ginkgo biloba

Summary

Summary: The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Modulation of cognitive performance following single doses of 120 mg Ginkgo biloba extract administered to healthy young volunteers
    David O Kennedy
    Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Hum Psychopharmacol 22:559-66. 2007
  2. ncbi Bilobalide and neuroprotection
    Francis V DeFeudis
    Institute for BioScience, 153 West Main Street, Westboro, MA 01581, USA
    Pharmacol Res 46:565-8. 2002
  3. pmc The complete chloroplast genome of Ginkgo biloba reveals the mechanism of inverted repeat contraction
    Ching Ping Lin
    Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
    Genome Biol Evol 4:374-81. 2012
  4. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extract enhances antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of cilostazol without prolongation of bleeding time
    Keun Ho Ryu
    Pharmacology Team, Life Science R and D Center, SK Chemicals, Korea
    Thromb Res 124:328-34. 2009
  5. ncbi Nrf-2 mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression, an antioxidant-independent mechanism, contributes to anti-atherogenesis and vascular protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract
    Jia Shiong Chen
    Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
    Atherosclerosis 214:301-9. 2011
  6. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extract attenuates oxLDL-induced oxidative functional damages in endothelial cells
    Hsiu Chung Ou
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dept of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No 160, Sec 3, Taichung Kang Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 106:1674-85. 2009
  7. ncbi Amyloid-beta-induced pathological behaviors are suppressed by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and ginkgolides in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans
    Yanjue Wu
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 26:13102-13. 2006
  8. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extract inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced reactive oxygen species generation, transcription factor activation, and cell adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells
    Jaw Wen Chen
    National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Center and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:1559-66. 2003
  9. ncbi The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers
    K A Wesnes
    Cognitive Drug Research Ltd, Reading, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 152:353-61. 2000
  10. ncbi Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts
    Teris A van Beek
    Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Phytochemical Section, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    J Chromatogr A 967:21-55. 2002

Research Grants

  1. Domains of Inflammation and Risk of Dementia
    Annette L Fitzpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. Herb-Drug Glucuronidation Interactions
    Reginald F Frye; Fiscal Year: 2011
  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginkgo Biloba and its Bioactive Components Ischemia
    Zahoor Ahmad Shah; Fiscal Year: 2012
  4. Anti-oxidant therapy in Alzheimer's disease
    Brian J Bacskai; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. DISPOSITION OF GINKGO FLAVONOIDS VIA RECYCLING
    Ming Hu; Fiscal Year: 2001
  6. Using propensity scores for causal inference with covariate measurement error
    Elizabeth A Stuart; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. BORAGE OIL AND GINKGO BILOBA (EGb 761) IN ASTHMA
    MERRILL GERSHWIN; Fiscal Year: 2004
  8. Nitric oxide as a target for dietary intervention in colitis
    Michael Wargovich; Fiscal Year: 2007
  9. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF GINKGO BILOBA IN CANCER
    Vassilios Papadopoulos; Fiscal Year: 2002
  10. Cognitive Enhancers Explored with PET Imaging
    Susan Schultz; Fiscal Year: 2003

Detail Information

Publications299 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Modulation of cognitive performance following single doses of 120 mg Ginkgo biloba extract administered to healthy young volunteers
    David O Kennedy
    Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Hum Psychopharmacol 22:559-66. 2007
    ..from our laboratory demonstrated that administration of single doses (120, 240, 360 mg) of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) had linear, dose-dependent, positive effects on the speed of performing attention tasks in ..
  2. ncbi Bilobalide and neuroprotection
    Francis V DeFeudis
    Institute for BioScience, 153 West Main Street, Westboro, MA 01581, USA
    Pharmacol Res 46:565-8. 2002
    ..studies have indicated that systemically administered bilobalide, a sesquiterpene trilactone constituent of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts, can reduce cerebral edema produced by triethyltin, decrease cortical infarct volume in certain ..
  3. pmc The complete chloroplast genome of Ginkgo biloba reveals the mechanism of inverted repeat contraction
    Ching Ping Lin
    Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
    Genome Biol Evol 4:374-81. 2012
    We determined the complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) of Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo), the only relict of ginkgophytes from the Triassic Period...
  4. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extract enhances antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of cilostazol without prolongation of bleeding time
    Keun Ho Ryu
    Pharmacology Team, Life Science R and D Center, SK Chemicals, Korea
    Thromb Res 124:328-34. 2009
    ..Cilostazol and Ginkgo biloba extract (GB), commonly used remedies for peripheral arterial disease, inhibit platelet aggregation with ..
  5. ncbi Nrf-2 mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression, an antioxidant-independent mechanism, contributes to anti-atherogenesis and vascular protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract
    Jia Shiong Chen
    Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
    Atherosclerosis 214:301-9. 2011
    Vascular protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) may involve both antioxidant-related and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. GBE was recently suggested as a heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducer...
  6. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extract attenuates oxLDL-induced oxidative functional damages in endothelial cells
    Hsiu Chung Ou
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dept of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No 160, Sec 3, Taichung Kang Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 106:1674-85. 2009
    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process with increased oxidative stress in vascular endothelium. Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE), extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has commonly been used as a therapeutic agent for cardiovascular ..
  7. ncbi Amyloid-beta-induced pathological behaviors are suppressed by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and ginkgolides in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans
    Yanjue Wu
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 26:13102-13. 2006
    ..We previously demonstrated that the standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, commonly used to enhance memory and by AD patients for dementia, inhibits Abeta-induced ..
  8. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extract inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced reactive oxygen species generation, transcription factor activation, and cell adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells
    Jaw Wen Chen
    National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Center and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:1559-66. 2003
    This study was conducted to examination whether Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), a Chinese herb with antioxidant activity, could reduce cytokine-induced monocyte/human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) interaction, a pivotal early event in ..
  9. ncbi The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers
    K A Wesnes
    Cognitive Drug Research Ltd, Reading, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 152:353-61. 2000
    The effects of capsules containing 60 mg of a standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba (GK501) and 100 mg of a standardised extract of Panax ginseng (G115) on various aspects of cognitive function were assessed in healthy middle-aged ..
