cacao

Summary

Summary: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The genome of Theobroma cacao
    Xavier Argout
    Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement CIRAD Biological Systems Department Unité Mixte de Recherche Développement et Amélioration des Plantes UMR DAP TA A 96 03 34398, Montpellier, France
    Nat Genet 43:101-8. 2011
  2. ncbi Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans as model organisms to study the effect of cocoa polyphenols in the resistance to oxidative stress
    Patricia Martorell
    Biópolis SL, Parc Científic Universitat de València, C Catedrático Agustín Escardino 9, Edificio 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 59:2077-85. 2011
  3. pmc (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans
    Hagen Schroeter
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1024-9. 2006
  4. ncbi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. associated with Theobroma cacao and other plants in Panama: multilocus phylogenies distinguish host-associated pathogens from asymptomatic endophytes
    Enith I Rojas
    USDA ARS, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Mycologia 102:1318-38. 2010
  5. ncbi Cocoa and cardiovascular health
    Roberto Corti
    Cardiovascular Center, Cardiology, University Hospital, Raemistrasse 100, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Circulation 119:1433-41. 2009
  6. ncbi Cocoa polyphenols suppress TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MEK1) activities in mouse epidermal cells
    Jong Eun Kim
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Br J Nutr 104:957-64. 2010
  7. ncbi Ultra-barcoding in cacao (Theobroma spp.; Malvaceae) using whole chloroplast genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA
    Nolan Kane
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Am J Bot 99:320-9. 2012
  8. ncbi Identification of cariostatic substances in the cacao bean husk: their anti-glucosyltransferase and antibacterial activities
    K Osawa
    Central Laboratory, Lotte Co. Ltd, Saitama, Saitama, Japan
    J Dent Res 80:2000-4. 2001
  9. ncbi Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives
    Davide Grassi
    Dipartimento Internal Medicine and Public Health, University of L Aquila, Piazzale Salvatore Tommasi 1, 67100 Coppito, L Aquila, Italy
    Hypertension 46:398-405. 2005
  10. pmc Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis
    Karin Ried
    Discipline of General Practice, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
    BMC Med 8:39. 2010

Detail Information

Publications300 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The genome of Theobroma cacao
    Xavier Argout
    Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement CIRAD Biological Systems Department Unité Mixte de Recherche Développement et Amélioration des Plantes UMR DAP TA A 96 03 34398, Montpellier, France
    Nat Genet 43:101-8. 2011
    We sequenced and assembled the draft genome of Theobroma cacao, an economically important tropical-fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate...
  2. ncbi Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans as model organisms to study the effect of cocoa polyphenols in the resistance to oxidative stress
    Patricia Martorell
    Biópolis SL, Parc Científic Universitat de València, C Catedrático Agustín Escardino 9, Edificio 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 59:2077-85. 2011
    ..Furthermore, this work reveals the value of using simple biological models to screen for compounds that are of interest for the food and pharmacological industry...
  3. pmc (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans
    Hagen Schroeter
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1024-9. 2006
    ..Collectively, our data demonstrate that the human ingestion of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin is, at least in part, causally linked to the reported vascular effects observed after the consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa...
  4. ncbi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. associated with Theobroma cacao and other plants in Panama: multilocus phylogenies distinguish host-associated pathogens from asymptomatic endophytes
    Enith I Rojas
    USDA ARS, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Mycologia 102:1318-38. 2010
    ..l. strains isolated from asymptomatic leaves and from anthracnose lesions on leaves and fruits of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and other plants from Panamá...
  5. ncbi Cocoa and cardiovascular health
    Roberto Corti
    Cardiovascular Center, Cardiology, University Hospital, Raemistrasse 100, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Circulation 119:1433-41. 2009
    ..This review summarizes the available data on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa, outlines potential mechanisms involved in the response to cocoa, and highlights the potential clinical implications associated with its consumption...
  6. ncbi Cocoa polyphenols suppress TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MEK1) activities in mouse epidermal cells
    Jong Eun Kim
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Br J Nutr 104:957-64. 2010
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that CPE reduced TNF-α-induced up-regulation of VEGF by directly inhibiting PI3K and MEK1 activities, which may contribute to its chemopreventive potential...
  7. ncbi Ultra-barcoding in cacao (Theobroma spp.; Malvaceae) using whole chloroplast genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA
    Nolan Kane
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Am J Bot 99:320-9. 2012
    ..Because this method uses much longer versions of the traditional DNA-barcoding loci in the plastid and ribosomal DNA, we call our approach ultra-barcoding (UBC)...
