pneumocystis

Summary

Summary: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Search for primary infection by Pneumocystis carinii in a cohort of normal, healthy infants
    S L Vargas
    Program in Microbiology, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicus, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Clin Infect Dis 32:855-61. 2001
  2. pmc Immune-mediated inflammation directly impairs pulmonary function, contributing to the pathogenesis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    T W Wright
    Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Clin Invest 104:1307-17. 1999
  3. pmc Pneumocystis activates human alveolar macrophage NF-kappaB signaling through mannose receptors
    Jianmin Zhang
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Infect Immun 72:3147-60. 2004
  4. ncbi Association between a specific Pneumocystis jiroveci dihydropteroate synthase mutation and failure of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine prophylaxis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients
    Aimable Nahimana
    Hospital of Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Infect Dis 188:1017-23. 2003
  5. ncbi Evolving health effects of Pneumocystis: one hundred years of progress in diagnosis and treatment
    Joseph A Kovacs
    Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, Room 2C145, MSC 1662, Bethesda, MD 20892 1662, USA
    JAMA 301:2578-85. 2009
  6. ncbi Mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase gene of human-derived Pneumocystis carinii isolates from Italy are infrequent but correlate with prior sulfa prophylaxis
    Liang Ma
    Critical Care Medicine Department, Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1662, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:1530-2. 2002
  7. ncbi Analysis of underlying diseases and prognosis factors associated with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunocompromised HIV-negative patients
    F Roblot
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, La Miletrie, University Hospital, 86021 Poitiers Cedex, France
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 21:523-31. 2002
  8. ncbi Pneumocystis carinii mutations are associated with duration of sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis exposure in AIDS patients
    P Kazanjian
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Dept of Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0378, USA
    J Infect Dis 182:551-7. 2000
  9. ncbi Outbreaks and clustering of Pneumocystis pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review
    Mark G J de Boer
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands
    Med Mycol 49:673-80. 2011
  10. ncbi Pneumocystis: from a doubtful unique entity to a group of highly diversified fungal species
    Magali Chabé
    Biology and Diversity of Emergent Eukaryotic Pathogens BDEEP Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, Pasteur Institute of Lille, Inserm U1019, CNRS UMR 8204, University Lille Nord de France, Lille, France
    FEMS Yeast Res 11:2-17. 2011

Detail Information

Publications237 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Search for primary infection by Pneumocystis carinii in a cohort of normal, healthy infants
    S L Vargas
    Program in Microbiology, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicus, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Clin Infect Dis 32:855-61. 2001
    To determine whether Pneumocystis carinii is associated with clinical illness in the competent host, 107 normal, healthy infants were enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study in Chile. P...
  2. pmc Immune-mediated inflammation directly impairs pulmonary function, contributing to the pathogenesis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    T W Wright
    Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Clin Invest 104:1307-17. 1999
    The clinical severity of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) correlates closely with the appearance of pulmonary markers of inflammation...
  3. pmc Pneumocystis activates human alveolar macrophage NF-kappaB signaling through mannose receptors
    Jianmin Zhang
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Infect Immun 72:3147-60. 2004
    ..macrophages (AM) represent important effector cells in the innate immune response to the AIDS-related pathogen Pneumocystis, but the early AM host defense signaling events are poorly defined...
  4. ncbi Association between a specific Pneumocystis jiroveci dihydropteroate synthase mutation and failure of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine prophylaxis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients
    Aimable Nahimana
    Hospital of Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Infect Dis 188:1017-23. 2003
    To investigate the possible association between different prophylactic sulfa drugs and the genotype of the Pneumocystis jiroveci dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene, we examined DHPS polymorphisms in clinical specimens from 158 ..
  5. ncbi Evolving health effects of Pneumocystis: one hundred years of progress in diagnosis and treatment
    Joseph A Kovacs
    Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, Room 2C145, MSC 1662, Bethesda, MD 20892 1662, USA
    JAMA 301:2578-85. 2009
    2009 marks the 100th anniversary of the first description of Pneumocystis, an organism that was ignored for much of its first 50 years but that has subsequently been recognized as an important pathogen of immunocompromised patients, ..
  6. ncbi Mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase gene of human-derived Pneumocystis carinii isolates from Italy are infrequent but correlate with prior sulfa prophylaxis
    Liang Ma
    Critical Care Medicine Department, Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1662, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:1530-2. 2002
    Mutations in the human-derived Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene have been reported with increasing frequency and have been linked to prior sulfa prophylaxis and possible emergence of sulfa resistance...
  7. ncbi Analysis of underlying diseases and prognosis factors associated with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunocompromised HIV-negative patients
    F Roblot
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, La Miletrie, University Hospital, 86021 Poitiers Cedex, France
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 21:523-31. 2002
    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the underlying diseases associated with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised HIV-negative patients and to identify prognosis factors in this population...
  8. ncbi Pneumocystis carinii mutations are associated with duration of sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis exposure in AIDS patients
    P Kazanjian
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Dept of Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0378, USA
    J Infect Dis 182:551-7. 2000
    This study was conducted to determine whether Pneumocystis carinii dyhydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations in AIDS patients with P...
  9. ncbi Outbreaks and clustering of Pneumocystis pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review
    Mark G J de Boer
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands
    Med Mycol 49:673-80. 2011
    From 1980 onwards, an increasing number of outbreaks of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) among kidney transplant recipients have been reported. The cause of these outbreaks is unclear and different explanations have been provided...
  10. ncbi Pneumocystis: from a doubtful unique entity to a group of highly diversified fungal species
    Magali Chabé
    Biology and Diversity of Emergent Eukaryotic Pathogens BDEEP Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, Pasteur Institute of Lille, Inserm U1019, CNRS UMR 8204, University Lille Nord de France, Lille, France
    FEMS Yeast Res 11:2-17. 2011
    At the end of the 20th century the unique taxonomically enigmatic entity called Pneumocystis carinii was identified as a heterogeneous group of microscopic Fungi, constituted of multiple stenoxenic biological entities largely spread ..
  11. pmc Airway obstruction is increased in pneumocystis-colonized human immunodeficiency virus-infected outpatients
    Alison Morris
    University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 628 NW MUH, 3459 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3773-6. 2009
    We investigated the relationship of Pneumocystis colonization, matrix metalloprotease levels in sputum, and airway obstruction in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected outpatients...