  10. ncbi Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts
    Teris A van Beek
    Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Phytochemical Section, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    J Chromatogr A 967:21-55. 2002
    ..Lately a there is a lot of interest in the analysis of the undesired alkylphenols and a few validated procedures have been published. The analysis of Ginkgo proanthocyanidins is still in its infancy and no reliable assays exist...
  11. ncbi The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 reduces stress sensitivity, ROS accumulation and expression of catalase and glutathione S-transferase 4 in Caenorhabditis elegans
    A Kampkotter
    Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich Heine University, P O Box 101007, 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Pharmacol Res 55:139-47. 2007
    The standardised extract EGb761 from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba is a popular herbal dietary supplement and it is used as a phytopharmacon for the therapy of diverse cerebral insufficiencies...
  12. ncbi Genetic variation of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) based on cpDNA PCR-RFLPs: inference of glacial refugia
    L Shen
    Department of Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    Heredity (Edinb) 94:396-401. 2005
    b>Ginkgo biloba, a famous living fossil, is the sole survivor of the genus Ginkgo. To make inferences about the glacial refugia that harbored G...
  13. ncbi Alzheimer's disease, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and ginkgo biloba leaf extract
    Yuan Luo
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA
    Life Sci 78:2066-72. 2006
    ..A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves EGb 761 is a popular dietary supplement taken by the general public to enhance mental focus and by the ..
  14. ncbi Ginkgo biloba normalizes stress- and corticosterone-induced impairment of recall in rats
    Anna Walesiuk
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Bialystok, Waszyngtona 15A, 15 274 Bialystok, Poland
    Pharmacol Res 53:123-8. 2006
    ..Therefore, in this study, we investigated efficacy of a natural medicine, the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB 761), in prevention and treatment of the post-stress memory dysfunctions...
  15. ncbi A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group
    P L Le Bars
    New York Institute for Medical Research, Tarrytown 10591, USA
    JAMA 278:1327-32. 1997
    EGb 761 is a particular extract of Ginkgo biloba used in Europe to alleviate symptoms associated with numerous cognitive disorders...
  16. ncbi Pharmacogenetics and herb-drug interactions: experience with Ginkgo biloba and omeprazole
    Ophelia Q P Yin
    School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong
    Pharmacogenetics 14:841-50. 2004
    b>Ginkgo biloba was found to exert a significant inductive effect on CYP2C19 activity. This study was designed to investigate the potential herb-drug interaction between G...
  17. pmc The in vivo neuromodulatory effects of the herbal medicine ginkgo biloba
    C M Watanabe
    Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6577-80. 2001
    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves are consumed as dietary supplements to counteract chronic, age-related neurological disorders...
  18. ncbi Effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on platelet aggregation and urinary prostanoid excretion in healthy and Type 2 diabetic subjects
    George B Kudolo
    Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, MSC 6246, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, 78229 3900, USA
    Thromb Res 108:151-60. 2002
    ..b>Ginkgo biloba extract is ingested primarily to improve mental focus but it possesses a blood-thinning potential, which has ..
  19. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extract regulates differentially the cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide and simvastatin
    Nedret Altiok
    Department of Pharmacology, Kadir Has University Faculty of Medicine, Vefa Bey Sokak No 5, 80810 Gayrettepe, Istanbul, Turkey
    Neurotoxicology 27:158-63. 2006
    ..While several antioxidants failed to block H2O2-induced apoptosis of these cells, Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) totally prevented the cell death and growth inhibition induced by H2O2...
  20. ncbi Ginkgo biloba and ginkgotoxin
    Eckhard Leistner
    Institut for Pharmazeutische Biologie der Rheinischen Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn, Nussallee 6, D 53115 Bonn, Germany
    J Nat Prod 73:86-92. 2010
    Products prepared from Ginkgo biloba are top-selling phytopharmaceuticals especially in Europe and major botanical dietary supplements in the United States. In European medicine, G...
  21. ncbi The effects of gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) on experimental acute pancreatitis
    Nazif Zeybek
    Department of Surgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
    J Surg Res 115:286-93. 2003
    ..In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether Egb761, the standardized extract of gingko biloba, restrains the generation of OFRs and ameliorates the histopathologic findings of acute pancreatitis...
  22. ncbi Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms are effect modifiers in Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761®) treatment of dementia with neuropsychiatric features. Retrospective data analyses of a randomized controlled trial
    R Ihl
    Clinic of Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Maria Hilf Hospital, Oberdiessemer Str 136, 47805 Krefeld, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 299:184-7. 2010
    ....
  23. ncbi The human pyridoxal kinase, a plausible target for ginkgotoxin from Ginkgo biloba
    Uta Kästner
    Institut fur Pharmazeutische Biologie, Universitat Bonn, Germany
    FEBS J 274:1036-45. 2007
    Ginkgotoxin (4'-O-methylpyridoxine) occurring in the seeds and leaves of Ginkgo biloba, is an antivitamin structurally related to vitamin B(6). Ingestion of ginkgotoxin triggers epileptic convulsions and other neuronal symptoms...
  24. ncbi The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo
    Iliyana Ilieva
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Exp Eye Res 79:181-7. 2004
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) contains many different flavone glycosides and terpenoides...
  25. ncbi Anti-stress effects of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng: a comparative study
    Deepak Rai
    Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India
    J Pharmacol Sci 93:458-64. 2003
    ..We explored the anti-stress potential of the Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba, 30 mg/kg, p.o.) and compared it with that of Panax ginseng (P. ginseng, 100 mg/kg, p.o...
  26. ncbi Multifaceted therapeutic benefits of Ginkgo biloba L.: chemistry, efficacy, safety, and uses
    S Mahadevan
    Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, 100 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    J Food Sci 73:R14-9. 2008
    The new age of nutraceuticals is now embracing the centuries old herbal extract of Ginkgo biloba (Mantissa Plantarum Altera, 1771, Ginkgoceae)...
