phytoplankton

Summary

Summary: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular ALGAE. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; coccolithophorids; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Marine natural products
    John W Blunt
    Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Nat Prod Rep 21:1-49. 2004
  2. ncbi Substrate-controlled succession of marine bacterioplankton populations induced by a phytoplankton bloom
    Hanno Teeling
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstrasse 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
    Science 336:608-11. 2012
  3. ncbi Phytoplankton in the ocean use non-phosphorus lipids in response to phosphorus scarcity
    Benjamin A S van Mooy
    Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
    Nature 458:69-72. 2009
  4. pmc Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics
    Christopher J Gobler
    School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4352-7. 2011
  5. pmc Eutrophication of lakes cannot be controlled by reducing nitrogen input: results of a 37-year whole-ecosystem experiment
    David W Schindler
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11254-8. 2008
  6. pmc Targeted metagenomics and ecology of globally important uncultured eukaryotic phytoplankton
    Marie L Cuvelier
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14679-84. 2010
  7. ncbi Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula
    Martin Montes-Hugo
    Coastal Ocean Observation Lab, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Science 323:1470-3. 2009
  8. ncbi Impacts of metal oxide nanoparticles on marine phytoplankton
    Robert J Miller
    Department of Ecology, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 44:7329-34. 2010
  9. ncbi Emergent biogeography of microbial communities in a model ocean
    Michael J Follows
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 54 1514 MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:1843-6. 2007
  10. pmc Saccharides enhance iron bioavailability to Southern Ocean phytoplankton
    Christel S Hassler
    Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, a partnership between Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and Bureau of Meteorology, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1076-81. 2011

Detail Information

Publications352 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Marine natural products
    John W Blunt
    Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Nat Prod Rep 21:1-49. 2004
    ..413 for the period January to December 2002) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates and echinoderms...
  2. ncbi Substrate-controlled succession of marine bacterioplankton populations induced by a phytoplankton bloom
    Hanno Teeling
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstrasse 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
    Science 336:608-11. 2012
    b>Phytoplankton blooms characterize temperate ocean margin zones in spring. We investigated the bacterioplankton response to a diatom bloom in the North Sea and observed a dynamic succession of populations at genus-level resolution...
  3. ncbi Phytoplankton in the ocean use non-phosphorus lipids in response to phosphorus scarcity
    Benjamin A S van Mooy
    Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
    Nature 458:69-72. 2009
    ..However, eukaryotic phytoplankton and cyanobacteria (that is, 'phytoplankton' collectively) have the ability to decrease their cellular ..
  4. pmc Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics
    Christopher J Gobler
    School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4352-7. 2011
    ..blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified...
  5. pmc Eutrophication of lakes cannot be controlled by reducing nitrogen input: results of a 37-year whole-ecosystem experiment
    David W Schindler
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11254-8. 2008
    ..Reducing nitrogen inputs increasingly favored nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria as a response by the phytoplankton community to extreme seasonal nitrogen limitation...
  6. pmc Targeted metagenomics and ecology of globally important uncultured eukaryotic phytoplankton
    Marie L Cuvelier
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14679-84. 2010
    Among eukaryotes, four major phytoplankton lineages are responsible for marine photosynthesis; prymnesiophytes, alveolates, stramenopiles, and prasinophytes...
  7. ncbi Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula
    Martin Montes-Hugo
    Coastal Ocean Observation Lab, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Science 323:1470-3. 2009
    ..Regional changes in phytoplankton coincide with observed changes in krill (Euphausia superba) and penguin populations.
  8. ncbi Impacts of metal oxide nanoparticles on marine phytoplankton
    Robert J Miller
    Department of Ecology, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 44:7329-34. 2010
    ..two types of metal oxide nanoparticles, TiO(2) and ZnO, on population growth rates of four species of marine phytoplankton representing three major coastal groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, and prymnesiophytes)...
  9. ncbi Emergent biogeography of microbial communities in a model ocean
    Michael J Follows
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 54 1514 MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:1843-6. 2007
    A marine ecosystem model seeded with many phytoplankton types, whose physiological traits were randomly assigned from ranges defined by field and laboratory data, generated an emergent community structure and biogeography consistent with ..
  10. pmc Saccharides enhance iron bioavailability to Southern Ocean phytoplankton
    Christel S Hassler
    Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, a partnership between Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and Bureau of Meteorology, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1076-81. 2011
    Iron limits primary productivity in vast regions of the ocean. Given that marine phytoplankton contribute up to 40% of global biological carbon fixation, it is important to understand what parameters control the availability of iron (..
