innate antiviral response in myeloid cells occurs through an IPS-1-dependent signal that does not require IRF-3 and IRF-7
    Stephane Daffis
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000607. 2009
    ..Prior studies in mice with single deletions of the IRF-3 or IRF-7 genes showed increased vulnerability to West Nile virus (WNV) infection...
  80. ncbi Persistent West Nile virus infection in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)
    Nicole Nemeth
    National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Arch Virol 154:783-9. 2009
    Long-term persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection within vertebrate reservoir hosts is a potential mechanism for overwintering of this (and other) arbovirus(es) at temperate latitudes...
  81. pmc Induction of epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus
    Theodore Oliphant
    Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 81:11828-39. 2007
    Previous studies have established that an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII-lr) of West Nile virus (WNV) envelope (E) protein is recognized by strongly neutralizing type-specific antibodies...
  82. pmc Persistence of West Nile virus in the central nervous system and periphery of mice
    Kim K Appler
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10649. 2010
    ..Recent evidence, however, suggests that the RNA virus, West Nile virus (WNV), not only causes acute disease, but can persist long term in humans and animal models...
  83. pmc West Nile virus inhibits the signal transduction pathway of alpha interferon
    Ju Tao Guo
    Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    J Virol 79:1343-50. 2005
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a human pathogen that can cause neurological disorders, including meningoencephalitis...
  84. ncbi West Nile virus-induced bax-dependent apoptosis
    M C Parquet
    Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, 1 12 4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852 8523, Japan
    FEBS Lett 500:17-24. 2001
    The mechanism of cell death induced by West Nile virus (WNV), a causative agent of human febrile syndrome and encephalitis, was investigated...
  85. pmc The West Nile virus mutant spectrum is host-dependant and a determinant of mortality in mice
    Greta V S Jerzak
    The Arbovirus Laboratories, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 5668 State Farm Rd, Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA
    Virology 360:469-76. 2007
    ..These studies suggest that mosquitoes serve as sources for WNV genetic diversity, that birds are selective sieves, and that both the consensus sequence and the mutant spectrum contribute to WNV phenotype...
  86. ncbi Structural basis of West Nile virus neutralization by a therapeutic antibody
    Grant E Nybakken
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nature 437:764-9. 2005
    b>West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to the human epidemic-causing dengue, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses...
  87. pmc Characterization of mosquito-adapted West Nile virus
    Alexander T Ciota
    The Arbovirus Laboratories, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 5668 State Farm Road, Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA
    J Gen Virol 89:1633-42. 2008
    b>West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has significantly expanded its geographical and host range since its 1999 introduction into North America...
  88. pmc West Nile virus 5'-cap structure is formed by sequential guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-O methylations by nonstructural protein 5
    Debashish Ray
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, 12201, USA
    J Virol 80:8362-70. 2006
    ..Using West Nile virus (WNV), we demonstrate, for the first time, that the nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) mediates both guanine N-7 ..
  89. pmc Cell-specific IRF-3 responses protect against West Nile virus infection by interferon-dependent and -independent mechanisms
    Stephane Daffis
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e106. 2007
    ..how IRF-3 coordinates an antiviral response, we infected IRF-3(-/-) mice and two primary cells relevant for West Nile virus (WNV) pathogenesis, macrophages and cortical neurons...
  90. ncbi Transmission dynamics and changing epidemiology of West Nile virus
    Bradley J Blitvich
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Anim Health Res Rev 9:71-86. 2008
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that is maintained in a bird-mosquito transmission cycle...
  91. pmc West Nile virus infection modulates human brain microvascular endothelial cells tight junction proteins and cell adhesion molecules: Transmigration across the in vitro blood-brain barrier
    Saguna Verma
    Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, Asia Pacific Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
    Virology 385:425-33. 2009
    ....
  92. pmc Axonal transport mediates West Nile virus entry into the central nervous system and induces acute flaccid paralysis
    Melanie A Samuel
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17140-5. 2007
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as a significant cause of epidemic viral encephalitis and flaccid limb paralysis, yet the mechanism by which it enters the CNS remains uncertain...