  27. ncbi Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rodents
    Suresh R Naik
    Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lonavala, India
    Liver Int 27:393-9. 2007
    The protective effects of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes (GBP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanism(s) involved in this protection were investigated in rats.
  28. ncbi Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract
    B Ahlemeyer
    Institut fur Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Fachbereich Pharmazie der Philipps Universität Marburg, Ketzerbach 63, 35032 Marburg, Germany
    Cell Mol Life Sci 60:1779-92. 2003
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract has been therapeutically used for several decades to increase peripheral and cerebral blood flow as well as for the treatment of dementia...
  29. ncbi H2O2 and PAF mediate Abeta1-42-induced Ca2+ dyshomeostasis that is blocked by EGb761
    Chun Shi
    Department of Anatomy, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat Sen University Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China
    Neurochem Int 56:893-905. 2010
    ..Moreover, each of these events could be blocked by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761, a free radical scavenger with PAF antagonism, and by quercetin, a constituent with well-..
  30. ncbi Prevention of age-related spatial memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by chronic Ginkgo biloba treatment
    Robert W Stackman
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
    Exp Neurol 184:510-20. 2003
    ..We tested the ability of Ginkgo biloba, a flavonoid-rich antioxidant, to antagonize the age-related behavioral impairment and neuropathology ..
  31. ncbi Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    H Woelk
    Klinik fur Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Giessen, Germany
    J Psychiatr Res 41:472-80. 2007
    b>Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761, an anti-dementia drug, enhances cognitive functioning and stabilizes mood in cognitively impaired elderly subjects...
  32. ncbi Short-term ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract does not alter whole body insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic or type 2 diabetic subjects--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study
    George B Kudolo
    Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, Texas 78229 3900, USA
    Clin Nutr 25:123-34. 2006
    Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761) may increase pancreatic beta-cell function in both healthy subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) as well as patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  33. ncbi Structure-activity analysis of ginkgolide binding in the glycine receptor pore
    Judith A Heads
    School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    J Neurochem 105:1418-27. 2008
    Ginkgolides, active constituents of Ginkgo biloba extracts, potently block the glycine receptor chloride channel (GlyR)...
  34. ncbi The effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects--a double blind placebo-controlled, crossover study
    George B Kudolo
    Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, MSC 6246, University of Texas HSC at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, 78229 3900, USA
    Clin Nutr 25:606-16. 2006
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) has been shown to ameliorate some defects associated with the insulin resistance syndrome and so patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be inclined to co-ingest the herb with their medications, ..
  35. ncbi Electroencephalograph effects of single doses of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng in healthy young volunteers
    D O Kennedy
    Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 75:701-9. 2003
    Both Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng exert a number of physiological effects and have been shown to modulate aspects of cognitive performance...
  36. ncbi What is Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761? An overview--from molecular biology to clinical medicine
    Yves Christen
    Beaufour Ipsen, Paris, France
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 48:601-11. 2002
    EGb 761 (extract of Ginkgo biloba 761) comes from a single type of tree, a living fossil, the only remaining representative of its phylum; it contains chemical substances unknown in other living things...
  37. ncbi Purification, characterization, and molecular gene cloning of an antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds
    Yoriko Sawano
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Biol Chem 388:273-80. 2007
    A novel basic protein with antifungal activity was isolated from the seeds of Ginkgo biloba and purified to homogeneity...
  38. pmc Chromatographic profiles and identification of new phenolic components of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected products
    Long Ze Lin
    Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 56:6671-9. 2008
    b>Ginkgo biloba leaves and their extracts are one of the most widely used herbal products and/or dietary supplements in the world. A systematic study of the phenolic compounds is necessary to establish quality parameters...
  39. ncbi Does Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 provide additional effects on coagulation and bleeding when added to acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg daily?
    Hellmut R D Wolf
    Innere Medizin, Diakonie Krankenhaus, Bad Kreuznach, Germany
    Drugs R D 7:163-72. 2006
    The aim of this study was to determine whether Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 amplifies the known effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on platelet aggregation, bleeding time or other coagulation parameters in healthy subjects.
  40. ncbi Improved haemorrheological properties by Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb 761) in type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with retinopathy
    Shih Yi Huang
    Graduate Institute of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Clin Nutr 23:615-21. 2004
    ..In this study, we demonstrate the improvement in abnormal haemorrheological parameters in DM with ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract 761 (Egb 761).
  41. ncbi Lack of effect of Ginkgo biloba on voriconazole pharmacokinetics in Chinese volunteers identified as CYP2C19 poor and extensive metabolizers
    He Ping Lei
    Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
    Ann Pharmacother 43:726-31. 2009
    b>Ginkgo biloba is one of the most popular herbal supplements in the world. The supplement has been shown to induce the enzymatic activity of CYP2C19, the main cytochrome P450 isozyme involved in voriconazole metabolism...
  42. ncbi A simple HPLC-UV method for the assay of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba extracts
    N Fuzzati
    Indena S p A, R and D Laboratories, Via Don Minzoni 6, Settala, Milan 20090, Italy
    Fitoterapia 74:247-56. 2003
    Extracts from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba are among the most widely used phytotherapeutics. Some alkylphenols (ginkgolic acids, cardanols and cardols) have been described as potentially hazardous constituents in Ginkgo extracts...
  43. ncbi Neuromodulatory property of standardized extract Ginkgo biloba L. (EGb 761) on memory: behavioral and molecular evidence
    Daniela R Oliveira
    Department of Biological Science, Federal University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Brain Res 1269:68-89. 2009
    Although it has been suggested that the standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (Egb 761) may have a beneficial effect on memory, the cellular and molecular changes that underlie this process are not yet well defined...
  44. pmc Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: a randomized controlled trial
    Steven T DeKosky
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    JAMA 300:2253-62. 2008
    b>Ginkgo biloba is widely used for its potential effects on memory and cognition. To date, adequately powered clinical trials testing the effect of G. biloba on dementia incidence are lacking.
  45. pmc Spontaneous bleeding associated with ginkgo biloba: a case report and systematic review of the literature: a case report and systematic review of the literature
    Stephen Bent
    Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 20:657-61. 2005
    b>Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) is a herbal remedy used by over 2% of the adult population in the United States. Several review articles have suggested that ginkgo may increase the risk of bleeding.