  8. ncbi Identification of cariostatic substances in the cacao bean husk: their anti-glucosyltransferase and antibacterial activities
    K Osawa
    Central Laboratory, Lotte Co. Ltd, Saitama, Saitama, Japan
    J Dent Res 80:2000-4. 2001
    The cacao bean husk has been shown to possess two types of cariostatic substances, one showing anti-glucosyltransferase (GTF) activity and the other antibacterial activity, and to inhibit experimental dental caries in rats infected with ..
  9. ncbi Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives
    Davide Grassi
    Dipartimento Internal Medicine and Public Health, University of L Aquila, Piazzale Salvatore Tommasi 1, 67100 Coppito, L Aquila, Italy
    Hypertension 46:398-405. 2005
    ..These results suggest that, while balancing total calorie intake, flavanols from cocoa products may provide some cardiovascular benefit if included as part of a healthy diet for patients with EH...
  10. pmc Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis
    Karin Ried
    Discipline of General Practice, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
    BMC Med 8:39. 2010
    ..Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals...
  11. ncbi Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial
    Dirk Taubert
    Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    JAMA 298:49-60. 2007
    ....
  12. pmc Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao L)
    Juan C Motamayor
    National Germplasm Repository, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, Florida, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3311. 2008
    Numerous collecting expeditions of Theobroma cacao L. germplasm have been undertaken in Latin-America...
  13. ncbi Short-term effect of cocoa product consumption on lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Lei Jia
    Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:218-25. 2010
    ..The effect of cocoa products on lipid changes is controversial...
  14. ncbi Changes in brain activity related to eating chocolate: from pleasure to aversion
    D M Small
    Neuropsychology Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, and Northwestern Cognitive Brain Mapping Group, Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Brain 124:1720-33. 2001
    ..Therefore, these results support the hypothesis that there are two separate motivational systems: one orchestrating approach and another avoidance behaviours...
  15. ncbi Prebiotic evaluation of cocoa-derived flavanols in healthy humans by using a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study
    Xenofon Tzounis
    Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 93:62-72. 2011
    ..The absorption of cocoa flavanols in the small intestine is limited, and the majority of the flavanols reach the large intestine where they may be metabolized by resident microbiota...
  16. pmc Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages
    John S Henderson
    Department of Anthropology, Cornell University, McGraw Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:18937-40. 2007
    ..Chemical analyses of residues extracted from pottery vessels from Puerto Escondido in what is now Honduras show that cacao beverages were being made there before 1000 B.C., extending the confirmed use of cacao back at least 500 years...
  17. ncbi Antioxidant and membrane effects of procyanidin dimers and trimers isolated from peanut and cocoa
    Sandra V Verstraeten
    IQUIFIB Department of Biological Chemistry UBA CONICET, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956, 1113 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Agric Food Chem 53:5041-8. 2005
    The antioxidant and membrane effects of dimer (Dim) and trimer (Trim) procyanidins isolated from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) (B- and C-bonded) and peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) skin (A-bonded) were evaluated in phosphatidyl choline liposomes...
  18. ncbi The microbiology of cocoa fermentation and its role in chocolate quality
    Rosane F Schwan
    Department of Biology, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Brazil
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 44:205-21. 2004
    ..of a natural, seven-day microbial fermentation of the pectinaceous pulp surrounding beans of the tree Theobroma cacao. There is a microbial succession of a wide range of yeasts, lactic-acid, and acetic-acid bacteria during which ..
  19. ncbi Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress
    D J Wallis
    Loughborough University Centre for Research into Eating Disorders, Department of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
    Appetite 52:355-62. 2009
    ..Further research should aim to replicate and extend these findings, with a view to informing potential interventions for stress-related eating...
  20. pmc Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease
    Monica Galleano
    Physical Chemistry Program of Free Radicals in Biochemistry PRALIB, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires National Council of Scientific and Technological Research CONICET, Argentina
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 54:483-90. 2009
    ..This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds...
  21. ncbi Genes acquired by horizontal transfer are potentially involved in the evolution of phytopathogenicity in Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri, two of the major pathogens of cacao
    Ricardo Augusto Tiburcio
    Laboratório de Genômica e Expressão, Departamento de Genetica, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083 970, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    J Mol Evol 70:85-97. 2010
    Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri are phytopathogenic basidiomycete species that infect cacao causing two important diseases in this crop: "Witches' Broom" and "Frosty Pod Rot", respectively...
  22. ncbi Effect of cocoa products on blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Steffen Desch
    Department of Cardiology, University of Leipzig Heart Center, Leipzig, Germany
    Am J Hypertens 23:97-103. 2010
    ..Cocoa products such as dark chocolate and cocoa beverages may have blood pressure (BP)-lowering properties due to their high content of plant-derived flavanols...