  12. pmc Immune responses to Pneumocystis murina are robust in healthy mice but largely absent in CD40 ligand-deficient mice
    Beatriz Hernandez-Novoa
    Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, NIH, Building 10, Room 2C145, MSC 1662, Bethesda, MD 20892 1662, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 84:420-30. 2008
    b>Pneumocystis is a pathogen of immunocompromised hosts but can also infect healthy hosts, in whom infection is rapidly controlled and cleared...
  13. ncbi Pneumocystis species, co-evolution and pathogenic power
    Cécile Marie Aliouat-Denis
    Parasitology Mycology Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, EA3609 Lille 2 University, IFR 142 Lille Pasteur Institute, France
    Infect Genet Evol 8:708-26. 2008
    The genus Pneumocystis comprises uncultured, highly diversified microfungal organisms able to attach specifically to type-I alveolar epithelial cells and to proliferate in pulmonary alveoli provoking severe pneumonitis...
  14. ncbi Neonatal T cells in an adult lung environment are competent to resolve Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    M H Qureshi
    Departments of Internal Medicine, Microbiology, and Immunology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Kentucky and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    J Immunol 166:5704-11. 2001
    Initiation of the pulmonary inflammatory response to Pneumocystis carinii is delayed by 3 wk in mice infected as neonates compared with adults...
  15. pmc Mutations of Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydrofolate reductase associated with failure of prophylaxis
    Aimable Nahimana
    Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 48, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4301-5. 2004
    Most drugs used for prevention and treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia target enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of folic acid, i.e., dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Emergence of P...
  16. ncbi Stealth and opportunism: alternative lifestyles of species in the fungal genus Pneumocystis
    Melanie T Cushion
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0560, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 64:431-52. 2010
    b>Pneumocystis species are ascomycetous fungi that obligatorily dwell with no apparent ill effect in the lungs of normal mammals, but they become pathogenic when host defenses are compromised...
  17. pmc Correlation of organism burden and alveolar macrophage counts during infection with Pneumocystis carinii and recovery
    Mark E Lasbury
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:293-302. 2003
    Changes in the number of alveolar macrophages were correlated with organism burden during Pneumocystis carinii infection. The lungs of healthy, dexamethasone-treated, and dexamethasone-treated and P...
  18. pmc Mutations in the Pneumocystis jirovecii DHPS gene confer cross-resistance to sulfa drugs
    Peter Iliades
    CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:741-8. 2005
    b>Pneumocystis jirovecii is a major opportunistic pathogen that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and results in a high degree of mortality in immunocompromised individuals...
  19. pmc Conserved natural IgM antibodies mediate innate and adaptive immunity against the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis murina
    Rekha R Rapaka
    Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Allergy, and Immunology, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
    J Exp Med 207:2907-19. 2010
    ..Antibodies generated in mice vaccinated with the fungus Pneumocystis prevent growth of Pneumocystis organisms within the lungs, but the mechanisms whereby antibodies enhance ..
  20. pmc Evaluation of diagnostic value and epidemiological implications of PCR for Pneumocystis carinii in different immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patient groups
    A Sing
    Max von Pettenkofer Institut fur Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, 80336 Munich, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 38:1461-7. 2000
    To evaluate the value of single and nested PCRs for diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in a variety of respiratorily distressed patient groups, 574 respiratory samples from 334 patients (89 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]..
  21. pmc Rapid detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: use of a simple DNA extraction procedure and nested PCR
    M Rabodonirina
    Departement de Parasitologie et de Mycologie, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon, France
    J Clin Microbiol 35:2748-51. 1997
    We report on the development of a rapid nested PCR protocol for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in which the protocol included the use of a commercially available DNA extraction kit (..
  22. ncbi CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells suppress CD4+ T cell-mediated pulmonary hyperinflammation driven by Pneumocystis carinii in immunodeficient mice
    Shohei Hori
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
    Eur J Immunol 32:1282-91. 2002
    The CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory response to Pneumocystis carinii (PC) critically contributes to the clinical severity of PC pneumonia...
  23. ncbi Fine analysis of the Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii genome by two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
    Emmanuel Cornillot
    Parasitologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, LBP, UMR CNRS 6023, Universite Blaise Pascal, Bâtiment Biologie A, Campus Universitaire des Cezeaux, Aubiere, France
    Gene 293:87-95. 2002
    b>Pneumocystis carinii is a general designation for a group of unusual unicellular fungal parasites responsible of pneumopathy in animal hosts. Divided into several subgroups termed the 'special forms', P...
  24. ncbi Pneumocystis carinii severe pneumonia among human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Thailand: the effect of a primary prophylaxis strategy
    K Chokephaibulkit
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 18:147-52. 1999
    A knowledge of the epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is important for the development of a strategy for primary PCP prophylaxis and empiric treatment for severe pneumonia in HIV-infected children...
  25. ncbi Pulmonary fungal infection with yeasts and pneumocystis in patients with hematological malignancy
    Livio Pagano
    Istituto di Ematologia, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Roma, Italy
    Ann Med 37:259-69. 2005
    ..commonly, pneumonia could be due to other 'no-molds' fungal agents such as Candida spp, Cryptococcus spp, or Pneumocystis jirovecii ...
  26. ncbi Evidence for the requirement of T cell costimulation in the pathogenesis of natural Pneumocystis carinii pulmonary infection
    Roxanne Baumgartner
    Naval Medical Research Center, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA
    Microb Pathog 33:193-201. 2002
    b>Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a frequent and serious opportunistic infection in immunocompromized patients...
  27. pmc Identification of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis gene sequences in filtered air in hospital environments
    M Olsson
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
    J Clin Microbiol 36:1737-40. 1998
    To evaluate the risk of a nosocomial spread of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis (P. carinii hominis), air filter samples from rooms of P...
  28. ncbi Clearance of Pneumocystis carinii cysts in acute P carinii pneumonia: assessment by serial sputum induction
    W J O'Donnell
    Pulmonary Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Chest 114:1264-8. 1998
    To determine the feasibility of repeat sputum induction in acute Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and to define the rate of clearance of P carinii cysts from the respiratory tract of HIV-seropositive patients with acute PCP.
  29. ncbi Identification of Pneumocystis carinii in the lungs of infants dying of sudden infant death syndrome
    D J Morgan
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY 14642, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 20:306-9. 2001
    BACKGROUND: Recently Pneumocystis carinii has been identified in a significant number of infants diagnosed as having died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in South America and Europe...
  30. ncbi New insights into transmission, diagnosis, and drug treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    J A Kovacs
    Critical Care Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, Room 7D43, MSC1662, Bethesda, MD 20892 1662, USA
    JAMA 286:2450-60. 2001
    b>Pneumocystis carinii has been recognized as a human pathogen for nearly 50 years. We present a case of P carinii infection that typifies clinical presentation in the era of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic...
