solanum melongena

Summary

Summary: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Anthocyanins, colour and antioxidant properties of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) peel extracts
    Eva Sadilova
    Section Plant Foodstuff Technology, Institute of Food Technology, Hohenheim University, August von Hartmann Strasse 3, D 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
    Z Naturforsch C 61:527-35. 2006
  2. ncbi Comparative analysis of induction pattern of programmed cell death and defense-related responses during hypersensitive cell death and development of bacterial necrotic leaf spots in eggplant
    Akinori Kiba
    Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Nankoku, 783 8502, Japan
    Planta 224:981-94. 2006
  3. pmc Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation
    Nazzareno Acciarri
    Research Institute for Vegetable Crops, Monsampolo del Tronto, AP, Italy
    BMC Biotechnol 2:4. 2002
  4. ncbi Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum)
    Maher Chaouachi
    Unité Etude du Polymorphisme des Génomes Végétaux EPGV UR1279, Centre National de Génotypage CNG, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux 91057, CP5721, Evry Cedex, France
    J Agric Food Chem 56:1818-28. 2008
  5. ncbi Detection of genetic polymorphism in the populations of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee)
    K A M Karthikeyan
    Thiagarajar Centre for Entomological Science, Department of Zoology, Thiagarajar College Autonomous, Madurai 625 009, India
    Indian J Exp Biol 43:548-51. 2005
  6. pmc Conservation of gene function in the solanaceae as revealed by comparative mapping of domestication traits in eggplant
    Sami Doganlar
    Department of Plant Breeding and Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Genetics 161:1713-26. 2002
  7. ncbi Development of gene-based markers and construction of an integrated linkage map in eggplant by using Solanum orthologous (SOL) gene sets
    Hiroyuki Fukuoka
    NARO Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science NIVTS, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 360 Kusawa, Ano, Tsu, Mie, 514 2392, Japan
    Theor Appl Genet 125:47-56. 2012
  8. ncbi A detailed synteny map of the eggplant genome based on conserved ortholog set II (COSII) markers
    Feinan Wu
    Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Theor Appl Genet 118:927-35. 2009
  9. ncbi Production and characterization of arboreous and fertile Solanum melongena + Solanum marginatum somatic hybrid plants
    Lorena Borgato
    Department of Science and Technology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Planta 226:961-9. 2007
  10. ncbi Bacterial wilt resistance in tomato, pepper, and eggplant: genetic resources respond to diverse strains in the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex
    A Lebeau
    CIRAD, UMR Peuplements Végétaux et Bioagresseurs en Milieu Tropicale, 7 chemin de l IRAT, 97410, Saint Pierre Cedex, La Reunion, France
    Phytopathology 101:154-65. 2011

Detail Information

Publications174 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Anthocyanins, colour and antioxidant properties of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) peel extracts
    Eva Sadilova
    Section Plant Foodstuff Technology, Institute of Food Technology, Hohenheim University, August von Hartmann Strasse 3, D 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
    Z Naturforsch C 61:527-35. 2006
    Acetone extracts from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L...
  2. ncbi Comparative analysis of induction pattern of programmed cell death and defense-related responses during hypersensitive cell death and development of bacterial necrotic leaf spots in eggplant
    Akinori Kiba
    Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Nankoku, 783 8502, Japan
    Planta 224:981-94. 2006
    ..However, there may be differences not only in the induction kinetics and level of plant responses but also in the infection-related responses between HR and NLS...
  3. pmc Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation
    Nazzareno Acciarri
    Research Institute for Vegetable Crops, Monsampolo del Tronto, AP, Italy
    BMC Biotechnol 2:4. 2002
    ....
  4. ncbi Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum)
    Maher Chaouachi
    Unité Etude du Polymorphisme des Génomes Végétaux EPGV UR1279, Centre National de Génotypage CNG, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux 91057, CP5721, Evry Cedex, France
    J Agric Food Chem 56:1818-28. 2008
    ..potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)...
  5. ncbi Detection of genetic polymorphism in the populations of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee)
    K A M Karthikeyan
    Thiagarajar Centre for Entomological Science, Department of Zoology, Thiagarajar College Autonomous, Madurai 625 009, India
    Indian J Exp Biol 43:548-51. 2005
    ..This pattern of genetic variability in the populations was also supported by the analysis of the similarity indices and UPGMA dendrogram...
  6. pmc Conservation of gene function in the solanaceae as revealed by comparative mapping of domestication traits in eggplant
    Sami Doganlar
    Department of Plant Breeding and Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Genetics 161:1713-26. 2002
    ....