  46. ncbi The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) provides a neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of chronic glaucoma
    Kazuyuki Hirooka
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kagawa University School of Medicine, Miki, Kagawa, Japan
    Curr Eye Res 28:153-7. 2004
    To investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) against neurotoxicity of retinal ganglion cells of rats with chronic moderately elevated intraocular pressure (IOP).
  47. ncbi Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on aluminum-induced brain dysfunction in rats
    Qi Hai Gong
    Department of Pharmacology, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, Guizhou, 563003, P R of China
    Life Sci 77:140-8. 2005
    This study examined the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on the learning and memory function in aluminum-treated rats and potential mechanisms. Wistar rats were given daily aluminum chloride 500 mg/kg, i...
  48. ncbi High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of selected flavonols in Ginkgo biloba solid oral dosage forms
    Mary Jean Dubber
    Division of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
    J Pharm Pharm Sci 7:303-9. 2004
    ..chromatographic (HPLC) - photodiode array (PDA) detection method to quantitate five flavonol components as markers; rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin for use in the quality control of Ginkgo biloba dosage forms.
  49. ncbi Bilobalide, a sesquiterpene trilactone from Ginkgo biloba, is an antagonist at recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA(A) receptors
    Shelley H Huang
    Adrien Albert Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney, Australia
    Eur J Pharmacol 464:1-8. 2003
    The sesquiterpene trilactone bilobalide is one of the active constituents of the 50:1 Ginkgo biloba leaf extract widely used to enhance memory and learning...
  50. ncbi Isolation of ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide from G. biloba extracts
    Stanislav Jaracz
    Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 3000 Broadway, NY 10027, USA
    Phytochemistry 65:2897-902. 2004
    Ginkgolides A, B, C and J, together with bilobalide, are unique terpenoid components of the Ginkgo biloba tree. Due to similar chemical properties, their separation is quite tedious...
  51. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extract inhibits endotoxin-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppression of toll-like receptor 4 expression and NADPH oxidase activation
    Feng Yen Lin
    Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Agric Food Chem 55:1977-84. 2007
    ..b>Ginkgo biloba extract is an antiatherothrombotic Chinese herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of G...
  52. ncbi Inhibitions of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and foam cell formation by EGb 761, a special extract of Ginkgo biloba, in oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein-induced human THP-1 monocytes cells
    H J Liu
    Changhai Hospital, Secondary Military Medical University, 174 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200433, China
    Phytomedicine 16:138-45. 2009
    ..Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) have been identified for some cardiovascular and neurological disorders...
  53. ncbi Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers
    Bo Hyung Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    Clin Ther 32:380-90. 2010
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract is an herbal medicine used in the treatment of vascular disorders that may be coadministered with antiplatelet agents such as ticlopidine...
  54. ncbi The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    G B Kudolo
    Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences-MSC 6246, UTHSCSA, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 41:600-11. 2001
    ..the first report (Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2000; 40:647-654), it was shown that ingestion of 120 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) daily for 3 months by normal glucose-tolerant individuals caused a significant increase in ..
  55. pmc Early evolutionary colocalization of the nuclear ribosomal 5S and 45S gene families in seed plants: evidence from the living fossil gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba
    J A Galián
    Jardín Botánico de Valencia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Heredity (Edinb) 108:640-6. 2012
    ..Previous work has identified colocalization of 45S and 5S loci in Ginkgo biloba using FISH, but these observations have not been confirmed recently by sequencing a 1.8 kb IGS...
  56. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extracts and cancer: a research area in its infancy
    Francis V DeFeudis
    Institute for BioScience, 153 West Main Street, Westboro, MA, USA
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 17:405-17. 2003
    ..studies conducted with various molecular, cellular and whole animal models have revealed that leaf extracts of Ginkgo biloba may have anticancer (chemopreventive) properties that are related to their antioxidant, anti-angiogenic and ..
  57. ncbi Evaluation of cardioprotective activity of Ginkgo biloba and Ocimum sanctum in rodents
    Vandana S Panda
    Kundnani College of Pharmacy, Cuffe Parade, Colaba, Mumbai, India
    Altern Med Rev 14:161-71. 2009
    This study investigates the cardioprotective activity of a combined treatment of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes (GBP) and Ocimum sanctum extract (Os) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial necrosis in rats...
  58. ncbi Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on diazepam metabolism: a pharmacokinetic study in healthy Chinese male subjects
    Xiao Cong Zuo
    Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology Research Institute, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410013, China
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 66:503-9. 2010
    It has been reported that Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is an inducer or inhibitor of microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19, and diazepam is a substrate of CYP2C19. Thus, it could be expected that GBE may alter the metabolism of diazepam.
  59. ncbi [Studies on dynamic change of total ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves of different aged trees and different collecting seasons]
    Jianming Ju
    Jiangsu Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210028, China
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 34:817-9. 2009
    To study dynamic change of total ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves of the different aged trees and different collecting seasons.
  60. ncbi Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats
    Mehmet Kanter
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Trakya, Edirne, Turkey
    Exp Mol Pathol 91:708-13. 2011
    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on testicular torsion/detorsion induced ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury...
  61. ncbi Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability studies of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba extracts, Ginkgo biloba extract phospholipid complexes and Ginkgo biloba extract solid dispersions in rats
    Zhi Peng Chen
    Department of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, PR China
    Fitoterapia 81:1045-52. 2010
    The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) through preparing G. biloba extract phospholipid complexes (GBP) and G. biloba extract solid dispersions (GBS)...
  62. pmc Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide for prevention of acute mountain sickness among Himalayan trekkers: the prevention of high altitude illness trial (PHAIT)
    Jeffrey H Gertsch
    Department of Internal Medicine, Maricopa Medical Center, 2601 E Roosevelt Avenue number O D 10, Phoenix, AZ 85008, USA
    BMJ 328:797. 2004
    To evaluate the efficacy of ginkgo biloba, acetazolamide, and their combination as prophylaxis against acute mountain sickness.