  31. pmc Recapitulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of cytochrome b mutations conferring resistance to atovaquone in Pneumocystis jiroveci
    Philip Hill
    Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:2725-31. 2003
    b>Pneumocystis jiroveci (human-derived P. carinii) is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus which causes pneumonia and is life-threatening in immunocompromised individuals...
  32. ncbi Pneumocystis is not a direct cause of sudden infant death syndrome
    Sergio L Vargas
    Programa de Microbiología Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:81-3. 2007
    We compared the frequency of Pneumocystis in 126 sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases with a control group of 24 infants from the San Diego SIDS/SUDC Research Project who died of accidental or inflicted injuries...
  33. ncbi Pneumocystis oryctolagi sp. nov., an uncultured fungus causing pneumonia in rabbits at weaning: review of current knowledge, and description of a new taxon on genotypic, phylogenetic and phenotypic bases
    Eduardo Dei-Cas
    ECOPA EA 3609, Lille Pasteur Institute, Lille, France
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:853-71. 2006
    The genus Pneumocystis comprises noncultivable, highly diversified fungal pathogens dwelling in the lungs of mammals...
  34. ncbi IL-33 and M2a alveolar macrophages promote lung defense against the atypical fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina
    Michael P Nelson
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Immunol 186:2372-81. 2011
    ..tyrosine kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn (Src triple knockout [TKO]) had augmented innate lung clearance of Pneumocystis murina that correlated with a higher ability of alveolar macrophages (AMs) from these mice to kill P. murina...
  35. pmc Relationship between mutations in dihydropteroate synthase of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis isolates in Japan and resistance to sulfonamide therapy
    T Takahashi
    Departments of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 38:3161-4. 2000
    We examined mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) genes of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis (P. carinii) strains isolated from 24 patients with P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) in Japan...
  36. ncbi Alveolar macrophages from human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons demonstrate impaired oxidative burst response to Pneumocystis carinii in vitro
    H Koziel
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 23:452-9. 2000
    ..effector cell function against a variety of potential pathogens in the lungs, although the role against Pneumocystis carinii has not been fully investigated. The goals of this study were to characterize the P...
  37. ncbi Delayed inflammatory response to Pneumocystis carinii infection in neonatal mice is due to an inadequate lung environment
    B A Garvy
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Kentucky and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    J Immunol 165:6480-6. 2000
    Challenge of neonatal mice with an intranasal inoculation of Pneumocystis carinii results in a subclinical infection that takes 6 wk to resolve, whereas adult mice resolve a comparable challenge within 3 wk...
  38. ncbi Pneumocystis carinii cytochrome b mutations are associated with atovaquone exposure in patients with AIDS
    P Kazanjian
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Rm 3120B TC, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0378, USA
    J Infect Dis 183:819-22. 2001
    This retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine whether Pneumocystis carinii cytochrome b gene mutations in patients with AIDS and P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) are associated with atovaquone exposure. Portions of the P...
  39. ncbi Prophylaxis failure is associated with a specific Pneumocystis carinii genotype
    P M Hauser
    Division Autonome de Médecine Préventive Hospitalière, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Clin Infect Dis 33:1080-2. 2001
    To investigate the possible association between Pneumocystis carinii types and various clinical and demographic parameters, we used molecular typing to analyze 93 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from patients with P...
  40. ncbi Mutations in dihydropteroate synthase gene of Pneumocystis carinii in HIV patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    E Visconti
    Department of Infectious Diseases, , Largo F. Vito, 1 00168, Rome, Italy
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 18:547-51. 2001
    ..Results suggested that DHPS mutations were significantly associated with failure of anti-Pneumocystis carinii sulphone prophylaxis (P=0.031). An increasing number of mutant P...
  41. ncbi Effect of mutations in Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene on outcome of P carinii pneumonia in patients with HIV-1: a prospective study
    T R Navin
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious, Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Lancet 358:545-9. 2001
    BACKGROUND: Investigators have reported that patients infected with Pneumocystis carinii containing mutations in the DHPS (dihydropteroate synthase) gene have a worse outcome than those infected with P carinii containing wild-type DHPS...
  42. ncbi Genotypes of clustered cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    M Olsson
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Scand J Infect Dis 33:285-9. 2001
    Reports of outbreaks of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) among human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunocompromised patients have suggested a person-to-person transmission of P. carinii...
  43. ncbi Characterization of the expression site of the major surface glycoprotein of human-derived Pneumocystis carinii
    G Kutty
    Critical Care Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 7D43, MSC 1662, Bethesda, MD 20892-1662, USA
    Mol Microbiol 42:183-93. 2001
    The major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of Pneumocystis carinii, a pathogen responsible for pulmonary infection in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients, is an abundant surface protein that potentially allows the organism to evade host ..
  44. ncbi Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis in an adult HIV negative patient
    A C Toledo
    Eduardo Menezes Hospital, Hospitalar Foundation of Minas Gerais, MG, Brazil
    Braz J Infect Dis 5:154-7. 2001
    This is a case report of a 29 year old male with pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis, and who was initially suspected of having HIV infection, based on risk factor analyses, but was subsequently shown to be HIV negative...
  45. ncbi Pneumocystis infections: the iceberg?
    E Dei-Cas
    Dept Microbiology of Ecosystems, Pasteur Institute of Lille, Lille and Faculty of Medicine and Regional University Hospital Centre, France
    Med Mycol 38:23-32. 2000
    b>Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a well-recognized lung disease of immunocompromised patients, but the real impact of Pneumocystis infection in humans remains to be discovered...
  46. pmc Outbreaks of Pneumocystis pneumonia in 2 renal transplant centers linked to a single strain of Pneumocystis: implications for transmission and virulence
    Monica Sassi
    Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1662, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:1437-44. 2012
    There have been numerous reports of clustered outbreaks of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) at renal transplant centers over the past 2 decades...
  47. ncbi Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia
    Natsu Uemura
    Teikyo University Institute of Medical Mycology, 539 Otsuka, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 0395, Japan
    J Med Microbiol 57:50-7. 2008
    ..In this study a LAMP assay for diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) was developed...
  48. pmc Galleria mellonella are resistant to Pneumocystis murina infection
    Beth Burgwyn Fuchs
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Gray Jackson 504, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Mycopathologia 171:273-7. 2011
    Studying Pneumocystis has proven to be a challenge from the perspective of propagating a significant amount of the pathogen in a facile manner. The study of several fungal pathogens has been aided by the use of invertebrate model hosts...