  11. ncbi Toxigenic effects of diatoms on grazers, phytoplankton and other microbes: a review
    Adrianna Ianora
    Functional and Evolutionary Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy
    Ecotoxicology 19:493-511. 2010
    ..functions in that they not only deter herbivore feeding but some also act as allelopathic agents against other phytoplankton cells, thereby affecting the growth of competitors, and also signalling population-level cell death and ..
  12. ncbi Effect of ocean acidification on iron availability to marine phytoplankton
    Dalin Shi
    Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Science 327:676-9. 2010
    ..The Fe requirement of model phytoplankton remains unchanged with increasing CO2...
  13. ncbi Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean
    U Riebesell
    Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM GEOMAR, 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Nature 450:545-8. 2007
    ....
  14. ncbi Phytoplankton calcification in a high-CO2 world
    M Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez
    National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK
    Science 320:336-40. 2008
    ..Our findings show that coccolithophores are already responding and will probably continue to respond to rising atmospheric CO2 partial pressures, which has important implications for biogeochemical modeling of future oceans and climate...
  15. ncbi Marine natural products
    John W Blunt
    Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Nat Prod Rep 24:31-86. 2007
    ..493 for the period January to December 2005) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates and echinoderms...
  16. ncbi Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993-2005: synthesis and future directions
    P W Boyd
    National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research NIWA Centre for Chemical and Physical Oceanography, Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Science 315:612-7. 2007
    ..New research directions include quantification of the coupling of oceanic iron and carbon biogeochemistry...
  17. ncbi Photosynthetic architecture differs in coastal and oceanic diatoms
    Robert F Strzepek
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC Canada V6T 1Z4
    Nature 431:689-92. 2004
    Diatoms are a key taxon of eukaryotic phytoplankton and a major contributor to global carbon fixation...
  18. ncbi Marine natural products
    John W Blunt
    Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Nat Prod Rep 26:170-244. 2009
    ..for the period January to December 2007) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, cnidarians,bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms and true ..
  19. ncbi Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity
    Michael J Behrenfeld
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA
    Nature 444:752-5. 2006
    Contributing roughly half of the biosphere's net primary production (NPP), photosynthesis by oceanic phytoplankton is a vital link in the cycling of carbon between living and inorganic stocks...
  20. ncbi How do polar marine ecosystems respond to rapid climate change?
    Oscar Schofield
    Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Science 328:1520-3. 2010
    ..Robotic networks, satellites, ships, and instruments mounted on animals and ice will collect data needed to improve numerical models that can then be used to study the future of polar ecosystems as climate change progresses...
  21. pmc Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems
    Martin Daufresne
    FB3 Marine Okologie, Leibniz Institut für Meereswissenschaften IFM GEOMAR, 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12788-93. 2009
    ....
  22. ncbi Colourful coexistence of red and green picocyanobacteria in lakes and seas
    Maayke Stomp
    Aquatic Microbiology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 127, 1018 WS Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Ecol Lett 10:290-8. 2007
    ..the underwater light colour of lakes and seas provides ample opportunities for coexistence of red and green phytoplankton species...
  23. ncbi Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2
    U Riebesell
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
    Nature 407:364-7. 2000
    ..calcite production at increased CO2 concentrations in monospecific cultures of two dominant marine calcifying phytoplankton species, the coccolithophorids Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica...
  24. pmc Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton
    Adina Paytan
    Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4601-5. 2009
    ..back trajectories in incubation experiments with natural communities, we demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to aerosol additions depends on specific components in aerosols and differs across phytoplankton ..
  25. ncbi The diversity of small eukaryotic phytoplankton (< or =3 microm) in marine ecosystems
    Daniel Vaulot
    Station Biologique de Roscoff, UMR 7144, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Roscoff Cx, France
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:795-820. 2008
    ..In this paper, we discuss the range of methods that can be used to assess small phytoplankton diversity, present the species described to date, review the existing molecular data obtained on field ..
  26. ncbi An antioxidant function for DMSP and DMS in marine algae
    W Sunda
    Beaufort Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Beaufort, North Carolina 28516, USA
    Nature 418:317-20. 2002
    ..Our results indicate direct links between such stressors and the dynamics of DMSP and DMS in marine phytoplankton, which probably influence the production of DMS and its release to the atmosphere...
  27. ncbi Viral glycosphingolipids induce lytic infection and cell death in marine phytoplankton
    Assaf Vardi
    Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology Group, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, 71 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Science 326:861-5. 2009
    Marine viruses that infect phytoplankton are recognized as a major ecological and evolutionary driving force, shaping community structure and nutrient cycling in the marine environment...