  93. ncbi Histopathologically proven poliomyelitis with quadriplegia and loss of brainstem function due to West Nile virus infection
    Shira I Doron
    Department of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:e74-7. 2003
    ..reports point to motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and the brainstem as targets of severe West Nile virus (WNV) infection...
  94. pmc Specific requirements for elements of the 5' and 3' terminal regions in flavivirus RNA synthesis and viral replication
    Li Yu
    Laboratory of Vector Borne Virus Diseases, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, CBER, FDA, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Virology 374:170-85. 2008
    ..Combined results suggested that replication was not dependent upon species homology between the 3'SL and NS5...
  95. pmc SYBR green-based real-time quantitative PCR assay for detection of West Nile Virus circumvents false-negative results due to strain variability
    James F Papin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1511-8. 2004
    Real-time quantitative PCR is used routinely for the high-throughput diagnosis of viral pathogens, such as West Nile virus (WNV)...
  96. pmc Mosquito saliva causes enhancement of West Nile virus infection in mice
    Linda M Styer
    New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, Albany, New York 12201, USA
    J Virol 85:1517-27. 2011
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted to vertebrate hosts primarily by infected Culex mosquitoes...
  97. ncbi West Nile virus lineage 2 as a cause of zoonotic neurological disease in humans and horses in southern Africa
    Marietjie Venter
    Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10:659-64. 2010
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in South Africa, but since a few cases of neurological disease have been reported from this region, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be of low virulence...
  98. ncbi The long-term outcomes of human West Nile virus infection
    James J Sejvar
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:1617-24. 2007
    Since its introduction to North America in 1999, human infection with West Nile virus (WNV) has resulted in considerable acute morbidity and mortality...
  99. pmc Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay for differentiating West Nile virus from Japanese encephalitis virus infections in horses
    Yoko Kitai
    Department of International Health, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe, Japan
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:875-8. 2010
    A complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) assay was established to measure antibodies to the West Nile virus (WNV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) in horses...
  100. pmc Short report: comparison of oral infectious dose of West Nile virus isolates representing three distinct genotypes in Culex quinquefasciatus
    Dana L Vanlandingham
    Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:951-4. 2008
    Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus in North America has identified replacement of the originally introduced clade, Eastern United States (NY99), by the North American clade...
  101. ncbi Phylogenetic relationships of Western Mediterranean West Nile virus strains (1996-2010) using full-length genome sequences: single or multiple introductions?
    Elena Sotelo
    Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal CISA INIA, Ctra Algete el Casar s n, 28130 Valdeolmos, Spain
    J Gen Virol 92:2512-22. 2011
    In recent years, West Nile virus (WNV) has re-emerged in the Western Mediterranean region...

Research Grants77

  1. Genomics of Antiviral Responses of Anopheles gambiae Against O'nyong-nyong Virus
    Young S Hong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Domestically, human cases of West Nile virus infections seem to be on the rise each year- for example, there were 4,180 clinical West Nile virus cases ..
  2. Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..include the NIAID list of Class A, B, or C emerging human pathogens such as Yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue (DEN1-4) viruses that cause serious illnesses with considerable morbidity and mortality...
  3. Hospital - Based Surveillance of Acute Febrile Illness in Western Ghat Region of
    ARUNKUMAR GOVINDAKARNAVAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and Viruses ( KFD, Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Virus, Chikungunya virus, Tick borne Encephalitis virus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus, Influenza viruses, ..
  4. Mechanisms of virus-induced injury in the brain and spinal cord
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..i) in our recently developed model of reovirus-induced myelitis: (ii) in the brains of mice infected with West Nile Virus (WNV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV): (iii) following virus (reovirus, WNV, HSV) infection of ex vivo brain ..
  5. B Cell Development in Aging
    John C Cambier; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and increased morbidity and mortality following infection by agents such as pneumococcus, influenza and West Nile virus. Multiple acquired defects may contribute to the reduced ability of elderly individuals to produce protective ..