  49. pmc Pneumocystis: a novel pathogen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
    Alison Morris
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    COPD 5:43-51. 2008
    ..b>Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungal pathogen that causes pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals...
  50. pmc Defective nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophages during Pneumocystis pneumonia
    Mark E Lasbury
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 5113, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 44:540-7. 2011
    The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on Pneumocystis (Pc) organisms, the role of NO in the defense against infection with Pc, and the production of NO by alveolar macrophages (AMs) during Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) were investigated...
  51. pmc The impact of CMV on the respiratory burst of macrophages in response to Pneumocystis carinii
    A L Laursen
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Marselisborg Hospital, University of Aarhus, Denmark
    Clin Exp Immunol 123:239-46. 2001
    ..macrophages with CMV decreased the respiratory burst when cells were stimulated with opsonized zymosan or Pneumocystis carinii (P. carinii)...
  52. pmc Immunization with Pneumocystis carinii gpA is immunogenic but not protective in a mouse model of P. carinii pneumonia
    F Gigliotti
    University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    Infect Immun 66:3179-82. 1998
    Immunization with whole Pneumocystis carinii has been shown to protect mice from the development of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) when they are subsequently immunosuppressed and challenged with viable organisms...
  53. pmc Downregulation of PU.1 leads to decreased expression of Dectin-1 in alveolar macrophages during Pneumocystis pneumonia
    Chen Zhang
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Infect Immun 78:1058-65. 2010
    ..the mRNA levels of the Dectin-1 gene were found to be decreased by 61% in alveolar macrophages (AMs) from Pneumocystis-infected mice...
  54. pmc Semisynthetic echinocandins affect cell wall deposition of Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and in vivo
    M S Bartlett
    Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202 5120, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40:1811-6. 1996
    ..class exhibit broad-spectrum antifungal activity and have been shown to be effective in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in laboratory animal models...
  55. ncbi Detection of Pneumocystis spp. in lung samples from pigs in Brazil
    E M Cavallini Sanches
    Sections of Veterinary Mycology, Departamento de Patologia Clinica Veterinaria, Faculdade de Veterinaria, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    Med Mycol 45:395-9. 2007
    The genus Pneumocystis is composed of opportunistic fungi currently considered as specific pulmonary pathogens in humans and other mammals...
  56. pmc Cellular responses to a 55-kilodalton recombinant Pneumocystis carinii antigen
    S A Theus
    Infectious Disease Division, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio
    Infect Immun 62:3479-84. 1994
    The host-parasite interaction in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is poorly understood. In recent years, two major groups of P. carinii antigens have been identified...
  57. pmc Pneumocystis carinii: what is it, exactly?
    J R Stringer
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH 45267 0524, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 9:489-98. 1996
    The identity of Pneumocystis carinii has been uncertain for many years. Until recently, it was widely regarded to be a protozoan because it does not grow in culture and is not susceptible to antifungal drugs...
  58. ncbi Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the innate immune response to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in mice
    R Paine
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Michigan, and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Immunol 164:2602-9. 2000
    Innate immunity plays an important role in pulmonary host defense against Pneumocystis carinii, an important pathogen in individuals with impaired cell-mediated immunity. We investigated the role of GM-CSF in host defense in a model of P...
  59. ncbi Association of primary Pneumocystis carinii infection and sudden infant death syndrome
    S L Vargas
    Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Clin Infect Dis 29:1489-93. 1999
    To delineate clinical and histological features of the first Pneumocystis carinii infection affecting the immunocompetent host, P...
  60. ncbi Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in B-cell lymphoma patients treated with the rituximab-CHOEP-14 regimen
    Arne Kolstad
    Haematologica 92:139-40. 2007
    We report six cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) verified by immunoflourescence/polymerase chain reaction of bronchoalveolar fluid among 46 lymphoma patients (13%) who received rituximab-CHOEP-14 at our institution...
  61. pmc Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: detection of parasites in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by monoclonal antibodies
    K M Elvin
    Department of Parasitology, National Bacteriological Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden
    BMJ 297:381-4. 1988
    Diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia is based on identifying Pneumocystis carinii cytochemically in material from the lung. The silver methenamine staining methods most commonly used are technically difficult and lack specificity...
  62. pmc Comparative genomics suggests that the fungal pathogen pneumocystis is an obligate parasite scavenging amino acids from its host's lungs
    Philippe M Hauser
    Institute of Microbiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 5:e15152. 2010
    b>Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus causing severe pneumonia in immuno-compromised patients. Progress in understanding its pathogenicity and epidemiology has been hampered by the lack of a long-term in vitro culture method...
  63. ncbi Carbohydrate recognition domain of surfactant protein D mediates interactions with Pneumocystis carinii glycoprotein A
    Z Vuk-Pavlovic
    Thoracic Diseases Research Unit, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 24:475-84. 2001
    b>Pneumocystis carinii continues to cause severe pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a lung collectin, markedly accumulates during P. carinii pneumonia and binds to glycoprotein A (gpA) on the surface of P...
  64. ncbi Real time quantitative PCR and RT--PCR for analysis of Pneumocystis carinii hominis
    K Kaiser
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Mycologie Médicale et Maladies Tropicales Hospices Civils de Lyon EA 3087 Université C Bernard Lyon I 8, avenue Rockefeller 69373, Lyon Cedex 08, France
    J Microbiol Methods 45:113-8. 2001
    b>Pneumocystis carinii hominis is a common cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients and particularly in those infected by HIV...
  65. ncbi Toll-deficient Drosophila are resistant to infection by Pneumocystis spp.: additional evidence of specificity to mammalian hosts
    Scott E Evans
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA
    Virulence 1:523-5. 2010
    b>Pneumocystis spp. are significant pathogens in a variety of mammals. We tried to establish a Drosophila model of pneumocystosis using either P. murina or P. carinii...
  66. pmc Detection of Pneumocystis carinii and characterization of mutations associated with sulfa resistance in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects
    Anna Zingale
    Infectious Diseases Division Clinical Molecular Biology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2709-12. 2003
    ..bronchoalveolar specimens were evaluated by microscopic examination and by amplification of a sequence of a Pneumocystis carinii dihidropteroate synthase gene for identification of mutations linked to sulfa resistance...
  67. ncbi Comparison of methods for identification of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
    Wilai Saksirisampant
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkom University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 85:S407-14. 2002
    b>Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in one of the most common life-threatening opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS...