  28. ncbi A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization
    P W Boyd
    National Institute of Water and Atmosphere, Centre for Chemical and Physical Oceanography, Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Nature 407:695-702. 2000
    ..Increased iron supply led to elevated phytoplankton biomass and rates of photosynthesis in surface waters, causing a large drawdown of carbon dioxide and ..
  29. pmc The relevance of marine chemical ecology to plankton and ecosystem function: an emerging field
    Adrianna Ianora
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale Napoli, Italy
    Mar Drugs 9:1625-48. 2011
    ..Here we focus on bioactive compounds and interactions associated with phytoplankton, particularly bloom-forming diatoms, prymnesiophytes and dinoflagellates...
  30. pmc Optimization of variable fluorescence measurements of phytoplankton communities with cyanobacteria
    Stefan G H Simis
    Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Marine Research Centre, Erik Palménin aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki, Finland
    Photosynth Res 112:13-30. 2012
    Excitation-emission fluorescence matrices of phytoplankton communities were simulated from laboratory-grown algae and cyanobacteria cultures, to define the optical configurations of theoretical fluorometers that either minimize or ..
  31. pmc Comparative metatranscriptomics identifies molecular bases for the physiological responses of phytoplankton to varying iron availability
    Adrian Marchetti
    School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E317-25. 2012
    In vast expanses of the oceans, growth of large phytoplankton such as diatoms is limited by iron availability. Diatoms respond almost immediately to the delivery of iron and rapidly compose the majority of phytoplankton biomass...
  32. ncbi Colorful niches of phototrophic microorganisms shaped by vibrations of the water molecule
    Maayke Stomp
    Aquatic Microbiology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    ISME J 1:271-82. 2007
    ..This suggests that vibrations of the water molecule have played a major role in the ecology and evolution of phototrophic microorganisms...
  33. ncbi The impact of surface-adsorbed phosphorus on phytoplankton Redfield stoichiometry
    Sergio A Sañudo-Wilhelmy
    Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 5000, USA
    Nature 432:897-901. 2004
    The Redfield ratio of 106 carbon:16 nitrogen:1 phosphorus in marine phytoplankton is one of the foundations of ocean biogeochemistry, with applications in algal physiology, palaeoclimatology and global climate change...
  34. pmc Warming oceans, phytoplankton, and river discharge: implications for cholera outbreaks
    Antarpreet S Jutla
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:303-8. 2011
    b>Phytoplankton abundance is inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST). However, a positive relationship is observed between SST and phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters of Bay of Bengal...
  35. ncbi Biochemistry: a cadmium enzyme from a marine diatom
    Todd W Lane
    Biosystems Research Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 0969, USA
    Nature 435:42. 2005
    ..The existence of a cadmium enzyme in marine phytoplankton may indicate that there is a unique selection pressure for metalloenzymes in the marine environment, and our ..
  36. ncbi Rapid successions affect microbial N-acetyl-glucosamine uptake patterns during a lacustrine spring phytoplankton bloom
    Ester M Eckert
    Limnological Station, Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zurich, Seestrasse 187, 8802 Kilchberg, Switzerland
    Environ Microbiol 14:794-806. 2012
    The vernal successions of phytoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and viruses in temperate lakes result in alternating dominance of top-down and bottom-up factors on the bacterial community...
  37. ncbi Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a hyper-eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu, China): the need for a dual nutrient (N & P) management strategy
    Hans W Paerl
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Institute of Marine Sciences, 3431 Arendell Street, Morehead City, NC 28557, USA
    Water Res 45:1973-83. 2011
    ..Denitrification did not relieve the lake of excessive N inputs. Results point to the need to reduce both N and P inputs for long-term eutrophication and cyanobacterial bloom control in this hyper-eutrophic system...
  38. ncbi Marine natural products
    D John Faulkner
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0212, USA
    Nat Prod Rep 19:1-48. 2002
    ..literature for the year 2000 and is organized phylogenetically, with sections on marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates...
  39. ncbi Application of hydrogen peroxide for the removal of toxic cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton from wastewater
    Dani J Barrington
    Aquatic Ecology and Ecosystem Studies, School of Environmental Systems Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, M015, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia
    Environ Sci Technol 42:8916-21. 2008
    b>Phytoplankton blooms containing elevated levels of cyanobacteria are common in wastewatertreatment plants...
  40. ncbi Community composition and consumer identity determine the effect of resource species diversity on rates of consumption
    Anita Narwani
    Water and Aquatic Sciences Research Program, Department of Biology, University of Victoria, P O Box 3020, Station C S C, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3N5, Canada
    Ecology 91:3441-7; discussion 3503-14. 2010
    ..Our results demonstrate that resource species diversity can modulate rates of consumption through the action of multiple different mechanisms...
