norwalk virus

Summary

Summary: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Inhibition of cellular protein secretion by norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 requires a mimic of an endoplasmic reticulum export signal
    Tyler M Sharp
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e13130. 2010
  2. ncbi Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection
    Lisa Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Med 9:548-53. 2003
  3. pmc Adjuvanted intranasal Norwalk virus-like particle vaccine elicits antibodies and antibody-secreting cells that express homing receptors for mucosal and peripheral lymphoid tissues
    Samer S El-Kamary
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:1649-58. 2010
  4. pmc Norwalk virus-like particle hemagglutination by binding to h histo-blood group antigens
    Anne M Hutson
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 77:405-15. 2003
  5. ncbi Norwalk virus: how infectious is it?
    Peter F M Teunis
    RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Med Virol 80:1468-76. 2008
  6. pmc Role of cholesterol pathways in norovirus replication
    Kyeong Ok Chang
    Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, 1800 Denison Ave, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    J Virol 83:8587-95. 2009
  7. pmc An intranasally delivered Toll-like receptor 7 agonist elicits robust systemic and mucosal responses to Norwalk virus-like particles
    Lissette S Velasquez
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 5001, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1850-8. 2010
  8. ncbi Intranasal vaccination with an adjuvanted Norwalk virus-like particle vaccine elicits antigen-specific B memory responses in human adult volunteers
    Karina Ramirez
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 West Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Clin Immunol 144:98-108. 2012
  9. pmc Norwalk virus-like particles as vaccines
    Melissa Herbst-Kralovetz
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA and Dept of Basic Medical Sciences, The University of Arizona College of Medicine Phoenix in Partnership with Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 9:299-307. 2010
  10. pmc Heterotypic humoral and cellular immune responses following Norwalk virus infection
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Virol 84:1800-15. 2010

Detail Information

Publications184 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Inhibition of cellular protein secretion by norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 requires a mimic of an endoplasmic reticulum export signal
    Tyler M Sharp
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e13130. 2010
    ..b>Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 contains a YXΦESDG motif that mimics a di-acidic ER export signal in both sequence ..
  2. ncbi Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection
    Lisa Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Med 9:548-53. 2003
    ..Here, we show that resistance to Norwalk virus infection is multifactorial...
  3. pmc Adjuvanted intranasal Norwalk virus-like particle vaccine elicits antibodies and antibody-secreting cells that express homing receptors for mucosal and peripheral lymphoid tissues
    Samer S El-Kamary
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:1649-58. 2010
    ..Noroviruses cause significant morbidity and mortality from acute gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide...
  4. pmc Norwalk virus-like particle hemagglutination by binding to h histo-blood group antigens
    Anne M Hutson
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 77:405-15. 2003
    ..Here we report our discovery that recombinant Norwalk virus virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs)...
  5. ncbi Norwalk virus: how infectious is it?
    Peter F M Teunis
    RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Med Virol 80:1468-76. 2008
    Noroviruses are major agents of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The infectivity of Norwalk virus, the prototype norovirus, has been studied in susceptible human volunteers...
  6. pmc Role of cholesterol pathways in norovirus replication
    Kyeong Ok Chang
    Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, 1800 Denison Ave, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    J Virol 83:8587-95. 2009
    b>Norwalk virus (NV) is a prototype strain of the noroviruses (family Caliciviridae) that have emerged as major causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide...
  7. pmc An intranasally delivered Toll-like receptor 7 agonist elicits robust systemic and mucosal responses to Norwalk virus-like particles
    Lissette S Velasquez
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 5001, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1850-8. 2010
    b>Norwalk virus (NV) is an enteric pathogen from the genus Norovirus and a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans...
  8. ncbi Intranasal vaccination with an adjuvanted Norwalk virus-like particle vaccine elicits antigen-specific B memory responses in human adult volunteers
    Karina Ramirez
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 West Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Clin Immunol 144:98-108. 2012
    ..This is the first demonstration of dose-dependent, functional B(M) responses in humans immunized intranasally with a NV-VLP vaccine...
  9. pmc Norwalk virus-like particles as vaccines
    Melissa Herbst-Kralovetz
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA and Dept of Basic Medical Sciences, The University of Arizona College of Medicine Phoenix in Partnership with Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 9:299-307. 2010
    ..b>Norwalk virus (NV), the prototype NoV, has been studied extensively, and Norwalk virus-like particles (NVLPs) produced in ..
  10. pmc Heterotypic humoral and cellular immune responses following Norwalk virus infection
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Virol 84:1800-15. 2010
    ..1-1968-challenged individuals and highlight a potential complication in the design of efficacious norovirus vaccines...
  11. ncbi Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type
    Anne M Hutson
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:1335-7. 2002
    Some people are resistant to Norwalk virus (NV) infection; however, the factor(s) responsible for resistance or susceptibility to NV infection has not been identified...