  68. ncbi Clinical significance of nested polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence for detection of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    M Olsson
    Department of Parasitology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm, Sweden
    Clin Microbiol Infect 7:492-7. 2001
    To study the clinical significance of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method compared to immunofluorescence (IF) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii.
  69. ncbi Pneumocystis carinii infection in transgenic B cell-deficient mice
    H Marcotte
    Groupe de Recherche en Ecologie Buccale, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada
    J Infect Dis 173:1034-7. 1996
    b>Pneumocystis carinii is an important cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Both cellular and humoral immunity seem important in resistance to this pathogen, but the specific role of each component is poorly understood...
  70. pmc Type-I IFN signaling suppresses an excessive IFN-gamma response and thus prevents lung damage and chronic inflammation during Pneumocystis (PC) clearance in CD4 T cell-competent mice
    Nicole Meissner
    Veterinary Molecular Biology Department, Montana State University, 960 Technology Blvd, Bozeman, MT 59718, USA
    Am J Pathol 176:2806-18. 2010
    ..We recently demonstrated that during Pneumocystis (PC) infection in CD4 T cell-competent mice the absence of type-I IFN signaling results in chronic pulmonary ..
  71. ncbi [The diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA from induced sputum samples]
    Liwei Hua
    Chengde Medical College, Chengde, Hebei Province 067000, China
    Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 41:610-2. 2002
    To evaluate the diagnostic value of PCR for detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA from induced sputum samples.
  72. ncbi Identification of Pneumocystis carinii DNA in oropharyngeal mouth washes from AIDS children dying of respiratory illnesses
    Kennedy Lishimpi
    The UNZA UCLMS University of Zambia University College London Medical School Research and Training Project, Lusaka, Zambia
    AIDS 16:932-4. 2002
    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Pneumocystis carinii-specific primers pAZ 102-H(5'-GTGTACGTTGCAAAGTACTC-3') and pAZ 102-E(5'-GATGGCTGTTTCCAAGCCCA-3') was performed on oropharyngeal washes obtained at autopsy from 22 AIDS children ..
  73. ncbi The Pneumocystis life cycle
    Cécile Marie Aliouat-Denis
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Lille Nord de France, Lille, France
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104:419-26. 2009
    First recognised as 'schizonts' of Trypanosoma cruzi, Pneumocystis organisms are now considered as part of an early-diverging lineage of Ascomycetes...
  74. ncbi Analysis of Pneumocystis jirovecii DHPS alleles implicated in sulfamethoxazole resistance using an Escherichia coli model system
    Peter Iliades
    CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia
    Microb Drug Resist 11:1-8. 2005
    b>Pneumocystis jirovecii is a major opportunistic pathogen that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)...
  75. ncbi CD8 T cell-mediated lung damage in response to the extracellular pathogen pneumocystis is dependent on MHC class I expression by radiation-resistant lung cells
    Nicole N Meissner
    Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
    J Immunol 175:8271-9. 2005
    b>Pneumocystis, a fungal, extracellular pathogen causes a life-threatening pneumonia in patients with severe immunodeficiencies...
  76. pmc Urokinase-type plasminogen activator in inflammatory cell recruitment and host defense against Pneumocystis carinii in mice
    J M Beck
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0360, USA
    Infect Immun 67:879-84. 1999
    Effective host defense against Pneumocystis carinii depends upon the integrated actions of inflammatory cells and mediators in the lungs...
  77. ncbi The multifunctional folic acid synthesis fas gene of Pneumocystis carinii appears to encode dihydropteroate synthase and hydroxymethyldihydropterin pyrophosphokinase
    F Volpe
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Wellcome Research Laboratories, Kent, U K
    Gene 112:213-8. 1992
    We describe the cloning of a multifunctional folic acid synthesis (fas) gene from Pneumocystis carinii...
  78. pmc In vitro effector activity of Pneumocystis murina-specific T-cytotoxic-1 CD8+ T cells: role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
    Florencia McAllister
    Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Suite 3765, 3705 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Infect Immun 73:7450-7. 2005
    ..One of the most common opportunistic infections in these patients is Pneumocystis pneumonia. CD8+ T cells are recruited to the lung after P...
  79. pmc Combination exposure to zidovudine plus sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim diminishes B-lymphocyte immune responses to Pneumocystis murina infection in healthy mice
    David J Feola
    Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:193-201. 2006
    ..On day 4 after dosing completion, the mice were infected intratracheally with 1x10(7) Pneumocystis murina organisms...
  80. ncbi Effect of nicotine on lung S-adenosylmethionine and development of Pneumocystis pneumonia
    Mehboob Shivji
    Department of Medical and Molecular Parasitology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10010, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:15219-28. 2005
    Because S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is required by Pneumocystis carinii in vitro, Pneumocystis infection depletes plasma AdoMet of rats and humans, nicotine reduces AdoMet of guinea pig lungs, and smoking correlates with reduced ..
  81. pmc Persistent pneumocystis colonization leads to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a nonhuman primate model of AIDS
    Timothy W Shipley
    Department of Immunology, Division of Pulmonary, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:302-12. 2010
    ..Inflammation associated with subclinical infection has been postulated to promote COPD. Persistence of Pneumocystis is associated with HIV infection and COPD, although a causal relationship has not been established...
  82. pmc Effects of surfactant protein-A on the interaction of Pneumocystis murina with its host at different stages of the infection in mice
    Michael J Linke
    Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45220, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 56:58-65. 2009
    We examined the effects of surfactant protein A (SP-A), a collectin, on the interaction of Pneumocystis murina with its host at the beginning, early to middle, and late stages of infection...
  83. ncbi Pneumocystis colonization in HIV-infected patients
    Laurence Huang
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Positive Health Program, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:616-7. 2003
  84. pmc Isolation and expression of the Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase gene
    J C Edman
    Hormone Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0534
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:8625-9. 1989
    b>Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3) cDNA sequences have been isolated by their ability to confer trimethoprim resistance to Escherichia coli...
  85. ncbi Current insights into the biology and pathogenesis of Pneumocystis pneumonia
    Charles F Thomas
    Thoracic Diseases Research Unit, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:298-308. 2007
    The fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia is the most prevalent opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS...
  86. ncbi Pneumocystis cell wall beta-glucans induce dendritic cell costimulatory molecule expression and inflammatory activation through a Fas-Fas ligand mechanism
    Eva M Carmona
    Thoracic Diseases Research Unit, Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Immunol 177:459-67. 2006
    Respiratory failure during Pneumocystis pneumonia is mainly a consequence of exaggerated inflammatory responses to the organism...