  6. Diagnostic array for aseptic encephalitis
    Darrell P Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Human herpes viruses account for 4% of all viral infections, and West Nile virus is the most common of the arboviral infections in the U.S...
  7. Cellular Components Involved in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Entry
    Young Min Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..JEV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is closely related to West Nile virus, St...
  8. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors As Broad Spectrum Anti-Flaviviral Therapeutics
    Glenn Randall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, FASN inhibitors block the replication of DENV and other flaviviruses including West Nile virus and yellow fever virus...
  9. Antiviral potential of helicase inhibitors
    David N Frick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..on pathogens with abnormally high global burdens of disease: hepatitis C virus (HCV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  10. Alternative regulation of ISGs in WNV-infected cells
    Margo A Brinton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus, tick- borne encephalitis virus and dengue virus, are significant human pathogens...
  11. Insulin, IGF and Insulin Signaling: effects on Anopheles lifespan and immunity
    MICHAEL ALLEN RIEHLE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Relevance: Many mosquito-borne disease agents, including malaria parasites, dengue virus, and West Nile virus, must develop in mosquitoes for extended periods before being transmitted to humans...
  12. Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network Phase II
    PETER GEORGE PAPPAS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..e. C.difficile, cytomegalovirus, West Nile virus, respiratory viruses, and selected multiresistant bacteria);and 4) to establish a bank for fungal isolates ..
  13. Malaria vaccines modified with TLR agonist adjuvant
    Elizabeth H Nardin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to developTLR-5 linked candidate vaccines to influenza (currently in clinical trial) and flaviviruses such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Dengue virus by VaxInnate...
  14. In vivo phenotypic effects of naturally occuring sequence variations in WNV
    Robin M Moudy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999 during an outbreak of encephalitis in New York, and since that time has spread across the contiguous United States, Canada, Mexico, ..
  15. The Mechanisms of IFITM-Mediated Restriction
    I Chueh Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..critical to the interferon-mediated control of several pathogenic viruses, including IAV, dengue virus and West Nile virus. The study of the activities and mechanisms of these important proteins is the basis of my research proposal ..
  16. NEUROVIROLOGY-MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that cause Eastern, Western and Venezuelan Equine encephalitis) and various Flaviviruses (most notably West Nile Virus)...
  17. The role of the host Ca/Mn pump in emergence of novel viral RNA recombinants
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of TBSV replicase proteins to proteins of important pathogens, such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus, West Nile virus and other Flaviviruses and Pestiviruses...
  18. Development of a Recombinant Subunit Vaccine for CCHF
    David E Clements; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Candidate vaccines against dengue and West Nile virus have already been produced in this system and both have entered clinical trials...
  19. Rational Development of Candidate Attenuated Flavivirus Vaccines
    Tian Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The flaviviruses contain many pathogens of public health importance, including dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) for which we have no licensed vaccines...
  20. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ALPHAVIRUS ENTRY AND EXIT
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..such as the encephalitic alphaviruses and chikungunya virus, and the flaviviruses dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile virus. Many of these viruses are classified as category A, B or C priority pathogens, yet in spite of their medica ..
  21. Disruption of Host-Seeking Behavior in Aedes and Culex Mosquitoes using Odorants
    Anandasankar Ray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aegypti mosquitoes transmit Dengue and Yellow Fever virus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes transmit the West Nile virus and filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti to hundreds of millions of people...
  22. Systematic analysis of cell death regulation in mosquitoes
    Lei Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..been implicated in the infectious life cycle of a variety of pathogens, such as the malaria parasite and the West Nile virus, in mosquitoes...
  23. Targeting induction of calcium buffer proteins for treatment of viral encephaliti
    John D Morrey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..if increased calcium buffer proteins can definitively protect neuronal cells in culture and animals from West Nile virus (WNV)-induced death, and to establish the utility of specific cellular metabolites to activate calcium buffer ..
  24. Bifunctional antibodies with targeted CNS delivery against West Nile virus
    Qiang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): West Nile Virus (WNV) causes infection in the central nervous system (CNS) in several vertebrate animal species...