  12. pmc Norwalk virus does not replicate in human macrophages or dendritic cells derived from the peripheral blood of susceptible humans
    Margarita K Lay
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Virology 406:1-11. 2010
    ..subsets and CD11c(+) DCs isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals susceptible to Norwalk virus (NV) infection...
  13. ncbi Human immune responses to a novel norwalk virus vaccine delivered in transgenic potatoes
    C O Tacket
    Center for Vaccine Development, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Infect Dis 182:302-5. 2000
    A new approach for delivering vaccine antigens is the use of inexpensive, plentiful, plant-based oral vaccines. Norwalk virus capsid protein (NVCP), assembled into virus-like particles, was used as a test antigen, to determine whether ..
  14. pmc The genome-linked protein VPg of the Norwalk virus binds eIF3, suggesting its role in translation initiation complex recruitment
    Katie F Daughenbaugh
    Veterinary Molecular Biology, PO Box 173610, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
    EMBO J 22:2852-9. 2003
    ..This hypothesis was tested by analyzing binding of Norwalk virus VPg to translation initiation factors...
  15. pmc Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles administered intranasally to mice induce systemic and mucosal (fecal and vaginal) immune responses
    R A Guerrero
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 75:9713-22. 2001
    Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) were administered to BALB/c mice by the intranasal (i.n.) route to evaluate the induction of mucosal antibody responses...
  16. pmc Structural basis for the receptor binding specificity of Norwalk virus
    Weiming Bu
    Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Virol 82:5340-7. 2008
    ..basis for differences in ligand recognition of noroviruses from different genogroups, the prototypic Norwalk virus (NV; GI-1) and VA387 (GII-4), which recognize the same A antigen but differ in that NV is unable to bind to ..
  17. ncbi Substrate specificity of the Norwalk virus 3C-like proteinase
    Michele E Hardy
    Veterinary Molecular Biology, P O Box 173610 Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
    Virus Res 89:29-39. 2002
    The Norwalk Virus (NV) is the prototype strain of human caliciviruses that cause epidemic outbreaks of foodborne and waterborne gastroenteritis...
  18. pmc Atomic resolution structural characterization of recognition of histo-blood group antigens by Norwalk virus
    Jae Mun Choi
    Verna Marrs Mclean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:9175-80. 2008
    ..Specificity for these carbohydrates is strain-dependent. Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype genogroup I norovirus that specifically recognizes A- and H-type HBGA, in contrast to ..
  19. pmc Norwalk virus-specific binding to oyster digestive tissues
    Françoise Le Guyader
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Institut Francais de Recherche pour l Exploitation de la Mer, Nantes, France
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:931-6. 2006
    ..We investigated whether Norwalk virus or viruslike particles bind specifically to oyster tissues after bioaccumulation or addition to tissue ..
  20. ncbi X-ray crystallographic structure of the Norwalk virus capsid
    B V Prasad
    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, Division of Molecular Virology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Science 286:287-90. 1999
    b>Norwalk virus, a noncultivatable human calicivirus, is the major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in humans...
  21. pmc Development of a virus concentration method and its application to detection of enterovirus and norwalk virus from coastal seawater
    Hiroyuki Katayama
    Department of Urban Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8656, Japan
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1033-9. 2002
    ..Naturally occurring Norwalk viruses from 2 liters of Tokyo Bay water in winter and infectious enteroviruses from 2 liters of recreational coastal seawater in summer were detected by using this viral concentration method...
  22. ncbi Conformational stability and disassembly of Norwalk virus-like particles. Effect of pH and temperature
    Salvador F Ausar
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:19478-88. 2006
    Greater than 99% of the Norwalk virus (NV) capsid consists of 180 copies of a single 58-kDa protein. Recombinantly expressed monomers self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) with a well defined icosahedral structure...
  23. pmc X-ray crystallographic structure of the Norwalk virus protease at 1.5-A resolution
    Corinne E Zeitler
    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Virol 80:5050-8. 2006
    b>Norwalk virus (NV), a member of the Caliciviridae family, is the major cause of acute, epidemic, viral gastroenteritis. The NV genome is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA that encodes three open reading frames (ORFs)...
  24. pmc Serological responses to experimental Norwalk virus infection measured using a quantitative duplex time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay
    Owen Kavanagh
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1187-90. 2011
    ..assay, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA), was developed to measure Norwalk virus (NV)-specific IgA and IgG antibodies simultaneously...
  25. pmc Characterization of Norwalk virus GI specific monoclonal antibodies generated against Escherichia coli expressed capsid protein and the reactivity of two broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies generated against GII capsid towards GI recombinant fragments
    T Yoda
    Division of Food Microbiology, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Nakamichi 1 3 69, Higashinari ku, Osaka 537 0025, Japan
    BMC Microbiol 1:24. 2001
    b>Norwalk virus causes outbreaks of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein...