  41. pmc Global distribution patterns of distinct clades of the photosynthetic picoeukaryote Ostreococcus
    Elif Demir-Hilton
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, USA
    ISME J 5:1095-107. 2011
    ..In situ growth rate estimates using these primer-probes and better comprehension of physiology will enhance ecological understanding of Ostreococcus Clades OII and OI which appear to be oceanic and coastal clades, respectively...
  42. pmc Biogeography of photosynthetic light-harvesting genes in marine phytoplankton
    Thomas S Bibby
    School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e4601. 2009
    ....
  43. ncbi Direct and indirect effects of the fungicide azoxystrobin in outdoor brackish water microcosms
    Kerstin Gustafsson
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden
    Ecotoxicology 19:431-44. 2010
    ..There were also significant secondary effects on zooplankton and phytoplankton community structure, standing stocks and primary production...
  44. ncbi Growth inhibition of cultured marine phytoplankton by toxic algal-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes
    Francois Ribalet
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn di Napoli, Villa Comunale, I80121 Napoli, Italy
    Aquat Toxicol 85:219-27. 2007
    ..However, very little information is available on their effect on phytoplankton. Here, we expand previous studies to six species of marine phytoplankton, belonging to different taxonomic ..
  45. ncbi Links between phytoplankton and bacterial community dynamics in a coastal marine environment
    J N Rooney-Varga
    Center for Complex Environmental Systems, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
    Microb Ecol 49:163-75. 2005
    Bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics are thought to be closely linked in coastal marine environments, with correlations frequently observed between bacterial and phytoplankton biomass...
  46. ncbi Southern Ocean deep-water carbon export enhanced by natural iron fertilization
    Raymond T Pollard
    National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Natural Environment Research Council and University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK
    Nature 457:577-80. 2009
    The addition of iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions induces phytoplankton blooms that take up carbon...
  47. ncbi Marine natural products
    John W Blunt
    Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Nat Prod Rep 20:1-48. 2003
    ..for the period January to December 2001) and includes 793 compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates and echinoderms...
  48. ncbi Bottom-up ecosystem trophic dynamics determine fish production in the Northeast Pacific
    Daniel M Ware
    Aquatic Ecosystem Associates, 3674 Planta Road, Nanaimo, BC V9T 1M2, Canada
    Science 308:1280-4. 2005
    ..Zooplankton data for coastal British Columbia confirm strong bottom-up trophic linkages between phytoplankton, zooplankton, and resident fish, extending to regional areas as small as 10,000 square kilometers.
  49. ncbi Significant CO2 fixation by small prymnesiophytes in the subtropical and tropical northeast Atlantic Ocean
    Ludwig Jardillier
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
    ISME J 4:1180-92. 2010
    ..Organisms < or =5 microm in size dominate open ocean phytoplankton communities in terms of abundance and CO(2) fixation, with the cyanobacterial genera Prochlorococcus and ..
  50. ncbi The evolutionary inheritance of elemental stoichiometry in marine phytoplankton
    Antonietta Quigg
    Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology Program, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Jersey 08901, USA
    Nature 425:291-4. 2003
    b>Phytoplankton is a nineteenth century ecological construct for a biologically diverse group of pelagic photoautotrophs that share common metabolic functions but not evolutionary histories...
  51. pmc Pseudo-cryptic speciation in coccolithophores
    Alberto G Saez
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Biology, Department of Biological Oceanography, Am Handelshafen 12, D 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7163-8. 2003
    ..Our results also provide strong support for the use of fine scale morphological characters of coccoliths in the fossil record to improve biostratigraphic resolution and paleoceanographic data retrieval...
  52. pmc Diversity predicts stability and resource use efficiency in natural phytoplankton communities
    Robert Ptacnik
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5134-8. 2008
    ..we still do not know whether these relationships apply also for communities of unicellular organisms, such as phytoplankton, which contribute approximately 50% to the global primary production...
  53. ncbi The co-evolution of phytoplankton and trace element cycles in the oceans
    Francois M M Morel
    Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Geobiology 6:318-24. 2008
    ..This is made possible in part by the ability of marine phytoplankton to replace one trace metal by another in various biochemical functions...
  54. ncbi Marine natural products
    John W Blunt
    Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Nat Prod Rep 22:15-61. 2005
    ..413 for the period January to December 2003) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates and echinoderms...
  55. ncbi Architecture and material properties of diatom shells provide effective mechanical protection
    Christian E Hamm
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
    Nature 421:841-3. 2003
    Diatoms are the major contributors to phytoplankton blooms in lakes and in the sea and hence are central in aquatic ecosystems and the global carbon cycle...