  25. Innate Immune Recognition Enhances Flavivirus Vaccine Efficacy
    Gregg N Milligan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These single-cycle viruses include West Nile virus (WNV) -derived viral replicon particles (VRPs) and a WN encephalitis vaccine candidate named Replivax...
  26. Structural Studies of Alphavirus Membrane Fusion In Situ
    Wei Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: A key step in the infection of enveloped viruses, such as influenza virus, West Nile virus and Sindbis virus, into the host cell, is fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane...
  27. TLR7 mediates immune cell infiltration and homing to combat West Nile virus infec
    Fengwei Bai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>West Nile virus (WNV), which has caused severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in North American, is a single-..
  28. Mechanisms of IVIG Protection in Viral Encephalitis
    EDOUARD M CANTIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results from these studies will be important for making the case for IVIG as a treatment for neuroinflammatory diseases including encephalitis caused by HSV and other viruses like West Nile virus that are potential bioterrorism agents.
  29. ALTERATIONS IN ADULT NEUROGENESIS DURING WEST NILE VIRUS ENCEPHALITIS
    MICHAEL JOHN VASEK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus now endemic in North America, is one of several viruses that are able to enter the CNS, ..
  30. Evolution of interactions between Wolbachia and its hosts: Drosophila model syste
    Michael Turelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..promise for controlling many diseases transmitted between humans by insects, including malaria and West Nile virus. Because Wolbachia are maternally inherited, they evolve to help their hosts survive and reproduce, for ..
  31. Regulation of reovirus induced apoptosis
    John S Parker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Many pathogenic human viruses, e.g., dengue virus, influenza virus, and West Nile virus, cause disease by inducing apoptosis...
  32. Ultraviolet light sensing by cryptochrome
    Todd C Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by harmful insects afflict hundreds of millions people worldwide and some insect-mediated diseases such as West Nile virus and dengue fever are alarmingly on the rise in the U...
  33. Manipulation of stem cell activity and cell death by intracellular bacteria
    Horacio M Frydman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and inhibit the ability of several pathogens to infect mosquitoes, including Dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile Virus, and both chicken and human plasmodium...
  34. Identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets for virus-induced neur
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral encephalitis, including encephalitis induced by the arboviruses West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), is a major source of morbidity and mortality both in the U.S...
  35. Role of TRIM79 in innate immunity to tick-borne encephalitis virus
    ROGER TRAVIS TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The flaviviruses represent a tremendous disease burden to humans, including dengue virus, West Nile virus (WNV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)...
  36. Genetic dissection of the RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity in C. elegans
    Shou Wei Ding; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Many RNA viruses such as influenza, hepatitis C virus, poliovirus, dengue virus and West Nile virus are important human pathogens...
  37. The West Nile virus methyltransferase
    Hongmin Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The objective of this application is to study the molecular mechanism of flavivirus MTase. We will use West Nile Virus (WNV) as a model to accomplish three aims...
  38. The role of interleukin 22 in West Nile virus pathogenesis in mice
    Penghua Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, to our best knowledge, the in vivo role of IL-22 in viral infections remains largely elusive. West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic ssRNA flavivirus that has caused over 1000 deaths in the United States since 1999...
  39. Metabolic approaches to treat severe viral and inflammatory diseases
    Augusto C Ochoa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Diseases, such as keratoconjunctivitis by HSV1 or Adenovirus, encephalitis by HSV2 (in neonates) or West Nile virus, and emerging pandemic diseases, such as SARS and influenza, frequently cause severe complications and ..
  40. Development of an autodissemination station for control of mosquito vectors
    Yi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provide a novel and highly-effective means to target the primary vectors of dengue fever, Chikungunya and West Nile virus and be suitable for cost-effective use around the globe with minimal risk to human beings, non-target animals ..
  41. Modeling Host Responses to Understand Severe Human Virus Infections
    Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of sample sets (these activities will be carried out by two Research Projects for influenza and Ebola or West Nile virus, respectively)...
  42. Functional role of a host metabolic enzyme in viral replication
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of TBSV replicase proteins to proteins of important pathogens, such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus, West Nile virus and other Flaviviruses and Pestiviruses...