  26. pmc Study of Norwalk virus and Mexico virus infections at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa
    T K Smit
    Department of Virology, Medical University of Southern Africa, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 35:2381-5. 1997
    ..used the relatively newly developed recombinant enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to determine the seroprevalence of Norwalk virus (NV) and Mexico virus (MxV) in a family-based cohort and an antenatal clinic cohort at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital, Ga-..
  27. ncbi Norwalk virus vaccines: challenges and progress
    M K Estes
    1Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:S367-73. 2000
    ..As pathogens with a restricted host range, the HuCVs are excellent models for understanding the mechanisms that mediate and regulate viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract and mucosal immunity in humans...
  28. ncbi Tomato is a highly effective vehicle for expression and oral immunization with Norwalk virus capsid protein
    Xiuren Zhang
    Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 18853 1801, USA
    Plant Biotechnol J 4:419-32. 2006
    b>Norwalk virus (NV) is an important agent of epidemic gastroenteritis, and an oral subunit vaccine shows potential for protection...
  29. ncbi Norwalk virus binds to histo-blood group antigens present on gastroduodenal epithelial cells of secretor individuals
    Severine Marionneau
    INSERM U419, Institut de Biologie, Nantes, France
    Gastroenterology 122:1967-77. 2002
    b>Norwalk Virus (NV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family, which causes acute epidemic gastroenteritis in humans of all ages and its cellular receptors have not yet been characterized...
  30. ncbi High efficiency cross-reactive monoclonal antibody production by oral immunization with recombinant norwalk virus-like particles
    Tomoyuki Tanaka
    Sakai City Institute of Public Health, Sakai, Osaka, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 50:883-8. 2006
    ..We compared different routes of immunization with nonreplicating virus-like particles (VLPs) from recombinant Norwalk virus (rNV) and recombinant Mexico virus (rMX) administered to BALB/c mice to determine the efficiency of hybridoma ..
  31. pmc Serum hemagglutination inhibition activity correlates with protection from gastroenteritis in persons infected with Norwalk virus
    Rita Czakó
    Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:284-7. 2012
    A hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay to assess serum antibody responses following Norwalk virus (NV) infection was developed...
  32. pmc Bioprocessing of plant-derived virus-like particles of Norwalk virus capsid protein under current Good Manufacture Practice regulations
    Huafang Lai
    The Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Plant Cell Rep 31:573-84. 2012
    ..challenges and successfully demonstrate the ability of using plants to produce a pharmaceutical grade Norwalk virus (NV) vaccine under current Good Manufacture Practice (cGMP) guidelines at multiple gram scales...
  33. pmc Prestress strengthens the shell of Norwalk virus nanoparticles
    Marian Baclayon
    Natuur en Sterrenkunde and LaserLab, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nano Lett 11:4865-9. 2011
    We investigated the influence of the protruding domain of Norwalk virus-like particles (NVLP) on its overall structural and mechanical stability...
  34. ncbi Quantification of Norwalk virus inocula: Comparison of endpoint titration and real-time reverse transcription-PCR methods
    Pengbo Liu
    First Hospital of Xi an Jiaotong University, Xi an, Shaanxi, China
    J Med Virol 82:1612-6. 2010
    ..two methods [endpoint titration RT-PCR and quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR)] with respect to quantification of Norwalk virus (NV) in inocula made from purified stock suspensions of human fecal specimens...
  35. pmc Secretory pathway antagonism by calicivirus homologues of Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is restricted to noroviruses
    Tyler M Sharp
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Virol J 9:181. 2012
    Our previous report that the Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is an antagonist of the cellular secretory pathway suggests a new aspect of norovirus/host interaction...
  36. ncbi A modified cholera holotoxin CT-E29H enhances systemic and mucosal immune responses to recombinant Norwalk virus-virus like particle vaccine
    Sangeeta B Periwal
    Department of Viral Vaccine Immunology, Wyeth Ayerst Research, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA
    Vaccine 21:376-85. 2003
    ..we evaluated the potential of a genetically modified cholera toxin, CT-E29H as an adjuvant for recombinant Norwalk virus like particle (NV-VLP) vaccine...
  37. pmc The 3' end of Norwalk virus mRNA contains determinants that regulate the expression and stability of the viral capsid protein VP1: a novel function for the VP2 protein
    Andrea Bertolotti-Ciarlet
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 77:11603-15. 2003
    b>Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype strain of a group of noncultivable human caliciviruses responsible for epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis...
  38. ncbi Molecular and epidemiologic trends of caliciviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the United States, 2000-2004
    Lenee H Blanton
    Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:413-21. 2006
    ..The public health impact of caliciviruses will not be fully appreciated, nor will interventions be completely evaluated, until methods to detect these viruses are more routinely used...
  39. pmc Binding of Norwalk virus-like particles to ABH histo-blood group antigens is blocked by antisera from infected human volunteers or experimentally vaccinated mice
    Patrick R Harrington
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7435, USA
    J Virol 76:12335-43. 2002
    ....