  7. ncbi Development of gene-based markers and construction of an integrated linkage map in eggplant by using Solanum orthologous (SOL) gene sets
    Hiroyuki Fukuoka
    NARO Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science NIVTS, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 360 Kusawa, Ano, Tsu, Mie, 514 2392, Japan
    Theor Appl Genet 125:47-56. 2012
    We constructed an integrated DNA marker linkage map of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) using DNA marker segregation data sets obtained from two independent intraspecific F(2) populations...
  8. ncbi A detailed synteny map of the eggplant genome based on conserved ortholog set II (COSII) markers
    Feinan Wu
    Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Theor Appl Genet 118:927-35. 2009
    ....
  9. ncbi Production and characterization of arboreous and fertile Solanum melongena + Solanum marginatum somatic hybrid plants
    Lorena Borgato
    Department of Science and Technology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Planta 226:961-9. 2007
    ..The practicability of this was tested for Solanum melongena. Leaf protoplasts of S...
  10. ncbi Bacterial wilt resistance in tomato, pepper, and eggplant: genetic resources respond to diverse strains in the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex
    A Lebeau
    CIRAD, UMR Peuplements Végétaux et Bioagresseurs en Milieu Tropicale, 7 chemin de l IRAT, 97410, Saint Pierre Cedex, La Reunion, France
    Phytopathology 101:154-65. 2011
    ..Pathoprofiles with high aggressiveness were mainly found in strains from phylotypes I, IIB, and III. One pathoprofile included a strain that overcame almost all resistance sources...
  11. pmc Ancient Chinese literature reveals pathways of eggplant domestication
    Jin Xiu Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    Ann Bot 102:891-7. 2008
    ..Here, the considerable body of ancient Chinese literature is used to explore the domestication process that has occurred with the eggplant (Solanum melongena), an important vegetable in Old World.
  12. ncbi Identification of cis-elements for ethylene and circadian regulation of the Solanum melongena gene encoding cysteine proteinase
    Reetika Rawat
    Department of Botany, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China
    Plant Mol Biol 57:629-43. 2005
    We have previously shown that the expression of SmCP which encodes Solanum melongena cysteine proteinase is ethylene-inducible and is under circadian control. To understand the regulation of SmCP, a 1...
  13. ncbi Plastid transformation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
    A K Singh
    National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India
    Transgenic Res 19:113-9. 2010
    We have developed a method for plastid transformation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), a solanaceous plant species...
  14. ncbi Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of five eggplant varieties
    Pannarat Akanitapichat
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, Thailand
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:3017-21. 2010
    ..6371-0.8842) and antioxidant activities (r = 0.5846-0.9588), indicating the contribution of the phenolic antioxidant present in eggplant to its hepatoprotective effect on t-BuOOH-induced toxicity...
  15. ncbi Visualization of spatial distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid in eggplant (Solanum melongena) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry
    Naoko Goto-Inoue
    Department of Molecular Anatomy, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1 20 1 Handayama, Higashi, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431 3192, Japan
    Anal Sci 26:821-5. 2010
    ..Our work suggests that IMS might be a powerful tool for exploring functional food factors, investigating the specific distribution of nutrients in unused natural resources, and evaluating the quality of functional foods...
  16. ncbi A comparative study on antioxidant activities of different varieties of Solanum melongena
    P Nisha
    Agro Processing and Natural Products Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Thiruvananthapuram 695019, Kerala, India
    Food Chem Toxicol 47:2640-4. 2009
    ....
  17. ncbi Development of selective markers linked to a major QTL for parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
    Koji Miyatake
    NARO Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science, 360 Kusawa, Ano, Tsu, Mie 514 2392, Japan
    Theor Appl Genet 124:1403-13. 2012
    ..To identify the loci controlling parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L...
  18. pmc Diversity and relationships of eggplants from three geographically distant secondary centers of diversity
    Maria Hurtado
    Instituto de Conservación y Mejora de la Agrodiversidad Valenciana, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain
    PLoS ONE 7:e41748. 2012
    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was domesticated in the Indo-Birmanian region, which is also the primary center of diversity for this crop...
  19. ncbi Phylogeographic relationships among Asian eggplants and new perspectives on eggplant domestication
    Rachel S Meyer
    Genomics Program, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458, USA
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 63:685-701. 2012
    The domestication history of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) has long been debated, with studies unable to narrow down where domestication occurred within a broad region of tropical Asia...
  20. ncbi Accumulation, functional annotation, and comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), the third pole of the genus Solanum species after tomato and potato
    Hiroyuki Fukuoka
    National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science, NARO, Ano, Tsu, Mie 514 2392, Japan
    Gene 450:76-84. 2010
    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a widely grown vegetable crop that belongs to the genus Solanum, which is comprised of more than 1000 species of wide genetic and phenotypic variation...