  43. Does Dengue Virus Suppress RNA Interference in its Mosquito Vector?
    KATHRYN ALYCE HANLEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..flaviviruses, which include a number of important emerging pathogens such as dengue, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Currently there is considerable excitement about the potential for harnessing RNAi using synthetic short ..
  44. Diapause in Culex Mosquitoes
    David W Severson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This includes the recently introduced West Nile virus in North America...
  45. The Role of RNA Interference in West Nile Virus Diversification
    Douglas E Brackney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The recent epidemics of West Nile virus in North America and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Eastern hemisphere highlight the potential for other ..
  46. ISG CONTROL OF FLAVIVIRUS INFECTION
    Michael S Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This genus includes viruses (West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Dengue virus (DENV)) that are re-emerging and becoming endemic ..
  47. Mechanisms of Apoptosis in Virus-Infected Neurons
    JOHN DAVID BECKHAM; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..we also propose to examine these events in human brain tissue obtained from patients infected with West Nile virus and herpes simplex virus...
  48. Examination of Odorant Receptors in Vector Mosquitoes
    Laurence J Zwiebel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..component of the mosquito's ability to transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile virus encephalitis...
  49. Mechanism of inhibition of +RNA virus replication by cyclophilins
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The gained knowledge will not only be useful for TBSV, but to other significant human pathogens, such as West Nile virus, Dengue virus and other flaviviruses and pestiviruses, due to the similarity of their replicase proteins...
  50. Environmental Health Programs through the Environmental Health Specialists Networ
    Guthrie S Birkhead; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..an Interdepartmental Rabies Committee, and disease issues such as Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Giardiasis, West Nile virus, anthrax, and E. coli...
  51. Environmental filters and medically important container mosquitoes
    Donald A Yee; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..g., St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus, Dengue)...
  52. A Novel Method of Generating Hepatitis C Virus-Like Particles using Lentivirus
    Boro Dropulic; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of families of enveloped viruses;E1E2 of hepatitis C virus, prM and E of yellow fever virus, prM and E of West Nile virus, E of Dengue virus and HA of influenza virus can all be efficiently pseudotyped onto rVLPs...
  53. Inhibition and mechanism of flavivirus methyltransferase
    Hongmin Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many flaviviruses such as Dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow Fever virus cause significant human diseases...
  54. Linking infectious disease dynamics to seasonal animal movements
    REBECCA ANNE BARTEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..result from exposure to zoonotic pathogens harbored by migratory animals, such as avian influenza virus, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, and SARS-like coronaviruses: hence, knowledge of pathogen movement is crucial to assess ..
  55. ANTIVIRAL ACTIONS OF INTERFERONS
    Ganes C Sen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we will investigate the roles of the three mouse proteins in pathogenesis by the neurotropic RNA viruses, West Nile virus and neurotropic coronavirus...
  56. Cellular genes and signaling pathways as therapeutic targets for virus-induced CN
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..represented by the pattern of differential gene expression following infection of the brain with reovirus and West Nile virus (WNV), neurotropic viruses from different viral families...
  57. TAM Receptors and Flavivirus Infection
    GREG E LEMKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of the TAM family - Tyro3, Axl, and Mer - are exploited by flaviviruses, such as West Nile Virus and Dengue Virus, to infect their target cells...
  58. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    Karla Kirkegaard; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for other positive-strand viruses such as rhinoviruses, coxsackieviruses, hepatitis C virus, Dengue virus and West Nile virus, informed by analogy with poliovirus and tested by direct genetic and biochemical investigation...
  59. Inhibition of the Interferon Response by West Nile Virus
    Christoph Seeger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Our investigations of the innate immune response against West Nile virus (WNV), led to the discovery that WNV replication inhibits the signal transduction pathways used by interferons to induce cellular antiviral programs...
  60. CIRCADIAN REGULATION OF INNATE IMMUNE MECHANISMS OF VIRAL RECOGNITION
    Erol Fikrig; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Using the mouse model and an the NIAID priority pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) as a paradigmatic vector-borne agent we will determine: 1) the daily changes in the expression of PRRs ..