  87. ncbi Pneumocystis and Trypanosoma cruzi: nomenclature and typifications
    Scott A Redhead
    National Program on Environmental Health Biodiversity, Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Central Experimental Farm, KW Neatby Building, 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6, Canada
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 53:2-11. 2006
    Published phylogenetic reclassifications of Pneumocystis as a fungus resulted in a nomenclatural shift from the Zoological Code to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature...
  88. pmc Development of a rapid real-time PCR assay for quantitation of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii
    Hans Henrik Larsen
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2989-93. 2002
    A method for reliable quantification of Pneumocystis carinii in research models of P...
  89. ncbi AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with disappearance of cystic lesions after treatment
    Mitsuru Konishi
    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara
    Intern Med 41:896-8. 2002
    ..We concluded that Pneumocystis carinii infection might be associated with lung destruction and cyst formation, and that inflammatory exudates ..
  90. pmc Interleukin-23 (IL-23)-IL-17 cytokine axis in murine Pneumocystis carinii infection
    Xiaowen L Rudner
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University, LSU Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Infect Immun 75:3055-61. 2007
    Host defense mechanisms against Pneumocystis carinii are not fully understood. Previous work in the murine model has shown that host defense against infection is critically dependent upon host CD4(+) T cells...
  91. pmc Diversity at the locus associated with transcription of a variable surface antigen of Pneumocystis carinii as an index of population structure and dynamics in infected rats
    Scott P Keely
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0524, USA
    Infect Immun 71:47-60. 2003
    b>Pneumocystis carinii expresses a surface glycoprotein called MSG. Different isoforms of MSG are encoded by a gene family spread over at least 15 telomeric sites. Only one locus, called UCS, supports the production of MSG mRNA...
  92. ncbi S-adenosylmethionine and Pneumocystis
    Salim Merali
    Department of Medical and Molecular Parasitology, New York University School of Medicine, 341 East 25th Street, New York, NY, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 237:179-86. 2004
    b>Pneumocystis is a parasitic fungus causing pneumonia in immunosuppressed mammals and S-adenosylmethionine a key intermediary metabolite for all cells...
  93. ncbi High seroprevalence of Pneumocystis infection in Spanish children
    N Respaldiza
    Research Unit, Virgen del Rocio University Hospital, Seville, Spain
    Clin Microbiol Infect 10:1029-31. 2004
    b>Pneumocystis infection occurs worldwide, and most individuals test seropositive for Pneumocystis early in childhood. Little is known about the epidemiology of this infection in western Europe...
  94. pmc Pneumocystis murina infection and cigarette smoke exposure interact to cause increased organism burden, development of airspace enlargement, and pulmonary inflammation in mice
    Paul J Christensen
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    Infect Immun 76:3481-90. 2008
    ..Recent reports demonstrate associations between the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in lung specimens or respiratory secretions and the presence of emphysema in COPD patients...
  95. pmc Effect of transcription factor GATA-2 on phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages from Pneumocystis carinii-infected hosts
    Mark E Lasbury
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Infect Immun 71:4943-52. 2003
    Alveolar macrophages from Pneumocystis carinii-infected hosts are defective in phagocytosis (W. Chen, J. W. Mills, and A. G. Harmsen, Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 73:709-720, 1992; H. Koziel et al., J. Clin. Investig. 102:1332-1344, 1998)...
  96. ncbi Assessment of immune reconstitution to Pneumocystis carinii in HIV-1 patients under different highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens
    Chiara Atzori
    II Department of Infectious Diseases, L Sacco Hospital, Via G B Grassi 74, 20157 Milan, Italy
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:276-81. 2003
    ..Discontinuation of prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii is considered safe when CD4 > 200 cells/mm(3)...
  97. pmc Exposure of immunocompetent adult mice to Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. muris by cohousing: growth of P. carinii f. sp. muris and host immune response
    Chun Li An
    Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
    Infect Immun 71:2065-70. 2003
    There has been emerging evidence that immunocompetent hosts can harbor Pneumocystis in their lungs. The purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp...
  98. ncbi Evolution and speciation of Pneumocystis
    Scott P Keely
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0524, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:624-6. 2003
  99. ncbi IL-10 modulates host responses and lung damage induced by Pneumocystis carinii infection
    Mahboob H Qureshi
    Department of Internal Medicine and Microbiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536, USA
    J Immunol 170:1002-9. 2003
    Host responses to Pneumocystis carinii infection mediate impairment of pulmonary function and contribute to the pathogenesis of pneumonia...
  100. ncbi Long-term colonization with Pneumocystis jirovecii in hospital staffs: a challenge to prevent nosocomial pneumocystosis
    Isabelle Durand-Joly
    EA 3609 Pasteur Institute of Lille, Lille, France
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:614-5. 2003
  101. pmc Probable mother-to-infant transmission of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis infection
    Robert F Miller
    Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1555-7. 2002
    A mother and her 4.5-week-old infant had Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia contemporaneously. Genotyping of P. carinii f. sp. hominis DNA at three independent loci showed the same genotype in samples from mother and infant...

Research Grants65

  1. Modulation of host immune defense by Pneumocystis beta-glucans
    EVA MARIA CARMONA PORQUERA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Modulation of host immune defense by Pneumocystis beta-glucans Pneumocystis are fungal organisms associated with the development of pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts...
  2. Identification of new compounds against fungal microbes
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The synthesis of GlcCer seems to be important also during Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) as glucosylceramide synthase transcripts have been found to be abundant at the time of ..
  3. Immune response to Pneumocystis and bone marrow failure
    Nicole Meissner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In AIDS patients'susceptibility to opportunistic infections, such as Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP), occurs due to the loss of CD4 T cells and type I interferon (type-I-IFN) producing plasmacytoid ..
  4. International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12, 13 and 14)
    Louis M Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..growing international scientific community interested in working with the unusual, non-cultivatable organism Pneumocystis. At the time, Pneumocystis was relatively unknown and was ignored by many in the microbiological community...
  5. Pneumocystis carinii: Macrophage &Epithelial Activation
    Andrew H Limper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains a major cause of infection in patients with AIDS. Lung inflammation during Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) strongly contributes to lung injury and death...
  6. Pneumocystis jirovecii Targeted Antiopportunistic Agents
    Aleem Gangjee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This is particularly important with the leading OI, pneumonia (PCP), caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii...
  7. Novel antifungals for Immunocompromised/HIV patients.
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..causes of systemic infections in humans, including immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, including Pneumocystis. Structurally novel compounds with a unique in vitro antifungal profile will be selected for ADMET and in vivo ..