  21. ncbi Genetic diversity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) germplasm from Turkey assessed by SSR and RAPD markers
    K Demir
    Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
    Genet Mol Res 9:1568-76. 2010
    ..Primer OPB07 was the most polymorphic, generating 64% polymorphic bands; the rest of the primers gave less than 50% polymorphism. UPGMA dendrograms were used to examine the genetic relatedness of the genotypes...
  22. ncbi Development of SSR markers derived from SSR-enriched genomic library of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
    Tsukasa Nunome
    National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science NIVTS, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization NARO, 360 Kusawa, Ano, Tsu, Mie 514 2392, Japan
    Theor Appl Genet 119:1143-53. 2009
    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), also known as aubergine or brinjal, is an important vegetable in many countries. Few useful molecular markers have been reported for eggplant...
  23. ncbi A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) reveals female predominance
    B N Harish Babu
    Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
    Clin Exp Allergy 38:1795-802. 2008
    Only a few case reports of allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena) have been reported. A relatively large number of individuals appear to experience food-related symptoms to eggplant in India.
  24. ncbi Segregation distortion and linkage analysis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
    Lorenzo Barchi
    University of Turin, Department of Exploitation and Protection of the Agricultural and Forestry Resources DiVaPRA, Plant Genetics and Breeding, Via Grugliasco TO, Italy
    Genome 53:805-15. 2010
    ....
  25. ncbi Reversible male sterility in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by artificial microRNA-mediated silencing of general transcription factor genes
    Laura Toppino
    CRA ORL Agricultural Research Council, Research Unit for Vegetable Crops, Montanaso Lombardo Lo Italy DSBB, Department of Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Milano, Milan, Italy
    Plant Biotechnol J 9:684-92. 2011
    ..1997), we provide a novel example of complete transgene containment in eggplant, which enables biological mitigation measures for the benefit of coexistence or biosafety purposes for GM crop cultivation...
  26. ncbi Effect of eggplant (Solanum melongena) extract on the in vitro labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats
    P V S Z Capriles
    Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria Laboratório de Radiofarmácia Experimental, and Universidade do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 48:771-6. 2002
    ..Moreover, as eggplant is metabolized in the liver, this fact could justify the alteration of the uptake in this organ...
  27. ncbi Allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena) caused by a putative secondary metabolite
    S N Pramod
    Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 18:59-62. 2008
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of allergy to the ingestion of eggplant in which a nonprotein secondary metabolite has been detected as an allergen...
  28. pmc A comparative genetic linkage map of eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its implications for genome evolution in the solanaceae
    Sami Doganlar
    Department of Plant Breeding and Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Genetics 161:1697-711. 2002
    ..genetic linkage map based on tomato cDNA, genomic DNA, and EST markers was constructed for eggplant, Solanum melongena. The map consists of 12 linkage groups, spans 1480 cM, and contains 233 markers...
  29. pmc Gene-based microsatellite development for mapping and phylogeny studies in eggplant
    Anikò Stàgel
    Di Va P R A, Plant Genetics and Breeding, University of Torino, Via L, da Vinci 44, 10095, Grugliasco, Torino, Italy
    BMC Genomics 9:357. 2008
    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a member of the Solanaceae family. In spite of its widespread cultivation and nutritional and economic importance, its genome has not as yet been extensively investigated...
  30. ncbi Allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena)
    Siddanakoppalu N Pramod
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 113:171-3. 2004
  31. ncbi In vitro studies of eggplant (Solanum melongena) phenolics as inhibitors of key enzymes relevant for type 2 diabetes and hypertension
    Y I Kwon
    Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, Chenoweth Building, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Bioresour Technol 99:2981-8. 2008
    ..This phenolic antioxidant-enriched dietary strategy also has the potential to reduce hyperglycemia-induced pathogenesis linked to cellular oxidation stress. These results provide strong rationale for further animal and clinical studies...
  32. ncbi Effects of eggplant (Solanum melongena) on the atherogenesis and oxidative stress in LDL receptor knock out mice (LDLR(-/-))
    Françoise V Botelho
    Departamento de Bioquimica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 486, 30 161 970, Belo Horizonte MG, Brazil
    Food Chem Toxicol 42:1259-67. 2004
    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) has been used as hypocholesterolemic agent in many countries. However, few controlled studies were addressed to this subject and atherogenesis...