  63. pmc Ginkgo biloba: an adjuvant therapy for progressive normal and high tension glaucoma
    A K Cybulska-Heinrich
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Vis 18:390-402. 2012
    ..One such risk factor is a primary vascular dysregulation (PVD) occurring in patients with a disturbed autoregulation, another risk factor is oxidative stress...
  64. ncbi The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease
    B S Oken
    Department of Neurology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Arch Neurol 55:1409-15. 1998
    To determine the effect of treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract on objective measures of cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) based on formal review of the current literature.
  65. pmc Ginkgo biloba extract ameliorates oxidative phosphorylation performance and rescues abeta-induced failure
    Virginie Rhein
    Neurobiology Laboratory for Brain Aging and Mental Health, Psychiatric University Clinics, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 5:e12359. 2010
    ..Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether standardized Ginkgo biloba extract LI 1370 (GBE) is able to rescue Abeta-induced defects in energy metabolism.
  66. ncbi Studies on interactions between functional foods or dietary supplements and medicines. III. Effects of ginkgo biloba leaf extract on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats
    Mutsunobu Yoshioka
    Department of Pharmacy, Takarazuka City Hospital, Kohama, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 27:2042-5. 2004
    The effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE), one of the most widely used herbal dietary supplements in Japan and the United States, on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine (NFP), a typical probe of P450 (CYP) 3A, but not a substrate of ..
  67. ncbi Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals
    Teris A van Beek
    Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Natural Products Chemistry Group, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Chromatogr A 1216:2002-32. 2009
    ..A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21-55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on Ginkgo biloba have appeared, and about 400 of them pertain to chemical analysis in a broad sense and are cited herein...
  68. ncbi Direct extraction of specific pharmacophoric flavonoids from gingko leaves using a molecularly imprinted polymer for quercetin
    J Xie
    Beida Yangshengtang Joint Laboratory for Natural Products, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
    J Chromatogr A 934:1-11. 2001
    ..The result demonstrated the possibility of direct extraction of certain pharmacophoric constituents from herb by MIP technology. The compounds extracted were confirmed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
  69. ncbi Molecular cloning and function analysis of an anthocyanidin synthase gene from Ginkgo biloba, and its expression in abiotic stress responses
    Feng Xu
    College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
    Mol Cells 26:536-47. 2008
    ..The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of ANS gene (designated as GbANS) were isolated from Ginkgo biloba for the first time...
  70. ncbi Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in arteriosclerosis prophylaxis
    Gunter Siegel
    Department of Neurophysiology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Wien Med Wochenschr 157:288-94. 2007
    ..Against this background, we investigated in a pilot study the effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761: Rökan novo), the free oxygen radical scavenging properties of which are well-documented, on the ..
  71. ncbi Phylogeography of a living fossil: pleistocene glaciations forced Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) into two refuge areas in China with limited subsequent postglacial expansion
    Wei Gong
    Gingko biloba and cpDNA Project, College of Life Sciences, Laboratory of Systematics, Evolutionary Botany and Biodiversity, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 48:1094-105. 2008
    b>Ginkgo biloba is one of the most famous and therefore intensively studied living fossils...
  72. ncbi Biology and chemistry of Ginkgo biloba
    Bikram Singh
    Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, HP 176 061, India
    Fitoterapia 79:401-18. 2008
    b>Ginkgo biloba has been existing on earth since 200 million years and is considered as a "living fossil". It is among the most sold medicinal plants in the world...
  73. ncbi Simultaneous chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis of Ginkgo biloba extract by HPLC-DAD
    Daoquan Tang
    Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221004, China
    Anal Bioanal Chem 396:3087-95. 2010
    ..A reverse-phase liquid chromatography method with diode array detection was developed to evaluate the quality of Ginkgo biloba extract through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of eight flavonoid ..
  74. ncbi Studies on interactions between functional foods or dietary supplements and medicines. IV. Effects of ginkgo biloba leaf extract on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine in healthy volunteers
    Mutsunobu Yoshioka
    Department of Pharmacy, Takarazuka City Hospital, Kohama, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 27:2006-9. 2004
    The effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE), a widely used herbal dietary supplement in Japan, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine (NFP), a calcium-channel blocker, were studied using 8 healthy volunteers...
  75. ncbi Clinical use and molecular mechanisms of action of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves in cardiovascular diseases
    Wei Zhou
    Molecular Surgeon Research Center, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Michael E DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cardiovasc Drug Rev 22:309-19. 2004
    b>Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species that has been referred to as a living fossil...
  76. pmc Ginkgo biloba responds to herbivory by activating early signaling and direct defenses
    Tapan Kumar Mohanta
    Plant Physiology Unit, Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, Innovation Centre, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
    PLoS ONE 7:e32822. 2012
    b>Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) is one of the most ancient living seed plants and is regarded as a living fossil. G...
  77. ncbi Ginkgo biloba leaf extract: review of biological actions and clinical applications
    T Yoshikawa
    First Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan
    Antioxid Redox Signal 1:469-80. 1999
    The number of studies on Ginkgo biloba leaves is rapidly increasing. A variety of effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBLE) have been identified. GBLE contains many different flavone glycosides and terpenoides...
  78. ncbi Effectiveness of standardized ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive symptoms of dementia with a six-month treatment: a bivariate random effect meta-analysis
    B S Wang
    Department of Pharmacology and Biostatistics, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Pharmacopsychiatry 43:86-91. 2010
    ..into consideration the influence of baseline risk on the treatment effect and evaluate the effectiveness of standardized GINKGO BILOBA extract (GbE) on cognitive symptoms of dementia with the treatment period of approximately 6 months.
  79. ncbi Effect of treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (oral) on unilateral idiopathic sudden hearing loss in a prospective randomized double-blind study of 106 outpatients
    M A Burschka
    , , Germany
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 258:213-9. 2001
    OBJECTIVE: Test of dose-response relationship for Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (oral) in outpatients with acute idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) of at least 15 dB at one frequency within the speech range occurring ..