  40. ncbi Crystal structure of norwalk virus polymerase reveals the carboxyl terminus in the active site cleft
    Kenneth K S Ng
    Division of Biochemistry, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
    J Biol Chem 279:16638-45. 2004
    b>Norwalk virus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis for which effective treatments are sorely lacking...
  41. ncbi Norwalk virus-like particles bind specifically to A, H and difucosylated Lewis but not to B histo-blood group active glycosphingolipids
    Jonas Nilsson
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, SE 413 45, Sweden
    Glycoconj J 26:1171-80. 2009
    ..In this study we demonstrate for the first time specific binding of Norwalk virus VLPs to type 1 and type 2 chain glycosphingolipids (GSLs) carrying ABH and Lewis antigens...
  42. pmc Structural requirements for the assembly of Norwalk virus-like particles
    Andrea Bertolotti-Ciarlet
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 76:4044-55. 2002
    b>Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype strain of a group of human caliciviruses responsible for epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis...
  43. ncbi Structural insights into mechanisms of catalysis and inhibition in Norwalk virus polymerase
    Dmitry F Zamyatkin
    Department of Biological Sciences and Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Carbohydrate Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
    J Biol Chem 283:7705-12. 2008
    Crystal structures of Norwalk virus polymerase bound to an RNA primer-template duplex and either the natural substrate CTP or the inhibitor 5-nitrocytidine triphosphate have been determined to 1.8A resolution...
  44. pmc Bile-salt-stimulated lipase and mucins from milk of 'secretor' mothers inhibit the binding of Norwalk virus capsids to their carbohydrate ligands
    Nathalie Ruvoën-Clouet
    INSERM U601, Institute of Biology, 9 quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes Cedex 01, France
    Biochem J 393:627-34. 2006
    ..of high levels of 2-linked oligosaccharides in mother's milk, and human calicivirus strains including the NV (Norwalk virus) use gut 2-linked fucosylated glycans as receptors, suggesting the presence of decoy receptors in milk...
  45. ncbi Influence of the combined ABO, FUT2, and FUT3 polymorphism on susceptibility to Norwalk virus attachment
    Severine Marionneau
    INSERM U601, Institut de Biologie, Nantes, France
    J Infect Dis 192:1071-7. 2005
    The binding of Norwalk virus (NV) recombinant capsids was tested in a panel of saliva samples collected from 96 donors with different ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes...
  46. pmc Detection of Norwalk virus and hepatitis A virus in shellfish tissues with the PCR
    R L Atmar
    Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 61:3014-8. 1995
    A method for the detection of Norwalk virus and hepatitis A virus from shellfish tissues by PCR was developed...
  47. pmc Norwalk virus assembly and stability monitored by mass spectrometry
    Glen K Shoemaker
    Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Mol Cell Proteomics 9:1742-51. 2010
    ..Here we used native mass spectrometry-based techniques to study the structure, stability, and assembly of Norwalk virus-like particles...
  48. ncbi Processing of Norwalk virus nonstructural proteins by a 3C-like cysteine proteinase
    Susan J Blakeney
    Viral Vaccine Research, Wyeth Research, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA
    Virology 308:216-24. 2003
    Expression of Norwalk virus nonstructural polyprotein precursor in vitro resulted in rapid cotranslational cleavage at specific sites...
  49. pmc Two nonoverlapping domains on the Norwalk virus open reading frame 3 (ORF3) protein are involved in the formation of the phosphorylated 35K protein and in ORF3-capsid protein interactions
    Pamela J Glass
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 77:3569-77. 2003
    Expression of the Norwalk virus open reading frame 3 (ORF3) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells yields two major forms, the predicted 23,000-molecular-weight (23K) form and a larger 35K form...
  50. ncbi A feline kidney cell line-based plaque assay for feline calicivirus, a surrogate for Norwalk virus
    S Bidawid
    Health Canada, Food Directorate, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, PL 2204A2, Tunney s Pasture, Sir F R G Banting Building, Rose Ave, Ont, K1A 0L2, Ottawa, Canada
    J Virol Methods 107:163-7. 2003
    Feline calicivirus (FCV) has been used by researchers as a surrogate for Norwalk virus (NV), since they share a similar genomic organization, physicochemical characteristics, and are grouped in the same family, Caliciviridae...
  51. ncbi Humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses to oral Norwalk virus-like particles in volunteers
    Carol O Tacket
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Clin Immunol 108:241-7. 2003
    b>Norwalk virus-like particles (VLPs), made from recombinant capsid protein, are a promising vaccine...
  52. ncbi Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type
    Edmond Peter Hennessy
    J Infect Dis 188:176-7. 2003
  53. pmc Reduction of Norwalk virus, poliovirus 1, and bacteriophage MS2 by ozone disinfection of water
    Gwy Am Shin
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7400, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:3975-8. 2003
    b>Norwalk virus and other human caliciviruses (noroviruses) are major agents of gastroenteritis, and water is a major route of their transmission...