  23. ncbi Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple
    Michael Macht
    Department of Psychology, University of Wurzburg, Marcusstr 9 11, 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    Appetite 46:332-6. 2006
    ..Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions...
  24. pmc Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Adriana Buitrago-Lopez
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK
    BMJ 343:d4488. 2011
    ..To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders...
  25. ncbi Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme activity by flavanol-rich foods
    Lucas Actis-Goretta
    Physical Chemistry PRALIB, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Junin 956, 1113 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Agric Food Chem 54:229-34. 2006
    ..The occurrence of such inhibition in vivo needs to be determined, although is supported by the association between the consumption of flavanol-rich foods and reductions in blood pressure observed in several experimental models...
  26. ncbi Flavonoid-rich cocoa consumption affects multiple cardiovascular risk factors in a meta-analysis of short-term studies
    Mark G Shrime
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    J Nutr 141:1982-8. 2011
    ..06). FRC consumption significantly improves blood pressure, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, and FMD. These short-term benefits warrant larger long-term investigations into the cardioprotective role of FRC...
  27. pmc The beneficial endophyte Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b promotes growth and delays the onset of the drought response in Theobroma cacao
    Hanhong Bae
    USDA ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Exp Bot 60:3279-95. 2009
    Theobroma cacao (cacao) is cultivated in tropical climates and is exposed to drought stress. The impact of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b on cacao's response to drought was studied...
  28. ncbi Chocolate and coronary heart disease: a systematic review
    Owais Khawaja
    Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology and Research Information Center, Boston Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 13:447-52. 2011
    ..It also discusses major limitations of currently available data and future directions in the field...
  29. ncbi The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations analysed using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods
    D S Nielsen
    Department of Food Science, Food Microbiology, Center for Advanced Food Studies LMC, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
    Int J Food Microbiol 114:168-86. 2007
    ..Within each fermentation site the profiles clustered according to fermentation time. The DGGE method seems to offer a relatively fast and reliable tool for studying yeast and bacterial dynamics during cocoa fermentations...
  30. ncbi Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials
    Lee Hooper
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:740-51. 2012
    ..There is substantial interest in chocolate and flavan-3-ols for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  31. ncbi High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves HDL cholesterol in Type 2 diabetes patients
    D D Mellor
    HONEI, University of Hull, Hull, UK
    Diabet Med 27:1318-21. 2010
    ..To examine the effects of chocolate on lipid profiles, weight and glycaemic control in individuals with Type 2 diabetes...
  32. ncbi Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in an acute improvement in visual and cognitive functions
    David T Field
    Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics School of Psychology and Clinical Language Science, University of Reading, RG6 6AL, United Kingdom
    Physiol Behav 103:255-60. 2011
    ..These acute effects can be explained by increased cerebral blood flow caused by CF, although in the case of contrast sensitivity there may be an additional contribution from CF induced retinal blood flow changes...
  33. pmc Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions
    Xavier Argout
    Biological Systems Department, UMR DAP TA 40 03, CIRAD, Montpellier, France
    BMC Genomics 9:512. 2008
    Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. T...
  34. ncbi Cocoa procyanidins are stable during gastric transit in humans
    Laurent Y Rios
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 76:1106-10. 2002
    ..Degradation of procyanidins under simulated gastric conditions at pH 2.0 has been reported in vitro...
  35. ncbi Identification of procyanidins in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and chocolate using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry
    J F Hammerstone
    Analytical and Applied Sciences Group, Hackettstown, New Jersey 07840, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 47:490-6. 1999
    ....
  36. ncbi Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Lee Hooper
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:38-50. 2008
    ..The beneficial effects of flavonoid consumption on cardiovascular risk are supported by mechanistic and epidemiologic evidence...
  37. ncbi Cocoa flavanols and procyanidins can modulate the lipopolysaccharide activation of polymorphonuclear cells in vitro
    Thomas P Kenny
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Med Food 12:1-7. 2009
    ....
  38. ncbi Filamentous fungi producing ochratoxin a during cocoa processing in Cameroon
    Pauline Mounjouenpou
    Institut de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement, BP 2067, Yaounde, Cameroon
    Int J Food Microbiol 121:234-41. 2008
    ..77 microg g(-1) on rice medium. Aspergillus niger strains did not always produce OTA and their toxigenesis was much lower. Fermented dried cocoa from poor quality pods was the most contaminated by OTA: up to 48 ng g(-1)...