  8. Patient-Oriented Research and Mentoring in Pneumocystis
    Laurence Huang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by applicant): Career Development and Mentoring Goals: (1) to continue my patient-oriented research in Pneumocystis;(2) to expand my research to include other respiratory pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB);(3) ..
  9. Immunopathology of the Pneumocystis Life Cycle Stages
    Melanie T Cushion; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Fungal organisms in the genus Pneumocystis, were first clinically noticed because they caused an oftentimes lethal pneumonia (PCP) in humans and other mammals with compromised immune status...
  10. Non-CD4 Host defense against P. carinii Pneumonia
    Jay K Kolls; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Abstract Pneumocystis carinii (PC) pneumonia remains a serious complication of HIV infection and other immunocompromised states...
  11. Eosinophils and lung immunity to Pneumocystis
    Chad Steele; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Despite the advent of prophylaxis and HAART therapy, the mortality rate associated with Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV/AIDS remains similar to that reported prior to the initiation of these therapies...
  12. Inflammatory processes in Pneumocystis-associated pulmonary hypertension.
    Steve D Swain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found that in CD4 T cell deficient mice infected with Pneumocystis murina, when CD4 cells are allowed to return, the mice gradually develop persistent pulmonary hypertension, ..
  13. Adaptive immunity against Pneumocystis
    Chad Steele; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pneumocystis has risen to the forefront of lethal, opportunistic lung infections as a result of its close association with the HIV epidemic, yet this atypical fungal pathogen is becoming increasingly ..
  14. Role of B cells in host defense against Pneumocystis
    Beth A Garvy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pneumocystis pneumonia is an AIDS-defining illness that has continued to cause significant morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients with compromised CD4 T cells...
  15. STAT4 mediated immunity to Pneumocystis
    Chad Steele; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pneumocystis has risen to the forefront of lethal, opportunistic lung infections as a result of its close association with the HIV epidemic, yet this atypical fungal pathogen is becoming increasingly ..
  16. Pneumocystis jirovecii and macrophages in COPD
    BRIAN contact MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..inflammatory mediators and immune cells that are involved that are similar to the pattern seen in response to Pneumocystis jiroveci (PC). Evidence has now emerged on the importance of macrophage phenotype in COPD patients...
  17. T cells and P carinii Pneumonia
    Jay K Kolls; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Despite current strategies to treat HIV infection and its complications, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) remains a common clinical problem...
  18. Serologic memory and prevention of Pneumocystis-related COPD in AIDS macaque mode
    Karen A Norris; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We have accumulated evidence in both humans and animal models that Pneumocystis (Pc) is an important pathogen in the development of COPD in both the HIV+ and HIV- populations...
  19. Understanding the Lung Microbiome in HIV-Infected and HIV-uninfected individuals
    Vincent B Young; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In specific aim 3, we will compare colonization with Pneumocystis in HIV-infected and HIV- uninfected individuals...
  20. Pathogenesis of Obstruction/Emphysema and the Microbiome (POEM) in HIV
    Alison Morris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Data from our group suggest that low level infection with Pneumocystis is increased in HIV-F subjects and associated with anatomic emphysema...
  21. Host response to P. carinii in neonatal mice
    Beth A Garvy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pneumocystis pneumonia PCP) causes significant morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected individuals who are newly diagnosed, failed retroviral therapy, or do not have access to care...
  22. Directed Culturing of Pneumocystis Using Metatranscriptomics
    Alexey Porollo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The poorly understood fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii is an important cause of lethal pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised humans, especially those with AIDS...
  23. P. carinii Pneumonia Lung Damage: CD8-driven Cellular and Molecular Events
    Terry W Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PcP) continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with AIDS, cancer, transplant recipients, or other immunocompromising illnesses...
  24. Dectin-1 and Immunity Against Pneumocystis Carinii
    Chad Steele; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Elimination of Pneumocystis carinii, a significant cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals, from the pulmonary environment is the exclusive responsibility of the alveolar macrophage. However, due to P...
  25. 10TH & 11TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOPS ON OPPORTUNISTIC PROTISTS (IWOP-10; IWOP-11)
    EDNA SAYOMI KANESHIRO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..growing international scientific community interested in working with the unusual, non-cultivatable organism Pneumocystis. At the time, Pneumocystis was relatively unknown and was ignored by many in the microbiological community...
  26. CD4 T cell-mediated lung damage in Pneumocystis pneumonia
    Allen G Harmsen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the absence of B cells, can accumulate in the lungs of mice in response to infection by the fungi of the genus Pneumocystis (PC) resulting in severe lung damage without clearance of the PC...
  27. Longitudinal Study of HIV-Associated Lung Infections in Soweto
    Richard E Chaisson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Other severe lung infections (bacterial pneumonias, Pneumocystis, cytomegalovirus) are also major problems in people with advanced HIV disease, although incidence and ..
  28. Macrophage effector functions during respiratory fungal infection
    Terry W Wright; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Despite general advances in patient care, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP)-related mortality remains unacceptably high...
  29. HAART-mediated Immune Restoration in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    MARJORIE PATRICIA GEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3) To test the hypothesis that development of a chronic inflammatory response, either in response to Pneumocystis or autoantigens, is associated with increased airway obstruction and/or emphysema...
  30. MULTICITY STUDY OF QUALITY OF CARE FOR HIV-RELATED TB
    Charles Bennett; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..competing continuation, we will build on our ongoing projects that evaluate quality of care for HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in several cities...
  31. An evidence based algorithm for diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV patients
    Marc Mendelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, by using a battery of tests for other respiratory pathogens (including Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, typical and 'atypical'bacteria) we will investigate the ..
  32. Host Defense Against HIV-related Pulmonary Infections
    Judd E Shellito; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A concern of the prior submission was a lack of synergy between projects focused on Pneumocystis jirovecii (P...
  33. Development of a novel PCP Vaccine for AIDS patients
    A Ray Chaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pulmonary infection with the fungal pathogen, Pneumocystis jirovecii, is a common and often fatal complication of HIV infection/AIDS...
  34. A role of osteopontin in innate immunity against fungal infection
    Mari L Shinohara; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..immunity, we found that osteopontin (OPN) plays a critical role in defense against an opportunistic fungus, Pneumocystis, which causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)...
  35. Mulago Inpatient Noninvasive Diagnosis of Pneumocystis Pneumonia (MIND PCP) Study
    John Davis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Recent studies employing BAL in Africa show that the leading cause of such presentations is pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), affecting about 40%...