  54. pmc Norwalk virus shedding after experimental human infection
    Robert L Atmar
    Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1553-7. 2008
    ..and duration of virus shedding in feces, we evaluated persons who had been experimentally infected with Norwalk virus. Of 16 persons, clinical gastroenteritis (watery diarrhea and/or vomiting) developed in 11; symptomatic ..
  55. pmc An efficient plant viral expression system generating orally immunogenic Norwalk virus-like particles
    Luca Santi
    The Biodesign Institute and School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 5401, USA
    Vaccine 26:1846-54. 2008
    Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from enteric pathogens like Norwalk virus (NV) are well suited to study oral immunization...
  56. pmc Interferons and ribavirin effectively inhibit Norwalk virus replication in replicon-bearing cells
    Kyeong Ok Chang
    Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    J Virol 81:12111-8. 2007
    ..Recently, we reported the generation of Norwalk virus (NV) replicon-bearing cells in BHK21 and Huh-7 cells and demonstrated that alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) ..
  57. ncbi Stable expression of a Norwalk virus RNA replicon in a human hepatoma cell line
    Kyeong Ok Chang
    Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, 1800 Denison Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Virology 353:463-73. 2006
    b>Norwalk virus (NV) is a prototype strain of the genus Norovirus in the family Caliciviridae...
  58. ncbi Norwalk virus infection associates with secretor status genotyped from sera
    Anne M Hutson
    Department of Molecular Virology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Med Virol 77:116-20. 2005
    ..and secretor status are two genetically determined factors that contribute to resistance and susceptibility to Norwalk virus (NV)...
  59. pmc Replication and packaging of Norwalk virus RNA in cultured mammalian cells
    Miyuki Asanaka
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10327-32. 2005
    ..b>Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype strain of human noroviruses...
  60. pmc Norwalk virus N-terminal nonstructural protein is associated with disassembly of the Golgi complex in transfected cells
    Virneliz Fernandez-Vega
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:4827-37. 2004
    b>Norwalk virus is the prototype strain for members of the genus Norovirus in the family Caliciviridae, which are associated with epidemic gastroenteritis in humans...
  61. ncbi A SYBR green, real-time RT-PCR method to detect and quantitate Norwalk virus in stools
    Gary P Richards
    Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, James WW Baker Center, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901, USA
    J Virol Methods 116:63-70. 2004
    ..rt RT-PCR) technique using SYBR green fluorescence was developed for the detection of genogroup I, cluster 1 Norwalk virus (NV) in stools...
  62. ncbi La, PTB, and PAB proteins bind to the 3(') untranslated region of Norwalk virus genomic RNA
    Ana Lorena Gutiérrez-Escolano
    Departamento de Patologia Experimental, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico City 07360, Mexico
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 311:759-66. 2003
    ..Since La, PTB, and PABP are important trans-acting factors required for viral translation and replication, these RNA-protein interactions may play a role in NV replication or translation...
  63. pmc Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p48 forms a complex with the SNARE regulator VAP-A and prevents cell surface expression of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein
    Khalil Ettayebi
    Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA
    J Virol 77:11790-7. 2003
    b>Norwalk virus (NV), a reference strain of human calicivirus in the Norovirus genus of the family Caliciviridae, contains a positive-strand RNA genome with three open reading frames...
  64. pmc Norwalk virus RNA is infectious in mammalian cells
    Susana Guix
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza BCM 385, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Virol 81:12238-48. 2007
    ..fucosyltransferase gene (FUT2) responsible for the secretor phenotype is required for susceptibility to Norwalk virus (NV) infection...
  65. ncbi Cellular proteins mediate 5'-3' end contacts of Norwalk virus genomic RNA
    Carlos Sandoval-Jaime
    Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Col San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico, D F, C P, Mexico
    Virology 387:322-30. 2009
    ..in silico analysis, we found three possible complementary sequences (CS) between the 5' and the 3' ends of the Norwalk virus genomic RNA...
  66. ncbi Clinical severity of Norwalk virus and Sapporo virus gastroenteritis in children in Hokkaido, Japan
    Y Sakai
    Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S.1 W.16, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8543, Japan
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 20:849-53. 2001
    OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinical significance and etiologic impact of Norwalk virus (NV) and Sapporo virus (SV) in viral gastroenteritis in Japanese children...
  67. ncbi Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus
    X Jiang
    Division of Molecular Virology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030
    Virology 195:51-61. 1993
    A library of overlapping cDNAs obtained from Norwalk virus purified from stools of human volunteers (Jiang et al., 1990, Science 250, 1580-1583) was used to obtain the nucleotide sequence of the viral genome...
  68. ncbi Expression of recombinant Norwalk-like virus capsid proteins using a bacterial system and the development of its immunologic detection
    T Yoda
    Division of Food Microbiology, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan
    J Med Virol 60:475-81. 2000
    ..Our results strongly suggest that the immunologic detection of NLV antigens using anti-rV R-IgG is possible and seems a significant step toward simplification of an NLV detection test...