  80. pmc Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Stefan Weinmann
    Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charite University Medicine, Luisenstrasse 57, Berlin, Germany
    BMC Geriatr 10:14. 2010
    The benefit of Ginkgo biloba has been discussed controversially. The aim of this review was to assess the effects of Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer's disease as well as vascular and mixed dementia covering a variety of outcome domains.
  81. ncbi Cardioprotective activity of Ginkgo biloba Phytosomes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats: a biochemical and histoarchitectural evaluation
    Vandana S Panda
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Prin K M Kundnani College of Pharmacy, Rambhau Salgaonkar Marg, Cuffe Parade, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005, India
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 60:397-404. 2008
    The protective effects of Ginkgo biloba Phytosomes (GBP) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiotoxicity and the antioxidant activity involved in this protection were investigated in rats...
  82. ncbi Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD): effects of EGb 761
    R Hoerr
    Clinical Research Department, Dr Willmar Schwabe GmbH and Co KG, Willmar Schwabe Strasse 4, 76227 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Pharmacopsychiatry 36:S56-61. 2003
    ..It may be concluded that EGb 761 is of particular interest to patients with dementia and BPSD since it improves both the patient's cognitive ability and behavioural and psychological symptoms...
  83. ncbi Ginkgo biloba special extract in dementia with neuropsychiatric features. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial
    Oleksandr Napryeyenko
    Psychiatry Department, National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
    Arzneimittelforschung 57:4-11. 2007
    In previous trials of the Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 improvements in cognitive functioning and behavioural symptoms were found in patients with aging-associated cognitive impairment or dementia...
  84. ncbi Extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves attenuates kainate-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration of rat cerebellar granule neurons
    Aimi Kanada
    Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770 8502, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 28:934-6. 2005
    In order to reveal one of possible mechanisms for neuronal protective action of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGBL), the effect of EGBL on kainate- and KCl-induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) of rat ..
  85. ncbi Reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in healthy volunteers
    D Jezova
    Laboratory of Pharmacological Neuroendocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava
    J Physiol Pharmacol 53:337-48. 2002
    The standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) was found not only to improve memory and aging associated cognitive deficits but also to exert beneficial effects on mood...
  86. ncbi Mitochondrial dysfunction: the first domino in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease?
    Kristina Leuner
    Department of Pharmacology, ZAFES, Biocenter, University of Frankfurt, Germany
    Antioxid Redox Signal 9:1659-75. 2007
    ..Both are early events in aging and especially in the pathogenesis of aging-related severe neurodegeneration. Ginkgo biloba extract seems to be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of different etiology,..
  87. ncbi Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma
    Luciano Quaranta
    Centro Glaucoma, Clinica Oculistica Università di Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
    Ophthalmology 110:359-62; discussion 362-4. 2003
    To evaluate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on preexisting visual field damage in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG).
  88. ncbi Ginkgo biloba extract: from molecular mechanisms to the treatment of Alzhelmer's disease
    Martina Zimmermann
    Dept of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milano, Italy
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 48:613-23. 2002
    b>Ginkgo biloba is registered for the treatment of several diseases and disorders in Europe...
  89. ncbi Studies on molecular mechanisms of Ginkgo biloba extract
    J V Smith
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 2609 W 4th Street, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:465-72. 2004
    ..often without substantial proof of safety or efficacy. One of the most popular herbal supplements is Ginkgo biloba extract, taken for its perceived "memory enhancing" properties...
  90. pmc Pharmacodynamic interaction studies of Ginkgo biloba with cilostazol and clopidogrel in healthy human subjects
    D Aruna
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad, India
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 63:333-8. 2007
    b>Ginkgo biloba is available as an over-the-counter drug and reported to cause haemorrhage when coadministered with other antiplatelet agents. We set out to study the interactions of G. biloba with cilostazol and clopidogrel.
  91. ncbi Protective effects of ginkgo biloba against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in mice
    Goksel Sener
    School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
    Mol Cell Biochem 283:39-45. 2006
    ..The analgesic acetaminophen (AAP) causes a potentially fatal, hepatic centrilobular necrosis when taken in overdose. It was reported that these toxic effects of AAP are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism...
  92. ncbi Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on the nonspecific and humoral immune responses in a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation model
    María Martha Villaseñor-García
    Laboratorio de Inmunofarmacología de Productos Naturales, División de Medicina Molecular CIBO IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
    Int Immunopharmacol 4:1217-22. 2004
    ..Rats were treated with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) orally (100 mg/kg per day for 7 days)...
  93. ncbi Ginkgolides, diterpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba, as antagonists at recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L GABAA receptors
    Shelley H Huang
    Adrien Albert Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Eur J Pharmacol 494:131-8. 2004
    Ginkgolides A, B, and C are diterpene trilactones and active constituents of the 50:1 Ginkgo biloba leaf extract widely used in the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate dementia...
  94. ncbi Inhibitory effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced intimal thickening in rabbit abdominal aorta after balloon injury
    Fenye Liu
    Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qilu Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong, PR China
    Phytother Res 22:506-10. 2008
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty...
  95. ncbi Therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of Ginkgo biloba extract on liver fibrosis in rats
    Shi Quan Liu
    Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China
    Am J Chin Med 34:99-114. 2006
    Oxidative stress can be implicated as a cause of liver fibrosis. In this sense, Ginkgo Biloba Extract (EGB), an antioxidant, may be beneficial in restraining liver fibrosis...
  96. ncbi Fingerprint profile of Ginkgo biloba nutritional supplements by LC/ESI-MS/MS
    S Ding
    Biomolecular Analysis Mass Spectrometry Facility, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK
    Phytochemistry 69:1555-64. 2008
    b>Ginkgo biloba is one of the most popular herb nutrition supplements, with terpene lactones and flavonoids being the two major active components...
  97. ncbi The effect of extract of ginkgo biloba addition to olanzapine on therapeutic effect and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with schizophrenia
    Murad Atmaca
    Department of Psychiatry, Firat University, School of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey
    Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 59:652-6. 2005
    ..The present study supported the findings of the previous study demonstrating that EGb might enhance the efficiency of antipsychotic in patients with schizophrenia, particularly on positive symptoms of the disorder...