  39. ncbi Hypolipidemic effect in cholesterol-fed rats of a soluble fiber-rich product obtained from cocoa husks
    Sonia Ramos
    Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Spanish Council for Scientific Research CSIC, C Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 56:6985-93. 2008
    ..The SCFP also decreased triglyceride levels to values lower than those in the group fed the cholesterol-free diet. These results put forward the potential application of the SCFP as a dietary supplement or functional food ingredient...
  40. ncbi Chemopreventive effects of cocoa polyphenols on chronic diseases
    J H Weisburger
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 226:891-7. 2001
    ..These are mainly stearic triglycerides (C18:0) that are less well absorbed than other fats, and are excreted in the feces. Thus, cocoa butter is less bioavailable and has minimal effect on serum cholesterol...
  41. ncbi Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons?
    Donatella Lippi
    Department of Anatomy, Histology and Legal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy
    Nutrition 25:1100-3. 2009
    ..Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet...
  42. ncbi The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia
    Made M Ardhana
    Food Science and Technology, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    Int J Food Microbiol 86:87-99. 2003
    ..The filamentous fungi were notable for their production of polygalacturonase activity and probably contributed to the degradation of bean pulp...
  43. ncbi Cacao polyphenols influence the regulation of apolipoprotein in HepG2 and Caco2 cells
    Akiko Yasuda
    Food and Health R and D Laboratories, Meiji Seika Kaisha, Ltd, Saitama, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 59:1470-6. 2011
    ..The present study investigated the effects of cacao polyphenols on the production of apolipoproteins A1 and B in human hepatoma HepG2 and intestinal Caco2 cell lines...
  44. ncbi Cocoa-enriched diets modulate intestinal and systemic humoral immune response in young adult rats
    Teresa Pérez-Berezo
    Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avenida Joan XXIII s n, Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Nutr Food Res 55:S56-66. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to elucidate whether diets containing lower amounts of cocoa could also influence the systemic and intestinal humoral immune response...
  45. ncbi Metabolic effects of dark chocolate consumption on energy, gut microbiota, and stress-related metabolism in free-living subjects
    Francois Pierre J Martin
    Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    J Proteome Res 8:5568-79. 2009
    ....
  46. ncbi The mitochondrial genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao
    Gustavo G L Costa
    Laboratório de Genômica e Expressão, Departamento de Genetica, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083 970, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    Fungal Biol 116:551-62. 2012
    ..mt) genome of the Basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora roreri, which is the etiologic agent of frosty pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)...
  47. pmc Dynamics and biodiversity of populations of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous heap fermentation of cocoa beans in Ghana
    Nicholas Camu
    Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology IMDO, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:1809-24. 2007
    ..Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named "Acetobacter senegalensis" (A. tropicalis-like) and "Acetobacter ghanaensis" (A. syzygii-like)...
  48. ncbi Theobroma cacao L., the Food of the Gods: a scientific approach beyond myths and claims
    M Rusconi
    Alpine Foundation for Life Sciences AFLS, 6718 Olivone, Switzerland
    Pharmacol Res 61:5-13. 2010
    ....
  49. ncbi High-performance liquid chromatography separation and purification of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) procyanidins according to degree of polymerization using a diol stationary phase
    Mark A Kelm
    Analytical and Applied Sciences Group, Mars Inc, 800 High Street, Hackettstown, New Jersey 07840, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 54:1571-6. 2006
    A new chromatographic approach for separating cacao procyanidins according to their degree of polymerization has been developed...
  50. ncbi Molecular definition of the taste of roasted cocoa nibs (Theobroma cacao) by means of quantitative studies and sensory experiments
    Timo Stark
    Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Lebensmittelchemie, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D 85748 Garching, Germany
    J Agric Food Chem 54:5530-9. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi Cocoa polyphenols attenuate hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication by blocking phosphorylation of connexin 43 via the MEK/ERK signaling pathway
    Dong Eun Lee
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    J Nutr Biochem 21:680-6. 2010
    ..These results indicate that CPE protects against the H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of GJIC through antioxidant activity and direct inhibition of MEK activity, which may contribute to its chemopreventive potential...
  52. ncbi [Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health]
    M Gómez-Juaristi
    Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutricion, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Espana
    Nutr Hosp 26:289-92. 2011
    ..The study of the interaction of chocolate and its components with candidate genes will also supply necessary information regarding the individuals best suited to benefit from a potential cardiovascular disease treatment with chocolate...
  53. ncbi Cacao extracts suppress tryptophan degradation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    M Jenny
    Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Fritz Pregl Str 3, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    J Ethnopharmacol 122:261-7. 2009
    The fruits of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) have been used as food and a remedy for more than 4000 years...