  36. DICATIONIC DRUGS--TREATMENT FOR AIDS-RELATED INFECTIONS
    Richard Tidwell; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In the United States nearly 80% of patients with HIV will die because of opportunistic infections, with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia the most frequent infection...
  37. S-Adenosylmethionine and Pneumocystis treatment
    Salim Merali; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a fungal disease associated with immunosuppressive conditions such as AIDS, cancer, rheumatic disease, organ transplant, malnutrition, etc...
  38. DICATIONIC DRUGS--METABOLISM AND TOXICITY
    Richard Tidwell; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..This class of agents has previously demonstrated potency against Pneumocystis carinii, the most serious infection in AIDS patients, and has recently demonstrated activity against two other ..
  39. MECHANISMS OF PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII PNEUMONIA
    William Martin; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract). This proposal focuses on the mechanism of attachment of Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) to alveolar macrophages (AMs)...
  40. IMP DEHYDROGENASE FROM PNEUMOCYSTIS AS A DRUG TARGET
    SHERRY QUEENER; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..1.1.205) as a target for chemotherapy in Pneumocystis carinii...
  41. POLYAMINE METABOLISM AND AIDS ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA
    ALLEN CLARKSON JR; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Treatment for AIDs associated Pneumocystis carinti pneumonia (PCP), one of the most common opportunistic infections, is routinely based on only two drug therapies; pentamidine and a combination of trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole...
  42. ASSAY FOR PNEUMOCYSTOSIS IN IMMUNODEFICIENT HOSTS
    DON GRAVES; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The overall goal of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biology of pneumocystis carinii and to apply this knowledge to the development of a rapid and non-invasive diagnostic test for pneumocystosis...
  43. TRAINING IN MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS OF MICROBIAL DISEASES
    DENNIS EDWARD OHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..spirochetes, staphylococci, streptococci), protozoan (amoebae, trypanosomes), fungal (Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis), and viral (cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, herpesvirus) pathogens using the full range of modern molecular ..
  44. 7th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists
    EDNA KANESHIRO; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The focus of these workshops will be on the AIDS-related opportunistic infectious protists, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma and the microsporidia and amoebae...
  45. S-Adenosylmethionine and Pneumocystis treatment
    Salim Merali; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The fungus Pneumocystis, an important lung pathogen for immunosuppressed persons which causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), requires ..
  46. PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII IN CONTINOUS AXENIC CULTURE
    ALLEN CLARKSON JR; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Investigator's Abstract) Pneumocystis carinii is also a very poorly understood fungal pathogen and P...
  47. PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII PNEUMONIA MODEL IN RHESUS MACAQUES
    Karen Norris; Fiscal Year: 2002
    b>Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with particularly high infection rates in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)...
  48. Primaquine-binding proteins identified in Pneumocystis
    SHERRY QUEENER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..is the most effective clinical alternative to standard therapy for patients with pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis, but the mechanism of action of 8-aminoquinolines against the organism and against others such as Plasmodium ..
  49. Determinants of antibody-based host resistance against Pneumocystis carinii
    REKHA RAPAKA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Pneumocystis carinii (PC) pneumonia is an opportunistic infection found among HIV-infected patients worldwide...
  50. PATHOGENESIS OF PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII PNEUMONIA
    MIERCIO PEREIRA; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract). Pneumocystis carinii is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS, where it causes life threatening pneumonia. P...
  51. DRUG TARGETS OF OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS IN AIDS
    DANIEL SANTI; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The organisms that have been chosen for study are Pneumocystis carinii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Toxoplasma gondii...
  52. CLONING OF PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII CHROMOSOME ENDS
    Melanie Cushion; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..significantly towards understanding the biology and genomic structure of the family or organisms known as Pneumocystis carinii...
  53. GENETIC APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING PNEUMOCYSTIS THERAPY
    Chuck Staben; Fiscal Year: 1993
    This proposal's long-term aim is to improve the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii infections in AIDS patients by providing a basis for improving therapeutics used to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia...
  54. 6TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON OPPORTUNISTIC PROTISTS
    EDNA KANESHIRO; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The focus of these workshops will be on the AIDS-related opportunistic infectious protists, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma and the microsporidia...
  55. Models of P. carinii Infection: SP-A and SP-D null mice
    Michael Beers; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..by applicant): Despite advances in diagnosis, highly active antiretroviral therapy, and prophylactic regimens, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients, as ..
  56. YEAST MODELS OF DRUG-RESISTANT PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII
    Steven Meshnick; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract) Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia (PCP) is the major life-threatening opportunistic infection associated with AIDS...
  57. MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PNEUMOCYSTIS
    James Stringer; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Our long term goal is to understand ultimately control the pathogenicity of pneumocystis infections in humans...
  58. THE ROLE OF PNEUMOCYSTIS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COPD
    Paul Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recent data have identified carrier states for Pneumocystis, suggesting that transmission and colonization are the likely mode of acquisition...
  59. Pneumocystis carinii and S-adenosylmethionine
    Salim Merali; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (Provided by the applicant): Pneumocystis carinii is a fungus which causes P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) in people with AIDS, patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy and others with conditions causing severe immunosuppression...
  60. SURFACTANT METABOLISM IN PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII PNEUMONIA
    Michael Beers; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Adapted from Applicant's Abstract): Despite recent advances in its diagnosis, therapy, and prophylaxis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) remains a leading case of morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS...
  61. Functional Annotations for the Pneumocystis Genome.
    Jarek Meller; Fiscal Year: 2004
    A Pneumocystis Genome Project was funded in 1999 with the goals of creating a physical map, an EST database and the assembled DNA sequence for the fungal pathogen, Pneumocystis carinii (Pc)...
  62. MURINE MODELS OF PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII INFECTION
    CHARLES SIDMAN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Infection by optic pathogens such as Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) constitute the major fatal consequence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV-induced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)...
  63. Pneumocystis carinii and S-adenosylmethionine
    Salim Merali; Fiscal Year: 2001
    b>Pneumocystis carinii is a fungus which causes P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) in people with AIDS, patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy and others with conditions causing severe immunosuppression. Beyond the importance of P...
  64. LIFE CYCLE REGULATION OF PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII BY MAPK
    Charles Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Pneumocystis carinii is an opportunistic fungal pathogen which causes severe pneumonia in patients with an impaired immune system, particularly in patients with AIDS. The life cycle of P. carinii is poorly understood...
  65. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII ANTIGENS
    CONSTANTINE HAIDARIS; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract): Pneumonia caused by the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis carinii is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host, including those with AIDS...