  98. pmc The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised, controlled trial
    Rob McCarney
    Department of Psychological Medicine, Imperial College London, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 7:30. 2007
    ..Our aim was to compare minimal follow-up to intensive follow-up in participants in a placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia.
  99. ncbi Heme oxygenase-1 upregulated by Ginkgo biloba extract: potential protection against ethanol-induced oxidative liver damage
    Ping Yao
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, PR China
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:1333-42. 2007
    ..Here, we present the data to explore the hepatoprotective effect and underlying mechanism(s) of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB), a naturally occurring HO-1 inducer, against ethanol-induced oxidative damage. Ethanol-fed (2...
  100. ncbi Involvement of Ca2+, CaMK II and PKA in EGb 761-induced insulin secretion in INS-1 cells
    Sung E Choi
    Laboratory of Endocrinology, Institute for Medical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Youngtong Gu, Suwon, Kyunggi do 442 749, Republic of Korea
    J Ethnopharmacol 110:49-55. 2007
    EGb 761, a standardized form of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) leaf extract, was recently reported to increase pancreatic beta-cell function...
  101. ncbi Safety and efficacy of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) during pregnancy and lactation
    Jean Jacques Dugoua
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 13:e277-84. 2006
    ..This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy and lactation...

Research Grants62

  1. Domains of Inflammation and Risk of Dementia
    Annette L Fitzpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The clinical trial resulted in no differences between Ginkgo biloba and placebo for primary outcomes of dementia, AD, MCI, mortality and CVD endpoints...
  2. Herb-Drug Glucuronidation Interactions
    Reginald F Frye; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The goals of this project are to determine in healthy volunteers: 1) the effect of prolonged Ginkgo biloba administration on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics;and 2) the effect of green tea leaf extract ..
  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginkgo Biloba and its Bioactive Components Ischemia
    Zahoor Ahmad Shah; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..My long term goals involve researching natural products, such as Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761), to find novel mechanisms for preventing and treating stroke and ischemia-related brain injury...
  4. Anti-oxidant therapy in Alzheimer's disease
    Brian J Bacskai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..anti-oxidants from both traditional and alternative sources to systematically evaluate whether compounds like ginkgo biloba extract, vitamin E, or grape seed extract are effective anti- oxidants for Alzheimer's disease treatment...
  5. DISPOSITION OF GINKGO FLAVONOIDS VIA RECYCLING
    Ming Hu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..plus repeated recycling affects the disposition of flavonoids, an important class of antioxidants presented in Ginkgo biloba and many other herbs (e.g., garlic, tea, chamomile, and others)...
  6. Using propensity scores for causal inference with covariate measurement error
    Elizabeth A Stuart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of three studies in mental health evaluating the effectiveness of (1) early intervention for children with autism, (2) perinatal depression prevention, and (3) the use of ginkgo biloba to prevent dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
  7. BORAGE OIL AND GINKGO BILOBA (EGb 761) IN ASTHMA
    MERRILL GERSHWIN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the possibility of minimal or negligible adverse effects reported with borage oil, and the widespread use of Ginkgo biloba supplements without known adverse effects, we will assess clinical efficacies and/or adverse effects of ..
  8. Nitric oxide as a target for dietary intervention in colitis
    Michael Wargovich; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Here, we postulate that two antioxidant herbal supplements, Ginkgo biloba and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolis), will inhibit colitis through the inhibition of nitric oxide ..
  9. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF GINKGO BILOBA IN CANCER
    Vassilios Papadopoulos; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..b>Ginkgo biloba is one of the most ancient trees and extracts from its leaves have been used in traditional medicine for ..
  10. Cognitive Enhancers Explored with PET Imaging
    Susan Schultz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We will also test whether augmentation with another agent, ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), may increase the therapeutic benefit...
  11. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginkgo Biloba and its Bioactive Components Ischemia
    ZAHOOR SHAH; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..My long term goals involve researching natural products, such as Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761), to find novel mechanisms for preventing and treating stroke and ischemia-related brain injury...
  12. REGULATION OF ENDOTHELIUM BY GINKGO BILOBA
    JOSEPH LANZILLO; Fiscal Year: 2000
    The dietary supplement Ginkgo biloba (Gb), a mixture of flavonoids and terpenoids, is a pluripotent radical scavenger and inhibitor of protein kinases including protein kinase C (PKC)...
  13. Chemopreventive and Chemotherapeutic Effects of Herbals
    MARY ZANDER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Ginseng and ginkgo biloba, two of the most commonly used supplements, have demonstrated similarities with many common NSAIDs...
  14. Neuroprotective mechanisms of EGb-761
    SYLVAIN DORE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    b>Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761 ; EGb) is a standardized extract and one of the most renowned natural compounds specifically to treat neurological conditions...
  15. Anti-edema and neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo extract EGb761 and bilobalide
    Jochen Klein; Fiscal Year: 2007
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Hypericum perforatum (St...
  16. Use a novel Tat transgenic model to develop neuroAIDS therapeutics
    Johnny He; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Using this small rodent model, we found that administration of EGb 761, the standardized extract from Ginkgo biloba that has been widely used for treating neurological deficits, had significant neuroprotective effects against ..
  17. EXTRACT OF GINKGO BILOBA (EGB 761) AND VASCULAR FUNCTION
    John Farquhar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These cells also produce nitric oxide naturally as a defense against injury, so an EGb 761 effect on nitric oxide would also provide benefit. ..
  18. Ginkgo Biloba Enhances Therapeutic HIV Vaccination
    Qizhi Yao; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..provided by applicant): The overall objective of this proposal is to study the beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba on HIV therapeutic vaccines...
  19. Mechanisms of Ginkgo biloba Neuropotection
    Yuan Luo; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The goal of this project is to gain understanding of the neuroprotective mechanisms of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761...
  20. Neuroprotection by Ginkgo biloba Extract EGB761
    JONATHAN KERN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The plant extract Ginkgo biloba EGb761 (ginkgo extract) counteracts the effects of a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, in standardized neurophysiological tests...