  56. pmc Viral activation and recruitment of metacaspases in the unicellular coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi
    Kay D Bidle
    Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology Group, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 71 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6049-54. 2007
    Lytic viral infection and programmed cell death (PCD) are thought to represent two distinct death mechanisms in phytoplankton, unicellular photoautotrophs that drift with ocean currents...
  57. ncbi Counterintuitive carbon-to-nutrient coupling in an Arctic pelagic ecosystem
    T F Thingstad
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Jahnebakken 5PO Box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway
    Nature 455:387-90. 2008
    ..When bacteria were limited by organic carbon, however, addition of labile dissolved organic carbon reduced phytoplankton biomass and activity and also the rate at which total organic carbon accumulated, explained as the result of ..
  58. ncbi Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate
    T D Jickells
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR47TJ, UK
    Science 308:67-71. 2005
    ..Here we review the key components of this cycle, identifying critical uncertainties and priorities for future research...
  59. ncbi Controls on tropical Pacific Ocean productivity revealed through nutrient stress diagnostics
    Michael J Behrenfeld
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Cordley Hall 2082, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 2902, USA
    Nature 442:1025-8. 2006
    ..Here we link unique fluorescence attributes of phytoplankton to specific physiological responses to nutrient stress, and use these relationships to evaluate the factors ..
  60. pmc Phosphate transporters in marine phytoplankton and their viruses: cross-domain commonalities in viral-host gene exchanges
    Adam Monier
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, 7700 Sandholdt Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA
    Environ Microbiol 14:162-76. 2012
    ..Here, we analyse genes encoding transporters in genomes from viruses that infect eukaryotic phytoplankton. We identified inorganic PO(4) transporter-encoding genes from the PHO4 superfamily in several virus genomes, ..
  61. ncbi Phosphorus limits phytoplankton growth on the Louisiana shelf during the period of hypoxia formation
    Jason B Sylvan
    Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, 71 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901 8521, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:7548-53. 2006
    ..Identification of the nutrient(s) limiting phytoplankton growth on the shelf and their sources is important for developing hypoxia-reduction strategies; nitrogen (N) ..
  62. ncbi Respiration in the light and bacterio-phytoplankton coupling in a coastal environment
    Olivier Pringault
    UR 103 CAMELIA, Centre IRD de Noumea, BP A5 98848, Noumea, New Caledonia, France
    Microb Ecol 57:321-34. 2009
    ..These results show that the impact of light on the functioning of the microbial loop needs to be taken into account for a better understanding of the oceanic carbon cycle...
  63. ncbi Influence of temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and glycine betaine by marine phytoplankton
    Astrid Spielmeyer
    Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University, Lessingstr 8, 07743 Jena D, Germany
    Mar Environ Res 73:62-9. 2012
    ..Therefore, we analyzed DMSP in different phytoplankton cultures (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Emiliania huxleyi) under the influence of ..
  64. pmc Phytoplankton distribution patterns in the northwestern Sargasso Sea revealed by small subunit rRNA genes from plastids
    Alexander H Treusch
    Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    ISME J 6:481-92. 2012
    b>Phytoplankton species vary in their physiological properties, and are expected to respond differently to seasonal changes in water column conditions...
  65. ncbi Monitoring phytoplankton, bacterioplankton, and virioplankton in a coastal inlet (Bedford Basin) by flow cytometry
    W K Li
    Biological Oceanography Section, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Cytometry 44:236-46. 2001
    ..To establish the prevailing state of the ecosystem for the assessment of long-term change, the abundance of microbial plankton in Bedford Basin (Nova Scotia, Canada) is monitored weekly by flow cytometry...
  66. ncbi Spectral niche complementarity and carbon dynamics in pelagic ecosystems
    Maren Striebel
    Department Biology II, Aquatic Ecology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Grosshaderner Strasse 2, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany
    Am Nat 174:141-7. 2009
    ..approximately half of the world's primary production, few studies have reported on the relationship between phytoplankton biodiversity and planktonic primary production...
  67. pmc Changes in bacterioplankton composition under different phytoplankton regimens
    Jarone Pinhassi
    Institut de Ciències del Mar CMIMA CSIC, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:6753-66. 2004
    The results of empirical studies have revealed links between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton, such as the frequent correlation between chlorophyll a and bulk bacterial abundance and production...
  68. ncbi Light and nutrient availability affect the size-scaling of growth in phytoplankton
    Zhi Ping Mei
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada
    J Theor Biol 259:582-8. 2009
    Communities of marine phytoplankton consist of cells of many different sizes. The size-structure of these communities often varies predictably with environmental conditions in aquatic systems...