  33. ncbi Analysis of eggplant ( Solanum melongena)-related germplasm: morphological and AFLP data contribute to phylogenetic interpretations and germplasm utilization
    A Furini
    Department of Science and Technology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134, Verona, Italy
    Theor Appl Genet 108:197-208. 2004
    ..The results we have provided highlight an urgent necessity to include molecular parameters in handling and characterizing the genebank-deposited germplasm related to cultivated crops...
  34. ncbi Nasunin from eggplant consists of cis-trans isomers of delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl (1-->6)glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside
    Takashi Ichiyanagi
    Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265 1 Higashijima, Niigata 956 8603, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 53:9472-7. 2005
    Two major anthocyanins were isolated from the acidified methanolic extract of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography...
  35. ncbi Eggplant (Solanum melongena) extract does not alter serum lipid levels
    Juliana Marchiori Praça
    Instituto do Coracao, Hospital das Clinicas, USP
    Arq Bras Cardiol 82:269-76. 2004
    ..To compare the effect of eggplant extract on serum lipid levels with that of lovastatin...
  36. ncbi Maillard reaction products as "natural antibrowning" agents in fruit and vegetable technology
    Catherine Billaud
    Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, Chaire de Biochimie Industrielle et Agro Alimentaire, Paris, France
    Mol Nutr Food Res 49:656-62. 2005
    ..Technological assays were also performed to test the efficiency of selected MRPs in the prevention of enzymatic browning in raw and minimally processed fruits and vegetables...
  37. ncbi [Absence of hypolipidemic effect of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) on hyperlipidemic patients]
    Gisleine E C da Silva
    Departamento de Farmácia e Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR
    Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 48:368-73. 2004
    In this study we investigated the hypolipidemic potential of dried powdered fruits of eggplant (Solanum melongena), which has been commercialized in Brazil to treat human hyperlipidemia...
  38. ncbi Occurrence and characterization of hypovirulence in the tan sclerotial isolate S10 of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
    Guo Quing Li
    Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, Lethbridge AB, TIJ 4BI Canada
    Mycol Res 107:1350-60. 2003
    ..The existence of dsRNA-free hypovirulence in S10 progenies suggests that another hypovirulence mechanism may exist in S. sclerotiorum...
  39. ncbi Purification of a peroxidase from Solanum melongena fruit juice
    S K Vernwal
    Department of Chemistry, D D U Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009, India
    Indian J Biochem Biophys 43:239-43. 2006
    b>Solanum melongena fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 0.125 IU/mL. A method for the 11-fold purification of the enzyme was developed...
  40. ncbi Differential response related to genotoxicity between eggplant (Solanum melanogena) skin aqueous extract and its main purified anthocyanin (delphinidin) in vivo
    Luciana Azevedo
    Departamento de Nutricao, Escola de Farmacia e Odontologia de Alfenas, Centro Universitário Federal, MG, Brazil
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:852-8. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the results presented here could be an additional argument to support the use of anthocyanins in the diet...
  41. ncbi Potential use of Solanum melongena in agricultural areas with high mercury background concentrations
    M J Sierra
    CIEMAT, Department of Environment, Avda Complutense 22, E 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:2143-9. 2008
    b>Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) is a native culture from India, found throughout the world, and is one of the most popular vegetables in the Mediterranean area...
  42. ncbi Influence of sample preparation on assay of phenolic acids from eggplant
    Devanand L Luthria
    Food Composition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 3000, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 54:41-7. 2006
    ..This systematic study with a phenolic-enriched substrate, eggplant (Solanum melongena L...
  43. ncbi Distribution of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruit of commercial eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars
    Bruce D Whitaker
    Produce Quality and Safety Laboratory and Vegetable Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 51:3448-54. 2003
    ..Dicaffeoylquinic and 3-O-acetyl chlorogenic acids were most variable among the cultivars. Dicaffeoyquinic acids were most abundant in the blossom end, whereas 3-O-acetyl esters were highest in the midsection...
  44. ncbi Effect of nitrogen application on flowering and yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
    Suhas Bobadi
    Department of Plant Production, Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture and Etnobotany, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, BE 9000 Gent, Belgium
    Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 68:5-13. 2003
    ..Nitrogen failed to influence style length and type of flowers i.e. long, medium, pseudo-short and short styled flowers. Nitrogen application at 150 and 175 kg N/ha showed comparable results with nitrogen applied at 200 kg N/ha...
  45. ncbi An ecological study of lactic acid bacteria from Almagro eggplant fermentation brines
    S Seseña
    Departamento de Química Analítica y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias del Medio Ambiente, Campus Tecnológico de la Fábrica de Armas, Toledo, Spain
    J Appl Microbiol 103:1553-61. 2007
    ..Identification of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in spontaneous fermentations of Almagro eggplants, and evaluation of the biodiversity by molecular typing...