  54. ncbi Intersterility, morphology and taxonomy of Ceratocystis fimbriata on sweet potato, cacao and sycamore
    Christine J Baker Engelbrecht
    Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, USA
    Mycologia 97:57-69. 2005
    ..fimbriata are host-specialized to cacao (Theobroma cacao), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and sycamore (Platanus spp.), respectively...
  55. pmc A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao
    Jorge M C Mondego
    Laboratório de Genômica e Expressão, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6109, 13083 970, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    BMC Genomics 9:548. 2008
    The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao)...
  56. ncbi Effects of long-term administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder) on cognitive performances in aged rats
    Jean François Bisson
    ETAP Applied Ethology, 13 rue du Bois de la Champelle, Vandoeuvre les Nancy 54500, France
    Br J Nutr 100:94-101. 2008
    ..Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of cocoa polyphenols in neuroprotection and to explore their effects in man...
  57. ncbi On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof
    Timothy Lefeber
    Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Food Microbiol 30:379-92. 2012
    ....
  58. ncbi Inhibition of ulcerative colitis in mice after oral administration of a polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract is mediated by the inhibition of STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation in colon cells
    Isabel Andújar
    Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 59:6474-83. 2011
    ..This effect is principally due to the inhibition of transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3 in intestinal cells, with NF-κB inhibition also being implicated...
  59. pmc Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua
    Bodo Trognitz
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Seibersdorf, Austria
    PLoS ONE 6:e16056. 2011
    ..This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity...
  60. ncbi Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease
    David L Katz
    Yale University Prevention Research Center, Griffin Hospital, Derby, Connecticut 06418, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 15:2779-811. 2011
    ..Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks...
  61. ncbi Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil
    Zoi Papalexandratou
    Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences and Bio engineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Food Microbiol 28:964-73. 2011
    ..To conclude, it turned out that the species diversity and community dynamics, influenced by local operational practices, in particular pod/bean selection, impact the quality of fermented cocoa beans...
  62. ncbi Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria
    Zoi Papalexandratou
    Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Food Microbiol 28:1326-38. 2011
    ....
  63. pmc Genetic diversity and structure of managed and semi-natural populations of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in the Huallaga and Ucayali Valleys of Peru
    Dapeng Zhang
    USDA ARS PSI SPCL, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Bldg 050, Rm 100, BARC W, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Ann Bot 98:647-55. 2006
    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America, and it is well known that the Peruvian Amazon harbours a large number of diverse cocoa populations...
  64. pmc Inhibition of key digestive enzymes by cocoa extracts and procyanidins
    Yeyi Gu
    Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States
    J Agric Food Chem 59:5305-11. 2011
    ..This study demonstrates that cocoa polyphenols can inhibit digestive enzymes in vitro and may, in conjunction with a low-calorie diet, play a role in body weight management...
  65. ncbi Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults
    Mary B Engler
    Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 0610, USA
    J Am Coll Nutr 23:197-204. 2004
    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids...
  66. pmc Interesting starter culture strains for controlled cocoa bean fermentation revealed by simulated cocoa pulp fermentations of cocoa-specific lactic acid bacteria
    Timothy Lefeber
    Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology IMDO, Faculty of Sciences and Bio engineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Brussels, Belgium
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:6694-8. 2011
    ..They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol...
  67. ncbi Natural cocoa as diet-mediated antimalarial prophylaxis
    F K Addai
    Department of Anatomy, University of Ghana Medical School U G M S, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
    Med Hypotheses 74:825-30. 2010
    ..This paper presents the outcome as a hypothesis...
  68. pmc The hemibiotrophic cacao pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa depends on a mitochondrial alternative oxidase for biotrophic development
    Daniela P T Thomazella
    Laboratório de Genômica e Expressão, Departamento de Genetica, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    New Phytol 194:1025-34. 2012
    The tropical pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa causes witches' broom disease in cacao. As a hemibiotrophic fungus, it initially colonizes the living host tissues (biotrophic phase), and later grows over the dead plant (necrotrophic ..
  69. pmc Chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure: a population-based prospective study of middle-aged and elderly women
    Elizabeth Mostofsky
    Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA
    Circ Heart Fail 3:612-6. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the association between chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure (HF)...
  70. pmc Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with prevalent coronary heart disease: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study
    Luc Djousse
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02120, MA, USA
    Clin Nutr 30:182-7. 2011
    ..However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD...