  69. ncbi [Epidemiology on Norwalk virus-related gastroenteritis outbreaks among elderly persons living in nursing homes]
    Hiroyuki Saito
    Department of Microbiology, Akita Prefectural Institute of Public Health
    Nihon Rinsho 60:1148-53. 2002
    Person-to-person transmission of Norwalk virus(NV) is important factor for outbreaks in nursing homes in addition to foodborne and waterbone transmission...
  70. ncbi The discovery of the 27-nm Norwalk virus: an historic perspective
    A Z Kapikian
    Epidemiology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0720, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:S295-302. 2000
    ..The fastidious 27-nm Norwalk virus is now considered to be the prototype strain of a group of noncultivatable viruses that are important ..
  71. ncbi Members of the family caliciviridae (Norwalk virus and Sapporo virus) are the most prevalent cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks among infants in Japan
    S Nakata
    Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Medical University, School of Medicine, Chuo Ku, Sapporo 060, Japan
    J Infect Dis 181:2029-32. 2000
    b>Norwalk virus (NV) and Sapporo virus (SV) were approved as type species of the genus Norwalk-like viruses and the genus Sapporo-like viruses, respectively, within the family Caliciviridae...
  72. pmc Expression and self-assembly of norwalk virus capsid protein from venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons
    Ralph S Baric
    Department of Epidemiology, Program in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7400, USA
    J Virol 76:3023-30. 2002
    The Norwalk virus (NV) capsid protein was expressed using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP-NV1)...
  73. pmc Interaction of cellular proteins with the 5' end of Norwalk virus genomic RNA
    A L Gutiérrez-Escolano
    Departamento de Patologia Experimental, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico City, Mexico
    J Virol 74:8558-62. 2000
    The lack of a susceptible cell line and an animal model for Norwalk virus (NV) infection has prompted the development of alternative strategies to generate in vitro RNAs that approximate the authentic viral genome...
  74. ncbi Transmission of Norwalk virus during football game
    K M Becker
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 343:1223-7. 2000
    ..During a college football game in Florida, diarrhea and vomiting developed in many of the members of a North Carolina team. The next day, similar symptoms developed in some of the players on the opposing team...
  75. ncbi Expression of recombinant capsid proteins of chitta virus, a genogroup II Norwalk virus, and development of an ELISA to detect the viral antigen
    S Kobayashi
    Development Department, Mitsubishi Kagaku Bio Clinical Laboratories Inc, Tokyo, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 44:687-93. 2000
    ..CHV showed a high aa identity in the capsid region with genogroup II Norwalk virus (NV) (65-85%), but a low aa identity with genogroup I NV (44-46%)...
  76. pmc Concentration and purification of beef extract mock eluates from water samples for the detection of enteroviruses, hepatitis A virus, and Norwalk virus by reverse transcription-PCR
    K J Schwab
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599 7400, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 61:531-7. 1995
    ..extract-glycine eluate with or without humic acid and seeded with poliovirus type 1, hepatitis A virus, and Norwalk virus was used as a model system, and the eluent was further processed for RT-PCR compatibility...
  77. ncbi Characterization of monoclonal antibodies generated against Norwalk virus GII capsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli
    T Yoda
    Division of Food Microbiology, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 44:905-14. 2000
    The Norwalk virus (NV) causes outbreaks of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein...
  78. ncbi Detection and differentiation of Norwalk virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    Masatoshi Tatsumi
    Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    J Med Virol 68:285-90. 2002
    ..using genetic cluster-specific probes in a microtiter plate format, for the detection and differentiation of Norwalk virus (NV) in stool samples...
  79. ncbi Transmission of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis to volunteers by oral administration of stool filtrates. 1971
    Raphael Dolin
    J Infect Dis 189:2142-7, discussion 2139-41. 2004
  80. ncbi [Clinical analysis on an outbreak of SRSV-gastroenteritis with 644 patients emerged in Shizuoka Prefecture]
    N Nakamura
    Sizuoka Institute of Hygiene and Environment
    Kansenshogaku Zasshi 73:356-60. 1999
    ..In Japan, lunch-service has become a industry advancing monopolization and wide areazation. SRSV make easily contamination to food, therefore if mass victim food-poisoning occurs, this should be considered initially...
  81. ncbi [Screening for Calicivirus in children under five years of age, in an Abidjan low-income district]
    F S Ouattara-Soro
    Med Mal Infect 34:566-7. 2004
  82. ncbi Waterborne outbreak of viral gastroenteritis
    M Kukkula
    National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland
    Scand J Infect Dis 29:415-8. 1997
    ..a Norwalk-like agent, small round viruses (SRV), and group A and C rotaviruses as causative agents, Norwalk virus being the main cause of the outbreak...