  46. ncbi Characterization of Lactobacillus strains and monitoring by RAPD-PCR in controlled fermentations of "Almagro" eggplants
    Susana Seseña
    Departamento de Química Analítica y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias del Medio Ambiente, Avda Carlos III s n, 45071 Toledo, Spain
    Int J Food Microbiol 104:325-35. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi Genetic diversity (RAPD-PCR) of lactobacilli isolated from "Almagro" eggplant fermentations from two seasons
    Susana Seseña
    Departamento de Química Analítica y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias del Medio Ambiente, Avda Carlos III s n, 45071 Toledo, Spain
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 238:159-65. 2004
    ..A single L. fermentum/cellobiosus genotype comprised isolates from both seasons and could be considered endemic to that factory...
  48. ncbi Evidence for essential histidine and dicarboxylic amino-acid residues in the active site of UDP-glucose : solasodine glucosyltransferase from eggplant leaves
    Paulina Nawłoka
    Institute of Biochemistry, Warsaw University, I Miecznikowa 1, 02 096 Warsaw, Poland
    Acta Biochim Pol 50:567-72. 2003
    ..Reagents modifying serine and arginine residues have no effect on the enzyme activity...
  49. ncbi Metabolism of conjugated sterols in eggplant. Part 1. UDP-glucose : sterol glucosyltransferase
    Anna Potocka
    Institute of Biochemistry, Warsaw University, Warszawa, Poland
    Acta Biochim Pol 55:127-34. 2008
    A membrane-bound UDP-glucose : sterol glucosyltransferase from Solanum melongena (eggplant) leaves was partially purified and its specificity as well as molecular and kinetic properties were defined...
  50. ncbi Metabolism of conjugated sterols in eggplant. Part 2. Phospholipid : steryl glucoside acyltransferase
    Anna Potocka
    Institute of Biochemistry, Warsaw University, Warszawa, Poland
    Acta Biochim Pol 55:135-40. 2008
    A membrane-bound phospholipid : steryl glucoside acyltransferase from Solanum melongena leaves was partially purified and its specificity and molecular as well as kinetic properties were defined. Among the steryl glycosides tested (e.g...
  51. pmc Estimating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency using incident light and photosynthesis of individual leaves
    A Rosati
    Istituto Sperimentale per l Orticoltura, Via dei Cavalleggeri 25, 84098 Pontecagnano, SA Italy
    Ann Bot 91:869-77. 2003
    ..To test this hypothesis, 'daily' photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours...
  52. ncbi [Responses of grafted eggplant seedling roots to low temperature stress]
    Qinghai Gao
    Shandong Agricultural University, Tai an 271018, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 17:390-4. 2006
    ..Grafting with stronger cold tolerance rootstock could improve eggplant root activity, and thus, its cold resistance markedly...
  53. ncbi [Heat stress characteristics of photosystem II in eggplant]
    Mei Wang
    College of Horticulture, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, Hebei, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 18:63-8. 2007
    With lower-and higher heat-resistant varieties of eggplant (Solanum melongena L...
  54. pmc The hrp genes of Pseudomonas cichorii are essential for pathogenicity on eggplant but not on lettuce
    Hiroshi Hojo
    Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Biotechnology, Kochi University, 200 Monobe, Nankoku, Kochi 783 8502, Japan
    Microbiology 154:2920-8. 2008
    ..These results suggest that the pathogenicity of P. cichorii is hrp-dependent in eggplant, but not in lettuce...
  55. pmc Bayesian estimation of genomic distance
    Richard Durrett
    Department of Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Genetics 166:621-9. 2004
    ..In the first case the most likely number of events is larger than the parsimony value. In the last two cases the parsimony solutions have very small probability...
  56. pmc Eggplant latent viroid, the candidate type species for a new genus within the family Avsunviroidae (hammerhead viroids)
    Z Fadda
    Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias IVIA, 46113 Moncada, Spain
    J Virol 77:6528-32. 2003
    ..Considering the ELVd properties to be intermediate between those of the two genera of family Avsunviroidae, we propose ELVd as the type species of a third genus with the name ELAVIROID:..
  57. ncbi Gastrointestinal uptake of nasunin, acylated anthocyanin in eggplant
    Takashi Ichiyanagi
    Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265 1, Higashijima, Niigata 956 8603, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 54:5306-12. 2006
    ..These results indicated that nasunins were absorbed in their original acylated forms and exhibit a bioavailability almost identical to that of nonacylated anthocyanins...