  71. ncbi Caries inhibitory activity of cacao bean husk extract in in-vitro and animal experiments
    T Ooshima
    Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Japan
    Arch Oral Biol 45:639-45. 2000
    b>Cacao bean husk extract (CBH) was examined for inhibitory effects on the caries-inducing properties of mutans streptococci in vitro and on caries development in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats infected with mutans streptococci...
  72. ncbi Cocoa intake, blood pressure, and cardiovascular mortality: the Zutphen Elderly Study
    Brian Buijsse
    Center for Nutrition and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, and Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Arch Intern Med 166:411-7. 2006
    ..We studied whether habitual cocoa intake was cross-sectionally related to blood pressure and prospectively related with cardiovascular mortality...
  73. ncbi Cariostatic activity of cacao mass extract
    T Ooshima
    Departments of Pedodontics, Osaka University Faculty of Dentistry, 1 8 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565 0871, Osaka, Japan
    Arch Oral Biol 45:805-8. 2000
    Chocolate is suspected to contain some caries-inhibitory substances. The cariostatic activity of cacao mass extract (CM), the main component of chocolate, was examined in vitro and in experimental animals...
  74. ncbi Identification of QTLs related to cocoa resistance to three species of Phytophthora
    A M Risterucci
    CIRAD, Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, UMR 1096, Avenue Agropolis, BP 5035, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Theor Appl Genet 108:168-74. 2003
    This study aimed to compare the genetic control of cacao resistance to three species of Phytophthora: Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora capsici...
  75. ncbi Mapping QTL for yield components, vigor, and resistance to Phytophthora palmivora in Theobroma cacao L
    D Clement
    Centre de coopération internationale en recherche pour le développement CIRAD, TA 80 02, Avenue d Agropolis, Montpellier 34398 CEDEX 5, France
    Genome 46:204-12. 2003
    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for agronomic traits was carried out in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Regions of the genome involved in yield, vigor, and resistance to Phytophthora palmivora were identified...
  76. ncbi Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao
    Kenneth B Miller
    The Hershey Center for Health and Nutrition, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0805, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 57:9169-80. 2009
    ..A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing ..
  77. ncbi The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 47:S163-71; discussion S172-6. 2006
    ..If so, then flavanol-rich cocoa could be a potential candidate for the treatment, or possibly prevention, of the broad array of chronic diseases that are linked to dysfunctional inflammatory responses...
  78. ncbi Chocolate consumption in relation to blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease in German adults
    Brian Buijsse
    Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition DIfE Potsdam Rehbrucke, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114 116, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
    Eur Heart J 31:1616-23. 2010
    ..To investigate the association of chocolate consumption with measured blood pressure (BP) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  79. ncbi Cocoa and health: a decade of research
    Karen A Cooper
    Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, PO Box 44, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Br J Nutr 99:1-11. 2008
    ..However, after 10 years of research, what is known about the potential health benefits of cocoa and what are the important next steps in understanding this decadent source of antioxidants?..
  80. ncbi Effect of cocoa and tea intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis
    Dirk Taubert
    Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital of Cologne, Gleueler Strasse 24, D 50931 Cologne, Germany
    Arch Intern Med 167:626-34. 2007
    ..We undertook a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure due to the intake of cocoa products or black and green tea...
  81. ncbi Chocolate consumption and mortality following a first acute myocardial infarction: the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program
    I Janszky
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Intern Med 266:248-57. 2009
    ..To assess the long-term effects of chocolate consumption amongst patients with established coronary heart disease...
  82. ncbi The effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucocorticoids in healthy overweight and obese subjects
    Suzana Almoosawi
    Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Biological Sciences, Queen Margaret University, Musselburgh EH21 6UU, UK
    Br J Nutr 103:842-50. 2010
    ..No changes in anthropometrical measurements were seen. We suggest that more research is required to investigate the mechanism(s) by which polyphenol-rich foods influence health...
  83. ncbi Acute and chronic effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study
    H M Omar Farouque
    Cardiovascular Research Centre, Monash Medical Centre, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
    Clin Sci (Lond) 111:71-80. 2006
    ..These data suggest that over a 6-week period, flavanol-rich cocoa does not modify vascular function in patients with established CAD...
  84. ncbi Study on the microflora and biochemistry of cocoa fermentation in the Dominican Republic
    Sandra Lagunes Gálvez
    UMR IR2B, ENSAM INRA UMII, cc023, Universite Montpellier 2, Place E Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Int J Food Microbiol 114:124-30. 2007
    ..The differences compared to other fermentation trials concerned the micropopulation from a qualitative point of view...
  85. pmc Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries: the NHLBI Family Heart Study
    Luc Djousse
    Division of Aging, Brigham and Women Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Clin Nutr 30:38-43. 2011
    ..Thus, we sought to examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries (CAC)...