  69. ncbi The coupling of biodiversity and productivity in phytoplankton communities: consequences for biomass stoichiometry
    Maren Striebel
    Department Biology II, Aquatic Ecology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Grosshaderner Strasse 2, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany
    Ecology 90:2025-31. 2009
    ..We performed controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of phytoplankton biodiversity on phytoplankton stoichiometry...
  70. ncbi Phytoplankton and cloudiness in the Southern Ocean
    Nicholas Meskhidze
    School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
    Science 314:1419-23. 2006
    The effect of ocean biological productivity on marine clouds is explored over a large phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean with the use of remotely sensed data...
  71. pmc A universal driver of macroevolutionary change in the size of marine phytoplankton over the Cenozoic
    Z V Finkel
    Environmental Science Program and Mathematics and Computer Science Department, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:20416-20. 2007
    The size structure of phytoplankton assemblages strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling in the ocean...
  72. ncbi Unsaturated fatty acid content in seston and tropho-dynamic coupling in lakes
    Dörthe C Müller-Navarra
    University of California, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Nature 427:69-72. 2004
    ..The empirical relationship between nutrient loading (total phosphorus) and phytoplankton standing stock (chlorophyll a) in lakes was described about 30 years ago and is central for managing surface ..
  73. ncbi Independent gradients of producer, consumer, and microbial diversity in lake plankton
    Allyson Longmuir
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Ecology 88:1663-74. 2007
    ..Here we examine correlations in diversity among zooplankton, phytoplankton, and bacteria in the pelagic zone of 31 lakes in British Columbia, Canada...
  74. pmc Temporal variations in the dynamics of potentially microcystin-producing strains in a bloom-forming Planktothrix agardhii (Cyanobacterium) population
    Enora Briand
    MNHN, USM505 EA4105 Ecosystèmes et interactions toxiques, 57 rue Cuvier, case 39, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3839-48. 2008
    ....
  75. ncbi Is there a decline in marine phytoplankton?
    Abigail McQuatters-Gollop
    Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, PL1 2PB, UK
    Nature 472:E6-7; discussion E8-9. 2011
  76. ncbi Controlling harmful algal blooms through clay flocculation
    Mario R Sengco
    Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 51:169-72. 2004
    ..At this time, clay dispersal continues to be a promising method for controlling HABs and mitigating their impacts based on existing information and experimental data...
  77. ncbi A systematic study on spatial and seasonal patterns of eight taste and odor compounds with relation to various biotic and abiotic parameters in Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu, China
    Jun Chen
    Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Donghu South Road 7, Wuhan 430072, PR China
    Sci Total Environ 409:314-25. 2010
    ..Spatially, Nanquan Waterworks faced more risk by T&O contamination than Xidong Waterworks. High concentrations of NO(3)-N, TDN and TN could be risky signs of taste and odor events by DMS, DMTS, IPMP, IBMP and GEO...
  78. ncbi Sulfur and phytoplankton: acquisition, metabolism and impact on the environment
    Mario Giordano
    Laboratorio di Fisiologia Algale, Dipartimento di Scienze del Mare, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
    New Phytol 166:371-82. 2005
    Sulfur emission from marine phytoplankton has been recognized as an important factor for global climate and as an entry into the biogeochemical S cycle...
  79. ncbi Green evolution and dynamic adaptations revealed by genomes of the marine picoeukaryotes Micromonas
    Alexandra Z Worden
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA 95039 USA
    Science 324:268-72. 2009
    ..Analyses of the Micromonas genomes offer valuable insights into ecological differentiation and the dynamic nature of early plant evolution...
  80. ncbi Penetration of ultraviolet radiation in the marine environment. A review
    Marc Tedetti
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie Géochimie et Ecologie Marines, CNRS INSU, UMR 6117, Centre d Oceanologie de Marseille, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille, France
    Photochem Photobiol 82:389-97. 2006
    ..We also compare in this study the penetration of UV-B (unweighted and weighted by the Setlow action spectrum) and DNA damage effective dose...
  81. ncbi Phytoplankton community succession shaping bacterioplankton community composition in Lake Taihu, China
    Yuan Niu
    Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, PR China
    Water Res 45:4169-82. 2011
    ..DGGE) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to explore the relationship between succession of phytoplankton community and temporal variation of bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in the eutrophic Lake Taihu...
  82. pmc The mixed lineage nature of nitrogen transport and assimilation in marine eukaryotic phytoplankton: a case study of micromonas
    Sarah M McDonald
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 27:2268-83. 2010
    ..Nitrogen is often considered a regulating factor for phytoplankton populations...