  83. ncbi Histo-blood group antigen and human milk oligosaccharides: genetic polymorphism and risk of infectious diseases
    Jacques Le Pendu
    INSERM U419, Institut de Biologie, 9 quai Moncousu, F 44093, Nantes, France
    Adv Exp Med Biol 554:135-43. 2004
    ..We have shown that Norwalk virus (NV) uses structures based on H type 1 as its primary receptor...
  84. ncbi Norwalk precipitates severe lithium toxicity
    G Abraham
    Can J Psychiatry 49:215-6. 2004
  85. ncbi Development of homologous viral internal controls for use in RT-PCR assays of waterborne enteric viruses
    Sandhya U Parshionikar
    Biohazard Assessment Research Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
    J Virol Methods 121:39-48. 2004
    ..this problem, we have developed homologous viral internal controls for hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus, Norwalk virus and rotavirus...
  86. ncbi [Three kinds of viruses isolated from diarrhea patients of infants and preschool children in Fuzhou city]
    Jian min Gao
    School of Biological Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350007, China
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 25:456-7. 2004
  87. pmc Transmission events within outbreaks of gastroenteritis determined through analysis of nucleotide sequences of the P2 domain of genogroup II noroviruses
    Jacqueline Xerry
    Enteric Virus Unit, Virus Reference Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 46:947-53. 2008
    ..This provides a powerful tool for tracking outbreak strains and the subsequent analysis and validation of interventions in a background of multiple introductions of virus strains of the same genotype or genetic cluster...
  88. ncbi Nucleotide sequence analysis and development of consensus primers of RT-PCR for detection of Norwalk-like viruses prevailing in Japan
    H Kawamoto
    Gifu Prefectural Institute for Bio-Industrial Technology, Gifu, Japan
    J Med Virol 64:569-76. 2001
    ..The identification of these primer pairs will facilitate routine diagnosis of NLV infection by RT-PCR and offers the potential for their direct detection in food and environmental samples...
  89. pmc Epochal evolution of GGII.4 norovirus capsid proteins from 1995 to 2006
    J Joukje Siebenga
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Virol 81:9932-41. 2007
    ..The three-dimensional structure was predicted by homology modeling, using the Norwalk virus (Hu/NoV/GGI.1/Norwalk/1968/US) capsid as a reference...
  90. ncbi [The outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by Norwalk like viruses in Zadar general hospital (2007)]
    Boris Dzelalija
    Opća bolnica Zadar, Zadar
    Acta Med Croatica 62:305-8. 2008
    ..Early detection of clinical signs and symptoms of acute gastroenteritis and appropriate preventive measures to stop the spread of infection...
  91. ncbi [Molecular epidemiological study of human calicivirus infection in diarrhea children in autumn and winter at a hospital in Guangzhou]
    Hui Chun Zhan
    Department of Epidemiology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
    Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 26:967-70. 2006
    ..To investigate the epidemiological features of human calicivirus( HuCV) infection in children with diarrhea in a hospital in Guangzhou...
  92. ncbi Construction of an internal RT-PCR standard control for the detection of human caliciviruses in stool
    Jaime Escobar-Herrera
    Department of Experimental Pathology, CINVESTAV IPN, Av IPN 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico, D F C P 07360, Mexico
    J Virol Methods 137:334-8. 2006
    ..negative results, an internal control (IC) was developed for the assay by cloning a 319 nt sequence of the Norwalk virus (NV) polymerase containing a 156 nt cDNA insert...
  93. ncbi [Outbreak of gastroenteritis by Norwalk virus in nursing home]
    Anna Esteve Gibert
    Med Clin (Barc) 130:117. 2008
  94. ncbi Characterization of "Norwalk-like viruses" and astroviruses by liquid hybridization assay
    G M Belliot
    Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Viral Gastroenteritis Section (G-04, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Virol Methods 91:119-30. 2001
    ....
  95. ncbi Multiple outbreaks of Norwalk-like virus gastro-enteritis associated with a Mediterranean-style restaurant
    J A Marshall
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Carlton South, Australia
    J Med Microbiol 50:143-51. 2001
    ..The findings indicate that NLV was introduced by guests or staff and was not due to a long-term reservoir within the setting...
  96. ncbi Simultaneous isolation of verotoxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli O128:H2 and viruses in gastroenteritis outbreaks
    K A Bettelheim
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 24:135-42. 2001
    ....
  97. ncbi [Hospital outbreak of viral gastroenteritis attributed to Norwalk-like viruses in Japan]
    Ichiro Itoda
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Women s Medical University
    Kansenshogaku Zasshi 76:32-40. 2002
    ....
  98. ncbi Proportion of sporadic gastroenteritis cases caused by rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and bacteria in Japan from January 2000 to December 2003
    Ayako Sumi
    Department of Hygiene, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 49:745-56. 2005
    ....