  86. pmc Influence of turning and environmental contamination on the dynamics of populations of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation in Ghana
    Nicholas Camu
    Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology, Department of Applied Biological Sciences and Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:86-98. 2008
    ..This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing...
  87. ncbi Diversity of predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with cocoa fermentation in Nigeria
    Melanie Kostinek
    Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Institute for Hygiene and Toxicology, Haid und Neu Strasse 9, D 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Curr Microbiol 56:306-14. 2008
    ..This can contribute to the further assessment of the effect of common LAB strains on the flavor characteristics of fermenting cocoa in further studies...
  88. ncbi Single nucleotide polymorphisms from Theobroma cacao expressed sequence tags associated with witches' broom disease in cacao
    L S Lima
    Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau, Itabuna, BA, Brasil
    Genet Mol Res 8:799-808. 2009
    In order to increase the efficiency of cacao tree resistance to witches' broom disease, which is caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae), we looked for molecular markers that could help in the selection of resistant cacao ..
  89. pmc Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations
    Zoi Papalexandratou
    Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology IMDO, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7698-714. 2011
    ..All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans...
  90. ncbi Diversity of the total bacterial community associated with Ghanaian and Brazilian cocoa bean fermentation samples as revealed by a 16 S rRNA gene clone library
    Tamara Garcia-Armisen
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Flanders Institute of Biotechnology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:2281-92. 2010
    ..The presence of Enterobacteriaceae related to Erwinia/Pantoea/Tatumella, as revealed by 16 S rDNA library sequencing, suggests an impact of these bacteria on fermentation...
  91. ncbi Does dark chocolate have a role in the prevention and management of hypertension?: commentary on the evidence
    Brent M Egan
    Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Hypertension 55:1289-95. 2010
    ..This commentary summarizes 13 peer-reviewed studies on dark chocolate and blood pressure and raises questions relevant to its future as an evidence-based lifestyle intervention...
  92. ncbi Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation
    Lídia J R Lima
    Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Wageningen University, Bomenweg, Wageningen, Netherlands
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51:731-61. 2011
    ..The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain...
  93. ncbi Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations
    Heide Marie Daniel
    Belgian Coordinated Collection of Microorganisms, Unite de Microbiologie, Mycothèque de l Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 3, Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    FEMS Yeast Res 9:774-83. 2009
    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa...
  94. ncbi Effects on peripheral and central blood pressure of cocoa with natural or high-dose theobromine: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial
    Bas van den Bogaard
    Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Hypertension 56:839-46. 2010
    ..In conclusion, theobromine-enriched cocoa significantly increased 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure while lowering central systolic blood pressure...
  95. ncbi Lactobacillus ghanensis sp. nov., a motile lactic acid bacterium isolated from Ghanaian cocoa fermentations
    Dennis S Nielsen
    Department of Food Science, Food Microbiology, Centre for Advanced Food Studies LMC, Faculty of Life Sciences, Copenhagen University, Rolighedsvej 30, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1468-72. 2007
    ..On the basis of the genetic and phenotypic results, the isolates are considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus ghanensis is proposed. The type strain is L489(T) (=DSM 18630(T)=CCUG 53453(T))...
  96. ncbi Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels
    Timothy Lefeber
    Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology IMDO, Faculty of Sciences and Bio engineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Food Microbiol 28:457-64. 2011
    ..Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth...
  97. ncbi Assessment of the yeast species composition of cocoa bean fermentations in different cocoa-producing regions using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
    Zoi Papalexandratou
    Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology IMDO, Faculty of Sciences and Bio engineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    FEMS Yeast Res 11:564-74. 2011
    ..Yeasts were not detected in the samples when the temperature inside the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass reached values higher than 45 °C or under early acetic acid production conditions...
  98. pmc Cocoa fermentations conducted with a defined microbial cocktail inoculum
    R F Schwan
    Comissáo Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaveira Cocoa Research Centre SETEA, Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil
    Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1477-83. 1998
    ..This is the first report of successful use of a defined, mixed starter culture in such a complex fermentation, and it should lead to chocolate of more reliable and better quality...
  99. ncbi High-affinity copper transport and Snq2 export permease of saccharomyces cerevisiae modulate cytotoxicity of PR-10 from Theobroma cacao
    Cristina Pungartnik
    UESC, Centro de Biotecnologia e Genética, Laboratório de Biologia de Fungos, Rodovia Ilhéus Itabuna, Ilhéus BA Brasil
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 22:39-51. 2009
    A pathogenesis-related (PR) protein from Theobroma cacao (TcPR-10) was identified from a cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction cDNA library...