  58. ncbi Composition of arthropod species assemblages in Bt-expressing and near isogenic eggplants in experimental fields
    Salvatore Arpaia
    ENEA Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and the Environment, Research Centre Trisaia, S S 106 Jonica, km 419 5, I 75026 Rotondella MT, Italy
    Environ Entomol 36:213-27. 2007
    ..Moreover, some sap feeders (e.g., Homoptera: Cicadellidae) were more abundant on Bt-expressing plants in some samples in all 3 yr...
  59. ncbi Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) using root explants
    G Franklin
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India
    Plant Cell Rep 21:549-54. 2003
    An efficient variety-independent method for producing transgenic eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed...
  60. ncbi The aqueous extract of Solanum melongena inhibits PAR2 agonist-induced inflammation
    Seung Woo Han
    Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk, 570 749, South Korea
    Clin Chim Acta 328:39-44. 2003
    b>Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae) has antioxidant, analgesic, hypolipidemic and antiallergic activity.
  61. ncbi Inhibition of polyphenoloxidase activity by mixtures of heated cysteine derivatives with carbonyl compounds
    Sophie Chériot
    UMR SCALE 1211 CNAM ENSIA INRA, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers CNAM, Chaire de Biochimie Industrielle et Agro Alimentaire, Paris, France
    Mol Nutr Food Res 51:395-403. 2007
    ....
  62. ncbi [From aubergine to statins: a trip between fiction and reality]
    Eder C R Quintao
    Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 48:331-4. 2004
  63. ncbi [Allelopathic effects of grafted eggplant root exudates]
    Fengli Zhang
    College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 16:750-3. 2005
    ..Own-rooted eggplant had an intensified inhibitory effect at its late growth stage. Grafting was one of the effective methods for relieving the continuous cropping obstacles caused by autotoxicity...
  64. ncbi [Inhibitory effects of natural plant extracts on Verticillium albo-atrum]
    Shuhong Zhang
    College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 17:1137-40. 2006
    ..3%). The active substances found in natural plant extracts which had the inhibitory effects on pathogen brought us a new and promising method to deal with V. albo-atrum and other vegetable diseases...
  65. ncbi Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spontaneous fermentation of 'Almagro' eggplants by SDS-PAGE whole cell protein fingerprinting
    Isabel Sanchez
    Departamento de Química Analítica y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda Camilo José Cela S N 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain
    Int J Food Microbiol 82:181-9. 2003
    ..Only two strains showed unique protein patterns without meaningful homology to any of the reference strains used for this study and remained unidentified...
  66. ncbi Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in India
    V S Lisha
    Division of Crop Protection, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Trivandrum 695 017 Kerala, India
    J Econ Entomol 96:322-7. 2003
    ..Lam. Eggplant, Solanum melongena L., and tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L., were common hosts for both biotypes...
  67. ncbi Cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in Brazil
    E D Caldas
    College of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, UnB, 70919 970 Brasilia, DF, Brazil
    Food Chem Toxicol 42:599-603. 2004
    ..13 of celastraceae (Maytenus ilicifolia), 14 of cascara buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana), 13 of eggplant (Solanum melongena), 15 of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), 13 of Brazilian ginseng (Pffafia glomerata), 17 of centella ..
  68. pmc The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis
    Harry S Paris
    Department of Vegetable Crops and Plant Genetics, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya ar Research Center, PO Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30 095, Israel
    Ann Bot 103:1187-205. 2009
    ..Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae...
  69. ncbi Agricultural reuse of reclaimed water and uptake of organic compounds: pilot study at Mutah University wastewater treatment plant, Jordan
    Farah Al Nasir
    Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, P O Box 7, Karak, Jordan
    Chemosphere 72:1203-14. 2008
    ..Helianthus annus L., Capsicum annum L., Abelmoschus esculentus L., Solanum melongena L. and Lycopersicon esculentum L...
  70. ncbi Spirosolane-containing Solanum species and induction of congenital craniofacial malformations
    R F Keeler
    United States Department of Agriculture, Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, Logan, UT 84321
    Toxicon 28:873-84. 1990
    ..villosum Lam.--hairy nightshade), Solanum dulcamara L. (European bittersweet nightshade) or Solanum melongena L. (eggplant). All alkaloidal material was apparently present as glycoside...
  71. ncbi Diffusion and accumulation in cultivated vegetable plants of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from a plastic production factory
    Q Z Du
    Institute of Food and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035, China
    Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 27:1186-92. 2010
    ..bok choy), Brassica campestris L. (field mustard), Vigna unguiculata Walp. (cowpea), and Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) cultivated on land surrounding a plastic production factory were determined...
  72. ncbi Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2
    H P Deka Boruah
    Soil Microbiology, Regional Research Laboratory CSIR, Jorhat 785 006, India
    Indian J Exp Biol 41:627-31. 2003
    ..promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var...