  99. ncbi Gastrointestinal outbreaks associated with Norwalk virus in restaurants in Vancouver, British Columbia
    Lorraine McIntyre
    Laboratory Services, British Columbia Centre for Disease Control Society BCCDS, Vancouver
    Can Commun Dis Rep 28:197-203. 2002
  100. ncbi [Preliminary study of human calicivirus infection in Guangzhou]
    Ying chun Dai
    Department of Epidemiology, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
    Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao 24:296-9. 2004
    ..To investigate of human calicivirus (HuCV) infection in the children of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong Province at China, and conduct preliminary study of the prevalence of the virus...
  101. ncbi Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis associated with Norwalk-like viruses in campus settings
    C L Moe
    Department of International Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Am Coll Health 50:57-66. 2001
    ..Prevention and control of NLV outbreaks rests on promoting hand washing; enforcement of strict hygiene in all food preparation areas; and prompt, rigorous cleaning of potentially contaminated areas where someone has been ill...

Research Grants19

  1. Computational Studies of Early Stage Cell Entry Events by Non-enveloped Viruses
    ERIC ROBERT MAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..systems so far, including Sesbania mosaic virus, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, HK97, hepatitis B virus, and Norwalk virus. This work has been impactful in interpreting AFM nanoindentation studies on viruses...
  2. Oligosaccharides to Prevent Infectious Diarrhea
    JOHN MICHAEL MCCOY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) and pathogenic strains of Norwalk virus, the leading bacterial and viral causes of human infectious diarrhea [3], adhere to gut epithelial surfaces ..
  3. Development of Novel Therapeutic Agents for Norovirus Infection
    Kyeong Ok Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using a novel cell-based Norwalk virus (NV) replication system, we have identified viral proteinase (Pro) and cellular acyl-coenzyme Axholesterol ..
  4. Diffusion of viruses across human airway mucus and trapping by antibodies
    SAMUEL LAI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mucus is much larger than mammalian viruses, consistent with our earlier observations that HIV, HPV and Norwalk virus all readily diffuse through the same mucus secretions...
  5. MICRONUTRIENTS AND ENTERIC INFECTION IN AFRICAN CHILDREN
    MICHAEL BENNISH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..coli (determined using probes for virulence genes), rotavirus, enteric adenoviruses 40/41, astroviruses and Norwalk virus, and the protozoan pathogens C...
  6. MICRONUTRIENTS AND ENTERIC INFECTION IN AFRICAN CHILDREN
    Sherwood Gorbach; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..coli (determined using probes for virulence genes), rotavirus, enteric adenoviruses 40/41, astroviruses and Norwalk virus, and the protozoan pathogens C...
  7. Yeast-Based High-throughput Assays for Proteases of Category A, B, & C Viruses
    Hong Fang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..West Nile Virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, Hepatitis A Virus, SARS coronavirus, and Norwalk Virus. Specifically, we will engineer yeast strains that respond to the action of an intracellular protease by a ..
  8. Engineered Probiotic Yeast to Prevent Infectious Diarrhea
    John McCoy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Virulent Campylobacter species and pathogenic strains of Norwalk virus, the leading bacterial and viral causes of human infectious diarrhea [3], adhere to gut epithelial surfaces ..
  9. FOODBORNE NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES: ARE THEY INFECTIOUS?
    Robert Atmar; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..A new program for developing a strategy for determining the infectivity of Norwalk virus and other Norwalk-like viruses is proposed...
  10. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF NORWALK VIRUS GENOME EXPRESSION
    Michele Hardy; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The long-term research objective of this laboratory is to understand in detail, the molecular mechanisms of Norwalk virus genome expression and replication...
  11. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE ROTAVIRUSES
    MARY ESTES; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. STRUCTURAL STUDIES ON ROTAVIRUSES
    BIDADI V PRASAD; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..4) To carry out structural analysis of NSP4, an intracellular receptor, and study its interaction with VP6, and viral cell attachment protein VP4. ..
  13. MOLECULAR AND ANTIGENIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CALICIVIRUS
    MARY ESTES; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Norwalk virus, belonging to the family of Caliciviridae, is the major cause of epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans...
  14. Characterization of Human Caliciviruses
    Xi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. RPA STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF INTERACTION WITH SSDNA
    Adam Zlotnick; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..4. What is the general mechanism of ssDNA-binding by the RPA trimer? A trimeric RPA complex containing all ssDNA-binding domains will be resolved by X-ray crystallography with and/or without ssDNA. ..
  16. Norwalk-like Viruses and Their Receptors
    Xi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have recently observed that the prototype Norwalk virus (NV) uses the human histo-blood group antigens as receptors for infection...
  17. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE ROTAVIRUSES
    MARY ESTES; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  18. Regulation of Virus Capsid Assembly
    GILLIAN AIR; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..25 million Americans. Worldwide, HBV will contribute to 1 million deaths this year. By determining how HBV assembly is regulated, we will characterize a new target for antiviral intervention. ..
  19. Third International Calicivirus Conference
    Xi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will publish a proceeding of the meeting as a supplement of the Journal of[unreadable] Infectious Diseases after the meeting. ..