  100. ncbi Inhibitory effects of cacao bean husk extract on plaque formation in vitro and in vivo
    Michiyo Matsumoto
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka, Japan
    Eur J Oral Sci 112:249-52. 2004
    b>Cacao bean husk extract (CBH) has been shown to possess antibacterial and antiglucosyltransferase activities through its unsaturated fatty acids and epicatechin polymers, respectively...
  101. ncbi Progressive erosion of genetic and epigenetic variation in callus-derived cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants
    Carlos M Rodríguez López
    Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University Penglais, Aberystwyth, Wales, UK
    New Phytol 186:856-68. 2010
    ..We surveyed for both types of change in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants regenerated from calli of various ages, and also between tissues from the source trees...

Research Grants20

  1. Targeting cellular bioenergetics for the prevention and treatment of diabetes
    Francisco J Villarreal; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..integrated, multidisciplinary research team specifically assembled to systematically explore the prospect of the cacao flavanol (-)-epicatechin (and novel synthetic derivatives) to favorably affect cellular/organ bioenergetics...
  2. FLAVANOL-RICH COCOA TO REVERSE VASCULAR DISEASE OF AGING
    Naomi Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..She will be well-positioned to submit an application for an RO1 with results from this study. Therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring vascular endothelial function hold tremendous clinical promise. ..
  3. Influence of Dietary Flavonoids on the Expression of At*
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, they will examine the effects of the diets on the activation of NFkB and cell signaling pathways. ..
  4. NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN MAMMALIAN DEVELOPMENT
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. COPPER NUTRITION AND DEVELOPMENT
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This information should provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying copper deficient pathologies and may contribute to our understanding of this process during human development. ..
  6. Pre & Postdoctoral Training in Nutrition
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Throughout our training we work to ensure that our graduates have vision and adaptability to work in environments where the skills and views of health professionals trained in nutrition are in urgent demand. ..
  7. Genetics of complex behaviors in the mouse.
    Valerie Bolivar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It is anticipated that the successful positional cloning of this gene will lead to new information on the pathways involved in the habituation process. ..
  8. Perinatal Risk of Asthma in Infants of Asthmatic Mothers
    Michael Bracken; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Identification of pregnancy and neonatal risk factors for infant asthma may offer opportunities for early prevention. ..
  9. Plasticity and learning in a corticostriatal network
    Ann Kelley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Using anatomical, molecular, and behavioral approaches, we will test the hypothesis that NMDA- and Dl-receptor mediated plasticity within multiple nodes of a neural network controls new adaptive motor learning. ..
  10. Plasticity and learning in a corticostriatal network
    Matthew Andrzejewski; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Using anatomical, molecular, and behavioral approaches, we will test the hypothesis that NMDA- and Dl-receptor mediated plasticity within multiple nodes of a neural network controls new adaptive motor learning. ..
  11. Genetics of spatial learning and memory
    Valerie Bolivar; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Paraxanthine and Reproductive Effects of Caffeine
    Michael Bracken; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. EID - Effects of avian migration & anthropogenic change on the distribution & tra
    Thomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, we will share our results with public health organizations and the scientific community in a timely fashion in order to maximize the public good. ..
  14. Nutritional Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in the Multiethnic Cohort
    Gertraud Maskarinec; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. Soy Consumption and Breast Tissue Proliferation
    Gertraud Maskarinec; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  16. Effects of Soy on Estrogens in Breast Fluid and Urine
    Gertraud Maskarinec; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The NAF approach is the only way to learn more about the beneficial and adverse effects of soy directly in the female breast without applying invasive procedures to women without breast disease or surgery. ..
  17. Inflammatory Markers in a 2-Year Soy Intervention among Premenopausal Women
    Gertraud Maskarinec; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The statistical analysis will apply general linear models to compare the levels of inflammatory markers by soy intake, while taking into account the repeated measurement design. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Fatty Acids, Angiotensin and Oxidative Stress
    Brent Egan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We believe the information generated by the proposed studies has the potential for elucidating biological mechanisms underlying obesity-associated hypertension and the potential for dietary anti-oxidants to modulate BP. ..
  19. Breast Density, IGF-I, & Prolactin, in Four Populations
    Gertraud Maskarinec; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The statistical analysis will include mixed models to explore the relation between hormone levels and breast density while controlling for confounders and for clustering by study location. ..
  20. NESTED CASE CONTROL STUDY OF MAMMOGRAPHIC DENSITY
    Gertraud Maskarinec; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....