  21. Academic Teaching and Research Career Development
    Hakima Amri; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..to bring together conventional and CAM research, much like I did when defining the mechanism of action of Ginkgo biloba and its role with respect to stress management...
  22. GINKGO BILOBA PREVENTION TRIAL IN OLDER INDIVIDUALS
    Oscar Lopez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. Ginkgo Biloba Extract & The Insulin Resistance Syndrome
    George Kudolo; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Ginkgo biloba extract is a popular dietary supplement that is ingested by the general population to enhance mental focus and ..
  24. Comparing Effects of 3 Sources of Garlic on Serum Lipids
    Christopher Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The comprehensive approach taken in this study will provide important evidence for both the public and for health professionals as to whether fresh garlic or garlic supplements have beneficial effects on serum lipids. ..
  25. Benefits & Risks of Popular Weight Loss Diets
    Christopher Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The data generated from this preliminary/feasibility study will be used to strengthen the proposal and design of a future full-scale study. ..
  26. Pharmacotherapy for Minor Depression
    Robert Howland; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results of this study will have profound public health implications by improving our understanding of the efficacy of SJW and standard antidepressants for the treatment of MinorD. ..
  27. Effect of Antioxidants on Inflammatory Markers and FMVD
    Christopher Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. ALA & EPA/DHA (w-3) Effects On Inflammatory Markers in Insulin Resistant Adults
    Christopher Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The adults with the metabolic syndrome selected for this study are those that are at increased risk of heart disease, and those most likely to be benefit from the different therapies tested. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Clinical Assessment of Herb-Drug Interactions
    Bill Gurley; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..e. CYPIA2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4); and (3) whether prolonged herb use can modulate P-gp-mediated drug absorption and elimination. ..
  30. Oxidant induced gene expression in vitamin E deficient *
    Kishorchandra Gohil; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These molecular data may provide the basis for designing more effective protocols for dietary interventions with antioxidants that might ameliorate lung diseases induced by environmental oxidants. ..
  31. Telomere Attrition and Cardiovascular Disease
    Annette Fitzpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Results of this study will enhance the understanding of the relationships between telomere dynamics and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality providing new insights into the biology of human aging...
  32. Survival and Comorbidities after Dementia
    Annette Fitzpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This application will support continued analyses of an important database designed to provide valuable research for the prevention and impact of dementia in this country. ..
  33. Ginkgo biloba for ECT-induced Memory Deficits
    JOHN MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The herbal preparation Ginkgo biloba (GB) has been found, in a promising series of recent studies, to aid cognitive function and memory in both ..
  34. Screening Herbs for Drug Interactions
    JOHN MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Further, the proposed studies will complement existing and future NCCAM studies of agents such as St. John's wort and Gingko biloba. ..
  35. RADIOTRACER R & D IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND NEUROSCIENCES
    Joanna Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  36. Addiction and the Brain: Are We Hard Wired to Abuse Drugs
    Joanna Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Neuromodulatory Effects of Ginkgolides and Bilobalide
    Koji Nakanishi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..is focused on the mode of action of the ginkgolides and bilobalide (terpenoid trilactones) from the tree Ginkgo biloba. The crude extract of G...
  38. Use of Herbs and Dietary Supplements in Four Ethnicities
    Annette Fitzpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It may also be possible to test associations of specific herb/supplement use with specific clinical/subclinical conditions should adequate power be available. ..
  39. STUDIES OF NATURAL PRODUCTS BY CHIROPTICAL METHODS
    Koji Nakanishi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This will include CD studies of retinal/opsin in rhodopsin and retinal/bacterioopsin in bacteriorhodopsin. Vinca alkaloid/tubulin and taxoid/tubulin complexes will be analyzed by FDCD. ..
  40. RADIOTRACER R & D IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND NEUROSCIENCES
    Joanna Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  41. STUDIES ON RHODOPSIN & AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
    Koji Nakanishi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. P-Glycoprotein and Disposition of Psychostimulants
    JOHN MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  43. SOCIAL FACTORS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF COGNITIVE DECLINE
    Marie Florence Shadlen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Hence, these projects will allow Dr Shadlen to achieve her 5-year goal of synthesis of her interests in racial differences, dementia, and epidemiology into an independent, thought-provoking research program. ..
  44. Effects of Early Abuse on Adult Intimate Relationships
    Cindy M Meston; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The findings from this investigation will have implications for understanding both the psychological and physiological mechanisms that link CA with detrimental intimacy/relational factors in adulthood. ..
  45. Amyloid Imaging Agents for Position Emission Tomography
    Chester A Mathis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  46. Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Study 2 (DIADS-2)
    Lon Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  47. COLLABORATIVE INITIAL GLAUCOMA TREATMENT STUDY
    Robert Ritch; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  48. Ginkgo Biloba: Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction
    Cindy Meston; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..If effective, GBE could play a significant adjunctive role in the treatment of clinical depression and other psychological disorders commonly treated with antidepressant medications. ..
  49. Pilot Study of Huperzine A in Alzheimer's Disease
    Paul Aisen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  50. Topiramate for alcohol and cocaine dependence
    Kyle Kampman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Evidence-Based Curriculum in Alternative Therapies
    Victor Sierpina; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Mounting the curriculum on our web site will enable us to export it to other educational settings nationwide. ..
  52. REDUCTION OF TRIGLYCERIDES IN WOMEN ON HRT
    Lewis Kuller; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. Combination Drug Therapy in Huntington's Disease
    ROBERT FERRANTE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Identification of Green Tea Polyphenol-Targeted Genes
    Stephen Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Data generated from this proposal may reveal novel drug targets for treatment of head and neck cancer. ..
  55. Conference on Emerging Research Technologies
    Gail Mahady; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  56. Urine Protein Biomarker Exploration in Ovarian Cancer
    Bin Ye; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This project, if successful, could fundamentally shift the approach to the early detection of ovarian cancer and significantly improve the survival rate of cases detected. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. Evaluation of Antioxidant Suppl in Focal CNS Ischemia
    Wayne Clark; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These supplements including Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) and alpha lipoic acid (LA) have multitude of biologic effects including reducing free radical ..