  73. ncbi Alpha-solasonine and alpha-solamargine contents of gboma (Solanum macrocarpon L.) and scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum L.) eggplants
    María Cortes Sánchez-Mata
    Departamento Nutrición y Bromatología II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 58:5502-8. 2010
    ..macrocarpon and S. aethiopicum compared to Solanum melongena L. Fruits of S. aethiopicum and S. melongena contained 0.58-4.56 mg/100 g of alpha-solamargine and 0...
  74. ncbi Isolation and characterization of endophytic Bacillus subtilis Jaas ed1 antagonist of eggplant Verticillium wilt
    Ling Lin
    College of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73:1489-93. 2009
    An endophytic bacterial strain, Jaas ed1, was isolated from the interior of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) stems in Jiangsu Province, China...
  75. pmc Phytohormone-based activity mapping of insect herbivore-produced elicitors
    Eric A Schmelz
    Center of Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Chemistry Research Unit, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:653-7. 2009
    ..and volatile inducing activity, which spanned maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)...
  76. ncbi Latex-vegetable syndrome due to custard apple and aubergine: new variations of the hevein symphony
    P M Gamboa
    Servicio de Alergia, Hospital de Basurto, Bilbao, Spain
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 15:308-11. 2005
    ..In fact, no band was detected using the serum of patient 2 in avocado or aubergine extracts. By contrast, Prs a 1 reached high values of basophil activation and over 10% of histamine release in case 2...
  77. ncbi Inhibitory effect of delphinidin from Solanum melongena on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 invasiveness in vitro
    H Nagase
    Department of Public Health, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Japan
    Planta Med 64:216-9. 1998
    We investigated the inhibitory effect of eggplant (Solanum melongena var. marunasu) extract on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cell invasion of reconstituted basement membrane [Matrigel (MG)]...
  78. ncbi Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India
    Y Narayana
    Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, India
    J Radiol Prot 20:295-300. 2000
    ..Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of 90Sr through diet was 0...
  79. ncbi Determination of cadmium and lead in vegetables by stripping chronopotentiometry
    F Lo Coco
    Department of Economic Sciences, University of Udine, Via Tomadini 30 A, I 33100, Italy
    Food Addit Contam 21:441-6. 2004
    ..Results obtained on 10 different commercial samples of pepper (Capsicum annuum), and egg plant (Solanum melongena) were not significantly different from those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption ..
  80. ncbi [Nondestructive detection of grey mold of eggplant based on ground multi-spectral imaging sensor]
    Di Wu
    College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
    Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 28:1496-500. 2008
    ..Thus, multi-spectral imaging technique is available for the symptoms detection of grey mold on eggplant leaves...
  81. ncbi Identification of novel Ralstonia solanacearum type III effector proteins through translocation analysis of hrpB-regulated gene products
    Takafumi Mukaihara
    Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Okayama RIBS, 7549 1 Yoshikawa, Kibichuo cho, Okayama 716 1241, Japan
    Microbiology 155:2235-44. 2009
    ..Members of this family contain 12-18 tandem repeats of a novel 42 aa motif, designated SKWP repeats...
  82. ncbi Polyphasic study of the genetic diversity of lactobacilli associated with 'Almagro' eggplants spontaneous fermentation, based on combined numerical analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns
    I Sanchez
    Departamento de Química Analítica y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain
    J Appl Microbiol 97:446-58. 2004
    ....
  83. ncbi Prevalence of entomophthoralean fungi (Entomophthoromycota) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on solanaceous crops in Argentina
    R G Manfrino
    Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria INTA, Área Investigación Agronomía, Protección Vegetal, Ruta Nacional 34, Km 227, Rafaela 2300, Santa Fe, Argentina Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores CEPAVE, UNLP CONICET, Calle 2, nro 584, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina Electronic address
    J Invertebr Pathol 121:21-3. 2014
    b>Solanum melongena L. and Capsicum annuum L. were sampled in Argentina to determine the prevalence of fungal diseased aphids...
  84. pmc Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel
    Bheemanapalli N Harish Babu
    From the aDepartment of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute CSIR Laboratory, Mysore, Karnataka State, India
    World Allergy Organ J 2:192-200. 2009
    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking.
  85. pmc The SOL Genomics Network: a comparative resource for Solanaceae biology and beyond
    Lukas A Mueller
    Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Plant Physiol 138:1310-7. 2005
    ..family, which includes important crop and model plants such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)...