  61. Insecticide Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens Mosquitoes
    Changliang Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a major vector species for Japanese encephalitis and filariasis in China, and it is an important vector of West Nile Virus in the USA. Vector control is an important means of mosquito-borne disease prevention and management...
  62. Structure and Function of Flaviviruses
    Michael G Rossmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These viruses cause millions of deaths each year in temperate and tropical regions of the Earth. West Nile virus has spread throughout the US in the last decade, causing more than 100 deaths annually...
  63. Nonstructural roles of capsid proteins in virus replication
    TERYL FREY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have evidence that the capsid protein of West Nile virus (Flavivirus family) enhances the replication of a West Nile virus replicon, indicating that C involvement in ..
  64. Mechanisms of apoptosis in the central nervous system
    Kenneth Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..No established treatment exists for flaviviruses, including West Nile virus, (WNV) the most common cause of epidemic encephalitis in the United States and Japanese encephalitis virus (..
  65. A HTS Assay for Identifying Anti-Viral Drugs Against Arbovirus Infections
    Qianjun Li; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Several recent human and/or animal epidemics are caused by arboviruses, including Dengue virus (DNV) in Asia, West Nile virus (WNV) in North America and Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Europe...
  66. Ochlerotatus japonicus: Ecology of an Invasive Mosquito
    RICHARD FALCO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..is the question of this species' vectorial capacity for local arboviruses; it is a competent vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in the lab and may serve as a bridge vector to humans in the northeastern US, where WNV is now endemic...
  67. Development of Novel Small Molecule Flavivirus Inhibitors
    ERIC W BARKLIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    We have identified TYT-1 as a novel sultam thiourea inhibitor of West Nile virus (WNV) replication. The compound has a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 0...
  68. Role of an essential RNA chaperone in virus replication
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..tombusviruses and numerous other important human and animal viruses (hepatitis C virus, flavivirus, including West Nile virus and dengue virus, pestiviruses) and plant viruses (luteo- and carmoviruses), understanding the mechanism of ..
  69. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF POLIOVIRUS RNA REPLICATION
    James Bert Flanegan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..positive-strand RNA viruses that form a large group of important human pathogens include hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus and the SARS-associated coronavirus...
  70. Dengue and West Nile Viral Protease Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The mosquito-borne flavivirus family includes human pathogens such as yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), and the four serotypes of Dengue (DEN) viruses...
  71. Determinants of RNA virus evolution
    ISABEL NOVELLA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..are hepatitis A, B and C viruses, HIV, influenza virus, most of the cold viruses, rabies virus, Ebola virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus...
  72. Mosquito Immunity to Alphaviruses
    Brian Foy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b>West Nile virus in the Americas, Rift Valley fever virus in the Middle East, O'nyong-nyong virus in Africa)...
  73. Arbovirus quasispecies-impact of arthropod transmission
    GREGORY EBEL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, exist within each host as a ..
  74. Molecular Evolution of flavivirus-resistance in mice
    Stephane Boissinot; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..many viruses of considerable medical importance including the dengue virus, the yellow fever virus and the West Nile virus. Resistance to flavivirus infection has been reported in a few laboratory strains of mice and the genetic ..
  75. Apoptosis as an anti-viral response in mosquito midgut
    ROLLIE CLEM; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Mosquitoes are important vectors for a number of infectious diseases caused by arboviruses including West Nile virus, dengue virus, yellow fever virus, LaCrosse virus, and Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis ..
  76. Broad-Spectrum Therapeutic Human Antibodies for Dengue Virus Infections
    Yorgo Modis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..prevent and treat infection by several different flaviviruses, including all 4 serotypes of dengue virus and West Nile virus (WNV). Passive immunization is an accepted medical practice to protect against infection...
  77. Targets for Drug Design In Flaviviral Infection
    Kurt Krause; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Flaviviral infections, including those caused by West Nile virus and Yellow Fever virus, are of enormous worldwide and domestic importance...