  83. ncbi Diversity of active marine picoeukaryotes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea unveiled using photosystem-II psbA transcripts
    Dikla Man-Aharonovich
    Faculty of Biology, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
    ISME J 4:1044-52. 2010
    ....
  84. ncbi Use of flow cytometric sorting to better assess the diversity of small photosynthetic eukaryotes in the English Channel
    Dominique Marie
    Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 06 et CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique, Roscoff, France
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 72:165-78. 2010
    ..The new strategy should be very useful to conduct similar studies on other specific populations that can be discriminated by flow cytometry (e.g. red tide organisms or uncultivated protists)...
  85. pmc Modeling selective pressures on phytoplankton in the global ocean
    Jason G Bragg
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9569. 2010
    ....
  86. ncbi Patterns of diversity in marine phytoplankton
    Andrew D Barton
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 327:1509-11. 2010
    ..We examined a global ocean circulation, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem model that indicated a decrease in phytoplankton diversity with increasing latitude, consistent with observations of many marine and terrestrial taxa...
  87. pmc Intracellular uptake: a possible mechanism for silver engineered nanoparticle toxicity to a freshwater alga Ochromonas danica
    Ai Jun Miao
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 5:e15196. 2010
    ..Therefore, nanoparticle internalization may be an alternative pathway through which algal growth can be influenced...
  88. pmc Quantification of dissolved and particulate polyunsaturated aldehydes in the Adriatic sea
    Charles Vidoudez
    Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University, Lessingstrasse 8, 743 Jena, Germany
    Mar Drugs 9:500-13. 2011
    ..We monitored dissolved PUA, as well as particulate PUA, which are produced by phytoplankton after cell disintegration. Our survey revealed a patchy distribution of PUA and shows that at most stations S...
  89. ncbi Sensitivity of coccolithophores to carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification
    L Beaufort
    CEREGE, CNRS Université Aix Marseille, Avenue L Philibert BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence, Cedex 4, France
    Nature 476:80-3. 2011
    ..Coccolithophores are abundant phytoplankton that are responsible for a large part of modern oceanic carbonate production...
  90. ncbi Cryptophyte algae are robbed of their organelles by the marine ciliate Mesodinium rubrum
    D E Gustafson
    University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, Horn Point Laboratory, Cambridge 21613, USA
    Nature 405:1049-52. 2000
    ..M. rubrum does not fall into recognized cellular or functional categories, but may be a chimaera partially supported by organelle robbery...
  91. ncbi Producing mechanism of an algicidal compound against red tide phytoplankton in a marine bacterium gamma-proteobacterium
    Takuji Nakashima
    Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852 8521, Japan
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73:684-90. 2006
    ..This bacterium and other algicidal bacteria might be concerned in regulating the blooms of harmful flagellate algae through the quorum sensing system...
  92. ncbi Variation of phytoplankton biomass and primary production in Daya Bay during spring and summer
    Xingyu Song
    LED and MBRSD, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS, 510301, China
    Mar Pollut Bull 49:1036-44. 2004
    Environmental factors, phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) and primary production of two water areas in Daya Bay (Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay) were investigated during the transition period from spring to summer. Chl a ranged from 3.20 to 13...
  93. ncbi Algicidal bacteria in the sea and their impact on algal blooms
    Xavier Mayali
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0202, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 51:139-44. 2004
    Over the past two decades, many reports have revealed the existence of bacteria capable of killing phytoplankton. These algicidal bacteria sometimes increase in abundance concurrently with the decline of algal blooms, suggesting that ..
  94. ncbi Ecological environment changes in Daya Bay, China, from 1982 to 2004
    You Shao Wang
    Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
    Mar Pollut Bull 56:1871-9. 2008
    ..9 g m(-2) in 1991 to 45.24 g m(-2) in 2004 and from 250 species in 1991 to 177 species in 2004. A total of 12-19 species of hermatypic corals and 13 species of mangrove plants were observed in Daya Bay from 1984 to 2002...
  95. ncbi Shotgun proteomic analysis of Emiliania huxleyi, a marine phytoplankton species of major biogeochemical importance
    Bethan M Jones
    School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 13:496-504. 2011
    Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular marine phytoplankton species known to play a significant role in global biogeochemistry...
  96. ncbi Global phytoplankton decline over the past century
    Daniel G Boyce
    Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3H 4J1
    Nature 466:591-6. 2010
    In the oceans, ubiquitous microscopic phototrophs (phytoplankton) account for approximately half the production of organic matter on Earth...