  86. pmc Involvement of the chloroplastic isoform of tRNA ligase in the replication of viroids belonging to the family Avsunviroidae
    María Angeles Nohales
    Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    J Virol 86:8269-76. 2012
    ..We report that a recombinant version of the chloroplastic isoform of the tRNA ligase from eggplant (Solanum melongena L...
  87. pmc Identification of MiRNA from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by small RNA deep sequencing and their response to Verticillium dahliae infection
    Liu Yang
    College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P R China
    PLoS ONE 8:e72840. 2013
    ..in model systems, less is known in other plants with limited genome sequence data, including eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)...
  88. ncbi Plastid transformation in eggplant
    Kailash C Bansal
    National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources ICAR, New Delhi, India
    Methods Mol Biol 1132:305-16. 2014
    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate regions of the world...
  89. pmc Determination of carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable samples and the efficiency of gamma-radiation in their removal
    Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury
    Agrochemicals and Environmental Research Division, Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka 1349, Bangladesh Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
    Biomed Res Int 2014:145159. 2014
    In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena) (n = 16), purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
  90. ncbi Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning
    Mariola Plazas
    Instituto de Conservación y Mejora de la Agrodiversidad Valenciana and Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 61:8871-9. 2013
    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning...
  91. ncbi [Regulation effects of grafting on cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplant root exudates]
    Shao li Chen
    College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 19:2394-9. 2008
    ..26%-13.12%, root electric conductivity and MDA content decreased, and root SOD activity enhanced...
  92. ncbi Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)
    Kondeti Subramanyam
    Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu, India
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol 171:450-68. 2013
    ....
  93. ncbi Androgenesis in recalcitrant solanaceous crops
    Jose M Segui-Simarro
    COMAV Universitat Politècnica de València CPI, Edificio 8E, Escalera I, Camino de Vera, S N, 46022, Valencia, Spain
    Plant Cell Rep 30:765-78. 2011
    ..In this review, we outline the state of the art on androgenic induction in tomato, eggplant, and pepper, and postulate new experimental ways in order to overcome current limitations...
  94. ncbi Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics of Australia ecotype Solanum nigrum L. and its implication in screening hyperaccumulator
    Shuhe Wei
    Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, PR China
    Int J Phytoremediation 15:199-205. 2013
    ..The results suggested that the tolerance and uptake of Cd may be a constitutive trait of this species...
  95. pmc Are yellow sticky traps an effective method for control of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in the greenhouse or field?
    Yaobin Lu
    State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou Zhejiang 310021, China
    J Insect Sci 12:113. 2012
    ..This information will prove useful for the effective management of whiteflies in greenhouses...
  96. ncbi Fate of benfuracarb insecticide in mollisols and brinjal crop
    Raju Chandra
    Department of Chemistry, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83:348-51. 2009
    ..The half-life values of benfuracarb in soil and brinjal fruit were found to be 3.54 and 3.90 days at 0.25 microg g(-1) and 3.75 and 4.73 days at 0.50 microg g(-1), respectively...
  97. ncbi Purification and characterisation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant (Solanum melongena)
    Bibhuti B Mishra
    Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India
    Food Chem 134:1855-61. 2012
    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which negatively affects its quality upon cutting and postharvest processing due to enzymatic browning...
  98. ncbi Genetic mapping of a major dominant gene for resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in eggplant
    A Lebeau
    CIRAD, UMR Peuplements végétaux et Bioagresseurs en Milieu Tropical PVBMT, 7 chemin de l IRAT, 97410 Saint Pierre, La Reunion, France
    Theor Appl Genet 126:143-58. 2013
    ....
  99. ncbi [Bioinformatic prediction of conserved microRNAs and their target genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)]
    Lei Zhang
    Key Laboratory of Tobacco Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China
    Yi Chuan 33:776-84. 2011
    ..To date, a large number of miRNAs have been reported in many species, but none for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)...
  100. ncbi Teppeki, selective insecticide about Bombus terrestris
    Angela Fanigliulo
    Bioagritest Test Facility, Bioagritest Sri Centro Interregionale di Diagnosi Vegetale Zona PIP lotto E2 IT 85010 Pignola PZ, Italy
    Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 74:407-10. 2009
    ..All colonies had low stocks of pollen. Ultimately, treatment with Teppeki has not given any acute effect on B. terrestris, nor any effect of interference in respect of its pollination activity...
  101. ncbi Application of indoxacarb for managing shoot and fruit borer of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its decontamination
    Jayakrishnan Saimandir
    Department of Entomology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, USA
    J Environ Sci Health B 44:292-301. 2009
    Indoxacarb was applied at 75 and 150 g a.i. ha(-1) for two years to an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crop grown in the field plots in order to evaluate its efficacy for management of the lepidopteron pest, shoot and fruit borer...