  97. ncbi Marine ecology: Spring algal bloom and larval fish survival
    Trevor Platt
    Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Ocean Sciences Division, Box 1006, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 4A2, Canada
    Nature 423:398-9. 2003
  98. ncbi Iron deficiency induces the formation of an antenna ring around trimeric photosystem I in cyanobacteria
    T S Bibby
    Wolfson Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    Nature 412:743-5. 2001
    ..the aquatic ecosystems-particularly the open oceans-is sufficiently low to limit photosynthetic activity and phytoplankton growth...
  99. ncbi Isolation and characterisation of a cytotoxic polyunsaturated aldehyde from the marine phytoplankter Phaeocystis pouchetii (Hariot) Lagerheim
    Espen Hansen
    Department of Aquatic Biosciences, NFH, University of Tromsø, N 9037 Tromsø, Norway
    Toxicology 199:207-17. 2004
    ..This is the first report of a polyunsaturated aldehyde produced by a marine alga belonging to the class Haptophyceae, and this implies that production and release of these reactive compounds are not limited to diatoms...
  100. ncbi Global biodiversity patterns of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton
    Xabier Irigoien
    AZTI, Arrantza eta Elikaigintzarako Institutu Teknologikoa, Herrera Kaia Portualdea, 20110 Pasaia, Spain
    Nature 429:863-7. 2004
    Although the oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface, our knowledge of biodiversity patterns in marine phytoplankton and zooplankton is very limited compared to that of the biodiversity of plants and herbivores in the terrestrial world...
  101. ncbi A small population of planktonic Flavobacteria with disproportionally high growth during the spring phytoplankton bloom in a prealpine lake
    Michael Zeder
    Limnological Station Kilchberg, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Environ Microbiol 11:2676-86. 2009
    Bacterioplankton growth in temperate Lake Zurich (Switzerland) was studied during the spring phytoplankton bloom by in situ techniques and short-term dilution bioassays...

Research Grants12

  1. Epidemiology and Ecology of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh
    Richard Bradley Sack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cholerae. By tracking their phytoplankton food source, using satellite monitoring of chlorophyll a concentration, it is possible to estimate zooplankton ..
  2. Effects of Climate Change on Cholera Dynamics and Prediction
    Shafiqul Islam; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..from the large river basins in altering the relationships and seasonality of sea surface temperature (SST) and phytoplankton;(2) Quantify the effects of hydrologic and climatic extremes on cholera dynamics for different regions;(3) ..
  3. Development of novel detection and prediction algorithms for Microcystis blooms
    Timothy Moore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of seasoned oceanographers with many years of experience in instrumentation, bio-optics, remote sensing, phytoplankton and HAB ecology, and algorithm development, bringing a complimentary and comprehensive set of expertise to the ..
  4. Dissecting Biomineralization by Mining the Transcriptome of Three Closely Related
    BETSY ANNE READ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They are the third most prominent group of phytoplankton with over 300 extant species, each of which displays a unique calcium carbonate cell covering...
  5. THE METABOLISM OF STEROLS FROM SHELLFISH AND ALGAE
    WILLIAM CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..What is the origin of these different sterols, particularly in shellfish, biosynthetic or dietary from phytoplankton? Sterols will be purified from shellfish and algae for studies of their absorption and turnover in man...
  6. METHOD FOR ISOLATING AND STUDYING MARINE MICROORGANISMS
    Yevgenya Akselband; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Using phytoplankton as a model system, a gel microdrop (GMD) assay which permits flow cytometric sorting of different bacteria ..
  7. THE PHOTOBIOLOGY OF VITAMIN D
    Michael Holick; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Results from this study should provide important new insights into the photoproduction of toxisterols and suprasterols in human skin and provide new information about their potential biologic functions in the skin. ..
  8. PTH (7-34) for Chemotherapy alopecia in Breast Cancer
    Michael Holick; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. One dimensional transport equations for CE systems by asymptotic homogenization
    Sandip Ghosal; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The emergence of such devices would have an enormous impact on human health as they would enable biochemical analyses (such as DNA sequencing) that currently take months or years to be completed in minutes. ..
  10. PAH/Metal exposure and effects assessment in Chattanooga
    Sean Richards; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..5) Quantify the potential for the residents of South Chattanooga to be exposed and affected by PAHs and metals present in area soil by using the data generated in this study in a probabilistic risk assessment. ..
  11. VIBRIO CHOLERAE PLANKTON COLONIZATION
    Farooq Azam; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. REGULATION OF BILIPROTEIN IN CYANOBACTERIA
    DONALD BRYANT; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These last studies could explain bloom disappearance in natural populations and could suggest new approaches for the control of problematic or toxic cyanobacteria in water supplies. ..